Resistors and its usages

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

591 vues

Resistors and its usages

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Arduino Cheat Sheet
- How to Make Your Own Tubular Lockpick
- electrical circuit lab report-final
- Tenchijin Ryaku No Maki - Fundamentals of Ninjutsu
- pcDuino_UserGuide_Rev02
- lab eee
- RFID ppt
- 4F27E
- Hack an ELM327 Cable to Make an Arduino OBD2 Scann
- Fritzing.doc
- Handgun Series - Revolvers Vol.1
- 12885321 Improvised Booby Traps
- Guide for fake id
- Borescopes Part 1
- 4f27e 2006 Workshop Manual
- Texas Hold'Em Poker Odds Handbook
- Raspberry Pi
- CAN-BUS Shield - Wiki
- Catalogo Bm - Necom - Boss
- Nunchaku

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 26

2nd band - 2nd digit - Violet = 7

3rd band - Red = 2 -- number of zeros that follow -- means

4700 ohms -- 4.7 kilo ohms or 4k7

three digits, and fourth band stands for the number of

zeros that follow. 4.7k will be Yw Vt Bk Bn.

Brown Band 1% -- MFR Metal Film Resistor is used in

Instrumentation Electronics.

Gold Band 5% -- CFR Carbon Film Resistor is common for

Consumer Electronics.

Silver Stripe is 10%

Bk Bn Rd Og Yw Gn Bu Vt Gy Wt

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

k n d e w n e t y e

1/4W Metal Resistor LVC Ser

Riedon MFR Audio Gold

Resistors Networks LVC-1

Futurlec Riedon Caddock Ohmite Ohmite

1/4W 1 Ohm to 39 standard 3 watt to 50 Standard

Metal Film 10 Meg models watts Sizes

Resistors. Ohm Type 1776 Non- Terminal

High Tolerance to precision inductive Barrier

stability ± 0.05% resistor available Resists

Solid Low Temp. networks Reduces Ag

constructi Coeff. Absolute signal Migration

on TC ± Tolerance distortion -55°C-

1% 3ppm/°C Absolute T- Minimizes +125°C

tolerance Very Low Coeff thermal EMI Auto

1R to 10M Inductance Insertion

Matched

Sets

Available

1% MFR demanding 3, 4, and 5 wire wound low value

tight applications - decade ceramic core chip

tolerances minimum voltage resistors

tolerances dividers high-end current

Highly long-term 10:1 - loudspeaker sense

stable stability 10,000:1 amplifier applicatio

low noise 1,200 volts applications ns

low temp- continuous low

coeff overvoltage profile,

to 2KV cost

1/4

"Fixed" . Single Turn Trimmer "Pot" Multi-turn Trimmer

Watt

Rheostat Divider

/\_TOP_/\

When driving the input (base) of a transistor gain

stage:

you must convert the input voltage to a current by

using

a voltage to current convertor

--a resistor.

When deriving a voltage from the collector of a

transistor amplifier stage: you convert the output

(collector) current into a voltage by using a Current to

Voltage convertor in the collector circuit--you

guessed it--a resistor.

/\_TOP_/\

and is inversely proportional to Cross Sectional Area

Notice Also that Resistance is proportional to Length

/\_TOP_/\

4 Band Color Code

Be Careful when reading 5 and 6 Band Resistors

Note: the 3rd Digit is not used when reading the 4 band resistor

What do resistors do?

connected in series with an LED:

Enough current flows to make the LED light up, but not so

much that the LED is damaged. Later in this Chapter, you

will find out how to calculate a suitable value for this

resistor. (LEDs are described in detail in Chapter 5.)

The 'box' symbol for a fixed resistor is popular in the UK

and Europe. A 'zig-zag' symbol is used in America and

Japan:

subsystems. Transducers are electronic components

which convert energy from one form into another, where

one of the forms of energy is electrical. A light dependent

resistor, or LDR, is an example of an input transducer.

Changes in the brightness of the light shining onto the

surface of the LDR result in changes in its resistance. As

will be explained later, an input transducer is most often

connected along with a resistor to to make a circuit called a

potential divider. In this case, the output of the potential

divider will be a voltage signal which reflects changes in

illumination.

Microphones and switches are input transducers. Output

transducers include loudspeakers, filament lamps and

LEDs. Can you think of other examples of transducers of

each type?

In other circuits, resistors are used to direct current flow to

particular parts of the circuit, or may be used to determine

the voltage gain of an amplifier. Resistors are used with

capacitors (Chapter 4) to introduce time delays.

Most electronic circuits require resistors to make them

work properly and it is obviously important to find out

something about the different types of resistor available,

and to be able to choose the correct resistor value, in ,

, or M , for a particular application.

Go to

Up

Checkpoint

.

