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CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012

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Ak1ICLL III: 8ILL CI kIGn1S
1hree powers of government:
1. LmlnenL uomaln
2. ollce ower
3. 1axaLlon
Iunct|on of the 8||| of k|ghts:
CuaranLees LhaL Lhere are cerLaln areas of a person's llfe, llberLy and properLy
whlch governmenLal power may noL Louch. All Lhe powers of governmenL are
llmlLed by Lhe 8lll of 8lghLs.
SecLlon 1.
NC LkSCN SnALL 8L DLkIVLD CI LIIL, LI8Lk1 Ck kCLk1 WI1nCU1 DUL
kCCLSS CI LAW, NCk SnALL AN LkSCN 8L DLNILD 1nL LUAL kC1LC1ICN CI
LAWS.
"erson" refers to:
1. naLural persons
2. !urldlcal persons
3. ollLlcal subdlvlslons
k|ght to L|fe
noL [usL a proLecLlon of Lhe rlghL Lo be allve or Lo Lhe securlLy of one's llmb
agalnsL physlcal harm. lL's also Lhe rlghL Lo a qooJ llfe.
1

k|ght to L|berty
.deemed Lo embrace Lhe rlghL of man Lo en[oy Lhe faculLles Lo whlch he
has been endowed by hls CreaLor, sub[ecL only Lo such resLralnLs as are
necessary for Lhe common welfare."
2

k|ght to roperty
lncludes all klnds of properLy deflned ln Lhe Clvll Code. Also lncludes vesLed
rlghLs (e.g. perfecLed mlnlng clalm, flnal [udgmenL)
Also lncludes Lhe rlghL Lo work and earn a llvlng

1
!CACuln C. 8L8nAS, S.!., 1PL 1987 PlLllnL CCnS1l1u1lCn: A CCM8LPLnSlvL 8LvlLWL8 23 (2011 ed.)
2
8ubl v. rovlnclal 8oard of Mlndoro, C.8. no. L-14078, March 7, 1919
Llcenses are mere prlvlleges and noL properLy rlghLs. (WlLh excepLlons) (1) M|[ares v.
kanada
n|erarchy of k|ghts
1hose LhaL are menLloned earller ln Lhe enumeraLlon are preferred buL all Lhe rlghLs
are lmporLanL noneLheless. 1o proLecL properLy ls Lo proLecL llfe.
3
(2) h|||pp|ne
8|oom|ng M|||s Lmp|oyees Crgan|zat|on v. h|||pp|ne 8|oom|ng M|||s Co., Inc.

2 Aspects of Due rocess
1. rocedural - law whlch hears before lL condemns"
4
, proper procedure
musL be followed before a person ls deprlved of llfe, llberLy and properLy,
ptoceJotol foltoess
2. SubsLanLlve - Lalks abouL Lhe subsLance of Lhe law, guaranLee agalnsL
arblLrarlness. (3) 1upas v. CA






















3
!CACuln C. 8L8nAS, S.!., 1PL 1987 CCnS1l1u1lCn Cl 1PL 8Lu8LlC Cl 1PL PlLllnLS: A CCMMLn1A8? 112 (2009
ed.)
4
uanlel WebsLer as quoLed ln Lopez v. ulrecLor of Lands
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
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k|ghts
Case Number Case Name Iacts ne|d]kat|o
1 M|[ares v. kanada eLlLloners, human rlghLs vlcLlms durlng marLlal law, won a
[udgmenL ln Lhe ulsLrlcL CourL of Pawall based on Lhe Allen 1orL AcL
Lo Lhe amounL of $1.98. 1hey flled a ComplalnL wlLh Lhe MakaLl 81C
Lo enforce Lhe [udgmenL, paylng 410 as flllng fee. 81C dlsmlssed
Lhe case saylng LhaL dockeL fee should be 472M.
1he 410 flllng fee was correcL because Lhe
sub[ecL maLLer of Lhe sulL was Lhe forelgn
[udgmenL lLself and noL Lhe LorLlous acL from
whlch lL arose. lL doesn'L maLLer lf Lhe damages
can be acLually compuLed.
2 h|||pp|ne 8|oom|ng M|||s
Lmp|oyees Crgan|zat|on v.
h|||pp|ne 8|oom|ng M|||s Co.,
Inc.

eLlLloners, afLer prlor noLlce Lo Lhe company, sLaged a
demonsLraLlon Lo proLesL Lhe abuses of Lhe aslg pollce. 8M dld
noL sLop Lhem buL sald LhaL Lhose who fall Lo reporL Lo work for Lhe
mornlng shlfL wlll be dlsmlssed pursuanL Lo Lhe no SLrlke-no
LockouL" clause ln Lhe C8A.
eLlLloners were noL demonsLraLlng agalnsL
managemenL, Lherefore, noL a sLrlke.
lurLhermore, Lhey were exerclslng Lhelr rlghL Lo
free expresslon and assembly. 8M's asserLlon
ls based on properLy rlghLs only. rlmacy of
human rlghLs over properLy rlghLs ls recognlzed.
3 1upas v. CA

eLlLloners recelved Lhe CA declslon on Aprll 3, 1989. M8 was flled
on Aprll 17, 1989, 14 days laLer. M8 was denled by an order on May
3, 1989, copy of whlch was recelved by peLlLloner's counsel on May
9, 1989. eLlLlon for revlew was flled on May 23, 1989.

Note: 1opos v. cA ls Lhe general rule. l8MO v. l8M ls an excepLlon.

ne|d: eLlLloners only had unLll May 10, 1989 Lo
flle peLlLlon for revlew. 1hey have forfelLed Lhe
rlghL Lo appeal. rocedural rules are lnLended Lo
ensure orderly admlnlsLraLlon of [usLlce and
proLecLlon of subsLanLlve rlghLs. 8oLh
subsLanLlve and procedural rlghLs are
guaranLeed by due process. 1hey complemenL
each oLher.


















CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
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kCCLDUkAL DUL kCCLSS
8equlslLes for [udlclal proceedlngs (8anco Lspanol llllplno v. alanca) CI-CI
(1) 8anco Lspao|-I|||p|no v. a|anca, (2) State rosecutors v. Muro, (3) eop|e v.
1eehankee, Ir., (4) Ang 1|bay v. CIk
1. CourL or Lrlbunal cloLhed wlLh [udlclal power
2. IurlsdlcLlon lawfully acqulred over person or properLy
3. uefendanL musL be glven an opporLunlLy Lo be heard
4. IudgmenL musL be rendered upon lawful hearlng

kequ|s|tes for adm|n|strat|ve proceed|ngs, |n genera| [nLDS8Ik]
(4) Ang 1|bay v. CIk
1. 8lghL Lo a hearlng and Lo submlL evldence
2. 1rlbunal musL conslder Lhe evldence
3. Declslon musL have someLhlng Lo supporL lLself
4. Lvldence musL be subsLanLlal
3

3. ueclslon musL be based on Lhe evldence presenLed ln Lhe hearlng
6. 1rlbunal acLs on lLs own |ndependenL conslderaLlon of Lhe law and facLs
7. 1he Lrlbunal should render lLs declslon ln such manner LhaL Lhe parLles
know Lhe varlous lssued lnvolved and Lhe reason for Lhe declslon.

Iur|sprudence on due process |n spec|a| adm|n|strat|ve proceed|ngs:
!" Lxtrad|t|on (S) Government of nong kong v. C|a||a
$" Academ|c D|sc|p||ne

M|n|mum standards for |mpos|t|on of d|sc|p||nary sanct|ons |n schoo|s: (IA-
IAC), (6) ADMU v. Capu|ong
1. SLudenLs musL be |nformed of Lhe naLure and cause of any accusaLlon
agalnsL Lhem
2. 8lghL Lo answer Lhe charges, wlLh asslsLance of counsel lf deslred
3. Informed of Lhe evldence agalnsL Lhem
4. 8lghL Lo adduce evldence on Lhelr own behalf
3. Lvldence musL be duly consldered by Lhe lnvesLlgaLlng body

3. Deportat|on (7) Lao G| v. CA


3
SubsLanLlal Lvldence - reasonable evldence as a reasonable mlnd mlghL accepL as adequaLe Lo supporL
a concluslon
L|ements of Due rocess |n Deportat|on roceed|ngs (S-k)
1. Charges agalnsL an allen musL speclfy Lhe acLs or omlsslons complalned of
2. rellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon musL be conducLed Lo deLermlne lf Lhere ls
sufflclenL cause Lo charge respondenL wlLh deporLaLlon
3. kules of Crlmlnal rocedure should be followed (wlLh respecL Lo warranLs,
ball, moLlon Lo quash, Lrlal)
4. rlvaLe prosecuLors should noL be allowed Lo lnLervene.

4. I|x|ng of kates (8) Maceda v. Lk8

ulsLlngulshlng poosl-leqlslotlve and poosl-joJlclol funcLlons
Cuasl-leglslaLlve -> affecLs Lhe general publlc
Cuasl-[udlclal -> affecLs only Lhe parLles Lo Lhe case
Cther Cases: (9) G|obe 1e|ecom v. N1C, (10) Corona v. UnA

Cha||enges to the va||d|ty of pena| |aws]ord|nances
vold for vagueness uocLrlne - a sLaLuLe or acL ls sald Lo be vague when lL lacks
comprehenslble sLandards LhaL men of common lnLelllgence musL necessarlly
guess aL lLs meanlng and dlffer as Lo lLs appllcaLlon." (eople v. nazarlo)
vague laws are repugnanL Lo Lhe ConsLlLuLlon ln Lwo ways:
1. vlolaLes due process for fallure Lo lnform and glve falr noLlce Lo persons of
Lhe conducL Lo be avolded
$" Leaves law enforcers unbrldled dlscreLlon ln carrylng ouL lLs provlslons and
becomes an arblLrary flexlng of CovernmenL muscle. (11) eop|e v.
Nazar|o, (12) Lstrada v. Sand|ganbayan

CLher noLes on sttoJo v. 5ooJlqooboyoo:
CverbreadLh uocLrlne - a governmenLal purpose may noL be achleved by
means whlch sweep unnecessarlly broadly and Lhereby lnvade Lhe area of
pollLlcal freedoms
CverbreadLh and vagueness docLrlnes (faclal" challenge) have speclal
appllcaLlon only Lo free speech cases.
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1o lnvalldaLe a penal sLaLuLe, an as applled" challenge ls needed.
(ulscussed laLer ln 5ootbeto nemlspbete v. A1c)

8ank Iorec|osures and Due rocess: (13) Centra| 8ank of the h|||pp|nes v. CA, (14) A8AkADA v. Lrm|ta, (1S) 8r|t|sh Amer|can 1obacco v. Camacho























CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
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rocedura| Due rocess
Case Number Case Name Iacts ne|d]kat|o
1 8anco Lspao|-I|||p|no v.
a|anca
lalnLlff foreclosed a morLgage on properLles of Lngraclo alanca
who has moved Lo Chlna. noLlce was glven Lhru newspaper
publlcaLlon and mall Lo Amoy, Chlna. uefendanL or hls
represenLaLlves dld noL appear ln courL. !udgmenL rendered ln favor
of plalnLlff. vlcenLe Lngraclo, admlnlsLraLor of Lhe properLy, flled an
M8 7 years laLer, saylng Lhe courL dld noL acqulre [urlsdlcLlon.
1here ls a dlfference beLween [urlsdlcLlon over a
person and over properLy. MorLgage acLlons are
poosl lo tem. Lven lf a defendanL ls named, lL ls
Lhe land lLself whlch ls lndebLed. Slnce Lhe
properLy was already morLgaged, prellmlnary
selzure ls unnecessary. CourL already has
[urlsdlcLlon over Lhe land, whlch ls sufflclenL.
!urlsdlcLlon over Lhe person ls noL necessary.
2 State rosecutors v. Muro

8espondenL !udge Muro dlsmlssed 11 complalnLs agalnsL lmelda
Marcos because of a newspaper reporL he read whlch sald LhaL Lhe
resldenL announced Lhe llfLlng of forelgn exchange resLrlcLlons.
Marcos was charged wlLh vlolaLlons of Lhese rules. !udge Muro
hasn'L read Lhe new rules. Pe also dld noL glve Lhe prosecuLors prlor
noLlce and a chance Lo reply.
!udge Muro erred. lL was noL a maLLer of [udlclal
noLlce. ersonal knowledge of Lhe [udge ls noL
[udlclal knowledge of Lhe courL. lurLhermore,
Lhe announced new C8 clrcular had noL been
publlshed and was noL yeL effecLlve. !udge Muro
deprlved Lhe prosecuLlon of due process when
he dld noL glve Lhem a chance Lo respond Lo Lhe
dlsmlssal of Lhe complalnLs. !udge Muro was
dlsmlssed from Lhe servlce.
kequ|s|tes of Iud|c|a| Not|ce (CAI): (1) Lhe
maLLer musL be one of common and general
knowledge, (2) auLhorlLaLlvely seLLled, (3)
known Lo be wlLhln Lhe llmlLs of Lhe [urlsdlcLlon
of Lhe courL

3 eop|e v. 1eehankee, Ir.

Claudlo 1eehankee, !r. was charged wlLh 2 murders and 1
frusLraLed murder for Lhe deaLhs of 8oland Chapman, Maureen
PulLman and Lhe woundlng of !ussl Lelno. Accused says LhaL Lhe
medla publlclLy of Lhe Lrlal deprlved hlm of Lhe rlghL Lo an
lmparLlal Lrlal. Pe also says LhaL he was deprlved of due process
because of Lhe ouL-of-courL ldenLlflcaLlon done Lo ldenLlfy hlm as
suspecL.

1here was no deprlvaLlon of due process
Lhrough Lhe ouL-of-courL ldenLlflcaLlon as Lhls
was regularly done by Lhe n8l for securlLy
reasons. 1he rlghL of an accused Lo a falr Lrlal ls
noL lncompaLlble Lo a free press. 1he press
guards agalnsL mlscarrlage of [usLlce by
sub[ecLlng Lhe [udlclal processes Lo exLenslve
publlc scruLlny. 1he [udge sLlll showed
lmparLlallLy desplLe Lhe medla aLLenLlon on Lhe
case.
4 Ang 1|bay v. CIk

1orlblo 1eodoro, owner of Ang 1lbay (shoemaklng company) was
charged wlLh unfalr labor pracLlces for LermlnaLlng members of
Lhe naLlonal Labor unlon and malnLalnlng Lhose from Lhe
naLlonal Workers' 8roLherhood. Cl8 ruled ln favor of nLu. SC
1he Cl8 ls more of an admlnlsLraLlve body Lhan a
courL. lL sLlll musL follow procedural due process
even lf lL ls noL a courL.
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
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reversed Lhe declslon for lack of subsLanLlal evldence. M8 was
flled by Cl8 and MoLlon for new 1rlal was flled by nLu.
S Government of nong kong v.
C|a||a

!uan AnLonlo Munoz was wanLed ln Pk for cerLaln crlmes. Pe was
arresLed here ln Lhe hlllpplnes. Pe applled for ball whlch was
lnlLlally denled buL was granLed by !udge Clalla afLer an M8.

!udge Clalla dld noL err. LxLradlLlon ls noL a
crlmlnal proceedlng buL ls an admlnlsLraLlve
proceedlng. ueprlvaLlon of ball as allowed ln
Sec. 13, ArL. lll ls only for Lhose ln crlmlnal
proceedlngs charged wlLh crlmes Lo whlch Lhe
law aLLached Lhe penalLy of teclosloo petpetoo
or hlgher. Munoz ls Lhus enLlLled Lo ball,
provlded LhaL he proves wlLh 'clear and
convlnclng evldence' LhaL he ls noL a fllghL rlsk.
Case remanded Lo Lhe Lrlal courL Lo see lf Lhere
ls 'clear and convlnclng evldence' LhaL Munoz ls
noL a fllghL rlsk.
6 ADMU v. Capu|ong

Lennle vllla dled of serlous physlcal ln[urles afLer lnlLlaLlon rlLes of
Lhe Aqulla Legls fraLernlLy. 8espondenLs were found gullLy of
vlolaLlng Lhe anLl-hazlng pollcy of Lhe school and dlsmlssed.
1he school was wlLhln lLs rlghLs when lL expelled
Lhe sLudenLs afLer conducLlng an lnvesLlgaLlon.
AuMu dld noL vlolaLe due process. ln facL, lL
complled wlLh Lhe requlslLes enunclaLed ln
Cozmoo v. Nu. SLudenLs do noL necessarlly have
Lhe rlghL Lo cross-examlne Lhe evldence and
LesLlmony agalnsL Lhem.
7 Lao G| v. CA

Sec. of !usLlce rendered Cplnlon no. 191 whlch seL aslde Lhe
clLlzenshlp of lllomeno Chla, Sr. (a.k.a. Lao Cl) saylng LhaL lL was
based on fraud and mlsrepresenLaLlon. ueporLaLlon was flled
agalnsL Lao Cl wlLh Lhe Clu. Whlle case was pendlng wlLh Lhe Clu,
Lao Cl was ordered Lo reglsLer as an allen, whlch he refused

1he Clu erred ln orderlng peLlLloner Lo reglsLer
as an allen. Such order musL be predlcaLed on a
poslLlve flndlng LhaL Lhe peLlLloner ls lndeed an
allen. 1hls has noL yeL been proven. eLlLloner
was deprlved of due process. AlLhough
deporLaLlon ls noL a crlmlnal proceedlng, lL ls a
harsh and exLraordlnary admlnlsLraLlve
proceedlng. uue process should noL be denled.
8ules of CourL on crlmlnal procedure are
appllcable Lo deporLaLlon proceedlngs.
8 Maceda v. Lk8

As a reacLlon Lo Lhe erslan Culf confllcL, L88 allowed a
provlslonal lncrease of 1.42/llLer of fuel. Pearlngs were seL buL
Maceda was noL able Lo aLLend Lhese. L88 allowed all evldence Lo
be placed on record flrsL. LxamlnaLlon wlll come laLer. Maceda
clalms LhaL Lhls deprlved hlm of hls rlghL Lo cross-examlne Lhe
wlLnesses of eLron, Shell and CalLex, Lhus, a denlal of due
process.
rlce flxlng ls a quasl-leglslaLlve funcLlon, and
Lhus noL bound by sLrlcL rules on evldence. L88
ls also empowered Lo make provlslonal
lncreases ln oll prlces
9 G|obe 1e|ecom v. N1C

1he case began when SmarL flled a ComplalnL wlLh Lhe n1C Lo
order Clobe Lo allow SMS lnLerconnecLlon. 1he Lwo companles
n1C should follow lLs prevlous rullng ln Lhe
lSLACCM case LhaL SMS ls a speclal feaLure
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
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evenLually dld lnLerconnecL, renderlng Lhe lnlLlal lssue mooL.
Powever, n1C sLlll ruled LhaL boLh Lelecom provlders were aL faulL
for provldlng SMS wlLhouL auLhorlLy. n1C says LhaL SMS ls a value-
added servlce LhaL requlres prlor approval.
whlch doesn'L requlre prlor approval. n1C order
ls noL supporLed by subsLanLlal evldence, Lhus
vlolaLlng 4
Lh
requlslLe of due process ln
admlnlsLraLlve proceedlngs. Clobe and SmarL
were also deprlved of due process slnce Lhey
were noL able Lo adduce evldence regardlng Lhe
lssue of SMS as vAS or speclal feaLure. n1C
never lnformed Lhem LhaL Lhls was an lssue.
10 Corona v. UnA

hlllpplne orLs AuLhorlLy lssued an admlnlsLraLlve order whlch
sald LhaL llcenses of harbor plloLs shall be valld only for renewable
1 year Lerms. 1hen AsslsLanL LxecuLlve SecreLary 8enaLo Corona
afflrmed Lhe AC.

