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1.

CURING PAIN WITH NEEDLES


2. U. F. O. s: FACT OR FICTION?
3. COLOSSUS!
4. THE "ROYAL GAME" OF CHESS
5. LIFE SAVING LIQUID
6. WONDER DRUG FROM THE WILLOW DRUG
7. The Amazing Gothic Cathedral
8. THE MAN WHO "INVENTED' OUR WORLD
9. IN SEARCH OF ANCIENT TROY
10. BIOFEEDBACK & BODY CONTROL
11. THE ULTIMATE ENERGY ANSWER.
12. HAPPY 300th BIRTHDAY
13. THE MIND-BOGGLING BLACK HOLES OF SPACE
14. A MOST EXTRAORDINARY WINE
15. HYDROGEN:THE AUTO FUEL OF THE FUTURE
16. WALT DISNEY'S MAGIC KINGDOM
17. THE WORLD'S FIRST DETECTIVE
18. THE MAGINIFICIENT MAYAS
19. FORTUNETELLING THE FUTURE WITH THE / CHING
20. GROWING FOOD WITHOUT GROUND: THE PROMISE OF HYDROPONICS
21. SUNKEN TREASURES: FORTUNES ON THE OCEAN FLOOR
22. SECRET OF THE HUMAN BRAIN
23. THE FANTASTIC PLEASURE OF "LE CLUB"
24. HANDSHAKES, SNEEZES, AND TOASTS
25. TULIPOMANIA
26. HOW TO IMPROVE YOUR LUCK
27. GOODBYE TO GOOD WEATHER
28. LIFE AFTER DEATH-FACT OR FANTASY?
29. THE TRUTH ABOUT CLONING.
30. MARVELOUS MONT-SAINT-MICHEL
31. DID THE GREAT FLOOD ACTUALLY HAPPEN?
32. THE AMAZING POWERS OF THE HUMAN MIND

1. CURING PAIN WITH NEEDLES


A man walks into a doctor's office in China complaining of a headache and an upset
stomach. The doctor sticks needles into the man's toes, arms and fingers. He leaves
the needles in place, and a short time later the patient says his headache is gone and
his stomach feels much better. The needles are removed, and the patient goes home,
his problems cured, thanks to the ancient Chinese technique of acupuncture.
No one knows just when the practice of curing with needles first began, although
there is evidence that acupuncture was used in the Orient as early as 3000 B. C.
Although it has been used to treat everything from headaches to deafness and to
prevent a patient from feeling pain during surgery many medical authorities doubt that
acupuncture has any real physical effect on the body. However, more and more of
them are beginning to have second thoughts.
The ancient theory behind acupuncture is complex. In essence, it states that there
are certain invisible forces running through the human body. These forces run along
certain set lines which intersect at various "points." There are 365 to 1,000 of these
points, and each of them corresponds to an internal organ, muscle, or other part of the
body. Needles ranging from 1 to 10 inches in length are inserted into the skin at these
points. According to acupuncture theory, the corresponding organs or muscles will be
cured of any problems.
That, at any rate, has been the belief of people who have used acupuncture through
the centuries. In the mid-70's, however, researchers began seeking a more scientific
explanation, as acupuncture became more widely known outside of China and other
Far Eastern countries. There seems to be little doubt that it can relieve pain and cure
certain internal problems in some cases. But no one is certain exactly how it works as
yet.
On the one hand, some investigators feel that acupuncture works only because the
patient wants it to work and believes it will work. Other researchers think there may be
a hypnotic effect involved. Some patients, they reason, are so fascinated by the
involved (but scientifically meaningless) procedures used to insert acupuncture needles
that they simply forget about their pain.
On the other hand, experiments have been done which seem to indicate a chemical
basis for the effect of acupuncture. Scientists in China have found that acupuncture
temporarily increases the production of certain natural pain-relieving chemicals in the
brains of laboratory animals. In one experiments, for example, brain fluid from animals
that were treated with acupuncture was injected into the brains of untreated animals.
After the injections, the ability of the untreated animals to withstand pain was shown to
have increased an average of 82%.
Skeptics, though, remain unconvinced, and the controversy continues. But,
ultimately, the reasons why acupuncture works may be unimportant. Many patients
throughout the world have found the technique an effective way to combat pain and
illness, and that may be what really matters.

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP
1. How long ago did the practice of acupuncture begin?
2. In what part of the world did it originate?
3. How can acupuncture be used during surgery?
4. Do all doctors believe that acupuncture has a real physical effect on the body?
5. What are the "points" referred to in the text?
6. Why are needles inserted into the skin at these points?
7. How long are the needles?
8. When did people outside the Far East become interested in acupuncture?
9. What do some doctors believe is the psychological basis for the success of
acupuncture?
10 What kind of chemicals are produced in the brains of laboratory animals treated with
acupuncture?
11. What happened when these chemicals were injected into the brains of untreated
animals?
12. How important does the author feel it is to understand why acupuncture works?

Discussion Topics
Why do you think Western doctors might not be anxious to accept acupuncture?

2. U. F. O. s: FACT OR FICTION?
On April 24, 1964, near the town of Socorro, New Mexico, a policeman was giving
chase to a speeding motorist when he heard a loud roar. He looked up and saw a blueorange flame descending toward an open field. He drove toward the field and as he
approached he saw two small, white-suited figures standing next to a large, shiny
object on the ground. He later described the object as oval-shaped, 12 to 15 feet long
and standing on metal legs.
His view was blocked by a nearby hill, but when he saw the structures again, the
individuals had disappeared. He got out of his police car, approached on foot, and the
shiny object spit flame from one end and left the ground. It hovered above the earth for
a moment then flew out of sight.
Another policeman arrived immediately, and the two of them examined the landing
site. They found holes in the ground where the metal legs had stood, footprints from
the two white-suited individuals, and evidence of scorching on the bushes and brush
that had been directly beneath the metal object. The F. B. I., the U. S. Army, and the U.
S. Air Force sent investigators. All of them confirmed the findings of the two policemen,
but the incident is still officially listed as "unexplained."
In fact, it's only one of hundreds of unexplained U. F. O. sightings that have been
reported all over the world since the late 1940's. Some of the first reports were of cigarshaped, rocket-like craft sighted over Sweden in 1946. People in other countries have
reported saucer-shaped as well as cigar-shaped U. F. O. s with and without rocket
flames. They have also mentioned hearing throbbing or rushing sounds. Indeed, as
one highly respected authority has said, "It's probably significant that U. F. O. reports
have been made in virtually every country in the world and that reports from various
countries bear strong similarities to one another.
Of course many of the thousands of UFO reports over the past 40 years or so have
proved to be false. Frequently what a person thinks is a UFO turns out to be a meteor,
a weather balloon, an airplane or has some other logical explanation. Yet, about 10
percent of all UFO sightings reported cannot be explained. This has troubled scientists
while encouraging those who want to believe in visitors from outer space
Some believe that the many ships and planes that have disappeared once in a while in
the famed "Bermuda Triangle" area of the Caribbean were actually "captured" by flying
saucers operating from a secret "base" in the area. Others believe there is evidence to
prove that "men from outer space" have visited Earth many times and are responsible
for giving civilization its start.
Few reputable authorities give these ideas much weight. At the same time, however,
many scientists think that the idea of intelligent life on other planets makes sense. So
perhaps the idea that U. F. O. s are alien spacecraft isn't so improbable on the whole.
But as U. F. O. sightings continue to be reported, the "visitors from space" idea
remains controversial. Ultimately the question will be resolved only when (and if) an
actual alien spacecraft can be examined and analyzed. Until then the mystery will
continue.

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the
article.

Examples:

Aliens from outer space are known to have visited Earth.

Many believe that aliens have visited Earth before.

1.

The article as a whole is about space travel.

2.

In general, the article is about unexplained aircraft.

3.

The object the policeman saw was shaped like a conventional airplane.

4.

The area where the flying object had been was burned.

5.

The policemen were the only people to examine the landing site.

6.

No one has been able to explain the incident yet.

7.

The white-suited individuals were members of the U. S. Air Forces.

8.

All reported U. F. O. have been shaped like cigars.

9.

U. F. O. reports from different countries resemble one another.

10.

About 90% of the U. F. O. reports have been explained.

11.
It may be inferred from the article that the Earth is in danger from alien
creatures.
12.

The Writer implies that there may be life on other planes.

Discussion Topics

Imagine that the existence of intelligent life on other planets were suddenly confirmed.
What would be the implications and consequences of such a discovery?

3.COLOSSUS!
For nearly 60 years the gigantic bronze statue known as the Colossus of Rhodes
loomed over the harbor of that island. And after an earthquake in 225 B. C. broke it off
at the knees, it lay on the ground, dominating the imagination of men for another 900
years. It clearly ranked, with the pyramids of Egypt, as one of the engineering triumphs
of the ancient world. Yet today not a trace of it remains.
Going over ancient accounts, scholars have found many references to the Colossus.
From them we learn that it stood 120 feet high, just 32 feet shorter than the Statue of
Liberty in New York Harbor. We also learn that a single thumb of the Colossus was so
huge that a man would have had difficulty getting his arms around it. But other facts are
few and far between. The statue was meant to represent Helios, the ancient Greek sun
god. It took 12 years to build and required 12 and a half tons of iron, quantities so large
that they put a stain on the metal markets of the time. We also know that the statue
was located near the water's edge, but that it did not straddle the inlet to the harbor as
some 15th century accounts claim.
Until the first half of the 20th century, no one had any idea what the Colossus looked
like. Then a small of sculpture was found on Rhodes, and the pieces of the puzzle
began to fall into place. The carving was of the same period as the Colossus, and it
showed a standing male figure shielding his eyes as he looked at the sun. It was
clearly a contemporary "picture" of Helois. What's more, the pose of the figure was
exactly right for a statue the size of the Colossus.
Now that they knew that it looked like, scholars could easily figure out how all the
bronze mentioned by ancient historians was distributed. This led to a somewhat
startling discovery. Everyone had always assumed that the Colossus was assembled
from large piece3s of cast bronze. But given the shape of the figure, that would have
required three times more bronze than was actually used.
In reality, the Colossus must have been made of hundreds of Plates, each about as
thick as a coin, which were hammered into shape one by one and hung on an interior
framework of stone. Considering the limited technology available more than 2000 years
ago, it seems likely that a huge mound of earth was created to transport materials into
position. According to this theory, the Colossus stood at the center of the mound. As
the work progressed and the statue grew higher, completed sections were covered with
earth to give people a place to stand while working on the next higher level. Materials
were pushed up a small road that spiraled around the center of the mound. It's

estimated that to build the mound and to cart away the earth when the statue was
finished probably required to five hundred men working for a dozen years.
No wonder people were so impressed with the Colossus, even after the earthquake
had toppled it. But, unfortunately, one who was not impressed was the general of the
forces that invaded Rhodes in 653 A. D. His men broke up the statue, and the mental
was sold for scrap. Little did he know that destroying the statue would cause such
puzzlement for centuries to come.

COMPREHENSION CHECK UP

1. The article as a whole is about


a. ancient statues.
b. a very big statue.
c. the consequences of an earthquake in ancient Rhodes.

2. The writer of the article feels that

a. the general was fight in destroying the statue.

b. the Colossus was not really very impressive.

c. the colossus was truly a wonder.

3. How did people discover what the pose of the statue had been?

a. The pose is described in ancient accounts.

b. It was logically deduced from other available information.

c. A piece of sculpture turned up.

4. Which of the following statements is incorrect?

a. The Colossus was totally destroyed by an invading army.

b. The Colossus was made of large pieces of cast bronze.

c. The statue represented the ancient Greek sun god.

5. A huge mound of earth was built up around the Colossus

a. so that visitors could climb to the top.

b. to provide the statue with extra support.

c. to five workers a place to stand.

DISCUSSION TOPICS.

What does the Colossus tell us about the social structure of Rhodes?

4. THE "ROYAL GAME" OF CHESS.

At any given moment of the day or night, you can bet that someone somewhere in
the world is carrying on a game of chess. Regular columns on chess strategy appear in
newspapers, and every day the world's postal services deliver tens of thousands of
letters to people who conduct games through the mail. Initially regarded as the "Royal
Game" because it was played exclusively by the nobility, chess now cuts across all
social, economic, and international barriers in its spreading popularity.

Interestingly enough, chess is not only one of the most popular games in the world
today, but also one of the oldest. Chess is such an ancient game, in fact, that historians
aren't certain exactly where or when it originated. Many suggestions have been offered
over the years, attributing the invention of chess to everyone from the Chinese to the
ancient Persians to the Welsh. The most widely accepted theory, though, states that
chess developed from an Indian game called chaturanga, which was played as early as
the 7th century A. D. The word "chaturanga" can be translated as "the four army
divisions," and the game involved pieces representing the four major components of
the Indian army; elephants, horses, chariots, and foot soldiers.

In essence, chess is -and always has been -a game designed to simulate war. As the
game evolved, a Supreme Commander or King was included on each side, as was
another important piece representing the Commander's Chief Minister. The similarities
between this primitive version and the modern game of chess can be seen quite clearly
in the chariots, horses, elephants, and foot soldiers which were, respectively, the
game's original bishops, knights, castles, and pawns.

From India, chess made its way northward along the trade routes to Persia(Iran)
where the expression shah mat("The King is dead.") was added to signify the
conclusion of the game. The term checkmate actually came out of and English attempt
to pronounce this ancient Persian term. From Persia th4e game spread so rapidly
;through conquest and trade that, by the year 1000 A. D., it was being played in Italy,
and shortly thereafter in all of Europe.

The continued evolution of the game of chess brought forth innovations such as the
colored chessboard, which first appeared around the 13th century. Further changes
occurred in the middle of the 15th century when the king's Chief Minister, once the
weakest piece on the board because it could move only one diagonal space at a time,
became known as the Queen and was empowered to move any number of spaces in
any direction. Today the Queen remains the strongest of all pieces.

While changes and variations in th game continued into the 19th century, it wasn't
until the 1850's that the rules of chess became standardized. At that time, a group of
European chess enthusiasts organized a chess club in London and held a convention
and tournaments to determine the "official"rules. Although there had been a great many
chess players before, this meeting marked the beginning of chess at the international
level, and similar5 meetings became increasingly frequent.

Today international chess is supervised by the Federation Internationale des Echecs,


or F. I. D. E. was founded in 1924, it wasn't until 1946 that a formal system of
qualification rounds leading to a world tournament was set up. (Championship matches
are now held every 3 years) Since the introduction of formalized competition, chess
has become more popular than ever. And if the past is any indication, its popularity will
continue long after the prestige of kings and queens vanishes.