Fixed value resistors

resistor:

During manufacture, a thin film of carbon is deposited onto

a small ceramic rod. The resistive coating is spiralled away

in an automatic machine until the resistance between the

two ends of the rod is as close as possible to the correct

value. Metal leads and end caps are added, the resistor is

covered with an insulating coating and finally painted with

coloured bands to indicate the resistor value.

Carbon film resistors are cheap and easily available, with

values within ±10% or ±5% of their marked, or 'nominal'

value. Metal film and metal oxide resistors are made in a

similar way, but can be made more accurately to within

±2% or ±1% of their nominal value. There are some

differences in performance between these resistor types,

but none which affect their use in simple circuits.

Wirewound resistors are made by winding thin wire onto

a ceramic rod. They can be made extremely accurately for

use in multimeters, oscilloscopes and other measuring

equipment. Some types of wirewound resistors can pass

large currents wihtout overheating and are used in power

supplies and other high current circuits.

Up

.

Colour code

colours of the bands? Each colour represents a number

according to the following scheme:

Numb

Colour

er

0 black

1 brown

2 red

3 orange

4 yellow

5 green

6 blue

7 violet

8 grey

9 white

DIGIT of the resistor value. For the resistor shown below,

the first band is yellow, so the first digit is 4:

The second band gives the SECOND DIGIT. This is a violet

band, making the second digit 7. The third band is called

the MULTIPLIER and is not interpreted in quite the same

way. The multiplier tells you how many noughts you should

write after the digits you already have. A red band tells you

to add 2 noughts. The value of this resistor is therefore

4 7 0 0 ohms, that is, 4 700 , or 4.7 . Work through

this example again to confirm that you understand how to

apply the colour code given by the first three bands.

The remaining band is called the TOLERANCE band. This

indicates the percentage accuracy of the resistor value.

Most carbon film resistors have a gold-coloured tolerance

band, indicating that the actual resistance value is with +

or - 5% of the nominal value. Other tolerance colours are:

Toleran Colou

ce r

brow

±1%

n

±2% red

±5% gold

±10% silver

When you want to read off a resistor value, look for the

tolerance band, usually gold, and hold the resistor with the

tolerance band at its right hand end. Reading resistor

values quickly and accurately isn't difficult, but it does take

practice!

Go to

Up

Checkpoint

.

Colour code convertor

program which will help you identify the value of a resistor

from its colour code. Alternatively, the program lets you

find out what colours to look for by typing in or selecting

the resistor value.

The program works with Windows 95 and looks like this:

Up

.

More about colour codes

the values of any resistor from 100 upwards. How does

the code work for values less than 100 ? Here is the code

for 12 :

brown, red, black

The multiplier colour black represents the number 0 and

tells you that no noughts should be added to the first two

digits, representing 1 and 2.

What would be the colour code for 47 ? The answer is:

yellow, violet, black

Using this method for indicating values between 10 and

100 means that all resistor values require the same

number of bands.

For values bewteen 1 and 10 , the multiplier colour is

changed to gold. For example, the colours:

brown, black, gold

indicate a 1 resistor, while the colours:

red, red, gold

refer to a 2.2 resistor.

Metal film resistors, manufactured to 1 or 2% tolerance,

often use a code consisting of four coloured bands instead

of three. The code works in the same way, with the first

three bands interpreted as digits and the fourth band as

the multiplier. For example, a 1 metal film resistor has

the bands:

brown, black, black, brown (+brown or red for tolerance)

green, blue, black, red

It is worth pointing out that the multiplier for metal film

resistors with values from 1 upwards is brown (rather

than red, as in the three colour system), while the

multiplier for 10 upwards is red (instead of orange).

You are likely to use low value resistors and metal film

resistors on some occasions and it is useful to know how to

read their codes. However, most of the resistors you use in

building electronic circuits will be carbon film types with

values indicated using the three band colour code. It is this

system which you should master first.

Go to

Up

Checkpoint

.

E12 and E24 values

have noticed that resistors commonly have values such as

2.2 , 3.3 , or 4.7 and are not available in equally

spaced values 2 ,3 ,4 ,5 and so on.

Manufacturers don't produce values like these - why not?

The answer is partly to do with the fact that resistors are

manufactured to a percentage accuracy. Look at the table

below which shows the values of the E12 and E24 series:

E12 series E24 series

10% 5%

tolerance tolerance

10 10

11

12 12

13

15 15

16

18 18

20

22 22

24

27 27

30

33 33

36

39 39

43

47 47

51

56 56

62

68 68

75

82 82

91

example, 1.2 , 12 , 120 , 1.2 , 12 , 120 and so

on.

Consider 100 and 120 , adjacent values in the E12

range. 10% of 100 is 10 , while 10% of 120 is 12 .A

resistor marked as 100 could have any value from 90 to

110 , while a resistor marked as 120 might have an

actual resistance from 108 to 132 . The ranges of

possible values overlap, but only slightly.

