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2008 EDC Lesson 9- " , Raj Kamal, 1

EDC UNIT IV- Transistor and FET


Characteristics
Lesson Lesson--9: 9: J FET and Construction of J FET and Construction of
J FET J FET
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1. Transistor 1. Transistor
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Transistor Definition Transistor Definition
The transferred-resistance or transistor
is a multi-junction device that is capable
of
Current gain
Voltage gain
Signal-power gain
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2. Field Effect Transistor (FET) 2. Field Effect Transistor (FET)
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Unipolar Field Effect Transistor (FET) Unipolar Field Effect Transistor (FET)
Based on invention in 1948 by Bardeen,
Brattain and Shockley
Contains one type of carriers electrons or holes
(unipolar)
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The conventional bipolar transistor has two
type of current carriers of both polarities
(majority and minority) and FET has only
one type of current carriers, p or n (holes or
electrons)
The BJ T is current controlled and FET is
voltage controlled current between two
other terminals
The Field Effect Transistor (FET) and BJ T The Field Effect Transistor (FET) and BJ T
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Fundamental difference between Fundamental difference betweentthe voltage and current he voltage and current
controlled Field Effect Transistor (FET) and BJ T amplifiers, controlled Field Effect Transistor (FET) and BJ T amplifiers,
respectively respectively
FET
+
I
D
S BJ T
Control
current
I
C
Control
voltage
V
GS
G

E
+
I
B
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Fundamental difference between J FET and Fundamental difference between J FET and
BJ T devices BJ T devices
J FET junction is reverse-biased, the gate
current is practically zero, and a very
high impedance at input whereas the base
current of the BJ T is always some value
greater than zero, for example, in As
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FET Definition
Field effect transistor is a unipolar-transistor, which
acts as a voltage-controlled current device and is a
device in which current at two electrodes is
controlled by the action of an electric field at another
electrode.
Field effect transistor is a device in which the
current is controlled and transported by carriers of
one polarity (majority) only and an electric field near
the one terminal controls the current between other
two.
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Types of FETs Types of FETs
The family of FETs may be divided into:
J unction FET
Depletion Mode MOSFET
Enhancement Mode MOSFET
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3. J unction Field Effect Transistor (J FET) 3. J unction Field Effect Transistor (J FET)
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JFET Definition
J FET is a unipolar-transistor, which acts as a
voltage controlled current device and is a device
in which current at two electrodes is controlled by
the action of an electric field at a p-n junction.
Field effect transistor is a device in which the
current is controlled and transported by carriers of
one polarity (majority) only and an electric field
at the p-n junction region controls the
current between other two.
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Basic structure of J FETs Basic structure of J FETs
In addition to the channel, a J FET
contains two ohmic contacts: the source
and the drain.
The J FET will conduct current equally
well in either direction and the source
and drain leads are usually
interchangeable.
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nn--J unction FET and p J unction FET and p--J FET Symbols J FET Symbols
G
+
D
+
S

V
GS
V
DS
G

D
D
+
V
GS
V
DS
S
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J unction FET (J FET) J unction FET (J FET)
J FET consists of a piece of high-resistivity
semiconductor material (usually Si) which
constitutes a channel for the majority carrier
flow and a gate.
Conducting semiconductor channel between two
ohmic contacts source& drainThe magnitude
of this current is controlled by a voltage applied
to a gate, which is a reverse-biased.
(Ohmic contacts means following Ohms law [I V
current proportional to V under constant physical
condition.)
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N channel JFET structure N channel JFET structure
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NN--channel J FET construction channel J FET construction
This transistor is made by forming a channel
of N-type material in a P-type substrate.
Three wires are then connected to the device.
One at each end of the channel.
One connected to the substrate.
In a sense, the device is a bit like a PN-
junction diode, except that there are two wires
connected to the N-type side.
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nJ FET construction and Electric field n nJ FET construction and Electric field n--J FET J FET
channel channel
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nn--J unction FETs and p J unction FETs and p--J FETs J FETs
J FET is a high-input resistance device, while the
BJ T is comparatively low.
If the channel is doped with a donor impurity, n-
type material is formed and the channel current will
consist of electrons.
If the channel is doped with an acceptor impurity,
p-type material will be formed and the channel
current will consist of holes.
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J FET Electric Field creation along the channel J FET Electric Field creation along the channel
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J FET Electric Field Variation along the J FET Electric Field Variation along the
channel channel
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nn-- J FET and p J FET and p--J FET J FET
N-channel J FET have greater conductivity than p-
channel types, since electrons have higher mobility
than do holes; thus n-channel J FETs are
approximately twice as efficient conductors
compared to their p-channel counterparts.
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D
S
n-channel
n
Gate
Drain
Source
G
Basic structure
p
+
p
+
n
Depletion
region
S D n-channel
G
Cross section
n
Channel
thickness
p
+
p
+
(a)
n
Depletion
regions
n-channel
Metal electrode
Insulation
(SiO
2
)
p
S D G
p
+
(b)
D S
G
Circuit symbol
for n-channel FET
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Summary Summary
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We learnt
Definitions of transistor, FET and
J FET
Construction J FET
n-channel and p-channel J FET
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End of Lesson 9 End of Lesson 9