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

1. Why was chess initially called the "Royal Games"?

2. How popular is chess today?

3. Are historians sure about the origins of chess?

4. What was chaturanga?

5. What does chess simulate?

6. What are the similarities between chaturanga and modern chess?

7. Where does the expression checkmate come from?

8. How did the game get to Europe?

9. When did the colored chessboard appear?

10. What do you know about the chesspiece called the Queen?

11. How did the rules of chess become standardized?

12. What is the F. I. D. E and what does it do?

DISCUSSION TOPICS

What kind of games do you prefer and why?

VOCABULARY EXERCISE.

spread, regard, state, cut across, simulate, supervise, found, standardize, bet,
empower, originate,

Examples: The company I work for was (established) founded in 1998.

1. Shakespeare is (considered)
language.

by many to be the best writer in the English

2. Who (watches over)

the children during lunch hour?

3. Uncle Harry (risked)

twenty dollars on his favorite horse, and the horse lost.

4. The candidate's popularity (went beyond)

social classes and current issues.

5. Relatively inexpensive metals can be used to (imitate)

6. The policeman asked me to (tell him)

7. The United Nations (was created)

silver and gold.

my name and address.

in 1945.

8. In Shakespeare's day you could spell words many ways because spelling hadn't
been (made uniform)
yet.

9, Town mayors are (authorized)


ceremony.

10. The news (traveled)

5. LIFE SAVING LIQUID

by the government to perform the marriage

rapidly across the country.

It's a strange sight. A laboratory mouse is submerged in a jar of a liquid you can't tell
from water, but instead of drowning, the mouse breather the clear fluid as if it were air!
An hour later the mouse is removed and begins to breathe normally again. He is all
right!

The fluid, of course, is not water but a marvelous chemical that may eventually see
wide use as artificial blood. Called Fluosol in Japan, where it has been under
development for over 10 years, artificial blood has already been shown to have several
advantages over the real thing. For one thing, Fluosol can hold up to 40% more oxygen
than regular blood. And at the microscopic level, its particles are 1000 times smaller
than red blood cells. Consequently, Fluosol particles can carry their life-giving oxygen
to parts of the body that regular blood might not be able to reach when a severe injury
causes small blood vessels to shrink.

Of course, Fluosol and other varieties of artificial blood developed in other countries
are not meant as permanent blood replacements. They are designed for use as
temporary blood substitutes in emergency medical situations, and as such they have
already saved many lives. Hospitals normally stock large supplies of blood for use
during surgery. But occasionally a patient with a rare type of blood will need more than
the hospital has on hand and will need it right away. By the time the hospital can find
the right blood, the patient may very well die.

More than once doctors have faced exactly that kind of crisis, but until recently there
was little they could do. Now patients can be given as much as a liter of Fluosol or
another blood substitute to carry oxygen through their systems until more real blood is
found. (The average adult body contains between 4 and 5 liters of blood.) Artificial
blood can be given to all patients, regardless of their natural blood type. Tests have
shown that it has no effect on body tissues. In fact, the body usually eliminates the
chemical completely in 1 to 3 weeks, depending upon the variety and quantity of
artificial blood used.

There are other advantages as well. In some countries there's as much as an 80%
chance that the real blood a patient receives will contain some kind of disease. With
artificial blood that problem doesn't exist. Nor is artificial blood as difficult to obtain. The
supply of real blood depends upon the willingness of people to donate some of their
own. And since even when refrigerated, real blood keeps only a few weeks, the supply
must be constantly replenished. Artificial blood, on the other hand, can easily be
produced in large quantities, and some varieties can keep for years without
refrigeration.

As with any new medical product, though, artificial blood will have to be throughly
tested before government authorities approved it for widespread use. But given the
number of lives that have already been saved and the lack of any ill effects, eventual
approval seems certain. Artificial blood looks very much like a major medical
breakthrough.

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

1. Where was Fluosol developed?

2. What does it look like?

3. What happens when a mouse is submerged in a jar of Fluosol?

4. Are Fluosol particles larger or smaller than red blood cells?

5. What is the consequence of this difference in size?

6. What kind of situation was Fluosol designed for?

7. How much of a blood substitute can be given to a patient?

How much blood does the average adult body contain?

8. Does artificial blood have any effect on body tissues?

9. How long does it take the body to eliminate the chemical?

10. What are the problems involved with obtaining and conserving real blood?

11. Why don't the same problems apply to artificial blood?

12. Why does the author call the invention of artificial blood a "major medical
breakthrough"?

DISCUSSION TOPICS

@ How much responsibility do you think government should take in matters of national
health care?

VOCABULARY EXERCISE.

* Fill in the blank with the correct word from the box.

breakthrough, disease, emergency, crisis, advantage, eliminate, shrink, save,


replenish, drown, approval, donate

1. There are many

to owning a small car.

2. A good doctor will do all he can to

a patient's life.

3. I started working on the project as soon as I got my boss's

4. The discovery of penicillin was an important

5. Many people

in the history of medicine.

when the plane crashed at sea.

6. Bill's parent's divorce created a

7. Don't catch some rare

in the family.

when you go to the tropics.

8. It may be impossible to

9. Mrs. Simpson

10. Cotton clothes will

11. In a medical

hunger from the world.

an enormous sim of money to the hospital last year.

if you wash them in very hot water.

you should get to a hospital as quickly as possible.

12. They stopped and rested in order to

their energy.

6. WONDER DRUG FROM THE WILLOW DRUG

It's the world's first true wonder drug, yet it curse no known disease. A superb pain
reliever and fever reducer, it is nevertheless nonaddicting and , fro the most part, so
safe that people can take overdoes without killing themselves. It has been used in one

form of another for over 2000 years, yet it is still ranked among the greatest discoveries
in the history of medicine. What is it.? It's aspirin, plain old aspirin.

Although he didn't know it, the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates(460-377 B.C.),
"the Father of Medicine," took advantage of aspirin when the recommended willow bark
extracts for the relief of pain and fever. So did the American Indians, who prepared
willow bark tea for rheumatism and fever, and an Englishman named Edward Stone,
who, in 1763, discovered that willow tea eased malaria symptoms.

It wasn't until 1840, though, that scientists began to extract the active ingredient in
willow bark chemically. Called salicylic acid(from salix, the Latin word for willow), the
drug looked promising. But it irritated and upset the stomach. Felix Hoffman, a German
chemist who worked for Friedrich Bayer and Co., began to work on the problem when
his father, who had tried the drug out, complained about it. In 1853 Hoffman produced
a new chemical that eliminated most of the side effects. The Bayer Company named it
"aspirin" and immediately began to produce and market it. (Aspirin is still a registered
trade name in Germany, though this is no longer the case elsewhere in the world.)

Needless to say, aspirin was a great success. Today, aspirin is the world's cheapest,
most widely used drug. Each year people worldwide consume over 100,100 tons of
aspirin, using it to relieve the symptoms of everything from the common cold to
headaches to arthritis. Indeed, no other drug is used for so many different purposes.

Needles to say, aspirin was a great success. Today aspirin is the world's cheapest,
most widely sued drug. Each year people worldwide consume over 100,000 tons of
aspirin, using it to relieve the symptoms of everything from the common cold to
headache to arthritis. Indeed, no other drug is used for so many different purpose.

Yet before 1971, no one knew how aspirin worked. That year British study zeroed in on
the fact that aspirin prevents the formation in the body of a chemical responsible for
pain, swelling, fever, and redness. At the same time it was discovered that aspirin also
acts on blood cells to prevent clotting. And this may lead to the most important use of
aspiring in the history of the drug.

Blood clots in the body can cause enormous damage. They are responsible for strokes,
heart attacks, and many other problems. Because of aspirin's anticlotting action,
however, recent scientific studies indicate that taking perhaps just half a tablet per day
may be enough to protect people from most blood clot-causing disorders. In the long
run strokes and heart attacks may become a thing of the past, thanks in part to aspirin,
a 2000-year-old wonder drug with a seemingly endless variety of uses.

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

Indicate the choice which best complete the statement according to the reading

1. Hippocrates

was a Roman physician.

was very old when he discovered aspirin.

recommended willow bark extracts to relieve pain.

understood how willow bark extracts work to relieve pain.

2. The article as a whole about

relieving pain and fever with aspirin.

the many diseases aspirin can cure.

the history and uses of aspirin.

great men of medicine.

3. Aspirin

can cure many diseases.

is extremely dangerous in large quantities.

was discovered by Hippocrates.

has been used for over 2000 years.

4. The active ingredient in willow bark

is called salix acid.

irritated and upset the stomach.

is used in its original form in aspirin today.

was first extracted by an Englishman named Edward Stone.

5. The German chemist, Felix Hoffman,

produced a chemical that had almost no side effects.

complained that aspirin upset his stomach.

founded the Bayer company.

discovered a chemical in the body responsible for pain.

6. Blood clots

are caused by strokes.

might be prevented by aspirin.

are usually not very serious.

occur in older people only.

DISCUSSION TOPICS

1. Some people seem to feel pain more easily than others. What factors do you think
influence the perception of pain?

7. The Amazing Gothic Cathedral

For over 800 years the Gothic cathedrals of Europe have stood as one of the most
awe-inspiring achievements of man. But they also represent a major advance in the
search for an answer to one of civilization's oldest problems, namely how to cover an
enclosed space. Thousands of years ago this problem was solved with vertical pillars
for walls and horizontal crossbeams of wood or stone for the roof. However, people
soon found that if they placed their walls too far apart, the stress on the center of the
crossbeams would cause them to break in half. As a result, when large buildings(like
Greek temples)were built, interior pillars had to be used to give the crossbeams extra
support, which made for a very crowded interior.

Then the ancient Romans invented the semi-circular arch. This served the same
purpose as the crossbeam, but its design distributed the stress more equally and made
it possible to move the walls farther apart. Although more spacious than Greek
temples, buildings constructed with Roman archer were still filled with interior pillars.
What's more, in order to support the arches and the roof, the walls had to be very thick,
which mean there couldn't be many windows. As a result, most pre-Gothic European
churches were low and fat with dark, column-filled interiors.

The Gothic style dramatically changed all that with two remarkable inventions. The first
was the pointed, or Gothic, arch. To reach greater heights with the semi-circular Roman
arch, it was necessary to use an arch with a larger semi-circle. This was tried, of
course, but builders realized that a larger semi-circle would require walls that were
farther apart. Given the building materials at the time, at some point the walls would be
so far apart that the arch would crumble.

Since it is based upon the oval instead of the circle, the pointed arch doesn't have this
disadvantage. Greater heights could be obtained by simply "stretching" the oval to
make more pointed. Invented around 1144 A. D., the pointed arch also had the
advantage of transferring the stress to the outside of the buttress. First used for the
famous Notre Damn Cathedral in Paris, flying buttresses are essentially exterior
arches. They are attached to the upper parts of a building and serve to carry the stress
from there to the ground.

No one knows how these innovations were arrived at step by step. But it is known that
the builders used only pieces of string with a lead weight attached to determine vertical
lines, compasses to draw circles and ovals, and other simple stone-working tools. Yet
they were able to create cathedrals as high as a modern 18-story building.

That is itself is amazing. Equally impressive are the effects of the pointed arch and the
flying buttress. Because of the way they transferred stress, cathedral interiors could be
more spacious that ever before, with far fewer support columns. The walls could not
only be made much thinner, they could be filled with beautifully colored windows. It's
proof of the greatness of these buildings that today we find their soaring spaces and
magnificent windows every bit as moving as the people who created them more than
eight centuries ago.

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

Indicate whether the following statements are true(T) or false(F) according to the
article.

1. Covering enclosed spaces has always been a problem for mankind.

2. Horizontal crossbeams will break in half if the walls are far enough apart.

3. The Greeks were the first to use the semi-circular arch to cover temples.

4. The Roman arch eliminated the need for interior pillar.

5. There weren't many windows in pre-Gothic European churches.

6. The Gothic arch is based on the oval.

7. The pointed arch was invented in the 11th century.

8. The flying buttress transfer the stress of the roof to the outside of the building.

10. We now know that the builders of these cathedrals had very sophisticated tools.

11. The author believes that Gothic cathedrals are amazing for both their design and
beauty.

12. The author thinks that today people no longer appreciate the beauty of these
cathedrals.

DISCUSSION TOPICS

1. Discuss the importance of architecture in everyday life.

2. To what degree should government be allowed to regulate the kind of building that
takes place within the limits of a city?

8. THE MAN WHO "INVENTED' OUR WORLD


Rarely has a single man had a greater influence on modern life than Thomas Edison.
Born in 1847 in the state of Ohio, Edison was well ahead of his time in many ways.
Most people know that Edison invented the electric light bulb; that feat alone would
have been enough to secure his place in history but light bulb was only one of many
Edison inventions that have made major differences in how we live and work today.

He also invented the phonograph (1877), perhaps his most original creation, since no
machine similar to it had ever existed before. And he invented the motion picture
camera and projector, thus founding today's movie industry. As important as they as
they are, though, these inventions were only the beginning of Edison's contribution to
the modern world.
For example, the same year he invented the phonograph, he patented the "electric
pen, which started the office duplication industry. The pen vibrated at a high speed,
punching tiny holes in a piece of paper as the user wrote. When ink was applied to the
punched paper, it would pass through the tiny holes to duplicate the original writing on
a regular sheet of paper underneath. A company in Chicago licensed the patent from
Edison and used it as the basis for the mimeograph machine. In 1877 he also invented
a transmitter that greatly improved the sound quality of the telephone, making its use
widespread for the first time.
When X-rays were discovered in 1895 by the German scientist W. C. Roentgen, Edison
was immediately interested in the phenomenon. He was soon producing X-rays in his
own laboratory, and by 1896 he had perfected the fluoroscope. He refused to patent
the device, so that doctors and surgeons could make the most of his new invention. He
did, however, patent the fluorescent lamp which grew out of his work on the
fluoroscope.
Before Edison invented the light bulb, there was no large-scale delivery system for
electric power. Consequently, Edison invented the switches, fuses, generating
equipment and circuits needed to produce, distribute and regulate electric power on a
large scale. Little by little such system spread across the United States.
In addition to purely practical inventions like these, Edison also discovered the
electrical phenomenon that is the foundation of radio and television transmission. He
reported his findings in a leading journal of the day, but was so busy with other projects
that he never followed up on the discovery. In 1883, he discovered a patented "the
Edison effect," a previously unobserved principle of electronics that led to the
development of the first vacuum tubes for radios.
By the time he died in 1931 at the age of 84, Thomas Edison had patented 1,033
individual devices and processes, many of which changed the world forever. In fact,
Edison's influence has been so great that one could almost say he invented modern.

