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ANTH 305 Summer 2014. Midterm review trivia.


1) Emile Durkheim was a famous sociologist whose quantitative analysis of the social
factors associated with suicide fundamentally changed how social scientists explored and
understood human behavior. Another legacy he left behind is his nephew, who also
became an important figure in the social sciences. Who was Durkheims nephew?
Marcell Mauss
2) (3 points) Rene Descartes was a man of many talents whose ideas laid the foundations or
human philosophers for centuries to come. Approximately what year was Descartes born?
Points will be awarded for any guess within 15 years of the actual date 1595
3) Exactly 3 of the authors we have read in this class so far are still alive. What are their
names? Terence Turner, Judith Butler, Bruno Latour
4) Much of the contemporary work we have read come from writers in the French academy.
Because there is only one major urban and academic center in France (Paris), many well
known French scholars studied with or studied under each other in Frances most elite
universities. Which author that we have read was a teacher to Michel Foucault?
Maurice Merleau-Ponty
5) (2 points) Two of the authors we have read are noteworthy not only for their hugely
influential work, but also because they were both openly gay in an era when homophobia
and anti-gay sentiment were pervasive in US society. Who were they? Judith Butler and
Michel Foucault
6) Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher who wrote many popular works not only on
human knowledge and objectivity, but also on morality, reason, and politics. In which
century did Kant write and publish all of his works 18
century / 1700s
7) It is easy to identify two French writers from among the authors on our syllabus due to
their flowery and complicated writing style: Michel Foucault and Maurice Merleau-Ponty.
There is a third French author whose work we have read. Who? Bruno Latour
1) (3 points) Marcel Mauss argued that the human body can be viewed or thought about in
three distinct ways or parts. What are those three parts? Mental, physical, and
2) What term did Mauss use to describe the social, physical, and psychological habits that
differ across cultures, are passed down from one generation to the next, and shape human
behaviors, both significant and ordinary? habitus
3) In his essay, The Social Skin, Terence Turner describes the adornment practices of the
Kayapo, a community living in the Brazilian amazon. What is his main argument about
bodily adornment in this essay? dressing/adornment reflects social structure, and
makes people into interpretable social subjects within the context of the structure.
4) According to Turner, dressing, decorating, and managing the bodies of young children
and later teaching children to do these things for themselves is a process called what?
5) Judith Butler argued that people often naturalize culturally constructed categories such
as man and woman or male and female by pointing to a few, cherry-picked
physical differences between the bodies of people who fall into those categories. This is a
form of circular logic, as it involves using a culturally significant physical distinction in
order to justify the existence of cultural categories rooted in those distinctions. What did
Judith Butler call this kind of argument - recourse to the material.
6) Maurice Merleau-Ponty was interested in studying the minute details of human sensory
experiencewhat he called the essence of our physical being in the world. What name
did he use to describe this field of study? phenomenology
7) True or false. Merleau-Ponty argued that our sensory experience of the world needs to be
coded in order to make sense to us (for example, we need to be able to look at a person
and understand who they are, their gender, age, class, profession, etc. in order to make
sense of them). But he also observed that some kinds of knowledge are purely objective
and dont need coding, such as the fact that 2+3=5. False
8) In the movie Dreamworlds, Sut Jhallly observed that female bodies are often portrayed as
passive, sexual, and available for male consumption in music videos. He argued that this
particular way of describing human sexuality and interaction is not inherently bad on its
own, but he did argue that this pattern was very troubling and problematic. Why?
Because it was the only story being told about female sexuality, to the exception of
all others.
1) In Euro-American philosophy, the term object is used to describe something that does
not act or have agency, but which is observed or experienced as a singular, bound,
capital-T Thing. What is the name used to refer to something or someone who does at
and have agency, who is doing the observing and perceiving? subject
2) (2 points) The movie The Matrix cribbed heavily from the ideas of someone we have
talked about in class. I am referring to the person who first wrote about the philosophical
problem upon which the Matrix is based. Who is this person and what is the name of the
idea or concept that they generated that makes the plot of the Matrix possible?
Descartes, Cartesian dualism
3) Kant argued that all human beings are born with certain concepts hard wired into their
brains. He classified this as knowledge that is independent of what? human experience.
4) What did Kant call this kind of knowledge? a priori
5) Consider the following phrase: Most things happen for a reason, and that reason is
usually physics. This is an example of which of the following things: epistemology,
ontology, phenomenology, objectivity, or a brain-in-a-vat? epistemology
6) Standpoint theory is an epistemological approach to human experience that predicts that
each persons perceptions and lived experiences will vary according to their place in the
overarching social structure. Often, people who occupy a dominant or majority position
in society fail to recognize that their perception of the world is shaped and altered by that
social position and come to the conclusion that their view is unbiased, straightforward,
objective, the default. They then assume that anyone with a moderate amount of
intelligence and awareness will see the world as they do. This is, of course, a fallacy.
What is the common name for this fallacy? the God perspective
7) (2 points) What are the two defining characteristics of positivism? 1. the rejection of
theism; 2. All rational and justifiable assertions can be scientifically demonstrated
8) Does Bruno Latour believe in reality? Yes
1) Foucault began chapter two of Birth of the Clinic by discussing a series of human and
animal epidemics that gripped southern France at the end of the 18
century. He argued
that these epidemics were so devastating that a consensus emerged among the political
elite that a state institution needed to be created to study, manage, and prevent such
epidemics. Such an institution was formed. It was called the Societe Royale de Medicine.
This entity had to start producing a new kind of knowledge, or data, in order to study
epidemics, instead of sick individuals. What kind of knowledge did it produce?
2) Foucault argued that medicine in the 18
century was focused on health and the qualities
of individual health, like vigour, suppleness, and fluidity. After state institutions began
producing a new kind of knowledge at the turn of the century, however, the body-as-
object had to be re-organized in the minds of doctors. In the 19
century, after this turn,
medicine and medical science were not so much focused on qualities of health. Instead
they focused on what? Normality, or the Model Man
3) Foucault referred to this new medical practice as a new way of seeing the body. What
name did he give to this new way of seeing? the medical gaze
4) At the end of the 18
century, the French monarchy was on its last legs and the king
decided it would be a good idea to go to war with Austria. This had two important
consequences. First, all the talented doctors had been called away to the battlefield,
leaving behind various unskilled practitioners and charlatans. Second, after the way,
France was flooded with new doctors who were trained very hastily by the military and
lacked many basic skills. This directly contributed to what major structural innovation in
the medical field? professionalization (also acceptable standardization of
education and certification of doctors)
5) According to Foucault, this space, defined as both a physical location and as a social
landscape, was the concrete concrete solution to the problem of the training of doctors
and of the definition of medical competence. What was this space called? - the clinic
6) What kind of epistemology is adopted and taught in this space? positivist
7) In chapter 7, Foucault argued that the symptoms of disease are not meaningful on their
own, but gain meaning and become interpretable only when read in the context of the
presence or absence of other symptoms. In other words, only the entire constellation of a
patients symptoms, as a whole, can offer meaning. Foucault referred to this feature of
the medical gaze as what? The alphabetic structure of disease
8) (2 points) As the medical profession became a profession, as doctors became
professionalized at the turn of the 19
century, Foucault argued that two myths came to
define the popular view of what medicine is and how it is done. What are these two
myths? 1. The idea that doctors are a distinct social class or profession, not unlike
priests; 2. The total disappearance of disease in an untroubled, dispassionate society
that had returned to its original state of health
9) In chapter 6, Foucault argues that the medical gaze (and its diagnostic function) is
premised on a particular mathematical epistemology. What is it? laws of probability