Further up the E12 range, a resistor marked as 680 might

have and actual resistance of up to 680+68=748 , while a

resistor marked as 820 might have a resistance as low as

820-82=738 . Again, the ranges of possible values just

overlap.

The E12 and E24 ranges are designed to cover the entire

resistance range with the minimum overlap between

values. This means that, when you replace one resistor

with another marked as a higher value, its actual

resistance is almost certain to be larger.

From a practical point of view, all that matters is for you to

know that carbon film resistors are available in multiples of

the E12 and E24 values. Very often, having calculated the

resistance value you want for a particular application, you

will need to choose the nearest value from the E12 or E24

range.

Go to

Up

Checkpoint

.

Current limiting

You are now ready to calculate a value for the resistor used

in series with an LED. Look at the circuit diagram:

voltage of 2 V across it when it is working. The power

supply for the circuit is 9 V. What is the voltage across

resistor R1? The answer is 9-2=7 V. (The voltages across

components in series must add up to the power supply

voltage.)

You now have two bits of information about R1: the current

flowing is 10 mA, and the voltage across R1 is 7 V. To

calculate the resistance value, use the formula:

Look out! The formula works with the fundamental units of

resistance, voltage and current, that is, ohms, volts and

amps. In this case, 10 mA had to be converted into amps,

0.01 A, before substitution.

If a value for current in mA is substituted, the resistance

value is given in :

E12/E24 values? Resistors of 680 , 750 and 820 are

available. 680 is the obvious choice. This would allow a

current slightly greater than 10 mA to flow. Most LEDs are

undamaged by currents of up to 20 mA, so this is fine.

What is the colour code for a 680 resistor?

Go to

Up

Checkpoint

.

Resistors in series and parallel

points. The circuit diagram shows two resistors connected

in series with a 6 V battery:

Resistors in series

It doesn't matter where in the circuit the current is

measured, the result will be the same. The total resistance

is given by:

flowing? The formula is:

Substituting:

value is substituted in .

The same current, 3 mA, flows through each of the two

resistors. What is the voltage across R1? The formula is:

Substituting:

is important to point out that the sum of the voltages

across the two resistors is equal to the power supply

voltage.

The next circuit shows two resistors connected in parallel

to a 6 V battery:

Resistors in parallel

Parallel circuits always provide alternative pathways for

current flow. The total resistance is calculated from:

for any two resistors in parallel. An alternative formula is:

resistors in parallel, but lends itself less easily to mental

arithmetic. Both formulae are correct.

What is the total resistance in this circuit?

How does this current compare with the current for the

series circuit? It's more. This is sensible. Connecting

resistors in parallel provides alternative pathways and

makes it easier for current to flow. How much current flows

through each resistor? Because they have equal values, the

current divides, with 6 mA flowing through R1, and 6 mA

through R2.

To complete the picture, the voltage across R1 can be

calculated as:

This is the same as the power supply voltage. The top end

of R1 is connected to the positive terminal of the battery,

while the bottom end of R1 is connected to the negative

terminal of the battery. With no other components in the

way, it follows that the voltage across R1 must be 6 V.

What is the voltage across R2? By the same reasoning, this

is also 6 V.

When components are connected in parallel, the voltage across them is

KEY POINT: the same.

and parallel parts:

Circuit with series and parallel

resistors

To find the overall resistance, the first step is to calculate

the resistance of the parallel elements. You already know

that the combined resistance of two 1 resistors in

parallel is 0.5 , so the total resistance in the circuit is

1+0.5=1.5 . The power supply current is:

current will flow through R2? Since there are two equally

easy pathways, 2 mA will flow through R2, and 2 mA

through R3.

The voltage across R1 is given by:

calculation for R2:

Again, the sum of the voltages around the circuit is equal

to the power supply voltage.

Check through this section carefully. A clear understanding

of the concepts involved will help tremendously.

Go to

Up

Checkpoint

.

Power rating

is converted into heat. This is obvious in an electric torch

where the lamp filament heats up and glows white hot, see

Chapter 1. Although the result may be less evident or

imperceptible, exactly the same process of energy

conversion goes on when current flows through any

electronic component.

The power output of a lamp, resistor, or other component,

is defined as the rate of change of electrical energy to heat,

light, or some other form of energy. Power is measured in

watts, W, or milliwatts, mW, and can be calculated

from:

where P is power.

What is the power output of a resistor when the voltage

across it is 6 V, and the current flowing through it is

100 mA?

0.6 W of heat are generated in this resistor. To prevent

overheating, it must be possible for heat to be lost, or

dissipated, to the surroundings at the same rate.