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP
Example: The "electric pen"

a. was the name given to the first typewriter.

b. was used as the basis for the mimeograph machine.

c. could send messages by vibrating.

1. The article as a whole is about

a, the patenting of Edison's inventions.

b. Thomas Edison, the inventor.

c. the invention of modern life.

2. The writer of the article feels that Edison

a. made life different.

b. made life much better.

c. made no difference in our lives.

3. It may be inferred from the article that

a. Edison knew a lot about medicine.

b. Edison wrote a book about his inventions.

c. Edison's work helped other inventors.

4. Why didn't Edison patent the fluoroscope?

a. He had already patented the fluorescent lamp.

b. He wanted doctors to take advantage of his invention.

c. He wasn't aware of its importance.

5. Which of the following statements is incorrect?

a. Edison is famous for inventing the fight bulb.

b. Edison helped make the telephone widely used.

c. Edison's phonograph was an improvement over earlier ones.

DISCUSSION TOPICS

Discuss the pros and cons of technological progress.

9. IN SEARCH OF ANCIENT TROY

For thousands of years the legend of Troy has echoed through Western literature. The
Iliad, Homer's classic tale of the ten-year battle between ancient heroes, has been
translated into nearly every language and has served as a source of ideas and images
for many cultures. Yet until a little over 100 years ago, nearly everyone assumed that
the city of Troy was pure myth.

Then in 1873 along came Heinrich Schliemann and proved them all wrong. The son of
a poor church minister in Neu-Bukow, Mecklenburg, Germany, Schliemann had no
formal education. What he did have was a knack for making money and for learning
languages. By the time he was 46 he had taught himself 15 languages (including
ancient Greek) and had built a fortune worth more than a million dollars. At that point
he retired from the world of business to pursue a dream that had captivated him since
childhood. Ever since he first read the story of Troy as a boy of seven, Heinrich
Schliemann was convinced that the city had actually existed. In 1868, he set out to find
it.

Citing the fact that rife Iliad was written some 400 years affect the Trojan War
supposedly took place, most scholars disregarded Homer's account as a source of
accurate information. But not Schliemann. He followed Homer's descriptions to the
letter. Those few scholars willing to admit that Troy might have been an actual place
said that its ruins could be near the little Turkish village of Bunarbashi. But one look
convinced Schliemann that this was not possible. The Iliad said that the warriors

fighting against "King Priam's city"(Troy) traveled back and forth from the city to their
camps by the sea as often as eight times a day. But Bunarbashi was at least three
hours from the coast. The trip would have been too long for the warriors to have taken
time after time in one day.

So Schliemann looked for another site. A little to the north and about an hour from the
sea was a mound called Hissarlik. The mound was 105 feet high, and it had a flat top
measuring about 769 feet on each side. The geographical details of the area matched
Homer's account exactly. Schliemann read up on them again to be absolutely sure.

Preliminary tests in April of 1870 revealed that a great city had indeed existed on the
spot. But was it Troy? Schliemann dug some more to eliminate every other possibility.
He continued digging through the heat and cold of three years, at one time employing
more than 100 laborers. Then, on what was going to be the second to last day of the
excavation, at a depth of 28 feet in the mound, he spotted gold! Taking turns working
with a large knife, he and his wife Quickly uncovered more than 8,700 gold rings,
bracelets, and crowns which he felt certain constituted the treasure of Priam, King of
Troy.

Actually, the gold belonged to a king who preceded Prism by 1,000 years. Schliemann
had dug right past the Troy of Homer (1300-1100 B. C.), which he later realized was
but one of nine cities that had occupied the site since 3000 B. C. But in so doing he
stunned the world with evidence of a highly developed civilization no one had ever
suspected existed. Thus Heinrich Schliemann not only discovered Homer's Troy, he
also proved that European civilization was far older than anyone realized. And perhaps
that was his greatest accomplishment.

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

1. What is rife Iliad?

2. What do you know about Heinrich Schliemann's childhood?

3. What talents did Schliemann possess and what did he do with them?

4. Why did Schliemann sit out to find Troy?

5. Why did most scholars not look to Homer for information about Troy?

6, Why didn't Schliemann believe that Troy was located near Bunarbashi?

7 Where did he decide to dig? Why?

8. What did Schliemann do before the dig started?

9. What kind of objects did Schliemann and his wife finally find?

10. What did they think they were?

11. Who did the objects actually belong to?

12. What does the author imply was Schliemann's greatest accomplishment?

DISCUSSION TOPICS

Schliemann believed from the start that the legend of Troy was true. What makes some
legends or myths seem true and others not? Give examples.

10. BIOFEEDBACK & BODY CONTROL

It sounds incredible, but today there are headache patients who have learned to
eliminate the pain in their heads by thinking the right thoughts. They find relief by
mentally directing excess blood out of their brains and into one of their hands. In some
cases people have learned to increase the blood flow enough to raise the temperature
of their hand 10 degrees in two minutes.

Only a few years ago most medical authorities would have said this couldn't be done.
But today mental control of one's blood flow is widely accepted as only one of the many
skills made possible by the new technique of biofeedback training. A growing number of
physicians all over the world are now using the technique to help patients cure
everything from muscle pains to stuttering to paralysis.

The idea behind biofeedback training is really very simple. In order to master a skill, a
person must know what he's doing right and what he's doing wrong. When learning to
speak a new language, for example, you must know when you are pronouncing a word
correctly and when your pronunciation isn't quite right. Without that kind of feedback
you could never make the changes and adjustments needed to speak correctly.

Biofeedback is based upon the same principle. Using special instruments and
machines, a person can know instantly whether he is thinking thoughts that will make a
specific part of his body do a certain thing. For example, to teach headache patients to
control their blood flow, doctors put a very sensitive instrument in one of their hands.
The instrument is designed to send out an increasingly higher sound as the
temperature of the hand rises due to increased blood flow. When the hand's
temperature drops, the instrument's sound becomes lower. The sound provides the
biofeedback the patients need to master the skill. Once the skill is learned, they no
longer need the instrument They can direct blood into their hands whenever they want
to.

Other instruments have been designed to produce sounds or to flash lights in response
to the degree of tension in a muscle, the electrical characteristics of the skin, and even
the electrical waves of the brain. One scientist, for example, has used a special
instrument to show that a small electric train can be made to stop or start merely by
thinking the right thoughts.

Although it is widely used today, biofeedback training is still a relatively new technique,
and many authorities feel that we haven't begun to realize its full potential. In the future,
for example, it may be possible to protect yourself against catching cold and flu by
mentally activating your body's disease-defense systems. School children might use
biofeedback training to learn how to produce at will the kind of brain waves that make
learning easiest. Cancer patients may no longer need surgery or drugs if they can learn
how to kill the diseased tissue inside their bodies using brain power alone.

Indeed, because of biofeedback training, there's no telling what human beings will be
able to do in the future-once they put their minds to it.

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the
article.

example: ( ) Attempt to help paralyzed patients with biofeedback have been


unsuccessful.

( ) Biofeedback training is a relatively new technique.

1. (

) The article as a whole is about controlling the flow of blood in the body.

2. ( ) The article, in general, is about how biofeedback can teach people to control
parts of the body.

3. ( ) It may be inferred from the article that some headaches are caused by too much
blood in the brain.

4. (

) Hand temperature rises with increased mental activity of any kind.

5. ( ) A sensitive instrument attached to the hand can give a patient feedback about
his hand temperature.

6. (

) The instrument emits lower sounds as blood flows into the hand.

7. (

) People become dependent on the instrument.

8. ( ) Scientists have developed a variety of instruments to monitor other physical


processes.

9. (

) Because biofeedback training is such a new technique, few people are using it.

10.( ) In the future, biofeedback might be used to activate the body's disease-defense
systems.

11 ( ) The author implies that biofeedback is the only way people can gain control
over their bodies.

12. (

) The author feels that biofeedback training may become very important.

DISCUSSION TOPICS

1. Discuss the relationship between physical and mental health.

2. Do you think people can learn to control parts of their bodies without biofeedback?

11. THE ULTIMATE ENERGY ANSWER

A source of energy that would be clean, cheap and, most important of all,
inexhaustible, may sound like a dream. But that's exactly what nuclear fusion may
provide by the end of the 20th century. If so, we may not run out of the energy that is so
crucial to the modern world Nuclear fusion, it's important to point out, is not the same
as the nuclear fission on which powers the atomic reactors of today.

Think of an atom of uranium as a cluster of 235 ping- pong balls. In nuclear fission this
cluster is hit by a single ping-pong ball and splits apart. This process gives off energy.
In nuclear fusion the opposite happens. Clusters of one, two, or three ping-pong balls
(various forms of hydrogen) are slammed together to form four-ball clusters (helium)
and energy.

Surprisingly, fusing these little clusters produces 10 times the energy of an equivalent
weight of uranium. But that's not all. Uranium is extremely difficult to find and produces
dangerous radioactivity fusion, on the other hand, uses hydrogen, one of the most
common elements, and does roof produce radioactivity. It is estimated that there is
enough hydrogen In a single gallon of sea water to provide the equivalent energy of
300 gallons of gasoline.

In one sense the world has been powered by fusion from the beginning of time, for that
is what takes place on the sun Every second, 650 million tons of hydrogen at the sun's
core are fused, producing 645.4 million tons of helium. The missing 4.6 million tons are
given off as sunlight and heat. If we could do the same thing on earth, all of our energy
problems would be solved once and for all.

The problem is that on earth hydrogen must be both contained and heated to around
100,000,000C in order to fuse. Such high temperatures will melt any container sooner
or later. At least two possible solutions have been proposed. One is the so-called
"magnetic bottle" involving a large, hollow metal doughnut wrapped with high power
electrical lines. Hydrogen is put into the doughnut and suspended in space by the

magnetic force fields produced by thepower lines. As more electricity is pumped into
the power lines, the temperature of the hydrogen rises to near the fusion point.

Another solution involves putting hydrogen into a tiny pellet. Twenty or more laser
beams hit the pellet from all sides at once, crushing it to one ten-thousandth its original
size, forcing the hydrogen to fuse. For one billionth of a second the lasers focus more
energy on the pellet than is present in all the power lines of the United States.

Experimental fusion facilities have been built in several countries, including Britain,
Japan, the U. S. S. R., and the U. S. But experts feel it will be a tong time before any of
them produce more power than they consume. The work is slow, but after more than 3
decades of research no insurmountable obstacles have appeared. By the year 2020,
many authorities agree, we can look forward to commercially produced fusion power.
The age of clean, cheap, unlimited energy will have begun!

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

Example: 'The "magnetic bottle"

a. uses giant magnets to keep the hydrogen suspended.

b. is shaped like a milk container.

Is wrapped with power lines that produce magnetic force fields

1. The article as a whole is about

a. the difference between nuclear fusion and nuclear fission.

b. different sources of energy

c. hydrogen as a possible energy source,

2. Nuclear fusion

a. requires the same materials as nuclear fission

b. takes place in the sun.

c. is already providing large amounts of electricity to the public

3. The main problem with nuclear fusion is that

a. it will always require more energy than it can produce.

b. the heat needed to fuse hydrogen would melt any container the hydrogen was in.

c. it releases large quantities of a dangerous gas, helium.

4. Why does the author write about the sun?

a. The sun is our major source of hydrogen.

b. Energy from the sun can be used to fuse hydrogen.

c. Nuclear fusion has been taking place on the sun for a long time.

5. The author feels that

a. hydrogen fusion will be an important source of energy in the 21st century.

b, there are too many problems involved with hydrogen fusion for it to become a
practical source of energy.

c. the "magnetic bottle" is the best way of fusing hydrogen.

DISCUSSION TOPICS

Discuss the ways that individuals, industry, and government can conserve energy.

12. HAPPY 300th BIRTHDAY

You can live forever! As astounding as it may sound, many respected scientists believe
that in the course of the next 50 years the average human life span may increase to
200,300, or even 800 years! This is not wild speculation based on exotic but unproven
techniques like cloning, brain transplants, or artificial bodies. To many it is hard fact,
based on the extensive investigations that are taking place right now.

A lot of scientists feel that further research aimed at curing major diseases will not
significantly extend human life expectancy. Many major diseases have already been
conquered and, according to some authorities, even if cancer and heart disease were
eliminated, the average life expectancy would increase by only eight years. The real
key to longer life, they feel, is to consider aging and death a disease to be studied and
"cured," instead of the inevitable result of living.

This approach, which has already yielded a number of theories about why we get old,
has led to some very promising results. It is a proven fact, for example, that as we age
the thymus, an organ that controls our bodies' disease - fighting systems, shrinks in
size, making the systems less effective. Recent experiments at 18 clinical centers in
Europe and the U. S., however, indicate that the problem can sometimes be solved by
injecting patients with special chemicals. Other experiments involved injecting old
laboratory animals with disease-fighters which had been removed from the sable
animals when they were young, And these, too, produced positive results. When and if
a similar technique is perfected for humans, says one scientist, "your expected life
span will go up to 200,300, or even 400 years."

According to another theory, the key to longer life is the elimination of the "cross-links"
that occur between body cells when people age. When you're young, the cells of your
body are like trees in a forest, and food and waste products flow freely between them.
But when you get older, bridges or "cross links" begin to grow between the "trees,"
hindering the flow. Cells then have trouble getting food and eliminating wastes. This
causes, among other things, wrinkles, stiff muscles, and flabby skin. Now, however,
some scientists believe it may be possible to find a chemical that would dissolve these
cross-links. If they succeed, an older person will be able to take a pill or a shot and
become "young" at once.

Other research is focusing on the specific waste products that cells produce. In older
people these wastes build up and interfere with many body systems. Certain vitamins,

it is believed, have the power to sweep these wastes from the body. And that,
according to some sources, could add 5 to 15 extra healthy years.

These are only a few of the ways the "disease" of aging is being attacked. The results
have been so encouraging that quite a few scientists readily accept the conclusion that
"if you're here 20 years from now, you will probably be here 200 years from now."
Indeed, with the progress science is making, in due time living "forever" may be a very
real possibility.

