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1.

Understand and list the scientific method]


Scientific method is a systematic method used to solve problems in science.







Be able to identify and list the problem statement, variables, hypothesis etc in any
situation- be precise in giving the answers

2. Know and identify what is solute, solution and solvent in any given situation
i. A solute is a substance that is dissolved in another substance. A solute can be a
solid, liquid or gas.
ii. A solvent is the liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute.
iii. A solution is a homogeneous mixture that consists of a solute that has been
dissolved in a solvent.

Factors affecting solubility-T, P, etc...
Directly
i. Temperature affects the solubility of both solids and gases, but
ii. Pressure only affects the solubility of gases.

Indirectly:
i. Surface area does not affect how much of a solute will be dissolved, but it is a
factor in how quickly or slowly the substance will dissolve.

3. The meaning and unit of rate of reaction----
i. The rate of a reaction describes how quickly reactants are used up or how
quickly products are formed during a chemical reaction.
ii. The units used are: moles per second (mols/second or mol.s1).

Factors affecting reaction rate
i. Total surface area (or particle size) of the solid reactant
ii. Concentration of reactant
iii. Temperature of reactant
iv. Use of catalyst
v. Pressure (for reaction involving gas)

Collision theory
i. Theory that explains how chemical reactions occur and why reaction rates differ
for different reactions.
ii. The theory assumes that for a reaction to occur the reactant particles must
collide, but that only a certain fraction of the total collisions, the effective
collisions, actually cause the reactant molecules to change into products.
iii. This is because only a small number of the molecules have enough energy
and the right orientation at the moment of impact to break the existing bonds
and form new bonds.

4. Describe the system at equilibrium- the characteristics
Chemical equilibrium is the state of a chemical reaction, where the concentrations of
the reactants and products have no net change over time. Usually, this state results
when the forward chemical reactions proceed at the same rate as their reverse
reactions.
Characteristic of a system at equilibrium:
i. The rate of the forward reaction = The rate of the reverse reaction
ii. Microscopic processes (the forward and reverse reaction) continue in a balance
which yields no macroscopic changes. (So nothing appears to be happening.)
iii. The system is closed and the temperature is constant and uniform throughout.
iv. The equilibrium can be approached from the left (starting with reactants) or from
the right (starting with products)

Le Chateliers principle-the effects of T, P and concentration
Le Chateliers Principle: If a chemical system at equilibrium experiences a change in
concentration, temperature or total pressure the equilibrium will shift in order to
minimise that change.
i. If the pressure of a gaseous system at equilibrium was increased, the equilibrium
would shift to favour the reaction that produces the lowest quantity of the gas.
ii. If the temperature of the same system was to increase, the equilibrium would
shift to favour the endothermic reaction.
iii. Similar principles apply for changes in concentration of the reactants or products
in a reaction.

5. Identify the properties of acids and bases-the colour change when using different
indicators, focus on the main indicators such as litmus paper, etc.
i. Bases turn red litmus blue.
ii. Acids turn blue litmus red.
iii. Magnesium and zinc react with acids to produce hydrogen gas.
iv. Geologists identify limestone because it produces bubbles of carbon dioxide
when exposed to hydrochloric acid.

Explain the concept of pH and the strength of acids and bases
i. The term pH means potential of hydrogen. pH is used to measure the acidity or
basicity of a solution.
ii. Solutions with a pH less than 7 are acidic, and solutions with pH greater than 7
are basic.
iii. Acidic solutions contain more hydrogen ions and basic contain more hydroxide
ions.
iv. If the pH is 1to 3 then it becomes strong acids. If it 4to5 it is moderately acids.
v. If the pH is 6to 7 it is called weak acids.
vi. Same as 7to 9 pH values are called weakly basic.
vii. If the pH 10to 11 is called weakly moderate and if the pH is 12 to 14 then it is
called strongly bases.

Experiment to prove acidic solution (other than indicators)

i. Acids + carbonates
As metal carbonates react with acid, a neutralisation reaction happens. Salt,
water and carbon dioxide are produced. To test for carbon dioxide, the gas can
be bubbled through limewater. Carbon dioxide will dissolve slightly in water to
make a weak acid (carbonic acid). Another neutralisation reaction then happens
between the limewater (calcium hydroxide) and the carbonic acid. This makes the
limewater turn milky.

ii. Acids + metals
Acids react with most metals and a salt is produced. But unlike the reaction
between acids and bases we dont get any water. Instead we get hydrogen gas. A
lighted wooden splint goes pop if it is put into a test tube of hydrogen. This is
because the flame ignites the hydrogen, which burns explosively to make a pop
sound.
Explain why sodium hydroxide solution and aqueous ammonia of the same
concentration have different pH values.(4M)
Sodium hydroxide is a strong alkali. A strong alkali is a chemical substance that
dissociates completely to hydroxide ions, OH-in water. Aqueous ammonia is a weak
alkali. A weak alkali is a chemical substance that dissociates partially (incomplete
dissociation) to hydroxide ions, OH-in water. Partial dissociation of a weak alkali results
in a low concentration of OH-ions. Hence, the pH value of a weak alkali is lower than
that of a strong alkali with the same concentration.