Parbor plloLs earn Lhelr llcenses afLer 3
examlnaLlons. 1he llcense ls an appolnLmenL
whlch allows Lhe holder Lo engage ln plloLage
unLll Lhey reLlre aL 70 years of age. lL ls Lhus a
vesLed properLy rlghL. 1he admlnlsLraLlve order
arblLrarlly resLrlcLed Lhe exerclse of such
professlon wlLhouL allowlng Lhe harbor plloLs Lo
be heard. lL ls Lherefore lnvalld for deprlvlng Lhe
harbor plloLs of Lhelr properLy rlghL wlLhouL due
process of law.
11 eop|e v. Nazar|o

Luseblo nazarlo vlolaLed a munlclpal ordlnance of agbllao,
Cuezon whlch requlred flshpond owners or managers" Lo pay
Laxes. nazarlo clalms LhaL, belng a lessee of Lhe governmenL (Lhru
hlllpplne flsherles Commlsslon), he ls noL covered as an owner
or manager" of Lhe flshpond. Pe also clalms LhaL Lhe ordlnance ls
vague ln Lerms of Lhe reckonlng daLe of paymenL, and Lherefore
vold.
nazarlo, as Lhe acLual operaLor of Lhe flshpond,
ls covered wlLhln Lhe Lerm manager." Pe ls Lhe
one who recelves Lhe proflLs of Lhe flshpond,
hence, he should pay Laxes. 1he ordlnance ls
also noL uLLerly vague on lLs faces. 1he
ordlnances esLabllshed a deflnlLe daLe of
paymenL. 1he problem ls merely abouL
compuLaLlon buL Lhls does noL render Lhe
ordlnance vague and lnvalld.
12 Lstrada v. Sand|ganbayan

lormer resldenL !oseph LsLrada assalled Lhe valldlLy of Lhe
lunder Law for belng vague lnsofar as Lhe use of Lhe words
comblnaLlon" and serles" ln deflnlng Lhe elemenLs of Lhe crlme
of plunder.

All sLaLues carry Lhe presumpLlon of
consLlLuLlonallLy whlch musL be overcome by
Lhose assalllng lLs valldlLy. 1o doubL ls Lo susLaln.
1he lunder Law ls noL vold for belng vague
because Lhe words comblnaLlon" and serles"
can be easlly undersLood. Words wlll be
lnLerpreLed ln Lhelr naLural, plaln and ordlnary
usage unless Lhe leglslaLure lnLended a Lechnlcal
meanlng. 1he CourL used Lhe dlcLlonary Lo show
LhaL such words were clearly deflned and
undersLandable. lurLhermore, Lhe use of
lmpreclse language does noL auLomaLlcally
make a sLaLue vague and vold
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13 Centra| 8ank of the h|||pp|nes
v. CA

1he MoneLary 8oard ordered Lhe closure of 1rlumph Savlngs 8ank
and placed lL under recelvershlp wlLh 8amon 1laoqul as recelver.
lL was because 1S8 had become lnsolvenL. 1S8 flled a complalnL
wlLh Lhe CC 81C whlch challenged Lhe consLlLuLlonallLy of 1he
CenLral 8ank AcL" whlch auLhorlzed Lhe Lakeover of banks even lf
lL ls noL charged wlLh a vlolaLlon or found gullLy Lhereof. 1S8
conLends LhaL lL ls a vlolaLlon of due process (lack of prlor noLlce
and hearlng). C8 conLended LhaL 1S8 had no capaclLy Lo sue,
excepL Lhru lLs recelver.
1S8 lndeed has capaclLy Lo sue. lL would be
absurd Lo requlre Lhe recelver Lo sue hls masLer
(Lhe CenLral 8ank). 1S8 was noL deprlved of due
process when prlor noLlce and hearlng was noL
glven. lL sLlll has Lhe opporLunlLy Lo be heard
Lhru a [udlclal revlew wlLhln 10 days from Lhe
daLe Lhe recelver Lakes charge. 1hls close now
and hear laLer" scheme ls a valld pollce power
measure Lo proLecL Lhe deposlLors from bank
runs. 1he opporLunlLy Lo be heard can come
before or afLer Lhe admlnlsLraLlve proceedlngs.
14 A8AkADA v. Lrm|ta

ConsolldaLed cases all aLLacklng Lhe valldlLy of Lhe L-vA1 Law
based on dlfferenL lssues. AssoclaLlon of lllplnas Shell
ulsLrlbuLors clalms LhaL Lhe reducLlon ln credlLable lnpuL Lax ls a
deprlvaLlon of Lhelr properLy rlghL wlLhouL due process of law. 1he
lnpuL Lax ls deducLlble from Lhe ouLpuL Lax whlch ls evenLually
pald by Lhe company Lo Lhe governmenL.
1he credlLable lnpuL Lax ls a mere sLaLuLory
prlvllege and noL a vesLed rlghL. Slnce Lhese
prlvlleges were provlded for by law, lL can also be
Laken away or, ln Lhls case, llmlLed by a
subsequenL law. 1here was no vlolaLlon of due
process.
1. lnpuL Lax ! value-added Lax on lmporLs
of goods ln Lhe course of buslness
2. CuLpuL Lax ! value-added Lax on Lhe sale
or lease of Laxable goods or properLles
1S 8r|t|sh Amer|can 1obacco v.
Camacho

eLlLloner assalls Lhe valldlLy of Sec. 143 of Lhe nl8C whlch
provldes for dlfferenL Lax raLes for clgareLLes wlLh dlfferenL reLall
prlces. eLlLloner clalms LhaL as a new player (lnLroduced Lucky
SLrlke), he ls aL a dlsadvanLage because Lucky SLrlke clgareLLes
were placed ln a more expenslve Lax caLegory whlle oLher slmllar
buL older brands have lower Lax raLes.
1he classlflcaLlon freeze ls a valld exerclse of
pollce power exerclsed Lhrough LaxaLlon.
1axaLlon has been consldered as a lawful
sub[ecL of Lhe exerclse of pollce power. 1he
classlflcaLlon freeze ls a reasonable meLhod
because lL allows for a more sLable sLream of
cash lnflows for Lhe governmenL as well as Lo
noL abdlcaLe Lhe deLermlnaLlon of Lax raLes Lo
Lhe SecreLary of llnance whlch mlghL be
conLrary Lo Lhe ConsLlLuLlon.






CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
9
SU8S1AN1IVL DUL kCCLSS
8elevance: a guaranLee agalnsL Lhe exerclse of arblLrary power even when Lhe
power ls exerclsed accordlng Lo proper forms and procedure
6

rlmarlly a safeguard agalnsL pollce power. 1he sLandards for subsLanLlal due
process are Lhe sLandards for valld exerclse of pollce power.
o||ce ower
Lhe mosL essenLlal, lnslsLenL and Lhe leasL llmlLable of powers, exLendlng
as lL does Lo all Lhe greaL publlc needs."
7

Lxerclsed by Lhe leglslaLlve buL can be delegaLed, wlLhln llmlLs, Lo local
governmenLs
A power Lo regulaLe or prohlblL
kequ|s|tes of o||ce ower
8

1. 8equlred by Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhe general publlc
2. Means used are reasonably necessary. (1) US v. 1or|b|o, (2) Church||| v.
kafferty, (3) Lrm|ta-Ma|ate note| & Mote| Cperators v. C|ty of Man||a, (4)
eop|e v. Ia[ardo, (S) not v. Intermed|ate Ape||ate Court, (6) 8a|acu|t v.
CII of Agusan de| Norte, (7) Nat|ona| Dev't Corp. and New Agr|x, Inc. v.
h|||pp|ne Veterans 8ank, (8) ACCIA v. CUGCC, (9) Agust|n v. Ldu, (10)
Maranaw note| v. NLkC, (11) Magta[as v. ryce ropert|es Corporat|on

8equlslLes for valldlLy of a local ordlnance:
1. MusL noL conLravene Lhe ConsLlLuLlon or any sLaLuLe
2. MusL noL be unfalr or oppresslve
3. MusL noL be parLlal or dlscrlmlnaLory
4. MusL noL prohlblL buL may regulaLe Lrade
3. MusL be general and conslsLenL wlLh publlc pollcy
6. MusL noL be unreasonable. (12) 8enn|s v. M|ch|gan, (13) Cruzan v.
D|rector, M|ssour| Dept. of nea|th
Informed Consent -

6
!CACuln C. 8L8nAS, S.!., 1PL 1987 CCnS1l1u1lCn Cl 1PL 8Lu8LlC Cl 1PL PlLllnLS: A CCMMLn1A8? 118 (2009
ed.)
7
LrmlLa-MalaLe PoLel and MoLel CperaLors AssoclaLlon, lnc. v. Mayor of Manlla, C.8. no. L-24693, !uly
31, 1967
8
uS v. 1orlblo, 13 hll. 83 (1910)
under Lhe uue rocess Clause, all compeLenL persons have Lhe rlghL Lo
refuse medlcal LreaLmenL. 8uL Lhls ls sub[ecL Lo Lhe balanclng of lnLeresLs
of Lhe sLaLe agalnsL Lhe lndlvldual's lnLeresL. (e.g. A person may noL refuse
smallpox vacclnaLlon lf Lhe sLaLe lnLends Lo ellmlnaLe lL.)
lf Lhe person ls noL compeLenL, a surrogaLe can exerclse Lhls rlghL.
SurrogaLe's acLlons musL be proven, wlLh clear and convlnclng evldence,
LhaL Lhey conform Lo Lhe paLlenL's wlshes, whlle he/she was sLlll
compeLenL.

Cp|n|ons |n %&'( )" *+,)-.&: (19) Cruz v. I|av|er
/0 12. 3.4,+-,0 5671&-0.8
uno, !. (ro-l8A)
o AncesLral domalns and ancesLral lands never became parL of Lhe publlc
domaln. naLlve LlLles musL be recognlzed (cotlo uocttloe).
o WhaL ls glven ls prlorlLy rlghL, noL excluslve rlghLs over naLural resources. lL
ls sLlll Lhe SLaLe whlch conLrols and manages Lhe resources.
vlLug, !. (AnLl-l8A)
o 1he law ls an abdlcaLlon of Lhe SLaLe's auLhorlLy over Lhe counLry's
paLrlmony.
o lL rellnqulshes full conLrol Lo Lhe lndlgenous peoples.
o ConLravenes Lhe consLlLuLlonal provlslon whlch says LhaL all naLural
resources belong Lo Lhe SLaLe.
/0 5'. 9&67.:: ;,<<+-7,=-+-1> 6? 7':16@,&> +,AB8
uno, !. (ro-l8A)
o CusLomary law ls provlded for by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon and Lhe Clvll Code.
vlLug, !. (AnLl-l8A)
o CusLomary law musL flrsL be publlshed before Lhey can become parL of
sLaLuLory law and Lake effecL.
kapunan, !. (ro-l8A)
o l8A does noL annul 1orrens LlLles over lands ln ancesLral domalns. 1hus,
Lhere ls no deprlvaLlon of properLy wlLhouL due process.
o AppllcaLlon of cusLomary law does noL vlolaLe uL because lL ls provlded
for ln Lhe consLlLuLlon.
o 1he composlLlon of Lhe nCl (all members belonglng Lo lndlgenous Lrlbes)
does noL necessarlly mean parLlallLy.
o
1he k|ght to 8ear Arms. (24) Chavez v. komu|o
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
10

1he Lxerc|se of o||ce ower by Loca| Governments. (30) Lucena Grand Centra|
1erm|na| v. IAC L|ner

1he k|ght to eacefu| Assemb|y |s a Va||d Sub[ect for kegu|at|on. (32) 8ayan v.
Lrm|ta

1he Wr|t of C@<,&6. (42) Secretary of DND v. Mana|o
What |s the ku|e on the Wr|t of Amparo?
romulgaLed ln CcLober 24, 2007. llrsL Llme LhaL Lhe Supreme CourL
exerclsed lLs expanded power ln Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon Lo promulgaLe rules
Lo proLecL Lhe people's consLlLuLlonal rlghLs (llfe, llberLy, properLy)
roducL of Lhe naLlonal ConsulLaLlve SummlL on LxLra[udlclal kllllngs and
Lnforced ulsappearances (!uly 16-17, 2007)
Coverage of whlch ls conflned Lo:
o LxLralegal kllllngs - kllllngs commlLLed wlLhouL due process of Lhe
law
o Lnforced dlsappearances - an arresL, deLenLlon or abducLlon by
Lhe governmenL, refusal of Lhe SLaLe Lo dlsclose Lhe faLe or
whereabouLs places hlm ouLslde Lhe proLecLlon of Lhe law
Ampoto llLerally means proLecLlon ln Spanlsh. WrlL of Amparo orlglnaLed
ln Mexlco (?ucaLan SLaLe). LvenLually lncorporaLed lnLo Lhe Mexlcan
ConsLlLuLlon ln 1847. Spread across Lhe WesLern hemlsphere and
evenLually Lo Lhe hlllpplnes
rovldes for swlfL rellef because of Lhe summary naLure of lLs proceedlngs.
Cnly subsLanLlal evldence ls requlred.

1he non-|mpa|rment c|ause ls llmlLed ln appllcaLlon Lo laws LhaL derogaLe from
prlor acLs or conLracLs by enlarglng, abrldglng or ln any manner changlng Lhe
lnLenLlon of Lhe parLles. 1here ls lmpalrmenL lf a subsequenL law changes Lhe Lerms
of a conLracL beLween parLles, lmposes new condlLlons, dlspenses wlLh Lhose
agreed upon or wlLhdraws remedles for Lhe enforcemenL of Lhe rlghLs of Lhe parLles.

8equlslLes of Lhlrd-parLy sLandlng: (48) Wh|te L|ght Corporat|on v. C|ty of Man||a
1. LlLlganL musL suffer an ln[ury-ln-facL (l.e. llLlganL ls sLlll affecLed)
2. 1here ls a close relaLlon Lo Lhe Lhlrd-parLy
3. 1here exlsLs some hlndrance Lo Lhe Lhlrd parLy


1he Wr|t of D,=.,: 5,1,. (S1) koxas v. Macapaga|-Arroyo, (S2) Mera|co v. L|m
What |s the Wr|t of D,=.,: 5,1,E
A [udlclal remedy for enforclng a rlghL Lo prlvacy, mosL especlally Lhe rlghL
Lo lnformaLlonal prlvacy of lndlvlduals. lL operaLes Lo proLecL a person's
rlghL Lo conLrol lnformaLlon regardlng hlmself, parLlcularly, ln Lhe lnsLances
where such lnformaLlon ls belng collecLed Lhrough unlawful means ln order
Lo achleve unlawful ends
MusL be proven by subsLanLlal evldence LhaL a vlolaLlon or LhreaLened
vlolaLlon of Lhe rlghL Lo prlvacy ln llfe, llberLy or securlLy.






















CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
11
Substant|ve Due rocess
Case Number Case Name Iacts ne|d]kat|o
1 US v. 1or|b|o

AcL 1147 was passed, ouLlawlng Lhe slaughLer of carabaos for
consumpLlon ln munlclpal slaughLerhouses wlLhouL Lhe permlL of
Lhe munlclpal Lreasurer. Luls 1orlblo slaughLered a carabao for food.
Pe sald LhaL Lhe law dld noL apply Lo hlm because Lhere was no
munlclpal slaughLerhouse ln Carmen, 8ohol. Pe also clalms LhaL Lhls
ls a deprlvaLlon of properLy rlghLs wlLhouL due process.

1he AcL ls a valld exerclse of pollce power. 1here
was a need Lo proLecL carabaos whlch were
means of producLlon especlally for food
producLlon because a dlsease had already
LhreaLened Lhem wlLh exLlncLlon. 1he means
used are reasonably necessary ln order Lo
prevenL Lhe slaughLer of carabaos.
2 Church||| v. kafferty

Churchlll was able Lo geL an ln[uncLlon whlch en[olned Lhe
respondenLs Lo collecL Laxes from hlm. eLlLloner also assalls Lhe
valldlLy of Sec. 100 of AcL no, 2339 whlch empowered Lhe CollecLor
of lnLernal 8evenue Lo remove blllboards whlch were offenslve Lo
Lhe slghL or ls a nulsance.
1he ln[uncLlon ls lnvalld because such cannoL
cover Laxes. 1axes are Lhe llfeblood of
governmenL and musL be pald. 1he remedy for
Laxpayers ls Lo pay under proLesL and Lhen seek
[udlclal [udgmenL afLerwards.
1he removal of blllboards ls a valld exerclse of
pollce power. lL has been held ln prevlous
declslons LhaL Lhe uses of prlvaLe properLy
whlch are offenslve Lo senses of slghL and smell
may be regulaLed. 1he sense of slghL falls under
Lhe same caLegory. 1hus, blllboards whlch are
offenslve Lo Lhe slghL may be valldly regulaLed.
3 Lrm|ta-Ma|ate note| & Mote|
Cperators v. C|ty of Man||a

Crdlnance no. 4760 of Lhe ClLy of Manlla ls belng assalled for belng
vlolaLlve of due process. 1he ordlnance lmposed llcense fees of
6000/year for flrsL class moLels and 4300/year for 2
nd
class moLels.
lL also requlred Lhe guesLs Lo flll ouL a form wlLh Lhelr personal
lnformaLlon before belng admlLLed Lo Lhe hoLel. lL also prohlblLed
persons younger Lhan 18 years old Lo be accepLed wlLhouL hls/her
parenLs or lawful guardlans. 1he lower courL held LhaL Lhe ordlnance ls
unconsLlLuLlonal, hence Lhls appeal.
1he ordlnance ls a valld exerclse of pollce
power. 1he sLaLed purpose of Lhe sald ordlnance
ls Lo curb lmmorallLy. MoLels conLrlbuLe a greaL
parL ln Lhe rlse of adulLery, prosLlLuLlon and
fornlcaLlon because of Lhe clandesLlne enLry and
exlL Lhey provlde. Pence, Lhere ls a publlc need
whlch needs Lo be addressed. 1he means
employed are reasonably necessary. lL has been
held LhaL llcense fees can be lmposed as a form
of regulaLlon (pollce power). lurLhermore, Lhe
ordlnance en[oys a presumpLlon of
consLlLuLlonallLy whlch can be overLurned only
by showlng evldence. 1here was no evldence
presenLed, only a sLlpulaLlon of facLs. !udgmenL
reversed. Crdlnance no. 4760 ls consLlLuLlonal.
4 eop|e v. Ia[ardo la[ardo consLrucLed hls house (wlLhouL a permlL) on a properLy he
owned ln deflance of a munlclpal ordlnance passed durlng hls Lerm as
mayor of 8aao, Camarlnes Sur. 1he ordlnance prohlblLed Lhe
1he ordlnance ls vold because lL does noL glve
sufflclenL sLandards Lo llmlL Lhe mayor's acLlons,
Lhus allowlng hlm arblLrary use of power. lL ls
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
12
consLrucLlon of sLrucLures whlch desLroys Lhe vlew Lo Lhe plaza. Pe
was convlcLed.

also lnvalld because lL oversLeps Lhe bounds of
pollce power. lnsLead, lL ls a Laklng of Lhe rlghL
Lo use properLy wlLhouL [usL compensaLlon. lL ls
llke an unlawful conflscaLlon of properLy.
la[ardo's convlcLlon was overLurned.
S not v. Intermed|ate Ape||ate
Court