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

1 What are many scientists predicting about the human life span?

2. What are these predictions based on?

3. How would the human life span change if cancer and heart disease were
eliminated?

4. What is the new approach to aging and death?

5. What is the function of the thymus?

6. What happens to the thymus as we age? Why is this a problem?

7 What sort of experiments have been conducted to solve this problem?

8. What are "cross-links"?

9. What role do "cross-links" play in aging?

10. What are scientists trying to do about this?

11. How could vitamins work to fight aging?

12. Does the author seem ready to accept the idea that people may soon be living
several hundred years?

DISCUSSION TOPICS

1. How would you feel if an anti-aging pill were made available to the public?

2. How do you think an increase in the human life span would affect social institutions
such as marriage and education?

13. THE MIND-BOGGLING BLACK HOLES OF SPACE

Nothing in the history of science can compare with a black hole, Thought to exist far,
far out in space, black holes are said to be small sphere-shaped areas where gravity is
so strong that not even light can escape. This, of course, makes them invisible and is
the reason they are referred to as "black." They're called "holes" because, as far as we
know, they seem to be bottomless pits which can suck in everything from radio waves
to tiny dust particles to stars many times larger than our sun, all of which vanish without
a trace.

Scientists think black holes may be formed when a dying star begins to collapse inward
upon itself. At one point the pressure becomes so great that all of the atomic particles
in the star jam together and form a body having the same amount of matter but
occupying far less space.

How much less space? Well, if our planet were subjected to the same kind of force, the
entire earth would be squeezed until it were no larger than a golf ball, Even so, that golf
ball-sized object would still contain all of the earth's matter and have all of its present
gravitational force.

That in itself is nearly impossible to imagine. Yet scientists have found dead stars that
have collapsed so completely that a single cubic centimeter of their mass would weigh
10,000,000 tons. What really upsets scientists is what happens next. Apparently, the
star continues to collapse until the pressure becomes so great that the matter
disappears. When the process is complete, all that would remain of a star 10 times the
size of our sun would be a sphere of infinitely strong gravity measuring about 65
kilometers, or 40 miles, in diameter-a black hole.

This troubles scientists because, according to modern theory, matter can be turned into
energy and vice versa, but it can neither be created nor destroyed Black holes seem to
challenge this fundamental theory. Consequently, some scientists have suggested that
neither the original star nor any matter falling into a black hole actually disappears.
Perhaps, they say, it emerges in another part of the universe or in an entirely different
universe. Maybe a black hole is merely a passageway to some other place.

Scientists have suggested that black holes may even play games with time, so that
someone entering a black hole might travel back in time, return to his starting point,
and watch himself entering the black hole. As one scientist has said, "There are
mathematical solutions that allow these kinds of things. The question is whether they
are physically realistic."

They may not be. But then black holes themselves are so mind-boggling that once you
accept their existence, as a great many scientists have, you might as well accept
absolutely anything as possible.

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the
article.

example: ( ) The article as a whole is about the relation of energy to matter.


( ) Scientists' ideas about black holes disagree with other important ideas.

1. (

) A black hole is a sphere of infinitely strong gravity.

2. (

) Black holes exist far out in space.

3. (

) Scientists have visited black holes in spaceships.

4, (

) A black hole is dark because all fight is reflected off it.

5. (

) Black holes are mysterious because matter disappears inside them.

6. (

) Scientists are not surprised that matter disappears inside black holes.

7. (

) when a dying star begins to collapse on itself, it loses some of its weight.

8. ( ) When a dying star collapses, its atomic particles move closer and closer
together.

9. (

) A dead star weighs 10,000,000 tons.

10.( ) A fundamental theory states that matter can be turned into energy and vice
versa.

11.(

) Scientists agree that black holes must lead to some other place.

12 (

) The writer of the article is excited by the mysteries of black holes.

DISCUSSION TOPICS

Do you think that knowing about black holes can have any use? Discuss the
relationship between theoretical scientific research and applied technology.

14. A MOST EXTRAORDINARY WINE

Where would you expect to discover the world's most extraordinary wine? Although
opinions are likely to differ, you just might find it about 360 miles off the Atlantic coast of
northern Africa on the rocky little island of Madeira. An administrative district of
Portugal, Madeira is renowned for a wine, also called Madeira, that has been the
island's principal export for over 400 years. Shakespeare mentions it in several of his
plays. Kings, queens, and noblemen of many countries have savored its hearty flavor
And during the 19th century no well-stocked wine cellar was considered complete
without a generous supply of this excellent wine.

A similar description would undoubtedly apply to many other popular wines, but
Madeira has two distinctive qualities. First, it has by far the longest life of any wine.
While even the most outstanding red wines begin to deteriorate after 80 to 100 years,
at that age Madeira is just reaching its prime. Indeed, Madeira 150 years old or older is

not only drinkable, it is considered a supreme taste experience. Second, in addition to


extreme longevity, Madeira is capable of withstanding conditions that would render
other wines worthless. For example, most wines must be handled very gently and be
carefully protected from exposure to temperatures below 50F (10C) or above 85F
(26.7C). How ever, high temperatures and rough handling positively improve Madeira
and are probably the secret of its distinctive character.

If so, this unusual secret was discovered entirely by accident hundreds of years ago
when the wine that Madeira exported was regarded as acceptable though quite
ordinary But one day a ship returned to port after having spent a year in the tropics
trying, without success, to sell its cargo of Madeira-produced wine. Naturally, everyone
assumed that after being subjected for so long to the constant vibrations of an ocean
voyage and to the high temperatures of the tropics, the wine would be ruined. Much to
their surprise, however, Madeirans found that such treatment had greatly improved the
flavor of the wine.

That was the beginning of Madeira as it is known today, and it wasn't long before the
piece of the wine was determined by the length of the route taken by the ship carrying
it. A longer route provided more time for the wine to mature and thus enabled the
merchants to demand a higher price for their cargo. In the 19th century exporters went
so far as to put Madeira on ships and leave it on board through several round-trip
voyages to allow it to develop a richer taste (and thereby increase its value).

Wine-making has come a long way since, and today shipboard conditions are
simulated at the winery where it's possible to exercise greater control over the alcohol
content to a powerful 18.5%, it is gently shaken and heated to a temperature of
between 114F (45.6C) and 120F (48.9C). It is maintained at that "tropical" temperature
for anywhere from 3 to 6 months and then slowly cooled. Finally, the immature Madeira
is blended with older vintages, put into barrels, and aged a minimum of 4 years. The
finest Madeiras are aged even longer, since it generally requires 5 to 10 years for the
wine to reach maturity.

The process is quite different from that used to produce other wines. Furthermore, of
the 286 square miles of surface area on the island of Madeira, only about 95 square
miles are farmable. The remainder is solid rock. Consequently, the output is limited to
about 1.5 million gallons per year. This, in turn, guarantees that the production will
always fall short of meeting the demand. But perhaps, in the long run, its rarity adds
even more enjoyment to a glass of this extraordinary wine.

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

1. Where is the island of Madeira?

2. What is it renowned for?

3. When did that island begin exporting Madeira wine?

4. When do most red wines begin to deteriorate? What about Madeira?

5. What factors improve the quality of Madeira wine?

6. How did the Madeirans discover the way to improve their wine?

7. What did exporters do in the 19th century to increase the value of their wine?

8. Describe the way Madeira is made today.

9. How many years does the wine require to mature?

10. What factor limits the yearly output of Madeira?

DISCUSSION TOPICS

Discuss the role alcohol plays in society.

15. HYDROGEN: THE AUTO FUEL OF THE FUTURE

Energy researchers have a new engine fuel in the works which, in their opinion, could
make gasoline obsolete. That fuel is hydrogen, and it may weal play a big part in our
future. According to recent estimates, we only have enough petroleum to last us
another 100 years, so switching from gasoline to some alternative fuel seems
inevitable.

If so, hydrogen has a lot to recommend it. For one thing, it's the most plentiful chemical
element in the universe. For another, it's the only fuel known that can be burned
without polluting the atmosphere in some way. Burn hydrogen and oxygen together,
and you get energy and water (H2O). Burning hydrogen produces no carbon or
chemicals to foul the engine or the air. Furthermore, it's lightweight and can be
produced cheaply and easily.

It's not surprising, then, that researchers at various universities and compact its have
been experimenting wish designs for hydrogen-powered cars. Most involve modifying
standard gasoline engines. One such engine, for example, runs on a mixture of liquid
hydrogen and liquid oxygen. But because these liquids must be kept at -291C or -492F,
storage remains the obvious drawback.

Another design solves the storage problem effectively by generating the hydrogen on
the spot as it is needed The engine takes advantage of the fact that only 20% to 25%
of the energy in gasoline reaches the drive wheels of the typical car, causing the
remainder to be dumped as waste heat. In this engine, that heat is used to vaporize a
mixture of water and gasoline, producing hydrogen which is burned in the engine.

Converting gasoline to hydrogen like this has been shown to boost fuel economy as
much as 50%.

Yet another solution has been arrived at by Germany's Daimler-Benz and other
companies. As it happens, there are certain alloys capable of soaking up hydrogen like
a sponge. These alloys can easily be made to release their hydrogen when desired
and can be used over and over again, serving the same function as a gas tank in a car.

Daimler-Benz has already modified one of its standard 2.3 liter four-cylinder engines
and used it along with these hydrogen storage containers to power a city bus. The
successful use of this test vehicle has led the company to estimate that if the entire bus
fleet of Stuttgart were to be converted to hydrogen, over 1,000,000 gallons of
petroleum fuel could be saved each year'.

The Mercedes test bus operates and accelerates in the same manner as a minutes to
recharge its hydrogen storage tanks, However, with city buses this could be performed
at night.

As an added advantage, the storage tanks become very cold when releasing their
hydrogen and can therefore be used to provide air conditioning in hot weather at no
additional power cost. They also give off heat when being charged with hydrogen,
meaning they could warm the garage.

Although private cars are already being adapted to run on hydrogen, it is unlikely that
we'll see them on the market. for many years. Still, with so many points in its favor, it
looks like hydrogen might become the auto fuel of the future.

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the
article.

example:( F ) The author thinks we have an inexhaustible supply of petroleum at our


disposal.

( T) Scientists estimate that we will run out of petroleum in about 100 years.

1. (

) Burning hydrogen doesn't pollute the atmosphere.

2. (
) There are a number of chemicals besides hydrogen which can be burned
without polluting the atmosphere.

3. (

) Hydrogen is expensive to produce.

4. (

) Hydrogen must be stored at very coed temperatures.

5. (
heat.

) In the average car,75% to 80% of the energy in gasoline is dumped as waste

6. (

) Hydrogen can be converted into gasoline.

7. (

) Certain alloys are capable of storing hydrogen.

8. (

) Daimler-Benz has been able to power city buses with hydrogen.

9.(

) The Mercedes hydrogen-operated bus requires special knowledge to operate.

10.(

) It takes all night to recharge the hydrogen storage tanks of these buses.

11.(

) Hydrogen-operated buses can provide air conditioning at no additional cost.

12. (
) The author doesn't expect to see hydrogen-powered cars on the market in
the near future.

DISCUSSION TOPICS

What economic and political consequences might result if all automobiles were
converted to hydrogen?

16. WALT DISNEY'S MAGIC KINGDOM

Walt Disney was always a man of dreams, fantasy and, especially, imagination But in
1952, the creator of Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, and a host of other world-famous
cartoon characters began to sketch out a project which would grow to proportions that
even he could not have imagined. The idea was to build an amusement park that would
be entertaining for adults as well as children.

A family-oriented park, it would incorporate many of the characters and stories made
famous by Disney's highly successful motion-picture company. In fact, he originally
planned to build it on a vacant lot adjacent to his movie studio. However, as his vision
grew, it soon became apparent that a much bigger site was needed. Disney located a
244-acre orange grove 25 mires south of Los Angeles, California. He had his architects

draw up tentative plans (which he changed and expanded repeatedly) and was all
ready to start when he encountered a major roadblock: money

Even though he was an extremely successful film-maker who had produced such
classics as Snow White, Seal Island, and Cinderella, Disney had difficulty persuading
investors to take a chance on such a "risky" idea. Undeterred, he borrowed $100,000
against his life insurance policy, mortgaged his stock holdings and house (including
even his furniture!), and set to work. The total cost was estimated at $4.7 million, but as
the plan began to take shape, investors started to take an interest in the project.
Consequently, by the time Disneyland opened to the public in 1955, the cost had risen
to almost $17 million.

The amusement park-with its Adventureland, Fantasyland, Frontierland, and


Tomorrowland-was an instant success. Nevertheless, Disney continued to improve it,
adding more and more rides and attractions so that, by 1963, its total cost had climbed
to $44 million. But then he could well afford such expenditures since, by 1962,
Disneyland alone was responsible for bringing in more than 27% of the $74 million in
revenues the parent corporation earned that year.

Attracted by the park's scrupulously maintained cleanliness, its exceptionally polite


attendants, and-most of all-the unique fantasy adventure it offered, people from all over
the world flocked to Disneyland by the millions. Monarchs, presidents, prime ministers,
and other dignitaries all took time out of their hectic schedules to see Disney's
wonderful creation. And in imitation of his success, an entirely new industry began to
form. Today other amusement parks built on the Disney model attract nearly $1 billion
in business to the United States each year.

Not to be outdone in1971 the Disney corporation opened Disneyworld near Orlando,
Florida, supplying most of the necessary $700 million from its own treasury. The

company acquired a piece of undeveloped swampland about the size of Liechtenstein


and proceeded to construct an even bigger version of its famed amusement park. In
one sense, Disneyworld is also better, because it takes advantage of some of the latest
technology. The whole park sits on an elaborate network of tunnels which house all the
utility lines and service equipment. They also contain special vacuum tubes that whisk
garbage and refuse from all over the park to a central disposal facility at speeds of
close to 60 miles per hour.

More innovations are installed each year for, as Walt Disney himself remarked back in
1952, the park will never be completed-"not as long as there is imagination left in the
world"!

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

1. What kind of man was Walt Disney?

2. What had Walt Disney done before 1952?

3. Describe Disney's original ideas for Disneyland.

4. Where did Disney decide to build Disneyland?

5. How did he raise money for his project?

6. Was Disneyland a good investment?

7. What kinds of people did Disneyland attract?

8. Do amusement parks attract a lot of business to the United States?

9. How did the Disney corporation finance the building of Disneyworld?

10. What do you know about Disneyworld?

DISCUSSION TOPICS

How important is "play" to adults? Do you think that the society you live in offers
enough (or perhaps too many) opportunities for amusement and relaxation?

