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Class - XII
SUBJECT Chemistry
Orgai! Reas"ig
Give reasons:
1Acid catalyzed dehydration of t-butanol is faster than that of n-butanol.
2Propanol, unlike propane is soluble in water.
!hen t-butanol and n-butanol are separately treated with a few drops of dilute "#n$
, in one case only
purple colour disappears and a brown ppt is for&ed. !hich of the two alcohols 'ive above reaction and what
is brown ppt(
%)he solubility of alcohols decreases with increase in &olecular wei'ht.
5t-butyl alcohols react less rapidly with &etallic sodiu& than the pri&ary alcohol.
* Alcohols cannot be used as solvent for Gri'nard rea'ent.
+)he boilin' point of three alcohols is in the order.
n-butyl alcohol, sec butyl alcohol, t-butyl alcohol -.plain this order
/ 0nlike phenols, alcohols are easily protonated.
1 0nlike phenol, 2, %-dinitrophenol and 2, %, *- trinitrophenol are soluble in a2ueous sodiu& carbonate
13 Alcohols react with halo'en acids or phosphorous halides to for& 4aloalkanes but phenol does not for&
11Account for lower boilin' point and decreased water solubility of 3-nitrophenol as co&pared with their &
and p-iso&ers.
12 !hy has phenol hi'her boilin' point than toluene(
1 !hy do ethers have lower boilin' points than iso&eric alcohols(
1% !hy do alcohols and iso&eric ethers have co&parable water solubilities(
15 6oilin' point of acetone is 21" while that of propanal is 22 " althou'h both have the sa&e &olecular
1*!hy are nucleophilic addition reactions of carbonyl co&pounds catalyzed by protonic acids(
1+ !hen aryl alkyl ether is cleaved with halo'en acid one of the product is always phenol.
1/ Anisole cannot be prepared by treatin' 6ro&obenzene with sodiu& &etho.ide(
11 7odiu& &etal can be used for dryin' diethyl ether but not for ethanol.
236oilin' point of tertiary alcohols is less than that of secondary alcohols.
21 6oilin' point of butanol is 'reater than propanol.
227olubility of tertiary he.anol is 'reater than nor&al he.anol.
2 -thers have net dipole &o&ent.
2% 8iethyl ether behaves as a 9ewis base.
25 Alcohols are acidic in nature.
2* Alcohols act as 6ronsted bases as well.
2+$rtho and paranitrophenols are &ore acidic than phenols whereas cresols are less acidic than phenols.
2/Phenols do not under'o reactions involvin' cleava'e of :$4 bond.
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21Preparation of :
:l is preferred with 7$:l
rather than P:l
and P:l

3 $.idation of toluene with :r$

to 6enzaldehyde is carried out in presence of acetic anhydride

1Althou'h Aldehydes are easily o.idisable yet propanal can conveniently be prepared by the o.idation of
propanol by acidic dichro&ate.
2;n the preparation of acetaldehyde fro& ethanol by o.idation, it is distilled out as it is for&ed.
<or&ation of o.i&es and other a&&onia derivatives fro& carbonyl co&pounds re2uire sli'htly acidic
&ediu& for &a.i&u& rate.
%6enzaldehyde does not under'o aldol condensation whereas acetaldehyde does.
5 Protic acids, 9ewis acids and bases all activate carbonyl 'roup.
* 9ower carbo.ylic acids have pun'ent s&ell whereas hi'her carbo.ylic acids are odourless.
+)he boilin' point of carbo.ylic acids is hi'her than Aldehydes and ketones and even alcohols of
co&parable &olecular &ass.
/ -4ydro'en in Aldehydes is acidic in nature.
1Aldehydes are &ore reactive than ketones for nucleophilic addition reactions.
%3 =ucleophilic addition in Aldehydes is accelerated by electron withdrawin' 'roup while it is retarded by
electron donatin' 'roup.
53 6oilin' points of aldehydes lie between parent alkanes and correspondin' alcohols.
51 Aldehydes and ketones have hi'h dipole &o&ents.
52 =a47$

is used for the purification of aldehydes and ketones.
5 ;odofor& is obtained by the reaction of acetone with hypoiodite but not with iodide.
5% 4ydrazones of aldehydes and ketones are not prepared in hi'hly acidic &ediu&.
55!hy are a&ines basic in nature(
5*-thyla&ine is &ore basic than aniline.
5+A&ines are &ore basic than a&ines.
5/)ertiary a&ines have lowest boilin' point of a 'roup of iso&eric a&ines.
517ilver chloride is soluble in &ethyla&ine.
*38i&ethyla&ine is a stron'er base than tri&ethyla&ine.
*1)he boilin' point of ethyla&ine is 1+
: whereas that of diethyl a&ine is +.%
*2Aniline does not under'o <riedel crafts reaction.
*Aniline is always acetylated before nitration with acid &i.ture.
*%-.plain why :4
>:4:l does not under'o substitution either by 7=
or 7=
*5-.plain why, alkyl chlorides and allyl chloride 'ive a precipitate of A':l on heatin' with alcoholic
, whereas vinyl chloride does not
**!hy do alkyl halides show nucleophilic substitution rather than electrophilic substitution(
*+ :hlorobenzene disfavors a nucleophilic attack both by 7=
or 7=
&echanis&. !hy(
*/ :yclohe.anone for&s cyanohydrin in 'ood yield but 2, 2, * tri&ethyl :yclohe.anone does not.
*1)here are 2 =4
'roups in se&icarbazide however only one is involved in the for&ation of
+38urin' the preparation of esters fro& carbo.ylic acid and an alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst,
the water or the ester should be re&oved as fast as it is for&ed.
+1 !hy is chloro acetic acid stron'er than acetic acid(
+2 Aldehydes behave like polar co&pounds.
+ Aldehydes have lower boilin' point than correspondin' alcohols.
74 Acetic acid is a stron'er acid than ethyl alcohol.
+5 )richloroacetic acid is a stron'er acid than acetic acid.
+* <or&ic acid shows reducin' properties.
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++:arbo.ylic acids with five or fewer carbon ato&s are water soluble but, hi'her ones are insoluble.
+/ Acetic acid can be halo'enated in the presence of phosphorous and chlorine but for&ic acid cannot be
halo'enated in the sa&e way.
79 4i'hly branched carbo.ylic acids are less acidic than unbranched acids.
/3 -thanal is &ore reactive towards nucleophilic addition reactions than propanone.
/14:4$ reacts with 4:= faster than :4

/2 Acetaldehyde 'ives aldol condensation while for&aldehyde does not.
/ -thanoic acid is hi'hly soluble in water but he.anoic acid is only sli'htly soluble.
/% A carbo.ylic acid does not for& an o.i&e althou'h there is present a carbonyl 'roup in carbo.ylic
functional 'roup.
/5)hou'h halo'ens are electron withdrawin' 'roups, still they 'ive ortho and para substituted products.
Paper Submitted by: Mohini Belani
Email : mohinibelani@yahoo.co.in
Ph No. : 07!!"#7$$%!
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