?noL was caughL LransporLlng carabaos from MasbaLe Lo llollo, a
vlolaLlon of LC 626-A. 1he LC was promulgaLed by resldenL Marcos
ln order Lo safeguard Lhe populaLlon of carabaos (slmllar Lo uS v.
1orlblo). lL prohlblLed Lhe unauLhorlzed LransporL of carabaos and
carabeef, and allowed for auLomaLlc conflscaLlon of such.
1here ls lndeed a need Lo proLecL Lhe populaLlon
of carabaos as Lhese are essenLlal Lo crop
producLlon, hence Lhe flrsL requlslLe of pollce
power ls presenL. Powever, Lhe means
employed are noL reasonable. rohlblLlon
agalnsL Lhe LransporL of carabaos and carabeef
does noL prevenL Lhelr lndlscrlmlnaLe slaughLer.
lurLhermore, Lhe LC ls lnvalld because lL allows
for auLomaLlc conflscaLlon. ConflscaLlon can only
be done afLer [udlclal declslon because LC 626-A
ls a penal law. ueLermlnaLlon of gullL musL be
done by Lhe courL, and noL Lhe pollce.
6 8a|acu|t v. CII of Agusan de|
Norte

eLlLloners, managers of movle LheaLers, assall Lhe valldlLy of
Crdlnance no. 640 of 8uLuan whlch mandaLed LhaL chlldren
beLween 7 and 12 years old wlll only pay half Lhe normal prlce.
8equlslLes for valld exerclse of pollce power are
lacklng. Alleged purpose of Lhe ordlnance ls Lo
ease Lhe burden of parenLs who have Lo pay full
prlce for Lhelr chlldren even lf Lhey cannoL fully
undersLand Lhe movle. lL helps Lhe parenLs, buL
makes Lhe peLlLloners bear Lhe cosLs.
1he CourL ruled LhaL such an ordlnance ls noL
[usLlfled by any publlc necesslLy. 1here ls
noLhlng lmmoral or ln[urlous ln charglng Lhe
same prlce for boLh chlldren and adulLs. 1he
ordlnance, Lherefore, ls unreasonable and
lnvalld.
7 Nat|ona| Dev't Corp. and New
Agr|x, Inc. v. h|||pp|ne
Veterans 8ank
u 1717 lssued by Marcos rehablllLaLed Lhe Agrlx Croup of Companles
lnLo new Agrlx, lnc. Cne of Lhe provlslons ln sald decree dlssolved
morLgages and llens of Lhe old company. Cne of whlch ls a morLgage
execuLed by Agrlx wlLh v1.
u 1717 ls unconsLlLuLlonal. lL ls noL a valld
exerclse of pollce power because creaLlon of
new Agrlx and exLlncLlon of properLy rlghLs of
credlLors would beneflL Lhe publlc as a whole.
1he means employed are also unreasonable
because lL deprlves credlLors of Lhe rlghL Lo a
morLgage (properLy rlghL) wlLhouL due process
of law.
8 ACCIA v. CUGCC

CuCCC (unlon) sued ACClA for alleged vlolaLlons of Lhe C8A Lhey
enLered lnLo. uurlng Lhe pendency of Lhe sulL, Lhe presldenL
slgned lnLo law Lhe AgrlculLural Land 8eform Code whlch
ACA ls performlng a governmenLal funcLlon,
hence, Lhe unlon ls noL enLlLled Lo cerLlflcaLlon
and may noL enLer lnLo a C8A. 1hls ls because
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
13
reorganlzed and renamed ACClA lnLo Lhe ACA. 1he unlon Lhen
peLlLloner Lhe Cl8 Lo be cerLlfled as excluslve bargalnlng agenLs ln
ACA.
governmenL workers are noL allowed Lo sLrlke
(whlch ls allowed ln a C8A). lrlnge beneflLs
agreed on from Lhe prevlous C8A wlll sLlll be
glven buL no furLher frlnge beneflLs may be
demanded.
Note: ln !usLlce Lnrlque lernando's concurrlng
oplnlon, he relLeraLed how Lhls rullng afflrms Lhe
SLaLe's pollcy whlch llmlLs Lhe lolssez-folte sysLem
(mlnlmum governmenL lnLerference ln economlc
acLlvlLles) Lhrough Lhe exerclse of pollce power.

9 Agust|n v. Ldu res. Marcos lssued LeLLer of lnsLrucLlon no. 229 whlch mandaLed
LhaL all vehlcles musL have 1 palr of early warnlng devlces.
eLlLloner alleges Lhls Lo be oppresslve, unreasonable, arblLrary
and conflscaLory.
1hls ls a valld exerclse of pollce power because lL
promoLes Lhe road safeLy of Lhe general publlc.
1he amendmenL Lo Lhe Ll allows moLorlsLs Lo
procure LWus from any source, Lhus, Lhe means
are reasonable.
10 Maranaw note| v. NLkC

Clna CasLro, a probaLlonary employee, was dlsmlssed by Lhe CenLury
ark PoLel for fallure Lo meeL sLandards of employmenL. CasLro flled a
complalnL wlLh Lhe ArblLraLlon 8ranch of nL8C for lllegal dlsmlssal,
and Lhe Labor ArblLer ruled ln her favor. nL8C reversed Lhe declslon
buL ordered Lhe hoLel Lo pay salarles due Lo CasLro for Lhe perlod from
Lhe LA declslon Lo Lhe nL8C declslon.
nL8C commlLLed CAuALL! when lL ordered Lhe
hoLel Lo pay. Lven lf Lhe declslon of Lhe LA ls
lmmedlaLely execuLory, Lhere has Lo be a wrlL of
execuLlon lssued, buL Lhls was absenL. ArL. 223
of Lhe Labor Code also allows Lhe employer Lo
choose Lhe manner of relnsLaLemenL: elLher
relnLegraLlon lnLo Lhe workforce or lnLo Lhe
payroll only. 1he nL8C commlLLed CAuALL!
when lL ordered Lhe hoLel Lo pay wages
auLomaLlcally. (lL made Lhe cholce for Lhe hoLel.)
11 Magta[as v. ryce ropert|es
Corporat|on
u 1869 creaLed Lhe agcor whlch cenLrallzes and regulaLes all
games of chance, lncludlng caslnos, wlLhln Lhe hlllpplnes. agcor
declded Lo expand Lo CuC and lease a bulldlng owned by ryce
roperLles Corp. 1he ClLy Councll Lhen promulgaLed Lwo
ordlnances. Cne cancels and prohlblLs Lhe lssuance of permlLs for
bulldlngs Lo be used as caslnos, and Lhe oLher prohlblLed Lhe
operaLlon of caslnos. eLlLloners argue LhaL Lhe LCC empowers
Lhem Lo prohlblL gambllng (as sLaLed ln Sec. 438)
1he ordlnances are lnvalld. 1he games of chance
under ACCC8 are allowed by law. 1hey do noL
fall under Lhe prohlblLed games conLemplaLed ln
Lhe Local CovernmenL Code.
12 8enn|s v. M|ch|gan 1he SLaLe of Mlchlgan abaLed Lhe car owned by Lhe 8ennls couple
afLer lL was declared a publlc nulsance for belng Lhe place where
Mr. 8ennls was caughL havlng sex wlLh a prosLlLuLe ln publlc. 1lna
8ennls challenged Lhls slnce, clalmlng LhaL she dldn'L know LhaL
Lhe car would be used for such purpose. She clalms LhaL she was
denled due process.
1lna 8ennls was glven due process, noLlce, and
Lhe opporLunlLy Lo be heard durlng Lhe Lrlal. 1he
car was conflscaLed because lL was used ln a
crlmlnal acLlvlLy. Such conflscaLlon ls a valld
exerclse of pollce power because lL ls a
reasonable means of enforclng Lhe sLaLe's lnLenL
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
14
of maklng crlmlnal acLlvlLy less aLLracLlve Lo
would be offenders. !usL compensaLlon ls noL
needed when Lhe sLaLe exerclses pollce power.
lgnorance of Lhe owner of properLy sub[ecL Lo
forfelLure has been denled as a defense ln uS
[urlsprudence.
13 Cruzan v. D|rector, M|ssour|
Dept. of nea|th
nancy Cruzan goL lnLo a car accldenL whlch lefL her ln a vegeLaLlve
sLaLe. AfLer some Llme, her parenLs declded Lo remove Lhe feedlng
Lube whlch was keeplng her allve. 1he SLaLe of Mlssourl
challenged Lhls, saylng LhaL, as per sLaLe pollcy, Lhere has Lo be
clear and convlnclng evldence" LhaL Lhe paLlenL lndeed wanLed Lo
sLop llfe supporL.
1he uS Supreme CourL upheld Lhe SLaLe of
Mlssourl's pollcy. 1he alleged consenL glven by
Cruzan was based merely on a sLaLemenL Lo a
house maLe of hers. 1hls ls noL clear and
convlnclng evldence. Powever, Lhe uS SC also
upheld Lhe Mlssourl SC's lnformed consenL
docLrlne.
14 IMM romot|on and
Management, Inc. v. CA
AfLer Lhe deaLh of Marlcrls Sloson, res. Aqulno banned
deploymenL of performers Lo !apan and oLher counLrles. 1he ban
was llfLed and replaced wlLh sLrlcL regulaLlons enforced by Lhe
uCLL Lhrough Lhe LnLerLalnmenL lndusLry Advlsory Councll (LlAC).
eLlLloners clalm LhaL Lhe deparLmenL orders lssued by Lhe LlAC
(whlch gave sLrlcL regulaLlons) was an lnvalld exerclse of pollce
power. 1hey clalm LhaL Lhelr llcense ls LanLamounL Lo a properLy
rlghL whlch Lhey are belng deprlved of.
lL ls a valld exerclse of pollce power because Lhe
means were reasonably necessary Lo ensure Lhe
safeLy of llllplno performers worklng abroad. 1he
peLlLloners were also represenLed ln Lhe LlAC,
Lhus, Lhey were glven noLlflcaLlon and a chance Lo
be heard (Lhrough recommendaLlons). rofesslon
ls lndeed a properLy rlghL, buL lL can be regulaLed
Lhrough a valld exerclse of pollce power.
lurLhermore, Lhe non-lmpalrmenL of conLracLs
clause ls Lrumped by Lhe pollce power of Lhe sLaLe.
1S Dans v. eop|e of the
h|||pp|nes
uans (1ransporLaLlon and CommunlcaLlons MlnlsLer) and lmelda
Marcos (MlnlsLer of Puman SeLLlemenLs) were charged wlLh
vlolaLlon of Lhe AnLl-CrafL and CorrupL racLlces AcL for enLered
lnLo conLracLs lnvolvlng Lhe L81A and Lhe CPll whlle boLh were
servlng Lhe board of boLh companles. ConvlcLed of 2 counLs of
vlolaLlon. 8elevanL lssue Lo due process: Marcos clalms LhaL she
was deprlved of Lhe rlghL Lo be heard by herself or by counsel.

When ALLy. Coronel, Marcos' counsel, was
suspended from Lhe pracLlce of law, she was
sLlll represenLed by oLher lawyers, and aL Lhe
Llme of Lhe suspenslon, all evldence by Lhe
prosecuLlon were already presenLed. 1hus, she
was noL deprlved of Lhe rlghL Lo be heard and
be represenLed by counsel.
16 Cp|e v. 1orres

Sen. 8las Cple assalled Lhe consLlLuLlonallLy of AC 308, lssued by res.
8amos, whlch esLabllshed a naLlonal CompuLerlzed ldenLlflcaLlon
8eference SysLem. Pls aLLack ls based on Lwo grounds: (1) Lhe AC ls a
usurpaLlon of leglslaLlve power, (2) Lhe AC vlolaLes Lhe clLlzen's
prlvacy
As a senaLor, peLlLloner has sLandlng. 1he AC
ls unconsLlLuLlonal. lL ls lndeed a usurpaLlon of
leglslaLlve power. 1here ls also a lack of proper
safeguards agalnsL Lhe lmproper use of Lhe
lnformaLlon gaLhered from Lhe lu sysLem. 1hls
can lead Lo vlolaLlon of prlvacy of lndlvlduals.
1hus, Lhls can lead Lo an lnvalld exerclse of
pollce power.
17 Montesc|aros v. CCMLLLC eLlLloner demanded CCMLLLC Lo hold Sk elecLlons as scheduled 1here ls no [usLlclable lssue because no law
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
1S
(May 6, 2002). AL LhaL Llme, CCMLLLC expressed supporL Lo a pendlng
blll ln Congress whlch moved Lhe Sk and 8aranggay elecLlons Lo !uly
13, 2002 and lowered Lhe Sk membershlp age Lo aL leasL 13 and noL
more Lhan 21 y.o. eLlLloners ask Lhe SC (1) Lo declare
unconsLlLuLlonal any law posLponlng Lhe Sk elecLlons, (2) Lo conLlnue
elecLlon as scheduled, and (3) Lo allow Lhe presenL Sk members Lo run
and voLe even lf Lhey are over 21 y.o.

has been passed yeL. 1he CourL cannoL
prescrlbe Lo Congress whaL lL can or cannoL
leglslaLe upon. Sk membershlp ls a mere
sLaLuLory rlghL, Lherefore, lL can be wlLhdrawn
or amended by Congress anyLlme.
lurLhermore, publlc offlce ls a publlc LrusL.
eLlLloners have no proprleLary clalm over Lhe
Sk offlce.
18 1an v. eop|e


eLlLloners were caughL LransporLlng lumber wlLhouL permlLs. 1an was
Lhe owner of Lhe logglng company. eLlLloners were convlcLed of
lllegal possesslon of lumber. 1hey conLend LhaL Sec. 68 of LC 277 (Lhe
provlslon Lhey vlolaLed) ls unconsLlLuLlonal because lf deprlves due
process for requlrlng possesslon of legal documenLs for mere
possesslon of foresL producLs (flrewood, bark, honey, eLc.)
eLlLloners were caughL LransporLlng lumber
wlLhouL permlLs. 1an was Lhe owner of Lhe
logglng company. eLlLloners were convlcLed
of lllegal possesslon of lumber. 1hey conLend
LhaL Sec. 68 of LC 277 (Lhe provlslon Lhey
vlolaLed) ls unconsLlLuLlonal because lf
deprlves due process for requlrlng possesslon
of legal documenLs for mere possesslon of
foresL producLs (flrewood, bark, honey, eLc.)
19 Cruz v. I|av|er 1hls ls a challenge Lo Lhe consLlLuLlonallLy of Lhe lndlgenous eoples'
8lghLs AcL of 1997 (l8A). eLlLloner argues LhaL Lhe l8A ls
unconsLlLuLlonal because (1) lL ls a vlolaLlon of Lhe 8egallan uocLrlne,
(2) lL vlolaLes Lhe rlghLs of prlvaLe owners whose properLles mlghL be
lncluded ln Lhe ancesLral domalns, and (3) lL makes cusLomary law
(unpubllshed) appllcable ln seLLllng dlspuLes, Lhus vlolaLlng due
process.

AfLer Lwo rounds of voLlng, Lhe Lally remalned
Lhe same aL 7-7. 1he peLlLlon was Lhus
dlsmlssed and Lhe consLlLuLlonallLy of Lhe l8A
was upheld.
20 Sm|th k||ne v. CA

SmlLh kllne ls Lhe paLenL holder of clmetlJloe, a pharmaceuLlcal
producL. uanlex applled for a llcense whlch was granLed by Lhe 8ureau
of aLenLs. eLlLloner conLends LhaL Lhls ls an lnvalld exerclse of pollce
power.


1he granLlng of Lhe llcense was a valld exerclse
of pollce power. WlLh Lhe more wldespread
use of clmetlJloe, medlcaLlons wlll be more
avallable, and aL lower prlces. 1hus, lL ls
beneflclal Lo Lhe general publlc. 1he paymenL
of royalLles Lo SmlLh kllne ensure LhaL Lhere ls
no deprlvaLlon of properLy rlghLs (ln Lhe form
of lnLellecLual properLy). 1he SC dld noL
change Lhe raLe of 2.3 royalLles because lL ls
wlLhln Lhe compeLency of Lhe 8ureau of
aLenLs Lo deLermlne acLual royalLles raLe.
21 eop|e v. De |a |edra

Carol de la ledra was charged and convlcLed of lllegal recrulLmenL. ln
her appeal, she assalls Lhe consLlLuLlonallLy of ArL. 13(b) of Lhe Labor
Code. She alleges LhaL Lhe deflnlLlon of recrulLmenL and placemenL"
ls vold for vagueness, and Lhus, vlolaLlve of due process.
lL ls noL a perfecLly vague acL whlch ls obscure
on lLs face. lL ls merely couched ln lmpreclse
language whlch can be save by proper
sLaLuLory consLrucLlon. 1herefore, lL ls noL
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lnvalld. lL also does noL suffer from
overbreadLh. A sLaLuLe ls overbroad when lL
lnhlblLs Lhe exerclse of lndlvldual freedoms
guaranLeed by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon.
22 |||p|nas kao v. CA 1he 8oard of lnvesLmenLs Lhe Lax credlLs of lllplnas kao. lllplnas kao
moved Lo reconslder buL was denled by Lhe 8Cl.

8Cl made a declslon whlch dld noL sLaLe Lhe
facLs and reasons for Lhe reducLlon, conLrary
Lo lLs own rules. 1he Manual of CperaLlons
was also noL publlshed, Lhus, Lhe MC whlch
reduced Lhe Lax credlLs ls vold. Cenerally,
lnLernal rules need noL be publlshed, buL lf lL
affecLs Lhe rlghLs of Lhe publlc, publlcaLlon ls
necessary. ubllcaLlon ls consLrucLlve noLlce,
an essenLlal elemenL of due process.
23 nILSA v. Secretary of DCLL ue Mesa, Mlkln and Leyson (ClWs ln Saudl Arabla) flled a sulL agalnsL
PlLSA for lllegal dlsmlssal, lllegal exacLlons, lllegal wlLhholdlng of
salarles and conLracL subsLlLuLlon. 1he CLA and nL8C found PlLSA
gullLy and ordered Lhem Lo pay Lhe ClWs.

lacLual flndlngs of CLA are accorded respecL
by Lhe CourL. Powever, hllsa cannoL be held
llable for lllegal exacLlon under Memorandum
Clrcular no. 2 slnce Lhls was noL publlshed.
ubllcaLlon ls a requlremenL of due process.
1he SC sLlll suspended hllsa for 6 monLhs
because lL was gullLy of conLracL subsLlLuLlon
and unlawful deducLlon of salary.
24 Chavez v. komu|o lrank Chavez assalls Lhe valldlLy of Lhe guldellnes lssued by Cen.
Lbdane, n Chlef, whlch lmplemenLed a ban on carrylng flrearms.
Cen. Lbdane ls auLhorlzed Lo lssue guldellnes
because Lhe power Lo granL (and revoke)
flrearms llcenses has been hlsLorlcally
delegaLed Lo Lhe Chlef ConsLabulary (n
Chlef). 1he rlghL Lo bear flrearms ls noL a
consLlLuLlonal rlghL buL ls merely a sLaLuLory
prlvllege whlch can be revoked by Lhe SLaLe.
1he 2
nd
AmendmenL ln Lhe uS ConsLlLuLlon ls
noL appllcable ln Lhe hlllpplnes. 1here ls no
correspondlng provlslon ln Lhe hlllpplne
ConsLlLuLlon. A flrearms llcense ls noL a
conLracL or a properLy rlghL. 1he revocaLlon of
flrearms llcenses has long been held Lo be a
valld exerclse of pollce power. lLs publlc
necesslLy and reasonable means are obvlous.
2S GSIS v. Montesc|aros CSlS denled Lhe survlvorshlp penslon clalm of Mllagros MonLesclaros,
wldow of a governmenL employee, because Lhey marrled w/ln 3 years
before Lhe pensloner quallfled for Lhe penslon. (Sec. 18, u 1146)
Sec. 18, u 1146 ls unconsLlLuLlonal. lL
conflscaLes penslons and oLher beneflLs, whlch
are properLy rlghLs, wlLhouL Lhe opporLunlLy Lo
be heard. 1hus, lL vlolaLes due process.
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26 komua|dez v. Sand|ganbayan Alfredo 8omualdez, broLher-ln-law of res. Marcos, was charged wlLh
vlolaLlon of 8A 3019 (AnLl-CrafL and CorrupL racLlces AcL). Pe clalms
LhaL he was deprlved of due process because Lhe prellmlnary
lnvesLlgaLlon was vold for belng conducLed by a blased body. Pe also
says LhaL Lhe law ls vague and overbroad (a faclal challenge Lo Lhe
consLlLuLlonallLy of Lhe law).