A resistor's ability to lose heat depends to a large extent

upon its surface area. A small resistor with a limited

surface area cannot dissipate (=lose) heat quickly and is

likely to overheat if large currents are passed. Larger

resistors dissipate heat more effectively.

Look at the diagram below which shows resistors of

different sizes:

circuits has a power rating of 0.5 W. This means that a

resistor of this size can lose heat at a maximum rate of

0.5 W. In the example above, the calculated rate of heat

loss was 0.6 W, so that a resistor with a higher power

rating, 1 W or 2 W, would be needed. Some resistors are

designed to pass very large currents and are cased in

aluminium with fins to increase surface area and promote

heat loss.

Input and signal processing subsystems in electronic

circuits rarely involve large currents, but power rating

should be considered when circuits drive output

transducers, such as lamps, LEDs, and loudspeakers.

- Arduino Cheat SheetTransféré parMC. Rene Solis R.
- How to Make Your Own Tubular LockpickTransféré parflourpott
- electrical circuit lab report-finalTransféré parapi-257168634
- Tenchijin Ryaku No Maki - Fundamentals of NinjutsuTransféré parKurt Tasche
- pcDuino_UserGuide_Rev02Transféré parDorel Contrra
- lab eeeTransféré parAmalina Ismail
- RFID pptTransféré parapi-3806325
- 4F27ETransféré partambache69
- Hack an ELM327 Cable to Make an Arduino OBD2 ScannTransféré parMarius Danila
- Fritzing.docTransféré parismifaizul
- Handgun Series - Revolvers Vol.1Transféré parJ Gede Ace Sulandra
- 12885321 Improvised Booby TrapsTransféré parMAXI1000TUC
- Guide for fake idTransféré parjustindo1229
- Borescopes Part 1Transféré parfritzxfiles20147912
- 4f27e 2006 Workshop ManualTransféré parTransmisiones Automáticas Chepe
- Texas Hold'Em Poker Odds HandbookTransféré parVasile Suteu
- Raspberry PiTransféré paralexpsi14
- CAN-BUS Shield - WikiTransféré parKarlitosman
- Catalogo Bm - Necom - BossTransféré parPino Zaccaria
- NunchakuTransféré parchinesebox2010
- 45787963-CAN-busTransféré pardestavedc
- Basic Electrical Engg Question PaperTransféré parvkubendran
- Exercises for the Look Dim Boon GwanTransféré parShadow_Warrior88
- No Fold'Em Texas Hold'Em ChartTransféré parbad_belloq
- Retro Pie TutorialTransféré pardevilishinc
- Audio and Acoustical FACTSTransféré parVictor D'souza
- XBee Quick Reference GuideTransféré parOscar Frausto
- Braid Hair - 5 StrandsTransféré parWendy Phua
- Integrated CircuitsTransféré parGhostFlame Lynno
- Arduino - ArduinoBoardDuemilanoveTransféré parSafwan Shaikh

- 2SC1317 - 2SC1318Transféré parbeta2009
- Autonics ProfileTransféré pararunpandey1686
- 24 Overhead Lines and CablesTransféré parbarcellona6
- Dental RadiologyTransféré parpriyasargunan
- Fuentes Ferroresonantes Hfc Parte 4Transféré parjose angel guzman lozano
- Example SolutionsTransféré paranup312
- Data SheetTransféré parLuiz Gustavo Pereira
- Ea341 Manual EnTransféré parVishnu Vardhan
- Easy 800 ManualTransféré parpetercojocaru886
- IRF2807Transféré parAlberto Rodrigues
- All in the Graphene Family – a Recommended Nomenclature ForTransféré parmaquiero
- EARTHING SYSTEM CALCUALTIONS SS 84-3.pdfTransféré parstrider0710
- 997632_Semiconductor Nanowires and Their Field-Effect DevicesTransféré parSykhoi27
- Reemplazo de IGBTsTransféré parclide_050793
- Englisch-Multiple-Choice-Test-Summary.pdfTransféré parVIPUL SAINI
- Restricted Earth FaultTransféré parprotectionwork
- research reportTransféré parapi-406770581
- AEE 23April 430to630pmTransféré parShikha Soni
- Thermistor.pptxTransféré parTerrell Lasam
- HEC_7_8_1HC0070730AB_En_highTransféré parHoang
- Jayacom Price ListTransféré parRajiv Thambotheran
- Fiber CurlTransféré parMatthijs van Gastel
- 08 ELC4345 Fall2013 PI ControllerTransféré parsudeep
- EC SET 1 31st January Forenoon SessionTransféré parPiyush Singh
- Airfield Lighting Cable 5 KV (Copper Tape)Transféré parMohammad Ali
- TL866 ProgTransféré parcorado33
- cen_f1en09_03Transféré parnantatea
- ADC and DACTransféré parShekharcu
- TCM-03Transféré parlmilisic72
- 6100_faqTransféré parJoe Smith