17. THE WORLD'S FIRST DETECTIVE

He was a thief and an escaped prisoner, talented swordsman and a master of


disguise. Women found him irresistible, and his friends-who included the famous
French authors Honore de Balzac, Victor Hugo, and Alexander Dumas- found him an
unending source of inspiration. His name was Francois-Eugene Vidocq, the world's first
detective and the man who almost single-handedly established the modern science of
criminal investigation.

Born in Arras, France, in 1775, Vidocq's trouble-filled youth made him a very unlikely
candidate for a career in law enforcement. At the age of 19, he was falsely accused of
forgery and, in order to escape imprisonment, spent the next 10 years of his life on the
run. Pursued by the authorities and therefore unable to hold a regular job, he was
forced to support himself through a variety of petty crimes. Although Vidocq did not
enjoy this kind of existence, it provided him with invaluable experience with the
underworld and allowed him to learn firsthand how criminals operate. When he was
finally captured by the police near Lyon, he had the opportunity to put his knowledge to
good use. In return for his help in apprehending a band of thieves, Vidocq was given
the freedom he needed to prove his innocence.

Realizing that he possessed a genuine talent for investigative work, Vidocq soon began
using his abilities and knowledge to assist the Paris police. His unique methods were
so successful that at his suggestion the authorities created a special branch of the
police department that would employ his techniques. After this was accomplished in
1812, Vidocq was invited to head up what ultimately became France's renowned police
force, the Surete Nationale.

It sounds surprising to us now, but in the early 19th century Vidocq's system of
maintaining a file containing such details as the names, habits, and methods of
operation of known criminals was considered revolutionary Despite some initial
skepticism on the part of his co-workers, Vidocq persisted in this fashion, accumulating
an entire roomful of files in less than a year Today, of course, nearly every police
department in the world relies upon such files.

Vidocq was also the first to discover that some criminals practically "sign their names"
by the specific way they commit a crime. "Criminals are not inventive," Vidocq said. "If
they are successful once using a particular method, they inevitably use the same
method from then on." This, too, is considered an important principle of modern
detective work.

Vidocq's years as a fugitive opened his eyes to the value of being able to conceal his
identity. As head of the Surete, he often disguised himself as a laborer or petty thief to
infiltrate criminal organizations and obtain information. The ink he developed to make
check forgery more difficult was so effective that the French government used it in
printing its paper currency. In addition, he was one of the few men at the time to
recognize the importance of fingerprints as evidence, and he once predicted that
someday every object at the scene of a crime would be examined under a microscope.

As a result of these and other techniques Vidocq pioneered, the Surete's 13 detectives
made 772 arrests during their first year. By 1820, with a staff of 30 men, Vidocq
managed to bring down the crime rate in Paris by 40% or more, His remarkable
achievements and flamboyant character made him an international celebrity. More

important, his scientific methods of investigation and crime detection attracted the
attention of police officers from all over the world. They traveled to Paris to study his
methods and, by the time Vidocq died in 1857, his once revolutionary methods had
been widely accepted. The era of modern, scientific crime detection was at hand,.

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

1 . Who was Francois-Eugene Vidocq?

2. When did he live? What famous people were his friends?

3. Why did he spend ten years running from the police?

4. Why did he become involved with the underworld?

5. How did the police discover that Vidocq had talent for investigative work?

6. What did Vidocq do for the police?

7. Which of Vidocq's methods was considered revolutionary?

8. How do criminals "sign their names" when they commit a crime?

9. How did Vidocq manage to infiltrate criminal organizations?

10. What other innovations did he develop or predict?

11. How did Vidocq's techniques affect crime in Paris?

12.Were Vidocq's methods well-received?

DISCUSSION TOPICS

Discuss the role of the judicial process and punishment in crime deterrence.

18. THE MAGINIFICIENT MAYAS

The ancient Mayas of Central America built one of the most highly developed native
civilizations ever found in the Western Hemisphere. In art, agriculture, and
mathematics they equated or outdid all of their counterparts. And for nearly 7
centuries(250-900 A. D) they control the area of Central America now known as
Guatemala, Belize, western Honduras, and El Salvador, and the entire Yucatan
Peninsula.

Then suddenly the entire Mayan civilization collapsed. Hundreds of splendid templetopped stone pyramids, many of which were nearly 200 feet high, fell into disrepair.
Beautiful cities like Palenque, the buildings of which once covered nearly 17 square
miles, were quickly overgrown by the jungle. And in some areas the population density
dropped from a total of perhaps 200 to 500 people per square kilometer(about 0.4 of a
square mile) to 20 or less per square kilometer-a level equivalent to what it had been
some 200 years before.

The whole process took less than 100 years. This is no time at all if you consider that
the Mayan civilization had been around for 1000 years before reaching its peak
between 250 A.D. Yet to this day, no one is really certain how or why this decline
happened. For now, the downfall of the Mayas remains one of the great unanswered
questions of human history.

In light of the extraordinary level of development the Mayas achieved before theri fall,
their sudden collapse is even more mystifying. For, while Europe was still struggling
through the Dark Ages, the Mayas were using a calendar that was more accurate than
one we sue today. Mayan astronomers were able to predict solar and lunar eclipses,
and they had calculated the path of Venus so precisely that their error was only 1 day
in 6,000 years.

The Mayans were using the concept of zero in their numbering system several hundred
years before it was introduced in the Old World. They used large-scale terracing to
grow crops on hillsides and were master of other advanced agricultural techniques.
And although they had no metal cutting tools, their stone architecture surpassed that of
any other people in the New World.

So how could such an advanced civilization fall so far so fast? Many explanations have
been offered, including earthquakes and disease. Even the possibility that an invasion
was responsible for the fall has not yet been ruled out. But many scholars feel that the
answer may have more to do with the internal structure of Mayan society than with
some natural disaster or outside force.

The cultural elite of Mayan civilization were the priests, astronomers, chiefs, and other
members of the aristocracy. Comparatively small in number, they were supported by
the labor of large of peasants. It is thoutht that the peasants may have rebelled
because they were overtaxed and that they overcame their rulers through sheer weight
of numbers. However, since the rulers alone knew how to read and write and how to
plan and repair buildings, this and other cultural knowledge vanished with them,
causing the civilization's rapid collapse. That, at least, is one theory. Unless we
discover some way to turn back the clock, we may never know the whole story. But as
investigations continue, we will certainly learn more about these remarkable people-the
magnificent Mayas,

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

Indicate the choice which best completes the statement according to the read ing.

Example: Mayan civilization

a. resembled the civilization of Medieval Europe,

b. declined over a period of 650 years.

stayed at its peak for over 650 years.

1. The article as a whole is about

a. ancient civilizations in Central America.

b. Mayan civilization and its mysterious fall.

c. the many possible reasons explaining the fall of the Mayas

2. When the Mayan civilization collapsed,

a. the population density dropped dramatically.

b. another one rose immediately to take its place.

c. the rulers destroyed all the cultural knowledge they had.

3. It may be inferred from the article that

a. Central America has a warm, wet climate.

b. civilizations can't survive forever.

c. at one time the Mayas were more advanced than the Europeans.

4. In Mayan society

a. the peasants equaled their rulers in number.

b. the work of many peasants supported a small aristocracy

c. the peasants did not make good warriors.

5. The writer of the article is

a. unimpressed by the Mayas' achievements

b. sympathetic toward the Mayan peasants.

c. puzzled by the fall of Mayan civilization.

DISCUSSION TOPICS

Do you feel that the civilization in which you are now living is on the rise or in decline?
Give reasons for your opinion.

19. FORTUNETELLING THE FUTURE WITH THE / CHING

It's one of the world's oldest, and some would say most influential, books. For
thousands of years it has guided the policies of governments. To this day millions of
individuals look upon it as an unfailing source of wisdom and prophecy. This book is the
I Ching (pronounced ee jing), the ancient Chinese Book of Changes.

Considered one of the five great classics of Confucianism, the I Ching is believed to
have originated about 4,500 years ago. Although developed and expanded over the
millennia, it is, and in essence always has been, a collection of 64 symbols
accompanied by a written commentary on each. Every symbol consists of six broken or
unbroken horizontal lines placed one above the other arid stands for some broad
principle such as "Conflict, if Peace, Happiness," "Great Possessions," etc.

To predict the future or to ask the I Ching a question, you must first select one of the 64
symbols by following a specific procedure. Centuries ago this procedure involved the
use of 50 plant stalks, each measuring one to two feet in length. For the most part,
however, these have been replaced by a set of th lee coins.

Any type of coin having two different faces will do. One side of the coin is used to
represent tang, the active, positive force in the universe (usually the "heads" side), and
the other, the negative, passive or yin force ("tails"). The I Ching, in fact, is based on
the assumption that everything in the world can be classified in terms of yin or yang
and that all change involves a transformation between these two opposites.

The ceremony of "throwing the I Ching" can be rather elaborate. But basically it
involves concentrating upon the question you have in mind ("Will I succeed in my latest

business venture? will my health improve soon?" etc.) while shaking the coins in your
hands and then letting them drop on the table.

This procedure is repealed six times, once for each horizontal line in the I Ching
symbol. Each coin toss determines whether the corresponding line will be broken or
unbroken. To use a simple illustration, if the coins land so that there's one yang
("heads") and two yin ("tails"), you're supposed to draw a straight unbroken line. After
completing six tosses, you can look up the symbol you've constructed in the I Ching.
There you'll find the answer to your question in the symbol's commentary.

As an example, one I Ching scholar reports that a student was planning a vacation
abroad and turned to the I Ching for advice. The student's coin tosses produced a
symbol consisting of two broken lines. followed by an additional broken lines. Part of
the commentary in the I Ching for this symbol reads: "A bird encounters misfortune
when it soars." Interpreting this to mean that she'd better not travel by plane, the
student canceled her flight reservation and booked passage on a ship instead. This
turned out to be a fortunate decision, because the airplane she was scheduled to take
was hijacked.

Did the I Ching actually foretell the future, or was it simply a matter of interpretation or
coincidence? There are a number of respected authorities supporting both sides of the
question. However, no one can deny the enormous impact that the I Ching has had
upon Chinese and Eastern culture. And many experts on both sides of the question
would agree with the scholar who wrote that "the I Ching contains every reality in the
world" and that it is filled with wisdom and truth.

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the
article.

1 (

) The article as a whole is about an ancient Chinese way of predicting events.

2. ( ) The author describes the ways in which the contents of the I Ching have
changed over the centuries.

3. (

) The I Ching is a collection of 64 symbols.

4. ( ) People used to use coins when consulting the I Ching, and now they use plant
stalks.

5. (

) Yin and Yang are the Chinese names for the two sides of the coin.

6. ( ) The I Chin assumes that all change involves a transformation of yang into yin
and yin into yang.

7. (

) Each symbol in the I Ching consists of twelve lines.

8. (

) There is a written commentary which accompanies each symbol.

9. (
trip.

) The author recommends that everyone consult the I Ching before going on a

10. (

) The I Ching has had an enormous impact on Chinese and Eastern culture.

11. (

) The Ching is a Confucian classic.

12. (

) Today people no longer use the I Ching to predict the future.

DISCUSSION TOPICS

Do methods which foretell the future work because they help people use their hidden
capacities to predict? Or do they work only because they give basically good advice
which the believer can twist any way he wants?

20. GROWING FOOD WITHOUT GROUND

It sounds like a dream come true, a means to insure an adequate food supply for
generations to come. Thanks to the rapidly expanding field of Hrdro-ponics, or the
cultivation of plants without soil, food crop harvests can be boosted anywhere from
258% to 875%! Using hydroponics, it's possible to produce 3,500 more pounds of
wheat,4,000 more pounds of rice, and 290 more tons of tomatoes per acre than with
conventional farming methods.

We've long been aware that dirt itself contributes nothing to a plant's development. Its
primary functions are to help support the plant by anchoring its roots and to hold the
nutrients and water plants require to survive. Sand, gravel, and even shredded plastic
can effectively support root systems and are suitable substances for growing crops

provided that the plants are also given enough water, fertilizer, and sunlight. And this
basic assumption is what the field of hydroponics is all about.

The implications and advantages of this type of agriculture are enormous. For one
thing, plants grown hydroponically don't require extensive root systems and can be
palaced closer together to use the available space more efficiently. Furthermore,
because the amounts of water and nutrients can be precisely controlled, each plant
produces to the maximum of its capacity. Also, one needn't be concerned about
weeding or insecticides, since growing plants indoors eliminates these problems. And
indoor cultivation makes it possible to grow the harvest crops year-round, regardless of
the season or even the climate.

Not surprisingly, enthusiasm for hydroponics has been increasing in recent years. A
variety of do-it-yourself packages are already available in some countries for people
who want to raise their own vegetables at home. In Canada, a government study
determined that hydroponics is ideally suited to open-air rooftop gardens in the inner
city. Weighing in at 195 to 270 pounds per cubic yard, regular dirt was simply too
heavy. In contrast, the hydroponic root medium weighed only 3 to 5 pounds per cubic
yard and was capable of generating a significantly higher yield.

The efficient utilization of space, nutrients, and water, plus its relatively low
maintenance costs, makes hydroponics attractive to industry as well. Some large
commercial florists, for example, use hydroponic troughs equipped with electronic
sensors that automatically turn on the water and nutrient flow when the flowers need it.

But that's almost child's play compared to the remarkable fresh fruit and vegetable
factories that were constructed in Vienna. Developed by an Austrian engineer, the
Turmgewachshaus, or "tower greenhouse," may well revolutionize the way we produce
and distribute food in the future. It consists of a tower 80 to 90 feet high with an interior

vertical conveyor-belt system. As the system rotates, plant boxes attached to the
conveyor are carried high up into the tower and then back down again in a neverending circuit. Along the way, the plants are periodically immersed in a nutrient bath
and sprayed with water while the temperature and artificial illumination are carefully
regulated to further optimize growing conditions. And harvesting is a snap when all you
do is sit back, push a button, and wait for the crop to come to you via conveyor belt!

Probably the most interesting aspect of the vertical greenhouse is that, since it only
takes about the same amount of space as an office building, it would permit city
farming. Having it right in the city would eliminate the handling and transportation costs
involved in transporting produce from the farm. The tower greenhouse specifically, and
hydroponics in general, thus hold the promise of more, better, and less expensive food
for everyone in the future.

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

1. (

) What is hydroponics?

2. (

) How much can harvests be boosted with hydroponics?

3. (

) What are the primary functions of dirt in agriculture?

4. (

) What basic assumption is the field of hydroponics based on?

5. (

) Why can hydroponically grown plants be placed closer together?