eLlLlon ls wlLhouL merlL. AlLhough Lhe
prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon of CCC was
nulllfled, a relnvesLlgaLlon by Lhe Cmbudsman
renders Lhe lssue null. lL ls also wrong Lo pose
a faclal challenge because lL ls noL allowed for
penal laws (such as 8A 3019), only for free
speech cases. lurLhermore, ln flllng a MoLlon
Lo ulsmlss, peLlLloner ln effecL flled a
prohlblLed second MoLlon Lo Cuash. 8oLh have
Lhe same effecL of dlsmlsslng Lhe case. (Cuash
ls Lo crlmlnal cases, dlsmlss ls Lo clvll cases).
27 Chavez v. CCMLLLC

lrank Chavez was an endorser for cerLaln producLs wlLh blllboards
along maln roads. Pe Lhen ran for SenaLor and was dlrecLed by Lhe
CCMLLLC Lo remove such blllboards Lo prevenL lmmaLure
campalgnlng., pursuanL Lo CCMLLLC 8esoluLlon no. 6320, Sec. 32.
eLlLloner assalls Lhe valldlLy of Lhe resoluLlon based on (1) non-
lmpalrmenL clause (he has conLracLs wlLh Lhe companles), (2) lnvalld
exerclse of pollce power, and oLher lssues.
1he resoluLlon ls noL vlolaLlve of Lhe non-
lmpalrmenL of conLracLs clause. lL has been
held LhaL Lhe non-lmpalrmenL clause musL
yleld Lo Lhe lofLler purposes LargeLed by
CovernmenL. 1he blllboards gave Lhe
peLlLloner an unfalr advanLage over oLher
candldaLes as Lhey became pollLlcal ln naLure.
lL ls a valld exerclse of pollce power. 1he lawful
sub[ecL ls Lo prohlblL premaLure campalgnlng
and Lo level Lhe playlng fleld for all candldaLes.
Crderlng Lhe removal of Lhe blllboards ls a
reasonable meLhod Lo ensure LhaL some
candldaLes, lncludlng peLlLloner, do noL geL
unfalr advanLage over oLher candldaLes ln
Lerms of exposure and publlclLy.
28 8e|tran v. Secretary of nea|th 1he naLlonal 8lood Servlces AcL (8A 7719) Look effecL on Aug. 23,
1994. lL almed Lo regulaLe blood banks ln Lhe hlllpplnes. 1he uCP
SecreLary Lhen promulgaLed AC 9 (lmplemenLlng rules) whlch phased
ouL all commerclal blood banks ln Lhe hlllpplnes. eLlLloners, owners
of blood banks, say LhaL Lhls ls a deprlvaLlon of personal llberLy (Lo
choose from whlch blood bank Lo buy) and Lhelr properLy rlghLs.
1hls ls a valld exerclse of pollce power. 1he law
almed Lo provlde safe blood for Lhe people
and Lo safeguard agalnsL Lhe spread of
Lransfuslon-relaLed lllnesses. ubllc healLh has
been held Lo be a valld sub[ecL for Lhe exerclse
of pollce power. haslng ouL commerclal blood
banks ls a reasonable meLhod because lL
allows Lhe governmenL Lo beLLer ensure LhaL
Lhe blood avallable Lo Lhe publlc wlll be safe
and of hlgh quallLy. lndlvldual lnLeresLs of Lhe
blood bank owners musL glve way Lo Lhe
publlc welfare.
29 Cng v. Sand|ganbayan 8l8 Commlssloner !ose Cng was charged wlLh amasslng lll-goLLen
wealLh because hls asseLs allegedly were dlsproporLlonaLe from hls
ln a prevlous rullng, Lhe SC ruled LhaL
forfelLure proceedlngs are clvll ln naLure, buL
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lncome as 8l8 commlssloner. Pls wlfe nelly Cng was also lmpleaded ln
Lhe forfelLure sulL of Lhe properLy. eLlLloners clalm LhaL Lhey were
deprlved of due process because no prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon was
done on nelly Cng.

ln a subsequenL rullng, Lhey clarlfled LhaL Lhls
applles only Lo Lhe procedural aspecL of
forfelLure proceedlngs. SubsLanLlally, lL ls
crlmlnal. 1herefore, nelly Cng was enLlLled Lo
prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon. Powever, Lhls would
be polnLless because !ose Cng clalmed LhaL he
purchased Lhe properLles wlLh hls money
(nelly dld noL have a parL). 1he law ls also noL
vague because lL deflnes whaL unlawfully
acqulred properLy ls (properLy acqulred ouL of
proporLlon Lo a publlc offlcer's lawful lncome).
resumpLlon of lnnocence ls also noL vlolaLed
because Lhe law only creaLes a ptlmo facle
presumpLlon LhaL Lhe properLy was lawfully
acqulred. lL sLlll has Lo be proven. eLlLlon
dlsmlssed.
30 Lucena Grand Centra| 1erm|na|
v. IAC L|ner

Lucena ClLy promulgaLed Crdlnance no. 1631 whlch granLed Lhe
peLlLloner excluslve franchlse of Lermlnals ln Lhe clLy, and Crdlnance
no. 1778 whlch prohlblLed Lhe enLrance of buses and [eepneys from
enLerlng Lhe clLy, and declared lnoperable all Lermlnals ln Lhe clLy. !AC
Llner assalls Lhe valldlLy of Lhe ordlnance.
1he ordlnances are an lnvalld exerclse of pollce
power. 1hough Lhere ls a lawful sub[ecL whlch
ls Lhe easlng of Lrafflc congesLlon ln Lhe clLy,
Lhe means are noL reasonable. 1hey are
characLerlzed by overbreadLh because Lhey go
beyond whaL ls reasonable necessary. lL ls noL
Lhe Lermlnals, buL Lhe lndlscrlmlnaLe loadlng
and unloadlng whlch lmpedes Lrafflc.
1ermlnals are noL obsLacles buL are leglLlmaLe
buslnesses.
31 C|ty of Man||a v. Lagu|o 1he ClLy of Manlla promulgaLed Crd. no. 7783 whlch prohlblLed
cerLaln forms of enLerLalnmenL ln Lhe LrmlLa-MalaLe area where
women are used as Lools ln enLerLalnmenL." 1hese lncluded saunas,
massage parlors, beerhouses, moLels, nlghL clubs, eLc. !udge Lagulo
ruled LhaL Lhe ordlnance was lnvalld.
1he ordlnance ls lndeed lnvalld. lL vlolaLes Lhe
rlghL Lo prlvacy of moLel paLrons who have Lhe
llberLy for sexual consummaLlon as long as
Lhey do noL vlolaLe Lhe law. lL also does noL
have Lhe sLandards Lo deLermlne whlch
esLabllshmenLs Lend Lo dlsLurb Lhe
communlLy, annoy Lhe lnhablLanLs and affecL
soclal and moral welfare of Lhe communlLy,"
Lhus allowlng auLhorlLles unbrldled dlscreLlon.
lurLhermore, Lhe ordlnance ls an lnvalld
exerclse of pollce power. 1hough Lhere ls a
lawful sub[ecL, whlch ls Lhe moral and soclal
welfare of socleLy, Lhe means employed are
unreasonable. Aslde from belng a deprlvaLlon
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of properLy rlghLs, prohlblLlon of Lhe
esLabllshmenLs would noL do anyLhlng Lo sLop
lmmorallLy. 1he problem ls wlLh Lhe people
who use Lhese places for lmmoral acLlvlLles.
LradlcaLlng Lhese esLabllshmenLs wlll noL
eradlcaLe Lhe problem of lmmoral acLlvlLles
done by Lhe people, as Lhese could be done
even ln Lhe mosL lnnocenL of places.
32 8ayan v. Lrm|ta eLlLloners assall Lhe consLlLuLlonallLy of 8 880 (no permlL, no rally")
and Lhe CallbraLed reempLlve 8esponse" pollcy. 1hey clalm LhaL
such pollcles lnfrlnge on Lhelr rlghLs Lo peaceful assembly and peLlLlon
Lhe governmenL for redress of grlevances.
eLlLlons granLed ln parL. 8 880 ls a valld
exerclse of pollce power. lL doesn'L resLraln
Lhe rlghL Lo peaceful assembly, lL merely
regulaLes lL. 1hough Lhese rlghLs en[oy
prlmacy ln Lhe realm of consLlLuLlonal
proLecLlon," Lhey are noL absoluLe and can be
a valld sub[ecL of regulaLlon. 1he permlL can
only be denled on Lhe basls of clear and
presenL danger Lo publlc safeLy, morals or
healLh, Lhus, Lhe meLhod employed was also
reasonable. 1he SC also ordered Lhe ulLC
SecreLary Lo comply wlLh Sec. 13 of 8 880
whlch provlded for Lhe creaLlon of freedom
parks" ln all clLles and munlclpallLles.
uemonsLraLlons ln such parks would noL need
permlLs. non-compllance wlLh Lhls order
would mean LhaL all Lhe publlc parks ln Lhe
locallLles would be deemed freedom parks.
1he C8 pollcy was declared vold because lL
replaced Lhe maxlmum Lolerance pollcy sLaLed
ln 8 880. lalnly speaklng, lL ls noL needed
anymore slnce Lhe maxlmum Lolerance pollcy
already exlsLs.
33 kMU v. D|rector Genera|,
NLDA

res. Arroyo lssued LC 420 whlch requlred all governmenL agencles Lo
sLreamllne and harmonlze Lhelr lu sysLem. eLlLloners assall LC 420.

LC 420 ls valld. An LC ls used Lo lmplemenL
consLlLuLlonal or sLaLuLory powers. 1he lu
sysLem would reduce cosLs, lncrease
efflclency and lmprove general publlc servlce,
Lhlngs already mandaLed by exlsLlng laws.
lurLhermore, Lhe lalLhful LxecuLlon of Laws
Clause (Sec. 17, ArL. vll) mandaLes Lhe
presldenL Lo execuLe laws. 1here ls reason Lo
lmplemenL LC 420. lL does noL vlolaLe Lhe
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rullng ln Ople v. 1ottes because lL ls noL a
usurpaLlon of leglslaLlve auLhorlLy. lL does noL
lmplemenL a naLlonal lu sysLem because lL
only applles Lo agencles whlch already collecL
personal daLa and lssue lus (e.g. SSS,
hllhealLh, L1C, eLc.). lurLhermore, Lhe LC
provldes for sufflclenL sLandards wlLh regard
Lo Lhe use of Lhe daLa. rlvacy ls Lherefore noL
vlolaLed.
34 M|raso| v. DWn

eLlLloners represenL an organlzaLlon of moLorcycllsLs who are
assalllng Lhe valldlLy of AdmlnlsLraLlve Crder no. 1 (lssued by Lhe
uWC) and ueparLmenL Crder nos. 74, 213 and 123 (lssued by Lhe
uWP). AC 1 prohlblLed moLorcycles on llmlLed access faclllLles, whlle
Lhe uCs banned moLorcycles ln nLLx, SLLx and CoasLal 8oad.

1he orders were lssued pursuanL Lo 8A 2000
or Lhe LlmlLed Access Plghway AcL whlch
empowered Lhe now defuncL ueparLmenL of
ubllc Works and CommunlcaLlon (uWC) Lo
regulaLe and resLrlcL access Lo llmlLed access
faclllLles ln order Lo allevlaLe Lrafflc
congesLlon. 1he sald deparLmenL was
evenLually spllL lnLo Lhe uWP (whlch
assumed Lhe publlc works funcLlon) and Lhe
uC1C (whlch ls Lasked wlLh pollcy
formulaLlon). 1herefore, Lhe uCs lssued by
Lhe uWP are lnvalld because Lhey are noL
empowered Lo lssue such pollcy-seLLlng
orders. 1he AC, however, was upheld because
lL was lssued by uWC. lL ls a valld exerclse of
pollce power because Lhe use of publlc
hlghways by moLor vehlcles ls a valld sub[ecL
of regulaLlon. 1he means used are reasonable
ln safeguardlng Lhe people who use Lhe Loll
ways and Lo prevenL accldenLs.
3S arreo v. CCA eLlLloner, represenLed by hls daughLer, ls a reLlred 2
nd
LL. of Lhe
hlllpplne ConsLabulary who had been recelvlng penslon. ursuanL Lo
u 1638, Lhe penslon sLopped when he became a uS clLlzen.

: u 1638 applles Lo hlm because lL became
effecLlve whlle he was sLlll ln acLlve servlce. AL
Lhe Llme of Lhe effecLlvlLy of u 1638, arreno
sLlll had no vesLed rlghLs on Lhe penslon. 1hus,
Lhere ls no deprlvaLlon of properLy rlghLs
wlLhouL due process of law. 1here ls also no
vlolaLlon of Lhe LC because lL has been held
LhaL allenage ls a subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon.
36 Lsp|noc|||a, Ir. v. 8agong
1anyag nomeowners
Assoc|at|on, Inc.
8A1APAl was lncorporaLed Lo enable occupanLs of land owned by
lorLune uev'L Corp. by obLalnlng a loan from Lhe naL'l. Pome llnance
CorporaLlon. eLlLloners who are member-beneflclarles clalmed loLs
eLlLloners were noL denled due process of
law. WhaL Lhe law prohlblLs ls Lhe absence of
Lhe opporLunlLy Lo be heard. eLlLloners were
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ad[acenL Lo Lhelrs. AfLer a land survey, Lhese were found Lo noL belong
Lo Lhem and was deducLed from Lhelr allocaLlon. 1hey also dld noL
compleLe Lhe documenLs requlred by 8A1APAl even afLer new
deadllnes and demand leLLers were glven. 1hus, Lhey were dellsLed as
member-beneflclarles.
glven several noLlces and opporLunlLles Lo be
heard whlch Lhey dld noL use. 1he properLy
was Lherefore rlghLfully selzed. lurLhermore,
Lhey sLlll have no vesLed rlghLs on sald
properLy. rescrlpLlon wlll noL apply ln Lhls
case because acLs of possessory characLer
execuLed by vlrLue of llcense or Lolerance of
Lhe owner wlll noL glve rlse Lo acqulslLlve
prescrlpLlon.
37 Un|ted 8I nomeowners
Assoc|at|on v. C|ty Mayor,
araaque
eLlLloners assall Lhe valldlLy of a clLy ordlnance whlch reclasslfled Ll
Crande and Agulrre Avenues as Commerclal Zones. 1hey clalm LhaL
Lhe ordlnance vlolaLes Lhe non-lmpalrmenL clause because loL buyers'
LlLles provlde LhaL such properLy should be used for resldenLlal
purposes.
1he ordlnance ls a valld exerclse of pollce
power. 1he rapld lncrease ln Lhe populaLlon of
8l aranaque necesslLaLed Lhe converslon of
sald sLreeLs Lo commerclal areas. 8esldes, Lhe
sLreeLs were already commerclallzed even
before Lhe ordlnance was enacLed. ollce
power ls superlor Lo Lhe non-lmpalrmenL
clause.
38 St. Luke's Med|ca| Center
Lmp|oyees Assoc|at|on v. NLkC
Marlbel SanLos, an x-ray Lechnlclan wlLhouL a llcense, was LermlnaLed
by SL. Luke's PosplLal for non-compllance wlLh 8A 7431 or Lhe
8adlologlc 1echnology AcL of 1992. She sued Lhe hosplLal for lllegal
dlsmlssal.

1hough she has Lhe rlghL Lo securlLy of Lenure,
Lhls can be valldly regulaLed by pollce power.
1he law requlres Lhe llcenslng of x-ray
professlonals (lawful meLhod) ln order Lo
safeguard publlc healLh and safeLy (lawful
sub[ecL).
39 Car|os Superdrug Corp. v.
DSWD
1he Lxpanded Senlor ClLlzens AcL of 2003 (8A 9237) provlded LhaL Lhe
20 dlscounL glven Lo senlor clLlzens be consldered as 1Ax
uLuuC1lCnS lnsLead of a 1Ax C8Lul1. eLlLloners assall Lhe valldlLy of
such.


1Ax C8Lul1S are deducLed from Lhe acLual Lax
due Lo Lhe governmenL. ln effecL, Lhe
governmenL shoulders all Lhe expenses. 1Ax
uLuuC1lCnS, on Lhe oLher hand, are
deducLed from Lhe gross lncome (before Lax)
of sLores. ln effecL, Lhe sLores share ln Lhe
burden of Lhe expenses for senlor clLlzens.
1hls ls a valld exerclse of pollce power
because Lhe goal of Lhe law of maxlmlzlng Lhe
conLrlbuLlon of senlor clLlzens Lo socleLy
(lawful sub[ecL) ls accompllshed by glvlng
Lhem beneflLs and prlvlleges (lawful means).
Slnce lL ls pollce power aL work, [usL
compensaLlon ls unnecessary. When
deLermlned by Lhe leglslaLure, properLy rlghLs
musL bow Lo Lhe prlmacy of pollce power.
40 erez v. LG kef|||ers LC 8eflllers assall uCL Clrcular 2000-06-10 whlch provlde for A penal sLaLuLe ls noL rendered vold slmply
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
22
Assoc|at|on of the h|||pp|nes,
Inc.

lmplemenLlng rules for 8 33. 1hey clalm LhaL lL ls vold for vagueness
and LhaL lL ls conflscaLory because lL provldes penalLles on a per
cyllnder basls.
because general words are used. 1he acLs and
omlsslons ln Lhe clrcular are conLemplaLed ln
8 33, Lhus, Lhe clrcular does noL creaLe brand
new vlolaLlons. 1he per cyllnder basls ls
lncluded ln 8 33 whlch speaks of any acL
hereln prohlblLed." 1he clrcular ls valld.
41 MMDA v. V|ron CMA lssued LC 179 whlch provlded for Lhe esLabllshmenL of CreaLer
Manlla Mass 1ransporL SysLem. 1he MMuA, as Lhe lmplemenLlng
agency, recommended Lo ellmlnaLe all bus Lermlnals (lncludlng
vlron's) locaLed ln MeLro Manlla Lhoroughfares. MMuA was allegedly
golng Lo lssue an order Lo do so.

1he resldenL does have Lhe power Lo
lmplemenL such order, buL Lhe delegaLlon Lo
Lhe MMuA ls lnvalld. MMuA ls an
admlnlsLraLlve, coordlnaLlng and pollcy seLLlng
body whlch has nC CLlCL CWL8. Assumlng
arguendo LhaL pollce power may be delegaLed
Lo Lhe MMuA, Lhe closure of Lhe bus
Lermlnals ls noL a reasonable meLhod Lo
decongesL Lrafflc. CLher more reasonable
meLhods mlghL be more effecLlve and
reasonable.
42 Secretary of DND v. Mana|o

8aymond and 8eynaldo Manalo were abducLed and LorLured by
members of Lhe mlllLary afLer Lhey were suspecLed Lo be members of
Lhe nA. eLlLloners clalm LhaL Lhe CA erred ln glvlng Lhe prlvllege of
Lhe wrlL of amparo Lo Lhe Manalo broLhers.
An Amparo peLlLlon only requlres subsLanLlal
evldence and Lhe LesLlmony of Lhe vlcLlms wlll
be glven greaL welghL. 1he amparo rellefs
glven (l.e. order dlrecLlng peLlLloners Lo glve
all reporLs of Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon, dlsclose
presenL asslgnmenL of Lhe capLors, and Lo
produce all medlcal records whlle ln capLlvlLy)
were reasonably necessary Lo proLecL Lhe
Manalos. 1he wrlL of amparo was properly
glven because Lhere ls sLlll a LhreaL Lo Lhe llfe
and llberLy of Lhe Manalo broLhers slnce Lhelr
capLors remaln aL large. 1he rlghL Lo securlLy
ls Lhe rlghL Lo en[oymenL of llfe. 1he
conLlnulng LhreaL on Lhe llfe of Lhe Manalo
broLhers ls apparenL. 1hls LhreaL vlLlaLes Lhelr
free wlll because Lhey are forced Lo llmlL Lhelr
movemenLs and acLlvlLles. 1hreaLs Lo llberLy,
securlLy, and llfe are acLlonable Lhrough a
peLlLlon for a wrlL of ompoto.
43 SIS v. DD8 eLlLloners assall Lhe consLlLuLlonallLy of Lhe Comprehenslve
uangerous urugs AcL of 2002 based on several lssues. lL provldes for
mandaLory drug LesLlng for candldaLes for publlc offlce, sLudenLs of
secondary and LerLlary schools, offlcers and employees of publlc and
1he law ls consLlLuLlonal lnsofar as lL provldes
for mandaLory random drug LesLlng for
sLudenLs and employees as lL ls ln Lhe lnLeresL
of Lhe governmenL Lo proLecL Lhem from
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prlvaLe offlces, and persons charged before Lhe prosecuLors offlce
wlLh cerLaln offenses.
lllegal drugs. lL ls unconsLlLuLlonal ln so far as
lL requlres candldaLes Lo undergo drug LesLlng
because lL adds addlLlonal quallflcaLlons whlch
are beyond whaL Lhe ConsLlLuLlon provldes. lL
ls also unconsLlLuLlonal wlLh regard Lo
mandaLory drug LesLlng of accused persons
because such can never be susplclonless. lL ls
ln effecL harnesslng a medlcal Lool whlch can
be used Lo prosecuLe hlm/her.
44 SIS v. At|enza 1he ClLy of Manlla enacLed Crdlnance no. 8027 whlch reclasslfled Lhe
andacan and SLa. Ana dlsLrlcLs from lndusLrlal Lo commerclal. As a
resulL, Lhe andacan Cll uepoLs owned by CalLex, eLron and Shell had
Lo be moved. 1he 8lg 3 oll companles slgned a memorandum of
undersLandlng wlLh Mayor ALlenza and Lhe uCL whereln Lhey agreed
Lo scale down Lhe andacan 1ermlnals lnsLead of closlng Lhem down
enLlrely. eLlLloners pray LhaL a wrlL of mandamus be lssued ln order
Lo compel Lhe mayor Lo enforce Crd. no, 8027 and close down Lhe
andacan 1ermlnals.

eLlLlon granLed. 1here ls no legal lmpedlmenL
Lo Lhe enforcemenL of Crd. no, 8027, lL ls a
valld exerclse of pollce power because Lhe
removal of hlghly dangerous fuels near
resldenLlal areas (lawful meLhod) ls a valld
way of safeguardlng Lhe healLh and safeLy of
Lhe general publlc (lawful sub[ecL). 1he oll
companles conLend LhaL lL ls a deprlvaLlon of
Lhelr properLy rlghLs, however, Lhe rlghL Lo llfe
ls superlor Lo Lhe rlghL Lo properLy.
lurLhermore, slnce pollce power ls used, [usL
compensaLlon ls noL necessary. Such ls a
requlremenL only ln Lhe exerclse of Lhe power
of emlnenL domaln.
4S SLC v. Interport

lnLerporL was accused by SLC of lnslder Lradlng for non-dlsclosure of
relevanL lnformaLlon abouL an acqulslLlon Lhey had. SLC lssued a show
cause order whlch made lnLerporL explaln why no sancLlons should be
flled agalnsL Lhem. lnLerporL clalms LhaL Lhe show cause order ls a
vlolaLlon of due process. lnLerporL also clalms LhaL Lhe SLC has no
[urlsdlcLlon because lL ls Lhe rosecuLlon and LnforcemenL
ueparLmenL (Lu) of Lhe SLC whlch has [urlsdlcLlon. 1he CA ruled ln
favor of lnLerporL.


1he CA erred. uurlng Lhe pendency of Lhe
case, a new law (SecurlLles 8egulaLlon Code)
was passed whlch abollshed Lhe Lu. 1hus,
SLC now has [urlsdlcLlon. 1he CA was wrong
when lL ruled LhaL lmplemenLlng rules are
necessary for Lhe effecLlvlLy of Lhe 8evlsed
SecurlLles AcL (old law). 1he 8SA was fully
effecLlve even lf no lmplemenLlng rules were
promulgaLed slnce Lhe provlslons are
sufflclenLly clear and compleLe by Lhemselves.
1he old provlslons are sLlll effecLlve because
Lhey were reenacLed ln Lhe S8C.
46 8ANA1 v. CCMLLLC eLlLloners assall Lhe consLlLuLlonallLy of 8A 9369 whlch amended 8A
8436 (oll AuLomaLlon Law) on several grounds. Cne of whlch ls Lhe
provlslon whlch says LhaL pol waLchers of Lhe domlnanL ma[orlLy and
domlnanL mlnorlLy parLles shall be glven a flxed per dlem of 400.
eLlLloners clalm LhaL Lhls vlolaLes Lhe non-lmpalrmenL of conLracLs
eLlLloners' argumenL ls erroneous. AL Lhe
Llme of Lhe enacLmenL of Lhe law, Lhere was
sLlll no perfecLed conLracLs beLween Lhe poll
waLchers and Lhe parLles. 1herefore, no
obllgaLlon wlll be lmpalred. lurLhermore, Lhls
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
24
clause.

ls a valld exerclse of pollce power. 1he role of
poll waLchers ls vesLed wlLh publlc lnLeresL
whlch can be regulaLed by Congress ln Lhe
exerclse of pollce power. Clvlng Lhe poll
waLchers falr and equlLable compensaLlon
promoLes general welfare.
47 eop|e v. S|ton

Lvangellne SlLon and krysLel kaLe Sgarano were arresLed and charged
wlLh vagrancy under ArL. 202(2) of Lhe 8C. 8espondenLs clalm LhaL
Lhe law ls vague and vlolaLes Lhe LC.
ArL. 202(2) ls consLlLuLlonal. lLs alm ls Lo
malnLaln mlnlmum sLandards of decency,
morallLy and clvlllLy ln human socleLy. lL ls a
valld exerclse of pollce power. 1he
respondenLs ln Lhls case were arresLed afLer
pollce conducLed survelllance, Lhus, Lhere was
probable cause Lo arresL Lhem.
48 Wh|te L|ght Corporat|on v. C|ty
of Man||a

1he ClLy of Manlla enacLed Crdlnance no. 7774 whlch prohlblLed
shorL-Llme admlsslon, shorL-Llme admlsslon raLes, wash up raLes ln
hoLels and moLels ln Manlla. eLlLloners assall Lhls ordlnance for based
on Lhe CverbreadLh docLrlne.
eLlLloners do have sLandlng Lo challenge Lhe
ordlnance. lL ls lndeed unconsLlLuLlonal. 1he
ordlnance needlessly resLralns Lhe rlghL Lo
llberLy of Lhe cllenLs, as well as Lhe buslness
operaLlons of Lhe hoLel and moLel operaLors.
Pence, Lhe CverbreadLh docLrlne applles
because a consLlLuLlonally guaranLeed rlghL ls
needlessly resLralned. lL ls an lnvalld exerclse
of pollce power. AlLhough mlnlmlzlng
prosLlLuLlon, drug use, llllclL sex, and oLher
lmmoral acLlvlLles ls a lawful sub[ecL for pollce
power, Lhe means used by Lhe ordlnance are
unreasonable. 8esldes, Lhere are already
oLher laws whlch prohlblL sald acLs.
49 CkL8A v. komu|o eLlLloners assall Lhe consLlLuLlonallLy of revenue regulaLlons lssued by
Lhe 8l8 whlch provlde for credlLable wlLhholdlng Lax (CW1) and
mlnlmum corporaLe lncome Lax (MCl1) for Lhose engaged ln real
esLaLe. 1he CW1 ls charged on a per LransacLlon basls, whlle Lhe MCl1
ls charged on Lhe gross lncome. LlLher Lhe MCl1 or Lhe normal
corporaLe lncome Lax ls acLually pald by Lhe company, whlchever ls
hlgher.
1he MCl1 ls noL unconsLlLuLlonal. 1he power
Lo Lax ls plenary and unllmlLed ln range. 1he
only llmlL ls Lhe ConsLlLuLlon. lL ls noL a Lax on
caplLal buL on gross lncome, Lherefore, lL ls
noL oppresslve and arblLrary. lL ls also noL an
addlLlonal Lax buL a Lax ln lleu of Lhe normal
corporaLe lncome Lax. 1he CW1, on Lhe oLher
hand, also does noL lmpose a new Lax nor
does lL lncrease Laxes. lL ls noL a deprlvaLlon of
properLy because Lhe CW1 ls credlLable
agalnsL Lhe Lax due from Lhe seller of Lhe
properLy aL Lhe end of Lhe Laxable year. 1hus,
Lhere ls no deprlvaLlon because Lhe money
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
2S
even goes back Lo Lhe seller.
S0 Southern nem|sphere
Lngagement Network v. Ant|-
1error|sm Counc||
ConsolldaLed peLlLlon whlch assalls Lhe consLlLuLlonallLy of 8A 9372 or
Lhe Puman SecurlLy AcL of 2007. eLlLloners clalm LhaL Lhe law suffers
from vagueness and overbreadLh.
eLlLlon dlsmlssed. 1here ls no [usLlclable lssue.
eLlLloners have no locos stooJl. none of Lhe
peLlLloners face any charges under 8A 9372.
1he CourL wlll noL Lake [udlclal noLlce of Lhe
alleged Lagglng of Lhe peLlLloners by Lhe
mlllLary because Lhe requlslLes are lncompleLe.
1ranscendenLal lmporLance would normally
glve sLandlng Lo peLlLloners, buL penal
leglslaLlon belongs Lo a dlfferenL genus wlLh
regard Lo consLlLuLlonal llLlgaLlon. Locus sLandl
ls placed under closer [udlclal scruLlny.
laclal challenges (vold for vagueness and
overbreadLh) are noL appllcable for 8A 9372
because Lhose are appllcable only for free
speech cases. 1he as-applled" docLrlne ls used
for assalllng Lhe consLlLuLlonallLy of penal laws.
lL conslders only exLanL facLs affecLlng real
llLlganLs.
S1 koxas v. Macapaga|-Arroyo

Mellssa 8oxas, an Amerlcan sLudenL of llllplno descenL, was abducLed
and LorLured by armed men whlle conducLlng a healLh survey ln
1arlac. She was suspecLed of belng a member of Lhe nA. 8ased on
Lhe sounds she heard whlle ln cusLody, she lnferred LhaL she was ln
lorL Magsaysay. She was evenLually released buL was consLanLly
monlLored Lhrough a cellphone her capLors gave her. 8oxas Lhen flled
for Lhe wrlLs of Amparo and habeas daLa whlch Lhe CA granLed.
lmpleadlng Lhe hlghesL offlclals of governmenL
based on command responslblllLy ls wrong. lL
can only be done ln crlmlnal proceedlngs. 1he
Amparo remedy of reLurnlng Lhe belonglngs as
well as Lhe lnspecLlon of lorL Magsaysay were
denled because Lhe abducLors, as well as Lhe
alleged place of conflnemenL, was never
proved by Lhe peLlLloner. 1he wrlL of habeas
daLa was also denled lL was noL proven LhaL
Cen. alparan and Alcover dld have ln Lhelr
possesslon vldeos and phoLos relaLed Lo Lhe
alleged C-nA Lles of 8oxas. 1he SC
lnsLrucLed Lhe CP8 Lo lead Lhe furLher
lnvesLlgaLlon of Lhe case.
S2 Mera|co v. L|m AfLer LhreaLenlng leLLers were senL Lo Cherry Llm, Meralco declded Lo
Lransfer her Lo Alabang from 8ulacan for her safeLy. She reslsLed and
flled a habeas daLa peLlLlon Lo compel Lhe company Lo show her Lhe
leLLers.

Pabeas daLa ls an lnapproprlaLe remedy for
Lhls slLuaLlon. lL ls only avallable Lo any person
whose llfe, llberLy or securlLy ls LhreaLened by
Lhe gaLherlng of lnformaLlon abouL hlm.
Pabeas daLa wlll noL be lssued Lo proLecL
purely properLy or commerclal concerns. 1he
nL8C has [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe case aL bar.
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
26
LUAL kC1LC1ICN CLAUSL

ConsLlLuLlonal guaranLee of Lhe "Lqua||ty of the erson"
LquallLy lL guaranLees: "|ega| equa||ty" or "equa||ty of a|| persons
under the |aw"
Pere, each lndlvldual ls dealL wlLh as an equal person ln Lhe law, whlch
does noL LreaL Lhe person dlfferenLly because of who he ls or whaL he ls
or whaL he possesses

1he LC |s not abso|ute, Lhe SLaLe has Lhe power Lo classlfy

lL does noL deny Lhe sLaLe Lhe power Lo recognlze and acL upon facLual
dlfferences beLween lndlvlduals and classes

Va||d C|ass|f|cat|on 1est - flrsL seen ln (1)eop|e v. Cayat

1. Must rest on substant|a| d|st|nct|ons

no valld classlflcaLlon can be made wlLhouL Lhe presence of a
subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon (16) kega|a v. Sand|ganbayan, (39) D|maporo
v. nkL1, (S7) 8|raogo v. 1C, (S6) NC v. |natubo

2. Must be germane to the purpose of the |aw

1he provlso of Lhe sald law vlolaLes Lhe LC because Lhere ls no
subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon presenL and such classlflcaLlon ls noL
germane Lo Lhe purpose of Lhe law (40) GSIS v. Montesc|aros

3. Must not be ||m|ted to ex|st|ng cond|t|ons on|y

Laws should noL LargeL a slngle and excluslve company ln a way
LhaL subsequenL companles of Lhe same naLure shall noL be
affecLed by Lhe law (6) Crmoc Sugar Centra| v. Crmoc C|ty

4. Must app|y equa||y to a|| members of the same c|ass

Allkes cannoL be LreaLed us unallkes (30) Loong v. Come|ec

Case Law - Issues

1. A||enage

Allenage ls a reasonable classlflcaLlon ln Lhe exerclse of pollce power (2)
Ichong v. nernandez

1he proLecLlon Lhe LC guaranLees ls appllcable Lo boLh clLlzens and allens (3)
V|||egas v. n|u Cho|ng

2. L|ect|on

1here ls subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween a reLlree and young blood ln Lerms of
governmenL work (4) Dum|ao v. Come|ec

CCMLLLC has Lhe consLlLuLlonally granLed power Lo enforce and admlnlsLer
all laws and regulaLlons relaLlve Lo Lhe conducL of an elecLlon, lL cannoL be
resLrlcLed by mere procedural rules (19) No|asco v. Come|ec

Conslderlng lncumbenL offlclals reslgned from Lhelr offlce upon flllng a CCC
for anoLher poslLlon ls noL a vlolaLlon of Lhe LC because lL ls germane Lo Lhe
purpose of Lhe law. (29) Agu|na|do v. Come|ec

CCMLLLC may asslgn elecLlon offlcers Lo oLher sLaLlons afLer 4 years Lo avold
corrupLlon LhaL mlghL Lake place (32) De Guzman, Ir. v. Come|ec

AppolnLlve offlclals musL be removed from Lhelr poslLlon lf Lhey choose Lo run
for elecLlons slnce Lhey are prohlblLed by law Lo engage ln parLlsan pollLlcal
acLlvlLles. (38) Iar|nas v. Lxecut|ve Secretary

1here ls subsLanLlal dlfference beLween appolnLlve and elecLlve offlclals as Lhe
former hold Lhelr offlce by vlrLue of Lhelr deslgnaLlon LhereLo by an
appolnLlng auLhorlLy whlle Lhe laLLer occupy Lhelr offlce by vlrLue of Lhe
mandaLe of Lhe elecLoraLe (S4) u|nto v. Come|ec

3. Sexua| D|scr|m|nat|on

Sexual dlscrlmlnaLlon may be made lf Lhe purpose ls ln Lhe naLure of Lhe
exerclse of pollce power (ln Lhls case, proLecLlon of women) (S) Goesart v.
C|eary
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
27

4. Government owers, o||ce ower

1he law can creaLe a valld classlflcaLlon beLween acLlvlLles conLrolled and
regulaLed by law and Lhose whlch are noL (ln Lhls case, games of chance) (7)
8ASCC v. AGCCk

lor Lhe purpose of Lhe general welfare of people (moreover Lhose who are ln
need) and exacLlng soclal [usLlce, Lhe sLaLe can use lLs pollce power Lo creaLe a
classlflcaLlon beLween Lhe poor and oLhers (9) 8|nay v. Dom|ngo
A gambllng franchlse ls always sub[ecL Lo Lhe exerclse of pollce power for Lhe
publlc welfare (14) L|m v. acqu|ng

1he CovernmenL may requlre broadcasLlng sLaLlons Lo allow Lhem Lo
communlcaLe Lo Lhe publlc. 1hls ls parL of Lhelr responslblllLy under 8.A. 7232
(2S) 1LLL8A V. CCMLLLC

1he vlA does noL vlolaLe Lhe LC because Lhe cerLaln exempLlons and
prlvlleges glven Lo uS mlllLary personnel are [usL Lo serve ouL Lhe agreemenL's
purpose of promoLlng muLual LrusL and peace among Lhe Lwo counLrles. (33)
8AAN v. 2amora

1here ls subsLanLlal basls for a dlfferenL LreaLmenL of a member of a forelgn
mlllLary armed forces allowed Lo enLer our LerrlLory and all oLher accused (S0)
N|co|as v. komu|o

A moLorcycle, glven lLs raLher fraglle characLerlsLlcs, may be slngled ouL by
law LhaL lnLends Lo proLecL Lhe safeLy of Lhe publlc (43) M|raso| v. DWn

Clven Lhe presence of LerrorlsL acLlvlLy, oll depoLs have a subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon agalnsL oLher lndusLrles because of Lhe severlLy of damage Lhey
may cause (47) SIS v. At|enza

1he clLles enumeraLed ln Lhe clLyhood laws have subsLanLlal dlfference
agalnsL Lhose noL enumeraLed glven Lhelr capablllLy Lo become componenL
clLles of Lhelr respecLlve provlnces (S3) League of C|t|es v. Come|ec

S. 1ax C|ass|f|cat|on

CreaLlng classlflcaLlons for Lhe purpose of LaxaLlon ls lnherenL ln Lhe Laxlng
power of Lhe SLaLe (11) 1o|ent|no v. Secretary of I|nance, (17) S|son, Ir. v.
Ancheta, (SS) CkL8A v. komu|o

1he Congress, Lhrough lLs Laxlng power can deLermlne Lhe exLenL of Lhe Laxlng
power of LCus as long as lL ls conslsLenL wlLh Lhe pollcy of local auLonomy
(37) nILkLCA v. Sec. of DILG


6. Cr|m|na| Law, L|t|gat|on

1here ls subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween Lhose who dld noL commlL any
acLlonable wrong agalnsL Lhose who lnsLlgaLed and commlLLed such wrongs.
(8) kepub||c v. Sand|ganbayan et.a|.