6. (

) Why will each plant produce to the maximum of its capacity?

7. (

) What problems does indoor cultivation eliminate?

8. (

) Why is hydroponics ideally suited to open-air rooftop gardens?

9. (

) How can florists use hydroponics?

10. (

) Where was the "tower greenhouse" developed? How high is it?

11. (

) How does the conveyor belt function in the tower?

12. (

) What is the great advantage of city farming?

DISCUSSION TOPICS

1. What advantages and disadvantages would hydroponics have for developing


countries?

2. The author claims that vertical greenhouses can reduce the cost of food. Can you
think of any factors not mentioned in the article which might, on the contrary, push
costs upward?

21. SUNKEN TREASURES: FORTUNES ON THE OCEAN FLOOR

It's truly remarkable what has been discovered at the bottom of the sea. In 1961, for
example, an entire ship was raised off the coast of Stockholm, after lying undisturbed
for over three centuries. The Vasa, a Swedish warship which sank in 1628, contained
eating utensils, weapons, articles of clothing, and hundreds of other items that provided
researchers with invaluable details about the past.

The Mediterranean and Aegean Seas have yielded similar treasures-including what is
believed to be the oldest wreck ever found, a forty-five foot Greek cargo vessel that
sank near Kyrenia, Cyprus over 2,000 years ago. The ship and the items on board
revealed a wealth of information about how people lived and worked in 250 B. C.

To historians and archaeologists the value of such information is incalculable. But when
most individuals think of sunken treasure, they have riches of a different sort in mind.
Many visualize old wooden chests overflowing with gold coins, bars of silver, and
jewelry encrusted with precious gems. Interestingly enough, except for the old chests,
which would have decomposed long ago, the idea is basically Quite accurate.

Ancient records indicate there is plenty of treasure just waiting to be found. In 1943, the
famous French explorer Jacques-Yves Cousteau invented the air tanks and breathing
equipment necessary for scuba diving. It then became possible to bring a number of
wrecks to the surface. One of these was the Dutch ship Slot ter Hooge, known to have
gone down off the Portuguese island of Porto Santo in 1724 while carrying three tons
of silver and four chests of gold and silver coins. Between 1725 and 1734, wreckhunters salvaged about half the treasure, using a simple wooden barrel as a "diving
machine." Because access to the rest was beyond their technical capabilities, the
search was discontinued. The wreck was forgotten until the late 1960's, when a
professional treasure-hunter came across a reference to it while searching through old
records at The Hague. Some additional research, along with the participation of an
international team of divers, resulted in the recovery of nearly 100 silver bars, each
measuring 6 "by 2",

The richest treasure-hunting area of all, however, is in the Caribbean, Over the
centuries, treacherous coral reefs and violent weather in the region have been
responsible for sending countless ships to the bottom, beginning with Christopher
Columbus's own flagship, which sank near Haiti in 1492. But of far greater interest to
treasure-hunters are the numerous vessels that sank from 1500 on as they made their
way back to Spain from the New World.

In 1622, for example, the Spanish treasure ship Atocha sank with 901 silver bars, 161
go1d bars or disks, and 255,000 silver coins, according to the cargo list still on file in

Seville. After an extensive search, the wreck was finally located in 1971. Over the five
years that followed, approximately 7,000 coins and 50 silver bars were retrieved.
Although this was only a fraction of the original cargo, it was valued at over six million
dollars.

Naturally, because treasure-hunting on a professional scale requires many trained


divers and elaborate equipment, it isn't all profit. And on occasion these expeditions
have cost human lives, as in the case of the Atocha where four people perished in
tragic accidents. Yet if you're willing to risk the hardship, danger, and expense, there's
no question that there is much treasure still lying on the ocean floor-if you can find it.

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the
article.

1.(

) The article as a whole is about finding wealth under water.

2.(

) The Vasa sank in the 16th century.

3.(

) The ship believed to be the oldest wreck ever found sank near Cyprus.

4.(

) Sunken ships can provide useful information to historians and archaeologists.

5.(

) The treasures found on the ocean floor are usually packed in wooden chests.

6.(

) Raising underwater wrecks could not be done before the 20th century.

7.(

) Cousteau invented the equipment necessary for scuba diving

8.(

) Old records can be very useful to modern treasure-hunters.

9.(

) The Caribbean is the best area to go treasure-hunting.

10.(

) Treasure-hunting is an easy way to make money.

11.(

) The Vasa was found off the coast of Stockholm.

DISCUSSION TOPICS

Who should have a right to the treasure of a sunken ship?

The divers who find it? The country where it is found?

The government it was intended for? Or the countries it was taken from?

22. SECRET OF THE HUMAN BRAIN

"Would you like to learn everything there is to know about advanced mathematics?
Gourmet cooking? A foreign language? Well, thanks to new Memo Tabs, you can
become an expert on any subject in the time it takes to swallow a pill!"

At the moment, memory tablets and knowledge pills exist only in science tic lion, so
you're not likely to see an advertisement like this any time soon. However, brain
research experiments in Denmark, Czechoslovakia, the U. S., and other countries
indicate that such innovations are not totally out of the question. Over the past 20
years, scientists have uncovered a great deal of information about how memory and
learning work. Countless experiments have been done, all pointing to the conclusion
that memory and learning are cferlicaj processes. In other words, when we learn a factfor e)(ample, that fire is painful to the touch-our brains create a specific chemical which
remains as our memory of the knowledge.

That, in itself, is a major advance over previous theories about brain functioning The
implications of this discovery are astounding. The research indicated that if scientists
could figure out exactly what that specific chemical was, they could synthesize it in the
laboratory and give it to someone who had not learned the fact through experience.
This means that after receiving the appropriate chemical, an individual who had never
seen a flame would automatically snow that fire was painful to the touch.

Something similar has already been achieved in experiments on laboratory animals.


Rats, for example, are born with a natural preference for dark places In one experiment
scientists conditioned thousands of rats to fear dark places by giving them painful
electric shocks whenever they entered a dark area of their cages. Chemicals taken
from the brains of these animals were given to a number of untrained rats. After the
injections the untrained rats exhibited the same fear, despite the fact that they had
never received electric shocks.

In subsequent experiments scientists discovered the specific chemical responsible for


the rats' fear of the dark. Synthesized in a laboratory and administered to untrained
rats, the chemical caused the animals to be just as afraid of the dark as if they ha6
been conditioned with electric shocks. Since that time, additional specific
memory/learning chemicals have been identified. There is no longer any doubt that at
least some forms of learning can be chemically transferred from one animal to another.

Although this is an important breakthrough, there is a long, long way to go before


people will be able to get a college education by swallowing pills. For one thing, the
memory/learning molecules are made up of different combinations of the 20 or so
protein chemicals in the body In order to isolate a memory/learning molecule, scientists
must first determine which of the 20 protein substances are involved. They have to
discover the proper sequence or combination characteristic of each memory/learning
chemical. It's a lengthy, painstaking process for each chemical, an6 one expert has
estimated that there are somewhere between 10 and 100 million such chemicals to
find.

Even if all these chemicals are never identified, the benefits from this kind of research
will be enormous. Much mental illness, for example, has been found to result from
chemical imbalances in the brain. The same is true of the loss of memory often
experienced by the elderly. By the end of the century it may be possible to cure these
conditions with an injection of the correct memory learning chemical. Perhaps by then
we will even have learned to control pain with natural brain chemicals instead of
potentially dangerous medication. "Knowledge pillMemoTabs," or not, the
implications of learning the secrets of the brain are clearly fantastic.

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

1. Do MemoTabs exist in real life?

2. What happens in the brain when we learn a fact?

3. How could someone who'd never seen a flame know it was painful to the .touch?

4. Do rats fear dark places naturally?

5. How were rats trained to fear the dark?

6. What did scientists do to make untrained rats as afraid of dark places as the trained
rats?

7. What did this prove?

8. What are the memory/learning chemicals made up of?

9. How many memory/learning chemicals are thought to exist?

10. How might this kind of research help the mentally ill and the elderly?

DISCUSSION TOPICS

What are some potential benefits and dangers of mind-altering pills?

23. THE FANTASTIC PLEASURE OF "LE CLUB"

It sounds like paradise itself! A tropical resort, pretty as a picture, that provides
comfortable rooms, luscious food, plentiful wine, and a chance to enjoy a variety of
activities. There's water-skiing, sailing and scuba diving during the day, and dancing
and entertainment every night. What's more, there are no televisions, newspapers,
clocks, or cars anywhere in sight-nothing to remind you of the pressures of daily life.
And it's what has come to be expected by millions of vacationers who patronize Club
Mediterrane, the highly successful Paris-based company that offers the ultimate in
package vacations.

Club Med, or "Le Club" as it's sometimes called, owns and operates some seventy-five
resort communities from Tahiti to Romania, offering many different types of vacation
experiences. There are subtle differences between the resorts (some are designed for
young singles, others for families), but all operate on the same unique principle. A
single, relatively modest prepaid fee will cover everything. Furthermore, there's no
tipping an6 no "extras." In fact, there's no need to carry money at Club Med resorts,
only plastic beads which can be purchased at the beginning of your stay and redeemed
for cocktails at the bar.

For people who are weary of the arrangements, worries and seethingly endless
charges and fees that many vacations involve, the all-inclusive, one-price concept of Le
Club Provides the ideal solution. And the company is happy to report that their
customers' enthusiasm has been reflected in its sales figures Consider, for example,
the North American market, which provides less than 10% of the organization's
revenues. Sales in that area have grown from $7 million in 1973 to $20 million in 1975
to $47 million in 1977, and there's no end in sight.

Company plans call for perhaps as many as three hundred Club Med resorts worldwide
by the year 2000, That's a far cry from the organization's humble beginnings. Club
Mediterrane was founded by Gerald Blitz, a Belgian diamond cutter and championship
swimmer who started out in 1949 with two hundred U. S. Army surplus tents. With
these he set up a "resort" in Majorca, Spain. He charged less than thirty-five dollars a
week, and although nor running water was available and the food and equipment were
anything but luxurious, over two thousand people came. Everyone was required to
pitch in to help run the resort, resulting in a spirit of fellowship between paying guests
an6 employees that still exists at Club Med resorts today.

While accommodations today are nowhere near as primitive as what they were in
1949, they have never been designed to be luxurious. By reducing construction costs
and by maintaining a ratio of about one employee per six guests (versus three
employees per guest at some luxury hotels), Club Med has been able to hold expenses
down to a minimum.

Modest prices have obviously been a major factor in the success of Club Mediterrane.
But they aren't the only attraction. Many individuals who could easily afford more
expensive vacations keep returning because the carefree, informal atmosphere of Le
Club allows them to truly relax. And after all, what good is "paradise" if you can't relax
and enjoy it?

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

Choose the statement which best completes the sentence or answers the question .

1. The article as a whole is about

a. making vacations easy.

b. having fun on vacation.

c. a company that sells vacations

2. The author of the article feels that

a, Club Med's vacations aren't luxurious enough.

b Club Med's vacations deserve their good reputation.

c, Club Med shouldn't make its guests work.

3. Why has Club Med been so successful?

a. The single fee for the vacation eliminates the usual aggravations that vacationers
encounter.

b, The Mediterranean attracts all kinds of people,

c. Gerald Blitz devote6 his life to making it a success.

4. Which one of the following statements is incorrect?

a. The main offices of Club Me6 are in Paris.

b. All Club Med resorts operate on the same principle.

c. Club Med resorts are all designed for families with children.

5. It may be inferred from the article that

a. the author has taken a Club Med vacation.

b. you don't have to take a luxury package vacation to have a good time at a resort.

c. vacationers still do most of the work at Le Club's resorts.

DISCUSSION TOPICS

What are some problems that often prevent people from relaxing when they're on
vacation? Give examples from your own experience.

24. HANDSHAKES, SNEEZES, AND TOASTS

---LINKS WITH A LONG-FORGOTTEN PAST

Although the last knight in shining armor disappeared from Europe centuries ago, and
the well-dressed gentleman no longer wears a sword, by greeting our friends and
acquaintances with a handshake we carry on a custom begun by those medieval
warriors. In earlier, more violent times, one could never be certain of a stranger's
intention; however, if each person grasped the other's hand and held it while talking,
both could feel reasonably secure. Because most men held their weapons in their right

hands, that was the hand they extended to indicate they meant no harm. In this way, a
custom that arose from suspicion and caution eventually became the friendly
handshake of today.

The customs of removing your hat when entering a house and tipping your hat to a lath
torso originated with medieval knights. By taking off his helmet a night demonstrated
that he trusted the owner of the house or the lady and was not afraid of being attacked.

In an age of computers, television, and laser beams, you wouldn't think we'd still be
observing customs begun in times far less advanced than our own. But we do, and
much more frequently than the average person realizes. For example, the custom of
throwing rice, wheat, oats or barley (depending on where you live) at a newly-married
couple dates back to primitive peoples who lived thousands of years ago. Since grains
are the "children" of the plant, showering the new couple with grain was a way of
wishing them success in having lots of offspring.

Or take the custom of saying "God bless you!" or "Gesundheit!" ("health" in German)
after someone sneezes. While today this is simply polite behavior, in ancient times it
was considered a matter of life or death. Primitive peoples associated a person's soul
with his breath, And since when sneezing we suddenly expel a great deal of breath, it
was felt that sneezing brought a person close to death, if only for an instant. Thus it
was traditional among the ancient Greeks and Romans to shout "Long life to you!"
when someone sneezed. For similar reasons, Pope Gregory 1 suggested that people
say "God bless you!" when someone sneezed, an expression we use to this duty.

The festive custom of clinking wine glasses as a toast is drunk also has primitive
origins. Thousands of years ago, people believed it was necessary to create some
noise to scare off the evil spirits that were thought to enter the body while drinking. The
word "toast" itself, though, wasn't used to refer to a drinking ceremony until sometime

in the Middle Ages. Many centuries ago people used to flavor wine and other
beverages with sugar, spices, and even pieces of toasted bread. Historians have found
recipes and references to this practice dating as far back as 1430. What's more, in
certain ceremonies in European universities this medieval custom is still observed. The
mixture was often called a "toast." Consequently, when people raised their glasses to
honor someone they "drank a toast" to him. Before long people were using this word to
refer not only to the drink, but also to the ceremony itself.

Today we observe these and many other customs without giving them a second
thought. Even though many people aren't aware of it, almost all our customs are rooted
in the distant past, and through them part of that past lives on in us.