1here ls a subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween crlmlnally accused pollcemen and
crlmlnally accused oLher persons lnsofar as Lhe former, Lhrough Lhelr
weapons and poslLlon, can lnLlmldaLe prospecLlve wlLnesses (12) n|magan v.
eop|e

1here ls a subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween Lhose who have pendlng crlmlnal
charges agalnsL Lhose who have none (18) Marcos v. CA

Crlmlnal lmmunlLy under Sec. 3 ls granLed only Lo wlLnesses agalnsL an
accused ln an lll-goLLen wealLh case. 1hls provlso glves rlse Lo a subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon beLween prlnclpal defendanLs and wlLnesses ln such cases. (24)
Chavez v. Sand|ganbayan

1here ls a subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween cases where Lrlal already begun
agalnsL Lhose where lL has noL yeL sLarLed. (27) Lacson v. Lxecut|ve Secretary

1he granL of probaLlon does noL requlre flnanclal capablllLy on Lhe parL of Lhe
granLee. Powever, paymenL of clvll damages may be valldly made as a
condlLlon for Lhe conLlnued en[oymenL of such probaLlon. (28) Sor|ano v. CA

ArL. 267 of Lhe 8C does noL vlolaLe Lhe 8C glven LhaL anyone may commlL
Lhe crlmes enumeraLed Lhereln and be punlshed wlLh Lhe same penalLy (34)
eop|e v. Mercado

An elecLlve offlclal who commlLLed a crlme punlshed by a perlod LhaL goes
beyond Lhelr prlvlleged-from-arresL exempLlon has no subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
28
from oLher prlsoners who commlLLed crlmes punlshed by Lhe same penalLles
(3S) eop|e v. Ia|os[os

enal sLaLuLes do noL go agalnsL Lhe LC as Lhey do noL punlsh people for who
Lhey are, raLher, whaL ls punlshed ls whaL Lhey do or how Lhey conducL
Lhemselves (S2) eop|e v. S|ton


7. Lmp|oyment

1here ls a subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween land-based and sea-based workers
ln Lerms of work envlronmenL and accesslblllLy Lo several Lypes of acLlvlLles.
(1S) Mar|t|me Mann|ng Agenc|es, Inc. v. CLA

eople who work wlLh subsLanLlally equal quallflcaLlons, sklll, efforL, and
responslblllLy, under slmllar condlLlons, should be pald slmllar salarles
(wheLher Lhey are llllplno or noL) (31) Internat|ona| Schoo| A|||ance of
Lducators v. u|sumb|ng

ulfferenL classlflcaLlons of employees ln Lerms of Lhelr respecLlve wage
sLrucLures vlolaLes Lhe LC lf no subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlons are shown beLween
Lhe groups (42) Centra| 8ank Lmp|oyees Assoc|at|on v. 8S

1here ls subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween obese cabln aLLendanLs agalnsL
oLhers glven LhaL Lhe former's lmmoblllLy can lmpede passengers from
evacuaLlng Lhe alrcrafL ln cases of emergency (46) rasuegu| v. AL

Lven lf a law seeks Lo allevlaLe Lhe burden of anoLher secLor of socleLy, lf lL
Lransfers such un[usL and dlscrlmlnaLory burden on oLhers (ClWs), lL ls
conLrary Lo law (S1) Serrano v. Ga|ant Mar|t|me Serv|ces, Inc.


8. erm|ts, 8enef|ts and r|v||eges

A valld classlflcaLlon wlLh regard Lo prlvlleges musL admlL of subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlons beLween Lhe groups concerned for lL Lo be consldered
consLlLuLlonal (20) h|| Iudges v. rado

1he Mayor does noL have unbrldled dlscreLlon ln granLlng buslness permlLs.
1o make a valld classlflcaLlon, Lhe requlremenLs of Lhe LC musL sLlll be
complled wlLh. (21) C||varez v. Sand|ganbayan

1here ls subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween non-resldenL allens and resldenL
allens when whaL ls ln quesLlon ls Lhe lssuance of employmenL permlLs (22)
GMC v. 1orres

Lawmakers have Lhe dlscreLlon Lo granL beneflLs Lo speclflc areas only whlch
have Lhe capablllLy of lurlng ln blg lnvesLmenLs and many employmenL
opporLunlLles for llllplnos (26) 1|u v. CA

lf Lhere ls subsLanLlal equallLy ln Lhe roles people from dlfferenL poslLlons play
ln Lhe [udlclary, classlflcaLlon for cerLaln beneflLs and prlvlleges wlLh regard Lo
compensaLlon ls prohlblLed (44) In ke kequest of ACA

9. Cff|ce of the Cmbudsman - LC |s not app||cab|e

1he Cfflce of Lhe Cmbudsman can choose Lo acL on any complalnL flled ln any
manner (no need for verlfled complalnLs, sworn sLaLemenLs and full
dlsclosure of ldenLlLy) agalnsL publlc offlclals (13) A|monte v. Vasquez

1he Cfflce of Lhe Cmbudsman has Lhe sole dlscreLlon of wheLher or noL Lo
pursue prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon and furLher proceedlngs ln cases lL handles
(4S) D|mayuga v. CM8

1he Cmbudsman may lmpose suspenslon Lo prevenL accused publlc offlcers
from commlLLlng acLs LhaL would elLher affecL Lhe case or Lhose LhaL could
creaLe more harm (23) Segov|a v. Sand|ganbayan, (49) Gobenc|ong v. CA











CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
29
Case No. Case 1|t|e Law]Dec|s|on]Document
at Issue
A||eged
D|scr|m|nat|on
Va||d C|ass|f|cat|on 1est Doctr|ne
1 eople v. CayaL Sec. 2 and 3 of Act No.
1639 whlch does noL allow
members of non-ChrlsLlan
Lrlbes Lo buy, recelve,
have ln hls possesslon, or
drlnk" several klnds of
llquor
lL ls alleged LhaL LhaL
Lhere ls an attempt
to d|scr|m|nate
members of non-
ChrlsLlan Lrlbes and
treat them as
|nfer|or belngs
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - Lhe Lerm non-ChrlsLlan Lrlbes"
ln Lhe law refers noL Lo rellglous bellef, buL Lo Lhe geograph|ca|
area and Lo Lhe naLlves of Lhe hlllpplnes of a |ow grade of
c|v|||zat|on

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - law deslgned Lo
lnsure peace and order ln non-ChrlsLlan Lrlbes

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS) - law ls lnLended Lo apply
for all Llmes as long as Lhese condlLlons (sLaLus of lndlgenous
groups, eL. al.) remaln

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to members of the same c|ass (LS)
ClasslflcaLlon can be
made lf lL passes Lhe
valld classlflcaLlon
LesL

Candelarla noLes:
declslon mlghL
change lf case was
flled Loday because
of IkA

2 lchong v.
Pernandez
roh|b|t|on agalnsL non-
clLlzens (boLh persons and
corporaLlons) from
engaglng ln reLall Lrade

Var|ous except|ons to the
proh|b|t|on were prov|ded
(e.g. uS clLlzens, llcense
holders afLer proper
reglsLraLlon)
eLlLloner alleges
LhaL Ch|nese
reta||ers are
unreasonab|y
d|scr|m|nated by Lhe
law
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - allenage ls a reasonable
classlflcaLlon ln Lhe exerclse of pollce power

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - purpose ls Lo
prevenL allen conLrol and domlnance ln reLall whlch ls a LhreaL Lo
naLlonal securlLy

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS) -
no dlscrlmlnaLlon agalnsL Chlnese naLlonals because Lhe
prohlblLlon ls appllcable Lo all oLher allens (excepL uS clLlzens
because Lhey were glven speclal rlghLs by Lhe 1933 ConsLlLuLlon)
Allenage ls a
reasonable
classlflcaLlon ln Lhe
exerclse of pollce
power
3 vlllegas v. Plu
Cholng 1sal ao
Po
C|ty Crd|nance 6S37 whlch
does noL allow non-
I|||p|nos Lo be employed
or engaged ln any
occupaLlon wlLhln Lhe ClLy
of Manlla wlLhouL flrsL
securlng an employmenL
permlL (w|th respect|ve
costs) from Lhe Mayor of
Lhe clLy
lL ls arblLrary,
oppresslve and
unreasonable, belng
applled only Lo allens

1he 30 fee ls
unreasonable
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (NC) - 30 ls unreasonable because lL
ls (1) excesslve and (2) lL falls Lo conslder subsLanLlal dlfferences
ln slLuaLlon among allens

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (NC) - Lhere ls no loglc or
[usLlflcaLlon ln exacLlng a fee from allens who have been cleared
for employmenL

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (NC) -
once a person has been admlLLed Lo Lhe counLry, he cannoL be
1he proLecLlon Lhe
LC guaranLees ls
appllcable Lo boLh
clLlzens and allens
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
30
deprlved of llfe(llvellhood lncluded) wlLhouL due process of law.
roLecLlon of LC ls glven Lo all persons, boLh allen and clLlzens
4 uumlao v.
CCMLLLC
Sec. 4 of 8 8|g. S2
provldes LhaL an e|ect|ve
off|c|a| (clLy or munlclpal)
who has been granted
ret|rement benef|ts for
Lhe poslLlons he has held
and who ls 6S y.o. aL Lhe
commencemenL of Lhe
Lerm of offlce whlch he
seeks Lo be elecLed, sha||
not be qua||f|ed Lo run for
Lhe same e|ect|ve |oca|
off|ce from wh|ch he has
ret|red
uumlao alleges LhaL
Lhe provlslon ls
based on purely
arblLrary grounds
and, Lherefore, class
leglslaLlon"
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - Lhe need for new blood
assumes relevance - a reLlree for governmenL work has already
declared hlmself Llred and unavallable from Lhe same

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - purpose ls Lo
allow Lhe emergence of younger blood ln local governmenLs

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS)
1here ls subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon beLween
a reLlree and young
blood ln Lerms of
governmenL work.
3 CoesarL v. Cleary
eL. al.
Sec 19a of Act 133 of the
ub||c Acts of M|ch|gan
provldes LhaL no fema|e
may be llcensed Lo engage
ln Lhe sale of llquor and
barLendlng unless she 'be
the w|fe or daughter of
the ma|e owner' of a
llcensed llquor
esLabllshmenL
eLlLloners clalm
LhaL (1) prohlblLlng
all females from
selllng llquor and (2)
allowlng wlves or
daughLer of llcensed
barLenders Lo sell
llquor cannot be
prov|ded at the
same t|me
(substant|a|
d|st|nct|on)
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon would
be Lhe relaLlon" of Lhe female worker Lo Lhe bar owner, Lhose
who are relaLed Lo a llcensed male owner wlll be proLecLed by
Lhe laLLer

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - proLecLlon for Lhe
physlcal and moral well belng of women

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS)
Sexual
dlscrlmlnaLlon may
be made lf Lhe
purpose ls ln Lhe
naLure of Lhe
exerclse of pollce
power (ln Lhls case,
proLecLlon of
women)
6 Crmoc Sugar
CenLral v. Crmoc
ClLy
Crmoc C|ty Crd|nance
whlch provldes LhaL Crmoc
Sugar Company shall pay a
munlclpal Lax equlvalenL Lo
1 for everyLhlng exporLed
Lo forelgn counLrles
lL ls alleged LhaL such
ordlnance vlolaLes
Lhe LC
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (N]A) - Lhe peLlLloner was Lhe only
sugar cenLral ln Lhe clLy of Crmoc

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (Not d|scussed)

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (NC) - Laxlng ordlnances
should noL be slngular and excluslve as Lo exclude any
subsequenLly esLabllshed sugar cenLral

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (NC)
Laws should noL
LargeL a slngle and
excluslve company
ln a way LhaL
subsequenL
companles of Lhe
same naLure shall
noL be affecLed by
Lhe law
7 8ASCC v.
ACCC8
.D. 1869 (hlllpplne
AmusemenL and Camlng
eLlLloner conLends
LhaL Lhe .u. vlolaLes
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - Lhere ls a subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon beLween legal and lllegal gambllng - Lhe former ls
1he law can creaLe a
valld classlflcaLlon
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
31
CorporaLlon CharLer)
legallzed ACCC8-
conducLed gambllng
Lhe LC because lL
legallzed ACCC8-
conducLed gambllng,
whlle mosL gambllng
are ouLlawed
LogeLher wlLh
prosLlLuLlon, drug
Lrafflcklng and oLher
vlces"
allowed by law and regulaLed by Lhe governmenL whlle Lhe laLLer
ls noL (lnvolves all Lhe evlls and, malpracLlces, and corrupLlons)

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - purpose ls Lhe
cenLrallzaLlon, lnLegraLlon, and regulaLlons of games of chance
auLhorlzed by law ln order Lo generaLe addlLlonal revenue

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS)
beLween acLlvlLles
conLrolled and
regulaLed by law
and Lhose whlch are
noL (ln Lhls case,
games of chance)
8 8epubllc v.
Sandlganbayan
eL.al.
Deed of Ass|gnment
enLered lnLo by CCC and
Congressman ue venecla -
bas|s of the
Sand|ganbayan to d|sm|ss
C|v|| Case No. 0020 aga|nst
respondents
1he execuLed deed
of asslgnmenL should
only dlsmlss Lhe case
agalnsL respondenL
ue venecla buL noL
Lhe oLher
respondenLs
(members of
PlLCuA8An1LL -
8ondoc eL.al. ,
lerdlnand and
lmelda Marcos)
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (art|a||y LS)
- NC ln Lhe case of 8ondoc eL.al., Lhey sLand ln Lhe same ground
as ue venecla, Lhey dld noL commlL an acLlonable wrong - Lhey
were [usL vlcLlms of Lhe Marcoses
- LS ln Lhe case of Lhe Marcoses, Lhere should be dlsLlncLlon
because Lhe deed of asslgnmenL exculpaLed only ue venecla and
8ondoc eL.al., Lhe Marcoses were lnculpaLed

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - Lhe purpose of
Lhe CCC was Lo recover Lhe lll-goLLen wealLh of Lhe Marcoses
and Lo punlsh Lhem and Lhelr cronles, noL oLhers who dld noL
commlL acLlonable wrongs

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS) -
8ondoc eL.al. musL be LreaLed ln Lhe same sLaLus as ue venecla
as Lhey dld noL do anyLhlng wrong
1here ls subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon beLween
Lhose who dld noL
commlL any
acLlonable wrong
agalnsL Lhose who
lnsLlgaLed and
commlLLed such
wrongs.
9 8lnay v. uomlngo keso|ut|on No. 60 or the
8ur|a| Ass|stance rogram
of Makat| whlch provldes
for a 300 flnanclal
asslsLance Lo a bereavered
famlly whose gross famlly
lncome does noL exceed
2000 a monLh - funds
would be Laken from
unapproprlaLed avallable
funds ln Lhe munlclpal
Lreasury
Commlsslon on AudlL
conLends LhaL Lhe
300 per quallfled
bereavered famlly
amounLlng Lo
400,000 should be
for Lhe beneflL of Lhe
whole, lf noL Lhe
ma[orlLy, of Lhe
lnhablLanLs of Lhe
munlclpallLy and noL
for Lhe beneflL of
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - Lhose quallfled bearevered
famllles" can be classlfled as paupers

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - care for Lhe poor
ls a recognlzed publlc duLy, 8esoluLlon no.60 promoLes Soclal
!usLlce

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS)
lor Lhe purpose of
Lhe general welfare
of people (moreover
Lhose who are ln
need) and exacLlng
soclal [usLlce, Lhe
sLaLe can use lLs
pollce power Lo
creaLe a
classlflcaLlon
beLween Lhe poor
and oLhers
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
32
only Lhose who
quallfy
10 naLlonal ollce
Commlsslon v.
ue Cuzman, !r.
Sec. 39 of kA 697S
provldes LhaL upon
aLLalnmenL of Lhe age of
36, offlcer and non-offlcer
members of Lhe n musL
reLlre, ln case of any
offlcer wlLh Lhe rank of
chlef superlnLendenL,
dlrecLor or depuLy dlrecLor
general, Lhe Commlsslon
may allow hls reLenLlon for
an unexLendlble perlod of
1 year

Sec 89 of Lhe same law
provlded a 4 year
LranslLory perlod of Lhe
acL: compulsory
reLlremenL aL Lhe (a) age of
60 ln Lhe 1
sL
year, (b) age
of 39 on Lhe 2
nd
year, (c)
age of 38 on Lhe 3
rd
year,
and (d) age of 37 of Lhe 4
Lh

year
lL ls ln quesLlon
wheLher or noL Sec.
89 of Lhe law ls
appllcable Lo Lhe
members of Lhe now
defuncL hlllpplne
ConsLabulary (C)

lf noL, does lL vlolaLe
Lhe LC?
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - Lhere ls a subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon beLween Lhe C and Lhe local pollce force, leglslaLlve
lnLenL ls clear when lL comes Lo Lhe lssue of Sec. 89 of Lhe law
noL belng appllcable Lo Lhe members of Lhe C

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) -purpose ls Lo
enable Lhe pollce Lo plan Lhelr reLlremenL whlch would be earller
Lhan usual under Lhe sald law

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (Not app||cab|e) - Sec. 89 ls
merely LranslLory

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS)
LeglslaLlve lnLenL
behlnd Lhe law aL
lssue may glve rlse
Lo a subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon
11 1olenLlno v.
SecreLary of
llnance
k.A. 7716 or Lhe Lxpanded
value Added 1ax Law
lL ls alleged LhaL Lhe
sald law vlolaLes Lhe
LC based on Lhe (1)
lack of exempLlon on
Lhe sales of real
properLy and (2)
favourable
exempLlons for
elecLrlc cooperaLlves
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - 1here ls a dlfference beLween
Lhe homeless poor and Lhe homeless less poor - Lhe laLLer
(second/mlddle class group) can afford Lo renL houses for Lhe
meanLlme whlle Lhe former cannoL

- lL ls lnherenL ln Lhe Lax power of Lhe sLaLe Lo selecL Lhe sub[ecLs
of LaxaLlon

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS)
- Lhe purpose of Lhe exempLlon of food, peLroleum, medlcal,
and veLerlnary servlces from L-vA1 ls Lo provlde rellef for Lhe
lower lncome groups
- also, Lhere ls a greaLer need Lo provlde cheaper elecLrlc power
Lo as many people as posslble
CreaLlng
classlflcaLlons for
Lhe purpose of
LaxaLlon ls lnherenL
ln Lhe Laxlng power
of Lhe SLaLe
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
33

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS) -
Lhe Laxlng power of Lhe sLaLe allows Lhe auLhorlLy Lo make
reasonable and naLural classlflcaLlons for Lhe purpose of LaxaLlon
12 Plmagan v.
eople
Sec. 47 of k.A. 697S whlch
provldes LhaL upon flllng of
a complalnL or lnformaLlon
sufflclenL ln form and
subsLance agalnsL a
member of Lhe n for
grave felonles, Lhe courL
shall lmmedlaLely suspend
Lhe accused from offlce
unLll Lhe case ls LermlnaLed

Such case shall be sub[ecL
Lo conLlnuous Lrlal and
shall be LermlnaLed wlLhln
90 days from arralgnmenL
of Lhe accused
lL ls conLended LhaL
Lhe lmposlLlon of Lhe
prevenLlve
suspenslon ls
conLrary Lo Clvll
Servlce Law and
vlolaLlve of Lhe LC

Also, lL ls also alleged
LhaL Lhe LermlnaLlon
of Lhe case wlLhln 90
days from
arralgnmenL musL be
llfLed because of Lhe
command of Lhe
LermlnaLlon of Lhe
Lrlal wlLhln Lhe sald
perlod
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - Lhere ls a dlfferenL appllcaLlon
and LreaLmenL of Lhe members of Lhe n agalnsL oLher persons
as Lhey carry weapons and Lhe badge of Lhe law whlch can be
used Lo harass or lnLlmldaLe wlLnesses agalnsL Lhem

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - Lhe purpose of
Lhe law ls Lo prevenL Lhose ln poslLlon ln Lhe n Lo wleld
lnfluence or power over prospecLlve wlLnesses

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS) -
applles Lo all members of Lhe n regardless of rank
1here ls a
subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon beLween
crlmlnally accused
pollcemen and
crlmlnally accused
oLher persons
lnsofar as Lhe
former, Lhrough
Lhelr weapons and
poslLlon, can
lnLlmldaLe
prospecLlve
wlLnesses
13 AlmonLe v.
vasquez
Cmbudsman's order by
vlrLue of subpoena Joces
tecom Lo produce personal
documenLs and salary
vouchers of Lhe Lll8 based
on a case broughL abouL by
an unslgned and unverlfled
leLLer complalnL
eLlLloners alleged
LhaL ln a|| forms of
and tr|buna|s, Lhe
aggrleved parLles can
only hale
respondenLs vla Lhelr
verlfled complalnLs
or sworn sLaLemenLs
wlLh Lhelr ldenLlLles
fully dlsclosed whlle
ln proceed|ngs
before the
Cmbudsman,
anonymous leLLers
sufflce Lo sLarL an
lnvesLlgaLlon
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - Lhe ConsLlLuLlon expressly
provldes LhaL Lhe Cmbudsman can acL on any complalnL flled ln
any form or manner" concernlng offlclal acLs or omlsslons
alleged Lo be unlawful

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - Lhe framers of Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon consldered Lhe flnanclal condlLlon of poor and
slmple folk who could noL afford Lo hlre a lawyer for Lhe purpose
of charglng a publlc offlclal for hls unlawful acLs or omlsslons

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS)
1he Cfflce of Lhe
Cmbudsman can
choose Lo acL on any
complalnL flled ln
any manner (no
need for verlfled
complalnLs, sworn
sLaLemenLs and full
dlsclosure of
ldenLlLy) agalnsL
publlc offlclals
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
34
14 Llm v. acqulng .D. 771 revoked all
exlsLlng !al-Alal franchlsers
lssued by local
governmenLs
AssoclaLe
uevelopmenL
CorporaLlon argues
LhaL .u. 771 vlolaLes
Lhe LC as lL revokes
Lhelr gambllng
franchlse
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (N]A) - lL should be remembered LhaL
a franchlse ls noL a slmple conLracL buL a mere prlvllege speclally
ln maLLers whlch are wlLhln Lhe governmenL's power Lo regulaLe
and even prohlblL Lhrough Lhe exerclse of pollce power

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - Lhe purpose of
Lhe law ls Lo effecLlvely conLrol and regulaLe wagers or beLLlng
by Lhe publlc on horse and dog races, [al-alal and oLher forms of
gambllng (for publlc welfare)

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to members of the same c|ass (LS) - Lhe
decree revoked all franchlses lssued by local governmenLs
wlLhouL quallflcaLlon or excepLlon
A gambllng
franchlse ls always
sub[ecL Lo Lhe
exerclse of pollce
power for Lhe publlc
welfare
13 MarlLlme
Mannlng
Agencles, lnc. v.
CLA
keso|ut|on No. 01, ser|es
of 1994 of Lhe CLA and
CLA Memorandum
C|rcu|ar No. 0S, ser|es of
1994
lL ls alleged LhaL Lhe
resoluLlon and
memorandum
vlolaLe Lhe LC as
Lhere ls
d|scr|m|nat|on
aga|nst fore|gn
sh|powners and
pr|nc|pa|s employlng
I|||p|no seamen and
ln favor of fore|gn
emp|oyers
employlng overseas
llllplnos who are not
seamen
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - Lhere ls a subsLanLlal dlfference
beLween land-based and sea-based workers ln Lerms of work
envlronmenL, safeLy, dangers, rlsks, and accesslblllLy Lo soclal,
clvlc, and splrlLual acLlvlLles

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - Lhe purpose of
Lhe law ls Lo afford proLecLlon Lo llllplno ClW's lncludlng
seafarers and Lhelr famllles

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS)
1here ls a
subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon beLween
land-based and sea-
based workers ln
Lerms of work
envlronmenL and
accesslblllLy Lo
several Lypes of
acLlvlLles.
16 8egala v.
Sandlganbayan
eLlLloners, parLners of
ACC8A Law llrm LhaL
reveallng Lhe name of Lhelr
cllenL ls a vlolaLlon of
aLLorney-cllenL prlvllege -
recognlLlon of Lhe
lmporLance of
confldenLlallLy
ln dropplng slmllar
charges agalnsL
prlvaLe respondenL
8aul 8oco, Lhe
conLlnued
prosecuLlon of Lhe
peLlLloners vlolaLes
Lhe LC as Lhere ls
no subsLanLlal
dlfference beLween
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (NC) - lL ls grossly unfalr Lo exempL
one slmllarly slLuaLed llLlganL from prosecuLlon wlLhouL allowlng
Lhe same exempLlon Lo Lhe oLhers

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS)

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS)
no valld
classlflcaLlon can be
made wlLhouL Lhe
presence of a
subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
3S
8oco and Lhe
peLlLloners
17 Slson, !r. v.
AncheLa
Sec. 1 of 8.. 8|g. 13S eLlLloner alleges
LhaL Lhere would be
undue dlscrlmlnaLlon
agalnsL hlm by Lhe
lmposlLlon of hlgher
Lax raLes upon hls
lncome arlslng from
Lhe exerclse of hls
professlon agalnsL
Lhose whlch are
lmposed upon flxed
lncome
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - Lhe revenue measures are
anchored ln a subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween Laxpayers ablllLy
Lo pay Laxes

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - Lhe purpose of
Lhe law ls Lo address Lhe dlsparlLles amongsL Lhe expenses
necessary Lo produce Lhelr lncome

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS) -
creaLlng Lax classlflcaLlon ls lnherenL ln Lhe Laxlng power of Lhe
sLaLe
CreaLlng
classlflcaLlons for
Lhe purpose of
LaxaLlon ls lnherenL
ln Lhe Laxlng power
of Lhe SLaLe
18 Marcos v. CA Savlng clause ln C8 C|rcu|ar
No. 1318 provldes LhaL
regulaLlons, vlolaLlons of
whlch are Lhe sub[ecL of
pendlng acLlons or
lnvesLlgaLlons, shall noL be
consldered repealed
lnsofar as such pendlng
acLlons or lnvesLlgaLlons or
concerned
eLlLloner lmelda
Marcos conLended
LhaL Lhe savlng
clause vlolaLes Lhe
LC as lL was
purposely deslgned
Lo preserve Lhe
crlmlnal charges
agalnsL her and her
co-accused,
8enedlcLo and 8lvera
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - Lhere ls a subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon beLween Lhose who have pendlng acLlons and Lhose
who have none - Lhe cause of acLlon of Lhose ln Lhe former
group already accrued before Lhe passage of Lhe law

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - savlng clause was
dlcLaLed by Lhe need Lo conLlnue Lhe prosecuLlon of Lhose who
had already commlLLed vlolaLlons agalnsL Lhe law

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS) -
applles Lo all people and noL [usL Lhe peLlLloners
1here ls a
subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon beLween
Lhose who have
pendlng crlmlnal
charges agalnsL
Lhose who have
none
19 nolasco v.
CCMLLLC
Sec. 68 of the Cmn|bus
L|ect|on Code was vlolaLed
because Lhere was
(1)paymenL of money Lo
lnfluence or corrupL voLers
and publlc offlclals
performlng elecLlon
funcLlons, (2) commlLLlng
acLs of Lerrorlsm Lo
enhance hls candldacy and
(3) spendlng an amounL
over whaL ls allowed by
8lanco alleges LhaL
hls rlghL Lo LC was
vlolaLed because hls
cases were noL
referred Lo
CCMLLLC's Law
ueparLmenL
pursuanL Lo
CCMLLLC 8esoluLlon
no. 2030 before
dlsquallflcaLlon
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (N]A) - CCMLLLC has Lhe power Lo
resolve Lhe cases of 8lanco dlrecLly wlLhouL referrlng lL Lo lLs Law
ueparLmenL

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS)

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS) -
CCMLLLC has [urlsdlcLlon over proclamaLlon and dlsquallflcaLlon
cases
CCMLLLC has Lhe
consLlLuLlonally
granLed power Lo
enforce and
admlnlsLer all laws
and regulaLlons
relaLlve Lo Lhe
conducL of an
elecLlon, lL cannoL
be resLrlcLed by
mere procedural
rules
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
36
Lhe LlecLlon Code
20 hll !udges v.
rado
Sec. 3S of k.A. 73S4
wlLhdraws Lhe franklng
prlvllege from Lhe [udlclary

lrank malls = some form of
communlcaLlon
lL ls alleged LhaL such
law vlolaLes Lhe LC
as lL wlLhdraws Lhe
franklng prlvllege Lhe
[udlclary whlle
malnLalnlng lL for
oLhers such as Lhe
execuLlve, former
execuLlves, and Lhelr
wldows among
oLhers
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (NC) - Lhere ls no subsLanLlal
dlfference beLween Lhe [udlclary and oLhers when lL comes Lo
Lhe franklng prlvllege - Lhe [udlclary needs lL as much or even
more Lhan oLher agencles granLed such prlvllege

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - alLhough Lhls ls
lmmaLerlal as Lhe law ls unconsLlLuLlonal

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (Not d|scussed)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (NC) -
Lhe [udlclary should be consldered as havlng Lhe same class as all
oLhers who are granLed Lhe franklng prlvllege
A valld classlflcaLlon
wlLh regard Lo
prlvlleges musL
admlL of subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlons
beLween Lhe groups
concerned for lL Lo
be consldered
consLlLuLlonal
21 Cllvarez v.
Sandlganbayan
LC lssued by peLlLloner
who ls Lhe Mayor of
aranaque.

lL lssued permlL Lo
anunldenLlfled 8aclaran-
based
vendors'assoclaLlon" Lo seL
up a nlghL manufacLurer's
falr, whlch llkewlse meanL
Lhe denlal of Lhe same
permlL Lo 8CCl Lo whom
Lhe permlL was prevlously
granLed Lo
lL ls alleged LhaL Lhe
Mayor dlscrlmlnaLed
agalnsL 8CCl and ln
favor of Lhe 8aclaran
vendors Lo whom
Lhe permlL was
granLed Lo
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (NC) - Lhey falled Lo show LhaL 8CCl
and Lhe 8aclaran vendors were noL slmllarly slLuaLed so as Lo
glve aL leasL a semblance of legallLy Lo Lhe apparenL hasLe wlLh
whlch Lhe LC was lssued

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (NC) - 1he facL LhaL Lhe
permlL was granLed Lo 8CCl before meanL LhaL granLlng Lhe
permlL Lo Lhem ls noL conLrary Lo law

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (N]A) - Lhe lack of a
subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon already nulllfles Lhe classlflcaLlon made

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (N]A) -
Lhe lack of a subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon already nulllfles Lhe
classlflcaLlon made
1he Mayor does noL
have unbrldled
dlscreLlon ln
granLlng buslness
permlLs. 1o make a
valld classlflcaLlon,
Lhe requlremenLs of
Lhe LC musL sLlll be
complled wlLh.
22 CMC v. 1orres Art. 40 of Lhe Labor Code
Lalks abouL Lhe
employmenL permlL
granLed Lo non-resldenL
allens
8evocaLlon of
employmenL permlL
of 1lm Cone and
conLlnued
employmenL of
norman 8lack
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - norman 8lack ls a long Llme
resldenL of Lhe counLry, ArL 40 of Lhe labor code applles only Lo
non-resldenLs

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - Lhe purpose of
Lhe law ls Lo regulaLe Lhe employmenL of allens

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS)
1here ls subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon beLween
non-resldenL allens
and resldenL allens
when whaL ls ln
quesLlon ls Lhe
lssuance of
employmenL
permlLs
23 Segovla v. Sec. 13 of k.A. 3019 (AnLl- eLlLloner alleged a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - publlc offlcers may use Lhe 1he Cmbudsman
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
37
Sandlganbayan CrafL and CorrupL racLlces
Law) whlch provldes LhaL
any lncumbenL offlcer
agalnsL whom a case
(comlng from a valld
lnformaLlon) ls flled shall
be suspended from offlce
LhaL such power Lo
suspend ls a vlolaLlon
of Lhe LC
presLlge and lnfluence of Lhelr offlce Lo lnLlmldaLe or lnfluence
prospecLlve wlLnesses, Lo Lamper wlLh documenLary evldence, or
Lo commlL furLher acLs of malfeasance whlle ln offlce

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - Lhe purpose of
Lhe law ls Lo prevenL such publlc offlcers from dolng Lhe acLs
enumeraLed above

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS)
may lmpose
suspenslon Lo
prevenL accused
publlc offlcers from
commlLLlng acLs LhaL
would elLher affecL
Lhe case or Lhose
LhaL could creaLe
more harm
24 Chavez v. CCC Comprom|se Agreement
enLered lnLo by Lhe CCC
and Lhe LsLaLe of Marcos
vlolaLes LCs 1, 2, and 14,
and Lhe ConsLlLuLlon

lL provldes (1) a walver of
ALL clalms and counLer-
clalms by Lhe governmenL,
(2) an exempLlon from all
forms of Laxes Lo Lhe
properLles Lo be reLalned
by Lhe Marcos helrs, and
(3) a granL of crlmlnal
lmmunlLy Lo Lhe Marcoses
eLlLloner conLends
LhaL a compromlse
agreemenL beLween
Lhe CCC and Lhe
Marcoses wlll be a
vlrLual condonaLlon
of all Lhe alleged
wrongs done by
Lhem
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (art|a||y LS)
- NC Lhere ls no subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween Lhe Marcos
helrs and oLhers who may ln Lhe fuLure be accounLable Lo Lhe
publlc
- NC Lhere ls no subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween properLles Lo be
reLalned by Marcos helrs and properLles of Lhe same class - Lhe
granL of speclal Lax exempLlon wlll consLlLuLe class leglslaLlon
- LS Lhere ls subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween Lhe Marcoses and
a wlLness ln conformlLy wlLh Lhe requlremenLs for lmmunlLy
under Sec. 3 of LC 14 - Lhe Marcoses are prlnclpal defendanLs ln
a case pendlng before Lhe Sandlganbayan whereas Sec. 3 ls
appllcable only Lo wlLnesses who provlde lnformaLlon or LesLlfy
agalnsL a respondenL ln an lll-goLLen wealLh case

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (Not d|scussed)

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (N]A) - agreemenLs do noL
provlde for a deflnlLe and deLermlnable perlod wlLhln whlch Lhe
parLles shall fulflll Lhelr respecLlve presLaLlons

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (Not
d|scussed)
Crlmlnal lmmunlLy
under Sec. 3 ls
granLed only Lo
wlLnesses agalnsL an
accused ln an lll-
goLLen wealLh case.
1hls provlso glves
rlse Lo a subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon beLween
prlnclpal defendanLs
and wlLnesses ln
such cases.
23 1LLL8A v.
CCMLLLC
Sec. 92 of 8.. No. 881
(Cmnlbus LlecLlon Code)
requlres LhaL all radlo
broadcasLlng and
Lelevlslon sLaLlons Lo
provlde radlo or Lelevlslon
Llme, free of charge,
eLlLloners complaln
LhaL such law slngles
ouL radlo and
Lelevlslon sLaLlons Lo
provlde free alrLlme.
(newspapers and
magazlnes are noL)
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - 8roadcasL medla has a more
pervaslve lnfluence, radlo LranslsLors are found everywhere

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - maLerlals ln
broadcasL medla are recelved by a greaLer number of people

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)
1he CovernmenL
may requlre
broadcasLlng
sLaLlons Lo allow
Lhem Lo
communlcaLe Lo Lhe
publlc. 1hls ls parL of
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
38
durlng Lhe perlod of Lhe
campalgn for Comelec
1lme"

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS)
Lhelr responslblllLy
under 8.A. 7232
26 1lu v. CA L.C. 97-A whlch llmlLed
Lhe beneflLs and economlc
lncenLlves glven by 8A
7227
lL ls alleged LhaL by
narrowlng down Lhe
speclal prlvlleges
granLed Lo Lhe
fenced-ln former
Sublc naval 8ase
only", L.C. 97- A
excluded oLhers
from en[oylng such
beneflLs amounLlng
Lo dlscrlmlnaLlon noL
based on subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlons
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS)
- Lhere ls subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween Lhe blg lnvesLors belng
lured lnLo esLabllshlng and operaLlng Lhelr lndusLrles lnslde Lhe
secured area" and Lhe presenL buslnesses ouLslde Lhe sald area
- Lhe secured area could glve rlse Lo Lhousands of new [obs and
bllllon peso lnvesLmenLs
- on Lhe oLher hand, Lhose acLlvlLles ouLslde are noL llkely Lo
have any lmpacL ln achlevlng Lhe purpose of Lhe law

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - Lhe real purpose
of Lhe law ls Lo converL Lhe lands formerly occupled by uS
mlllLary bases lnLo economlc and lndusLrlal areas - glven Lhls,
Lhe Congress lnLended Lo develop Lhe secured area" as a slLe
for blg lnvesLors Lo use for Lhelr lndusLrles

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS)
Lawmakers have Lhe
dlscreLlon Lo granL
beneflLs Lo speclflc
areas only whlch
have Lhe capablllLy
of lurlng ln blg
lnvesLmenLs and
many employmenL
opporLunlLles for
llllplnos
27 Lacson v.
LxecuLlve
SecreLary
k.A. 8249 (An AcL lurLher
ueflnlng Lhe !urlsdlcLlon of
Lhe Sandlganbayan) was
alleged Lo be
unconsLlLuLlonal

Sec. 4 of the sa|d |aw
deleLed Lhe word
prlnclpal" so LhaL Lhe
Sandlganbayan wlll have
excluslve [urlsdlcLlon
regardless of Lhe degree of
parLlclpaLlon

Sec. 7 of the sa|d |aw ls a
LranslLory provlslon whlch
sLaLes LhaL Lhe AcL wlll
apply Lo all pendlng cases
ln any courL over whlch
Lacson alleged LhaL
Lhe provlslons ln Lhe
sald law were made
Lo LargeL hls case.
1he [urlsdlcLlon was
already glven Lo Lhe
81C buL when Lhe
law was passed,
[urlsdlcLlon
Lransferred Lo Lhe
Sandlganbayan. Pe
sald LhaL lL vlolaLes
Lhe LC.
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - Lhere ls subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon
beLween Lhose cases where Lrlal already begun agalnsL Lhose
whlch have noL yeL sLarLed upon Lhe effecLlvlLy of Lhe law

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - Lhe law slmply
resLored whaL was provlded ln Lhe orlglnal provlslons under .u.
1606

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS)
1here ls a
subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon beLween
cases where Lrlal
already begun
agalnsL Lhose where
lL has noL yeL
sLarLed.
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
39
Lrlal has noL begun
28 Sorlano v. CA eLlLloner, afLer belng
convlcLed and
subsequenLly belng
granLed probaLlon,
vlolaLed Lhe 1erms and
Cond|t|ons of such
robat|on
Pe alleged LhaL
requlrlng hlm Lo
saLlsfy hls clvll
llablllLy ln order Lo
conLlnue avalllng of
Lhe beneflL of
probaLlon vlolaLes
Lhe LC - he ls
saylng LhaL only
moneyed
probaLloners have
Lhe chance Lo beneflL
from such probaLlon
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (N]A) - no dlsLlncLlon was made -
probaLlon was granLed Lo hlm even lf he was really poor

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (N]A) - no dlsLlncLlon
was made

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (N]A) - no dlsLlncLlon was
made

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (N]A) -
no dlsLlncLlon was made
1he granL of
probaLlon does noL
requlre flnanclal
capablllLy on Lhe
parL of Lhe granLee.
Powever, paymenL
of clvll damages may
be valldly made as a
condlLlon for Lhe
conLlnued
en[oymenL of such
probaLlon.
29 Agulnaldo v.
CCMLLLC
Sec. 27 of the Cmn|bus
L|ect|on Code(8.. 8|g.
881) provldes LhaL any
elecLlve offlclal runnlng for
any offlce oLher Lhan
whlch he ls currenLly
holdlng (excepL for
resldenL and vlce
resldenL) shall be
consldered lpso facLo
reslgned from hls offlce
upon flllng of Lhe CCC
eLlLloners conLend
LhaL Lhe classlflcaLlon
of persons runnlng
for offlce ls noL a
valld classlflcaLlon.
1hose who are
runnlng for Lhe same
poslLlon are glven
undue advanLage
glven Lhe avallable
resources and Lhe
lnfluence of Lhelr
poslLlon.
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - Lhere ls subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon
beLween Lhose runnlng for anoLher poslLlon and Lhose runnlng
for Lhe same poslLlon.