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

1. How did handshaking begin?

2. What did it mean when a knight removed his helmet in someone's house?

3. What custom did that lead to?

4. Why do people throw rice at a newly-married couple?

5. What other grains can be used on this occasion?

6. What does "Gesundheit!" mean? When do we say it and why?

7. Who suggested we say "God bless you!"?

8. What did people use to believe happened to them when drinking?

9. Why did they clink glasses?

10. How did this custom get the name of "toast"?

DISCUSSION TOPICS

1, Discuss the function of customs in society. How do customers work to regulate our
lives? In what ways do they make life easier?

2. How much of human communication takes the form of acts or gestures, rather than
words? Give examples.

25. TULIPOMANIA

Tulips are certainly beautiful flowers, but could a single tulip bulb ever be worth 12
acres of prime land or thousands of dollars? No one pays such exorbitant amounts
today, but people did several hundred years ago. In fact, from 1634 to 1637, the
demand for tulips in Western Europe was so enormous and the prices paid were so
incredible that the phenomenon has been called "Tulipomania" ever since.

Tulipomania resulted in one of the world's first financial panics and was perhaps
comparable to the stock market crash that touched off the Great Depression in the
1930's. The whole thing began innocently enough when, in 1554, the Hapsburgs'
ambassador to Turkey, Ogier Ghiselin do Busbecq, sent some tulip bulbs and seeds
back to Austria. While quite common in Turkey and other eastern Mediterranean
countries, tulips were virtually unknown in Europe Busbecq was extremely enthusiastic
about the plants, which he called tulipam, probably the combination of
mispronunciation and confusion with the interpreter's description of the blossom as
resembling a turban (dulban). The Turkish word for the flower is actually lale.

Thanks primarily to Busbecq's enthusiasm, the tulips were a big hit in Vienna and soon
other diplomats and travelers began sending the bulbs back home. The flowers gained
popularity in France, Germany, and other countries, particularly the Netherlands, where
the first shipment arrived from Constantinople in 1562. Tulips were rare and expensive
but, with Dutch trade flourishing, there were plenty of people with enough money to
purchase them. What's more, their popularity increased to such an extent that, by
about 1600, it was considered unacceptable for a member of the aristocracy not to
possess a tulip collection.

Tulips would have remained an ordinary luxury had it not been for the "mysterious" way
that tulips sometimes change color. Gardeners today know that in their natural
condition tulip blossoms are solid pink, red, yellow, or some other color. The stripes or
flame patterns of a second color which sometimes occur are due to a non-fatal disease
that infects the bulbs. But in the 17th century, striped or patterned blossoms were
highly prized because of their scarcity and the fact that growers were unable to
produce such variations at will. Competition among tulip collectors for these special
plants eventually blew the price up out of all proportion.

One wealthy individual paid the equivalent of $23,000 for three excellent bulbs, while
another gentleman traded an entire brewery for a single bulb. Sky-high prices did not
prevent individuals with moderate incomes from getting involved in the tulip market.
Farmers, merchants, and tradesmen mortgaged their houses, sold their property, and
took enormous chances to purchase the bulbs which they hoped would make them a
fortune overnight. It seemed everyone was getting rich speculating in tulip bulbs-for a
while.

Then, in the spring of 1637, when the market could expand no further, it collapsed. All
of a sudden, investors, realizing that the tulip boom could not continue indefinitely,
began selling off their bulbs. The panic caused the price of tulips to plummet by 90% or

more, bankrupting thousands of people and creating economic chaos that lasted for
years.

Tulipomania may not have been the worst financial disaster in world history, but it was
undoubtedly one of the most unusual.

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

Indicate the choice which best completes the statement or answers the question
according to the reading.

1. The article as a whole is about

a. how tulips got their names.

b. a strange bit of economic history involving tulips.

c. Dutch trade in the sixteenth century.

2. Tulips became popular in Western Europe

a. when the Austrian ambassador to Turkey sent some bulbs back home.

b. when the Turkish ambassador to Austria sent some bulbs back home.

c. because the Dutch were very interested in Turkey.

3. Which of the following statements is incorrect?

a. Something similar to "Turipomania" happened in the 20th century.

b. Ogier Ghiselin do Busbecq was the Hapsburgs' ambassador to Turkey.

c. Healthy tulips were prized more than diseased ones.

4. Stripes or flame patterns in tulips

a. can be created by crossing solid color flowers.

b. are the result of a non-fatal disease that infects the bulbs.

c. are still not understood by gardeners today.

5. The author of the article

a. doesn't think that "Tulipomania" was a very interesting phenomenon.

b. is incapable of understanding how "Tulipomania" ever got stalled.

c. is somewhat amused by the whole affair.

DISCUSSION TOPICS

How do ordinary objects become fashionable?

Why do people think it's important to follow fashions?

26. HOW TO IMPROVE YOUR LUCK

Have you ever noticed how certain individuals always manage to be in the right place
at the right time? They're the ones whose investments inevitably pay off, the ones who
innocently stumble across the solution to a problem that has bewildered everybody
else for weeks, the ones for whom everything always goes smoothly.

The puzzling fact remains that such individuals are not necessarily any more intelligent
or hard-working than the rest of us. Since we can offer no reasonable explanation, we
usually shrug and say, "Well, he's Just lucky, that's all." Obviously, people like that are
lucky, but that's not all there is to it. According to recent studies, and contrary to what
many people believe, good luck isn't always a matter of chance. There are ways to
improve your luck and increase the likelihood of good fortune coming your way.

For one thing, it's advisable to participate in some kind of activity. You can improve your
luck by getting out and doing things, joining clubs and organizations, or investigating
subjects you're curious about. By becoming involved, you expose yourself to new ideas
and information that may prove helpful in ways you can't imagine. "Keep active," a
famous engineer once said, "and you may just stumble on something when you are
least expecting it. 1 have never heard of anyone stumbling on something sitting down."

Being active also makes it possible to meet new people, and research has indicated
that the luckiest people usually have numerous friends and acquaintances who are
involved in a variety of fields. Of course, friendships are important for other reasons.
But you shouldn't overlook the possibility that sometime in the future your success or
failure may depend upon knowing or being known by the right person.

"Chance favors only the prepared mind," remarked the noted French scientist, Louis
Pasteur (1822-1895), and thorough preparation is another very practical means to
improve your luck. For example, a person could offer you an excellent bargain on a
piece of property, but unless you had previously studied the real estate market, you
might turn him down without ever realizing that you were rejecting a good deal.

In addition, being prepared serves to enhance your intuition. The human brain is
constantly storing and processing innumerable bits of information we aren't even aware
of. Nevertheless, the information is there, and it is often the reason why we "just have a
feeling" that we should take one course of action and avoid another. The more
information you're exposed to on a particular subject, the greater the chances are that
your intuition or hunch will turn out to be accurate.

Of course, you've also got to have the confidence to make decisions based upon
intuition or educated guesses. If you're overly cautious or indecisive, or if you're
unwilling to take an occasional risk, it's difficult to be lucky. According to the saying, the
turtle only makes progress when he sticks his neck out. By being adventurous you may
be able to invite your own good fortune. But you also want to avoid behaving foolishly.
Lucky people don't hesitate to minimize their losses by getting out of a situation once it
becomes evident that they have misjudged things.

Aside from cheating, no technique has been discovered to influence luck where pure
chance is involved, as in a dice game. But pure chance is a principal factor in few
areas of life. Success is frequently contingent on luck, and that, as we've seen, can be
improved.

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

Indicate whether the following statements are true or false according to the article.

example: ( T ) Louis Pasteur was a French scientist who lived in the 19th century.

( F ) There is no such thing as pure chance.

1. ( ) The article as a whole is about how you can make yourself more fortunate.

2. ( ) The author of the article believes that some people are born luckier than others.

3. ( ) The author believes that a person can increase his luck.

4 ( ) Active people tend to be luckier than inactive ones.

5. ( ) It may be inferred from the article that active people are more likely to win at dice
than inactive people.

6. ( ) No one has tried to understand how luck works.

7. ( ) Having many friends with the same interests may improve your luck.

8. ( ) You can improve your luck by being well-informed.

9. ( ) The author does not believe that intuition is helpful in making intelligent
decisions.

10. ( )The lucky person is somewhat adventurous, but sensible as well.

DISCUSSION TOPICS

1. Prime Minister Disraeli of England once said: "We make our fortunes and we call
them fate," What did he mean? Do you believe in personal destiny?

2. The article talks about good luck only. How can we explain bad luck?

27. GOOD BYE TO GOOD WEATHER

What's happened to the weather? It's a question increasing numbers of people have
been asking as each succeeding year seems to bring with it patterns of temperature
and precipitation more unusual than the previous year. Scientists, too, have been
asking the same question, and the answers they've come up with are not encouraging.
In fact, they're rather frightening.

As far as the earth's climate is concerned, the generally favorable weather we've been
living with for the past hundred years-the weather we've come to regard as "normal"-is
the exception, not the rule. For the past fifty million years, ice and cold have been the
dominant features of the world's weather. Every 100,000 years or so, there's been a
warming trend during which the mile-thick ice that "normally" covers Canada,
Scandinavia, and many other regions has melted. But each warm period only lasted
about 10,000 years; then the ice would return. The bad news is that we are currently
approaching the end of one of those 10,000-year warm periods.

Major climate changes take an extraordinarily long time by human standards, and it's
likely to be several thousand years before ice blankets downtown Paris. However, even
a minute drop in temperature caused by this cooling trend can have serious
consequences. Since 1940, for instance, the average global temperature has fallen by
0.5F (0.278C). This drop has shortened the growing season in England by about ten
days, caused summer frosts in the grain-producing regions of the U. S., and produced
ice off the coast of Iceland for the first time in forty years.

Beginning in 1972, other effects were noticed. The monsoons didn't arrive in India or
Southeast Asia that year, and the Russian wheat crop failed for lack of rain. Then, in
1974, a long drought began in parts of the U. S., and in 1976, large areas of Europe
endured one of the driest summers of the century.

The forces that control the world's climate are so immense and powerful that there's
not much we can do to counteract this cooling trend. Nonetheless, scientists have
discovered that we are unintentionally doing something that may have a major impact
upon the earth's temperature. Whenever a ton of coal, gas, or oil is burned, about three
tons of carbon dioxide are released into the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide enables
sunlight to hit the earth, but prevents the heat the sun creates from escaping back into
space, Consequently, as the percentage of carbon dioxide in the air increases, the
earth's climate becomes warmer.

The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has risen approximately 10% during
the last century and, according to a scientific estimate, the burning of coal and other
carbon dioxide-producing fuels will cause it to go up another 100% or more in the
coming hundred years. That could easily make the global temperature increase 5 F
(2.8 C), which could compensate for the current cooling trend. But what if this goes too
far? What if the mammoth glaciers of Greenland and Antarctica begin to melt and the
oceans rise by thirty to three hundred feet? What if food-producing areas start to dry
up?

These questions are going unanswered at the moment. All we can be sure of is that the
climate is changing and that human civilization not only will be affected by it but also
may very well have an effect upon it.

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

Choose the statement which best completes the sentence or answers the question.

1. The article as a whole is about

a. how people can control the weather.

b. recent changes in the world's weather and their possible causes.

c. how changes in climate affect civilization.

2. Which of the following statements is correct?

a. Scientists believe the weather is getting warmer.

b. Scientists believe the weather is getting cotter.

c. It's impossible to know how the weather will ultimately change because of the
many different factors involved.

3. It may be inferred from the article that

a. the Russian wheat crop depends on the monsoons.

b. summer frosts have been normal in the grain-producing areas of the U. S.

c. people inadvertently affect their environment.

4. Which of the following statements is incorrect?

a. The world's weather has been exceptionally good in the last century.

b. According to one estimate, 100% of the atmosphere will be carbon dioxide within
100 years.

c. Major changes in the weather take place very gradually.

5. The author of the article feels

a. there's little people can do to gain control over the weather.

b. people should take action immediately to gain control over the weather

c. unconcerned about the weather in the future.

DISCUSSION TOPICS

Pollution can change the weather. What other aspects of the environment are affected
by pollution?

28. LIFE AFTER DEATH-FACT OR FANTASY?

From the beginning of time man has wondered, "Is there life after death?" While the
question will probably remain one each individual must answer for himself, recent
scientific investigations in this field do provide some interesting opinions.

Several years ago, Dr. Elizabeth Kubler-Ross of the University of Zurich and Dr.
Raymond Moody of the University of Virginia began to conduct research on this
subject. In the course of their research both interviewed thousands of people who had
been pronounced dead by their doctors-some for as long as two hours-and then had
miraculously come back to life. All those who had "died" claimed remarkably similar
experiences.

Many people said that at the moment of death they had heard a rushing or buzzing
sound while they moved through a long, dark tunnel or cave. Then they suddenly found
themselves "floating" outside their own physical bodies, able to observe themselves
and the doctors and nurses around them. Nearly everyone said that at that point the
spirits of their departed friends, parents, or relatives came to meet and help them. In
addition, there was a loving, warm spirit which everyone described. as a being of pure,
The being of light communicated with them, assuring them that it wasn't time for them
to die. The people who had "died" then returned to their earthly bodies even though
overwhelming feelings of love, joy, and peace beckoned them to remain.

If this were the description of a single individual or even a handful of people, it could
easily be dismissed. But this is not the case. Well over 1,000 people have been
interviewed. Although they maintained widely varying or no religious beliefs at all, had
diverse cultural backgrounds, and had "died" under a variety of circumstances, they all
reported essentially the same experience. What's more, the same results were
achieved by two separate investigators, Drs, Kubler-Ross and Moody, neither of whom
was aware of the other's research. It's remarkable, isn't it?

On the one hand, it's possible that the human body and brain are designed to react to a
close brush with death in a particular manner, much as everyone feels pain when
pricked with a need1e. Indeed, some researchers insist that these afterlife experiences
are merely fantasies the human brain creates as it struggles to cope With the crisis of
death.

On the other hand, Kubler-Ross and Moody, who are psychiatrists as weal as medical
doctors, claim that the people they interviewed were not describing fantasies at all. At
least to the people who were being interviewed, the experiences were quite react. And
then there's the fact that in several cases, the people were able to describe accurately
the medical techniques they had seen the physicians use to bring them back to lifeeven though none of the people had any medical knowledge whatsoever.

The question is, of course, still open. But regardless of what one makes of these
reported experiences, it is perhaps significant that nearly everyone who has "died"
once and returned is completely unafraid of dying again.

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

1. Where do Drs. Kubler-Ross and Moody work?

2. What did their research consist of?

3. Who did they interview for their research?

4. What kind of experiences had the people they interviewed had?

5. What kind of feelings did they have during these experiences?

6. What was surprising about these interviews?

7. Some people don't believe that the experiences described were real. What other
explanations

do they have?

8. What evidence does the author give to support the idea that they were real?

9. Are people who have "died" once afraid of dying again?

10. What seems to be the author's attitude towards the research he's describing?

DISCUSSION TOPICS

Do you think Drs. Kubler-Ross and Moody conducted their research in the best
possible way? Can this kind of research be truly scientific?

29. THE TRUTH ABOUT CLONING

Imagine this: a scientist, taking a single cell from the skin of an adult frog, carefully
nurtures it until it grows into an exact duplicate of the frog. Incredible as it sounds, this
is just one of many similar successful experiments already being done with plants and
animals in laboratories all over the world. The process, called cloning, has enormous
implications for us all.

Strictly speaking, cloning isn't a new technique. Farmers and gardeners have been
producing clones for centuries by snipping off small pieces of plants and trees, keeping
them in water until roots begin to form, and then planting the cuttings in the ground. In
fact, the term 'clone' is derived from the Greek word for "twig," klon. What's new is the
application of the cloning process to higher forms of life.

Nearly every living organism on earth must have a complete set of genes to survive,
and normally each parent contributes half of the required number. Human life, for
example, begins when genes from the mother and father unite to form a single cell.
That cell, in turn, divides to produce two cells, each with a complete set of genes. The
growth process continues as those two cells divide into four, the four into sixteen, and
so on. Although each cell still contains a full set of genes, some of those genes take
over and begin giving instructions, directing the cell to become bone, skin, or whatever.
The other genes in the cell, remaining inactive, no longer influence the cell's
development.

The same thing happens in plants and lower forms of animals, like frogs. To clone
these organisms scientists simply take a cell and, through a variety of techniques,
activate art the genes in the cell. For example, by placing the fully activated skin cell of
a frog in a suitable environment they can get it to reproduce and grow into a new frog.

Theoretically, the same procedure could be followed to clone a human being. But in
reality, each human cell is so complex and specialized that most scientists are of the
opinion that activating all the genes in any given cell would be impossible. It's unlikely
that the world will ever be filled with carton-copy people, as some commentators have
suggested.

The cloning of lower life forms, however, is a "horse of a different color." If ongoing
efforts are successful, it may one day be possible to produce exact duplicates of
everything from high-yield, disease-resistant corn plants to prize racehorses. And it
may no longer be necessary to breed generation after generation of cattle to produce a
variety with the desired characteristics. Using traditional methods, you may need
decades or even centuries to create a new variety of cow. On the other hand, with
cloning you would simply have to find a single cow with the desired characteristics and
remove a few cells in order to produce an entire herd of identical animals. What's more,
it would only take two to three years.

Cloning may allow the unlimited production of cattle and crops suited to a wide range of
climates. If so, it would have a tremendous impact on the world's food supply. In the
future it may also lead to cures for cancer and other diseases, the preservation of rare
plants and animals, and other things that cannot even be imagined at this point. But
one thing is certain: cloning is definitely a subject we'll be hearing a lot more about in
the years ahead.

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the
article.

Example: ( ) Farmers and gardeners have cloned plants and trees for centuries.

( ) "Clone" is derived from a Latin word.

1. ( ) The article as a whole is about improving the world's food supply "Clone" is
derived from a word meaning "twig."

2. ( ) "Clone is derived from a word meaning "twig."

3. ( ) Only human beings need a complete set of genes to survive.

4. ( ) Life begins when genes from two parents unite.

5. ( ) Genes give instructions to cells, telling them how to develop.

6. ( ) Scientists have not been able to activate all the genes in a cell from any kind of
animal.

7. ( ) It is unlikely that scientists will ever be able to clone human beings.

8. ( ) Cloning may be used to produce disease-resistant plants.

9. ( ) Traditional methods can create new breeds as quickly as cloning

10. ( ) The author seems to be excited about the different possible uses of cloning.

DISCUSSION TOPICS

Imagine that it is now possible to clone human beings and that you are a member of a
government agency overseeing this new field. What kind of guidelines would you
propose?

30. MARVELOUS MONT-SAINT-MICHEL

Wrought by nature and by centuries of human toil, it is truly one of a kind. As an


architectural masterpiece in a spectacular setting, Mont-Saint-Michel is second to
none. Situated about one mile off the northwestern coast of France, Mont-Saint-Michel
is an immense granite formation measuring approximately 1000 yards in circumference
and rising some 267 feet above the surrounding sands. Balanced on top of this great
rock is a Gothic cathedral that occupies an area 4 times larger than the summit itself.
With walls that soar over 130 feet, the cathedral and the structures that support it from
below are so impressive that for generations they have been known as "la MerVeilleThe Marvel."

Equally marvelous are the natural forces at play in the area, specifically the tides,
which either leave Mont-Saint-Michel high and dry or transform it into an island
surrounded by water 50 feet deep. Twice daily, at low tide, the ocean withdraws a
distance of up to 10 miles. And twice a day the water comes rushing back at a speed
ranging between 148 and 203 feet per minute, depending upon the season. It is said
that the water travels so fast that a person on a galloping horse could not outrun it.

Fortunately, the danger of being caught by the rushing lidos was reduced in 1877 when
the French government constructed an elevated roadway that permanently connected
Mont-Saint-Nickel to the mainland. However, 1200 years ago the roadway would have
been unnecessary because the massive rock, called Mont Tombs at the time, was
simply a peak rising from a low and level forest.

It was during the year 709 A. D. that a prominent bishop claimed to have seen the
archangel Michael in his dreams. The angel had told him he should erect a chapel on

the rock. Upon completion of the chapel, the peak was renamed Mont-Saint-Michel.
Even then the water was already creeping inland, washing the trees away one by one.
But it wasn't until about 1000 A. D. that the sea finally encircled the rock completely.

Throughout its long and interesting history, many structures have been built on the
"Mont" (the existing structures were begun in the 13th century), and it has always
attracted visitors despite the perilous tides. French kings from Charlemagne (742-814)
to Louis XVI (1754-1793) visited frequently. And at one time, millions of pilgrims
traveled on foot from all over Europe to worship and gain inspiration from its unique
beauty.

Mont-Saint-Michel has survived numerous wars, but not without the partial destruction
of some of its historic edifices. Following the French Revolution, the monastery was
turned into a prison and remained as such for over 60 years, Its magnificent buildings
were badly neglected until 1874 when the French government at last started to restore
many first-rate examples of Gothic and medieval architecture to their original glory.

Mont-Saint-Michel is now classified as a national monument. But to the countless


thousands who have experienced it in words and pictures, Mont- saint-Nickel will
always have a much greater significance. As one observer has written, "Mont-SaintMichel is nothing less than a national treasure, a veritable prayer told in stone,"

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

1 What is Mont-Saint-Michel?

2. Where is it located?

3. Why is the cathedral called "la Merveille?

4. What happens to Mont-Saint-Nickel at high tide?

5. How fast does the water travel?

6. When and how was the summit permanently connected to the mainland?

7. What did the "Mont" look like in the 8th century?

8. How did it get its name?

9. When did the sea finally encircle it completely?

10. What kinds of people have visited the "Mont"?

11. What happened to the "Mont" after the French Revolution?

12. When was it restored?

DISCUSSION TOPICS

1. In many Western countries the importance of religion has decreased in recent times.
Is this true in your country? What role does religion play in the society you live in?

2. Are all pilgrimages religious in nature? Why do people sometimes make nonreligious trips and call them pilgrimages?

31. DID THE GREAT FLOOD ACTUALLY HAPPEN?

The story is a familiar one. A huge flood covers the entire world, destroying all
civilization, with the exception of one virtuous individual and his family. Guided by a
supernatural being, he builds a boat which allows him to survive the disaster. What is
not generally known, however, is that this story, or some variation of it, appears in the
myths and legends of nearly every culture on earth.

In Hebrew, Christian, and Islamic texts the virtuous man is called Noah. Ancient Hindu
scriptures relate the story of Manu. Greek mythology tells of Deucalion, and Chineselegends speak of the great Yu, Tamer of the Flood. Accounts of a great flood seem to
exist even among the Hopi Indians who lived in the desert-like American Southwest
and the ancient Incas who inhabited the high Andean mountains of Peru.

Until recently, scientists assumed that these ancient stories were the result of a local
river overflowing or of some great storm confined to a particular area. The stories were
probably exaggerated until the floods were said to have engulfed the whole world. Few
responsible authorities, however, took such claims seriously.

Then, in 1922, a scientist digging in the desert near Baghdad, Iraq, unearthed the ruins
of a temple. He uncovered ancient weapons, musical instruments, gold and silver
jewelry, and a large quantity of clay vessels and cooking utensils. Upon digging deeper,
he discovered a thick layer of mud, which appeared to have been deposited by a body
of water Although his colleagues insisted that there was nothing more to be found, he
trusted his sixth sense and kept on digging. After excavating 8 feet of clay and mud, he
began to find stone tools and pots, evidence of a civilization that had been wiped out by
a flood.

As a result, scientists had to revise their theories about the sire of the flood mentioned
in the legends that had originated in the area. Only an enormous flood could have
deposited so much mud. Still, they, continued to assume it was only a local flood. Then
in the late 1960's and early 1970's, scientists made a discovery in the Gulf of Mexico
that changed everything. Drilling deep into the ocean floor, they brought up shells of
tiny marine animals that existed thousands of years ago. When they were alive, these
animals recorded the temperature and salt content of the water in the composition of
their shells. By examining these shells in a laboratory, scientists discovered that
thousands of years ago the salt content of the oceans had dropped drastically. This
could only have resulted from a massive inflow of fresh water-enough water to raise the
level of the world's seas by hundreds of feet in as little as 24 hours!

The water seems to have come from prehistoric ice caps and glaciers. Over the
centuries, enough of the world's water had been captured and frozen to cause the level
of the oceans to drop more than 300 feet below its present position. About 11,600
years ago the climate got warmer and the ice caps melted, releasing immense
quantities of fresh water. As one scientist said, "There is no question that there was a
flood, and there is also no question that it was a universal flood."

It's entirely possible that the similar stories found in cultures all over the world are not
based on myth, but on the same ancient disaster-a flood so huge that it covered the
entire world with water!

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

Indicate whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F),

Examples: The author doesn't believe there could have been a worldwide flood.

Noah appears in Islamic as well as Hebrew and Christian texts.

1. The article presents scientific proof of a worldwide flood.

2. Similar accounts of a great flood are found in very different cultures.

3. There are no accounts of the flood among peoples like the Hopi Indians, who lived in
desert-like areas.

4. The great flood occurred when many local rivers overflowed.

5. The temple discovered near Baghdad in 1922 was evidence that there had been a
great flood.

6. Eight feet of clay and mud lay over the temple.

7. Scientists feel that the mud must have been deposited by an enormous flood.

8. The discovery of marine animal shells in the ocean floor of the Gulf of Mexico
changed theories about the size of the flood.

9. The shells told scientists that thousands of years ago the salt content of the water
had risen dramatically.

10.The earth's ice caps and glaciers melted suddenly about 11,600 years ago.

DISCUSSION TOPICS

Describe the ways natural disasters (floods, droughts, earthquakes, storms, etc.) affect
human civilizations. How do individuals and communities react to these events?

32. THE AMAZING POWERS OF THE HUMAN MIND

The abilities of the human mind are absolutely incredible. For example, laboratory
experiments conducted in the mid-1970's revealed. for the first time that people can
learn to raise or lower their heart rate, their blood pressure, or the temperature of their
hands deliberately, and to do many other things formerly thought beyond conscious
control. But more spectacular accomplishments may lie ahead. According to an
increasing number of experts, it is even possible to direct the body's disease-fighting
cells to wherever they're needed and to mentally control pain.

At the very least this kind of "mind control" seems to enhance traditional drug therapy.
But many authorities go even further, claiming that the mind-body connection will be
the foundation of an entirely new way of treating illness and disease. It will, in effect, be
the "new medicine."

None of this would amount to very much were it not for a growing body of scientific
evidence that appears to substantiate the claims. Studies show that the mind-body
connection is far stronger than anyone had previously imagined, Doctors have known
for years that a simple sugar pill, or placebo, can sometimes be as effective as genuine
medicine, if the patient thinks it is medication when he takes it. Therefore, by believing
that he will get well, the patient actually does get well.

Now researchers are trying out new techniques in which the patient mobilizes his or her
body's disease-fighters without a placebo. In some instances, it has been noted that
simply visualizing the body's white blood cells attacking germs cures the disease.
Indeed, definite physical and chemical links have been shown to exist between the part
of the brain that does the visualizing and the chemical and nervous systems in the rest
of the body.

Consequently, some authorities insist that we can cure everything from the common
cold to cancer simply by thinking the right thoughts. Equally important are the merits of
this kind of treatment as preventive medicine. There is a proven chemical/physical
connection, for example, between stress and disease. Stress can be caused by
anything that puts us under pressure (job requirements, emotional upsets, etc.), and
triggers the release of certain chemicals into the bloodstream. At times, these
chemicals will allow you to perform better. But if the stress continues, they can weaken
your body's disease defense system by blocking the manufacture of other chemicals.
As a result, you become more susceptible to illness.

Eliminate the stress and you prevent the disease, according to advocates of the "new
medicine." Such remarks certainly cannot be ignored, since physicians either caused
or aggravated by stress. Some doctors would put the figures as high as 90% to 100%,
excluding only accidental physical injuries. But one can often reduce the effects of
stress simply by recognizing the existence of the problem. For example, one may not
be able to quit a stressful job, but a positive attitude can help one put up with a difficult
situation and remain healthy.

So, "new medicine" or not, the most powerful prescriptions may well be those filled by
the body itself, acting on orders from the amazing human brain

COMPREHENSION CHECKUP

1. What were the results of laboratory experiments conducted in the mid-1970's?

2. What is the "new medicine"?

3. How do placebos work?

4. How can a patient mobilize his body's disease-fighters without a placebo?

5. What are some typical causes of stress?

6. What happens to the body when it is under stress?

7. Why is knowing this important for preventive medicine?

8. What percentage of disorders are caused or aggravated by stress?

9. Is stress always harmful?

10. What is the author's attitude towards the "new medicine"?

DISCUSSION TOPICS

1. What diseases or conditions do you feel might most easily be controlled by the
powers of the mind?

2. What kinds of stress do you encounter in your daily life and how do you deal with
them?