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - Lhe purpose of
Lhe law ls Lo dlscourage lncumbenL offlclals from runnlng for any
oLher offlce Lherefore ensurlng LhaL Lhey serve ouL Lhelr Lerm of
offlce

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS)
Conslderlng
lncumbenL offlclals
reslgned from Lhelr
offlce upon flllng a
CCC for anoLher
poslLlon ls noL a
vlolaLlon of Lhe LC
because lL ls
germane Lo Lhe
purpose of Lhe law.
30 Loong v. Comelec k.A. 8436 prescrlbed Lhe
auLomaLlon of Lhe
elecLlons

1here was a Lechnlcal
malfuncLlon whlch enLalled
a manua| count

Speclal elecLlon for Lhe
pos|t|on of governor was
LhoughL of
1o hold a speclal
elecLlon only for
governor wlll be
dlscrlmlnaLory
agalnsL Lhe
respondenL
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (NC) - Lhere ls no subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon beLween Lhe governor seaL as agalnsL oLher seaLs, Lhe
wlnners of oLher poslLlons were already dlscharglng Lhelr powers
and duLles, Lhese offlclals were proclalmed on Lhe basls of Lhe
manually counLed voLes - lf manual counLlng ls lllegal, Lhelr
assumpLlon of offlce cannoL also be counLenanced

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (Not d|scussed)

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (Not d|scussed)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (NC) -
rlvaLe respondenL's elecLlon cannoL be slngled ouL as lnvalld for
Allkes cannoL be
LreaLed as unallkes
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
40
allkes cannoL be LreaLed as unallkes
-
31 lnLernaLlonal
School Alllance
of LducaLors v.
Culsumblng
1he o|nt-of-h|re
c|ass|f|cat|on vlolaLes Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon, Labor Code,
Clvll Code, and varlous
lnLernaLlonal LreaLles Lo
whlch Lhe hlllpplnes ls a
parLy Lo

lL provldes a 2S salary
dlsLlncLlon beLween
forelgn hlres and local
hlres
eLlLloner clalms
LhaL Lhe polnL-of-hlre
classlflcaLlon
employed by Lhe
school ls
dlscrlmlnaLory Lo
llllplnos and LhaL Lhe
granL of hlgher
salarles Lo forelgners
consLlLuLes raclal
dlscrlmlnaLlon
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (NC) - Lhere ls no subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon beLween local and forelgn hlres - Lhe SC held LhaL
persons who work wlLh subsLanLlally equal quallflcaLlons, sklll,
efforL, and responslblllLy, under slmllar condlLlons, should be
pald slmllar salarles."

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (NC) - Lhe dlslocaLlon
facLor" and Lhe llmlLed Lenure" experlenced by Lhe forelgn-
hlres are noL valld bases for Lhe salary dlsLlncLlon - Lhese are
compensaLed by oLher beneflLs such as houslng, LransporLaLlon,
Laxes, eLc.

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (N]A) - classlflcaLlon falled Lhe
flrsL Lwo requlslLes already

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (NC) -
slnce Lhere ls no subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon Lo creaLe a valld
classlflcaLlon, local hlres and forelgn hlres are supposed Lo be
consldered ln Lhe same class when lL comes Lo rlghL Lo salarles
eople who work
wlLh subsLanLlally
equal quallflcaLlons,
sklll, efforL, and
responslblllLy, under
slmllar condlLlons,
should be pald
slmllar salarles
(wheLher Lhey are
llllplno or noL)
32 ue Cuzman, !r. v.
CCMLLLC
Sec. 44 of kA 8189 (voLer's
8eglsLraLlon AcL of 1996)
provldes LhaL no elecLlon
offlcer shall hold offlce ln a
parLlcular clLy or
munlclpallLy for more Lhan
4 years

lL also provldes LhaL Lhose
who shall have served for
4 years aL a parLlcular
place shall be reasslgned
Lo a new sLaLlon ouLslde
Lhe orlglnal congresslonal
dlsLrlcL
eLlLloners alleged
LhaL Lhe provlslon
slngles ouL the c|ty
and mun|c|pa|
e|ect|on off|cers of
Lhe CCMLLLC
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS)

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - Lhe purpose of
Lhe law ls Lo break llnks beLween chalns of corrupLlon by
changlng elecLlon offlcers every so ofLen

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS)
CCMLLLC may
asslgn elecLlon
offlcers Lo oLher
sLaLlons afLer 4
years Lo avold
corrupLlon LhaL
mlghL Lake place
33 8A?An v. Zamora 1he V|s|t|ng Iorces
Agreement whlch was
raLlfled by Lhe SenaLe ln
1999
lL was alleged LhaL
Lhrough Lhls law,
undue advanLage
was glven Lo uS
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - uS mlllLary personnel, belng
proLecLed by lnLernaLlonal law and obllged Lo perform cerLaln
acLlvlLles, are enLlLled Lo cerLaln beneflLs and exempLlons from
Lhe governmenL
1he vlA does noL
vlolaLe Lhe LC
because Lhe cerLaln
exempLlons and
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
41
mlllLary and clvlllan
personnel over
oLhers

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - Lhe purpose of
Lhe law ls Lo promoLe muLual respecL and supporL beLween Lhe
Lwo counLrles whlch can also guaranLee safeLy for Lhe
hlllpplnes as uS mlllLary personnel can enLer Lhe counLry
anyLlme

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS) - unLll agreemenL ls
LermlnaLed

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS)
prlvlleges glven Lo
uS mlllLary
personnel are [usL Lo
serve ouL Lhe
agreemenL's
purpose of
promoLlng muLual
LrusL and peace
among Lhe Lwo
counLrles.
34 eople v.
Mercado
Art. 267 of the kC as
amended by kA 76S9
whlch provldes LhaL when
a person ls sub[ecLed Lo
LorLure or dehumanlzlng
acLs, or ls raped, or ls
kllled, or dles as a
consequence of an lllegal
deLenLlon, Lhe maxlmum
penalLy ls lmposed
lL ls alleged LhaL Lhe
deaLh penalLy ls
mosL ofLen used
agalnsL Lhe poor
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (N]A) - no dlsLlncLlon ls mad, any
person regardless of hls sLaLure ln llfe may commlL Lhe crlme and
be punlshed wlLh such penalLy

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (N]A) - no dlsLlncLlon ls
mad, any person regardless of hls sLaLure ln llfe may commlL Lhe
crlme and be punlshed wlLh such penalLy

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (N]A) - no dlsLlncLlon ls mad,
any person regardless of hls sLaLure ln llfe may commlL Lhe crlme
and be punlshed wlLh such penalLy

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (N]A) -
no dlsLlncLlon ls mad, any person regardless of hls sLaLure ln llfe
may commlL Lhe crlme and be punlshed wlLh such penalLy
ArL. 267 of Lhe 8C
does noL vlolaLe Lhe
8C glven LhaL
anyone may commlL
Lhe crlmes
enumeraLed Lhereln
and be punlshed
wlLh Lhe same
penalLy
33 eople v. !alos[os Art. VI, Sec. 11 of the
Const|tut|on whlch
provldes LhaL any Member
of Congress shall, ln all
offenses punlshable by noL
more Lhan 6 years
lmprlsonmenL, be
prlvlleged from arresL
whlle Lhe Congress ls ln
sesslon
Accused-appellanL,
belng charged wlLh
crlmes (sLaLuLory
rape and acLs of
lasclvlousness) LhaL
would enLall
lmprlsonmenL more
Lhan Lhe 6 year
exempLlon, ls asklng
for a classlflcaLlon
belng an elecLlve
offlclal

Pe ls asklng LhaL he
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (NC) - Lhere ls no subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon beLween an elecLlve offlclal and oLher prlsoners LhaL
are deprlved of llberLy afLer commlLLlng cerLaln crlmes wlLh
cerLaln penalLles

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (NC) - a classlflcaLlon
cannoL be made as Lhe purpose of Lhe law ls Lo promoLe Lhe
counLry's crlmlnal [usLlce sysLem by allowlng rehablllLaLlon Lo
happen and securlLy Lo be presenL by lmplemenLlng punlshmenL
agalnsL prlsoners no maLLer who Lhey are or whaL poslLlon Lhey
hold

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (Not d|scussed)

An elecLlve offlclal
who commlLLed a
crlme punlshed by a
perlod LhaL goes
beyond Lhelr
prlvlleged-from-
arresL exempLlon
has no subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon from
oLher prlsoners who
commlLLed crlmes
punlshed by Lhe
same penalLles
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
42
be allowed Lo
conLlnue hls work as
a member of
Congress
d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS) -
an elecLlve offlclal, who ls ln Lhe same class as oLher prlsoners,
musL experlence Lhe same deprlvaLlon of llberLy as punlshmenL
for Lhe crlmes he commlLLed
36 Lopez v. CA kA 6770 (1he Cmbudsman
AcL) whlch provldes LhaL
on|y orders, dlrecLlves or
declslons of Lhe Cfflce of
Lhe Cmbudsman ln
adm|n|strat|ve cases
|mpos|ng the pena|ty of
pub||c censure,
repr|mand, or suspens|on
of not more than one
month, or a f|ne not
equ|va|ent to one month
sa|ary sha|| be f|na| and
executory
eLlLloners clalm
LhaL Lhe sLay of
execuLlon pendlng
appeal from Lhe
order, dlrecLlve, or
declslon of Lhe Cfflce
of Lhe Cmbudsman
v|o|ates the LC for
belng unfalr Lo
governmenL
emp|oyees charged
under the C|v||
Serv|ce Law, where
Lhe declslons ln
dlsclpllnary cases are
|mmed|ate|y
executory
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - Lhe clvll servlce law and Lhe
ombudsman acL are LoLally dlfferenL sLaLuLes

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - Lhe leglslaLure has
seen flL Lo granL a sLay of execuLlon pendlng appeal from
dlsclpllnary cases where Lhe penalLy ls noL among Lhose
enumeraLed
- Lherefore, Lhe courLs may noL, ln Lhe gulse of lnLerpreLaLlon,
enlarge Lhe scope of a sLaLue and lnclude Lhereln slLuaLlons noL
provlded or lnLended by Lhe lawmakers

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass
Where Lhe law
ldenLlfles only
speclflc slLuaLlons
where lL shall apply,
Lhe courLs may noL,
Lhrough
lnLerpreLaLlon,
expand lLs
appllcaLlon
37 PlL8LCA v. Sec.
of ulLC
Sect|ons 193 and 234 of
k.A. 7160 (Local
CovernmenL Code) provlde
for Lhe wlLhdrawal of
cerLaln Lax exempLlon
prlvlleged prevlously
granLed by .D. 269
eLlLloners alleged
LhaL Lhere ls a
vlolaLlon of Lhe LC
who are duly-
reglsLered
cooperaLlves under
.u. 269 and noL
Lhose under 8.A.
6938 who are noL
LargeLed by such
wlLhdrawal of Lax
exempLlon
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - Lhere ls subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon
beLween cooperaLlves under u 269 and Lhose under 8A 6938
glven LhaL Lhere are characLerlsLlcs ln Lhe laLLer whlch are noL
presenL ln Lhe former

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - Lhe Congress, by
law, has Lhe power Lo Lax whlch enLalls dlscreLlon on lLs parL Lo
deLermlne Laxlng power by LCus conslsLenL wlLh Lhe pollcy of
local auLonomy

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS)
1he Congress,
Lhrough lLs Laxlng
power can
deLermlne Lhe
exLenL of Lhe Laxlng
power of LCus as
long as lL ls
conslsLenL wlLh Lhe
pollcy of local
auLonomy
38 larlnas v.
LxecuLlve
SecreLary
kepea| of the Cmn|bus
L|ect|on Code whlch allows
elecLlve offlclals Lo remaln
ln poslLlon whlle
campalgnlng for reelecLlon
or elecLlon for anoLher
eLlLloners alleged
LhaL such repeal
vlolaLes Lhe LC
because elecLlve
offlclals can keep
Lhelr poslLlons whlle
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS)
- Lhere ls subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween elecLlve and appolnLlve
offlclals because Lhe former occupy Lhelr offlce by vlrLue of Lhe
mandaLe of Lhe elecLoraLe whlle Lhe laLLer hold Lhelr offlce by
vlrLue of Lhelr deslgnaLlon LhereLo by an appolnLlng auLhorlLy
- also, appolnLlve offlclals are sLrlcLly prohlblLed from engaglng ln
AppolnLlve offlclals
musL be removed
from Lhelr poslLlon lf
Lhey choose Lo run
for elecLlons slnce
Lhey are prohlblLed
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
43
offlce campalgnlng whlle
appolnLlve offlclals
cannoL
any parLlsan pollLlcal acLlvlLles or Laklng parL ln any elecLlon
(excepL voLlng)

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS)

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS)
by law Lo engage ln
parLlsan pollLlcal
acLlvlLles.
39 ulmaporo v.
P8L1
keso|ut|on 03-048 whlch
denled Lhe moLlon for
Lechnlcal evaluaLlon of Lhe
Lhumbmarks and
slgnaLures afflxed ln Lhe
voLers reglsLraLlon records
and voLlng records

keso|ut|on 03-116 whlch
denled Lhe moLlon for
reconslderaLlon of Lhe
abovemenLloned
resoluLlon
Congresslonal
CandldaLe
MangoLara flled for
Lhe same moLlon
whlch was evenLually
granLed

roclalmed
Congresslonal
wlnner ulmaporo
flled Lhe same
moLlon buL was
denled
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS)
- Lhere are subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlons beLween MangoLara's and
ulmaporo's proLesLs
- MangoLara's proLesL could deLermlne Lhe ouLcome of Lhe
elecLlon whlle ulmaporo's proLesL conLalned examlnaLlons of
preclnLs wouldn'L have had been vlLal Lo Lhe resulLs of Lhe
elecLlon
- WhaL ulmaporo was asklng could be resolved noL uslng Lhe
same Ledlous process such as LhaL he was asklng for

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - Lhe purpose of
Lhe law ls Lo afford Lhe proLesLlng candldaLe Lhe process of
havlng Lhe elecLlon documenLs checked for lrregularlLy

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS) - afLer convlnclng Lhe
P8L1

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS) -
afLer convlnclng Lhe P8L1
A valld classlflcaLlon
can be made lf
subsLanLlal
dlfferences are
shown beLween Lhe
dlfferenL groups
40 CSlS v.
MonLesclaros
Sec. 18 of D 1146
(8evlsed CovernmenL
lnsurance AcL of 1977)
whlch provldes LhaL Lhe
dependenL spouse shall
noL be enLlLled Lo penslon
lf her marrlage wlLh Lhe
pensloner(governmenL
employee) ls conLracLed
wlLhln 3 years before Lhe
pensloner quallfles for Lhe
penslon
lL ls alleged LhaL such
provlslon vlolaLes
Lhe LC as Lhere ls
undue dlscrlmlnaLlon
agalnsL Lhose who
marrled pensloners
wlLhln 3 years from
penslon ellglblllLy
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (NC) - Lhere ls no subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon beLween spouses who dld noL quallfy for Lhe penslon
and Lhose who dld noL

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (NC) - Lhe purpose of Lhe
law ls Lo prevenL deaLhbed marrlages" - Lhere ls no polnL Lo
reckon a Lhree year prohlblLlon from Lhe pensloner belng
quallfled Lo such prlvllege

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (Not d|scussed)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (Not
d|scussed)
1he provlso of Lhe
sald law vlolaLes Lhe
LC because Lhere ls
no subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon presenL
and such
classlflcaLlon ls noL
germane Lo Lhe
purpose of Lhe law
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
44
41 ln 8e 8equesL of
CourL
AdmlnlsLraLors
k.A. 7227 whlch granLs
addlLlonal compensaLlon ln
Lhe form of speclal
allowances for (1) [udges,
(2) [usLlces, and (3) oLher
poslLlons ln Lhe [udlclary
wlLh Lhe equlvalenL rank of
(a) CA [usLlce, and (b) 81C
[udge
1he CA AsslsLanL
CourL AdmlnlsLraLor,
CA ulvlslon Clerk of
CourL, and
Sandlganbayan
ulvlslon Clerk of
CourL seek Lhelr
lncluslon ln Lhe
coverage of 8A 9227
(Lhey have Lhe
poslLlon of a M1C
[udge only Lhus noL
belng lncluded ln Lhe
coverage of Lhe sald
law)
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (NC) - even lf Lhere are dlfferences ln
Lhe funcLlons of Lhelr work, Lhe confermenL of such ranks ls
recognlLlon of Lhe subsLanLlal equallLy ln Lhe roles Lhey play ln
Lhe !udlclary

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (NC) - Lhe purpose of Lhe
law ls Lo aLLracL quallfled clLlzens Lo serve ln Lhe !udlclary
c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons
d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass

42 CenLral 8ank
Lmployees
AssoclaLlon v.
8S
LasL paragraph of Sect|on
1S(c), Art. II of k.A. 76S3
whlch sLaLes LhaL
compensaLlon and wage
sLrucLure of emp|oyees
whose pos|t|on fa|| under
sa|ary grade 19 and be|ow
shall be ln accordance wlLh
Lhe raLes prescrlbed under
8.A. 6738 or SSL (dlfferenL
LreaLmenL)
lL ls alleged LhaL Lhe
lasL paragraph ls
conLrary Lo Lhe LC
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (NC) - Lhere ls no subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon so as Lo dlfferenLlaLe Lhe 8S rank-and-flle from Lhe
oLher rank-and-flle of Lhe 7 governmenL flnanclal lnsLlLuLlon

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (NC) - dlsLlncLlon ls noL
germane Lo Lhe purpose of Lhe law glven LhaL Lhe purpose ls (1)
Lo promoLe professlonallsm and excellence A1 ALL LLvLLS of Lhe
8S, and (2) Lo hlre and reLaln quallfled and effecLlve personnel

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (Not d|scussed)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (NC) - lL
creaLes a classlflcaLlon beLween people who have no subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlons
ulfferenL
classlflcaLlons of
employees ln Lerms
of Lhelr respecLlve
wage sLrucLures
vlolaLes Lhe LC lf
no subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlons are
shown beLween Lhe
groups
43 Mlrasol v. uWP DWn AC 1, Ser|es of
1968 whlch llmlLs Lhe
Lypes of vehlcles allowed
Lo be drlven along llmlLed
access faclllLles
eLlLloners conLend
LhaL AC 1 vlolaLes
Lhe LC glven LhaL lL
slngles ouL
moLorcycles from
oLher modes of
LransporLaLlon
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - a Lwo wheeled vehlcle ls less
sLable whlch means LhaL rlsk for danger ls lncreased wlLh Lhelr
presence

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - Lhe purpose of
Lhe law ls Lo malnLaln Lhe safeLy and convenlence ln uslng
llmlLed access faclllLles

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS)
A moLorcycle, glven
lLs raLher fraglle
characLerlsLlcs, may
be slngled ouL by
law LhaL lnLends Lo
proLecL Lhe safeLy of
Lhe publlc
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
4S
44 ln 8e 8equesL of
ACA (2006)
1he Cctober 1 2004
keso|ut|on of the Supreme
Court exLendlng Lhe granL
of addlLlonal
compensaLlon Lo Lhose
poslLlons wlLh Lhe
equlvalenL rank of Lhe C1A
resldlng !udge and M1C
!udges (as provlded ln 8A
9227)
eLlLloners requesL
LhaL Lhe same
resoluLlon be applled
Lo Lhem
(1) Chlef reporLer of
Lhe CA alleged LhaL
her poslLlon as CA
8eporLer ll has been
upgraded Lo LhaL
whlch ls equlvalenL
Lo a M1C !udge
(2) LxecuLlve Clerk of
CourL lll of Lhe C1A
conLended LhaL her
poslLlon has been
upgraded Lo LhaL
whlch ls equlvalenL
Lo a M1C [udge
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (NC) - Lhere ls no subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon Lo [usLlfy excluslon - Lhe law recognlzes Lhe
subsLanLlal equallLy ln Lhe roles Lhey play ln Lhe !udlclary

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (Not d|scussed)

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (Not d|scussed)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (NC) -
Lhe peLlLloners' poslLlons musL be regarded as Lhose whlch are
equlvalenL Lo Lhe poslLlons where Lhe beneflLs are exLended Lo
lf Lhere ls
subsLanLlal equallLy
ln Lhe roles people
from dlfferenL
poslLlons play ln Lhe
[udlclary,
classlflcaLlon for
cerLaln beneflLs and
prlvlleges wlLh
regard Lo
compensaLlon ls
prohlblLed
43 ulmayuga v.
Cfflce of Lhe
Cmbudsman
CM8-0-9S-0430 whlch
allows Lhe offlce of Lhe
ombudsman Lo conducL
prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon
and pursue furLher
proceedlngs agalnsL Lhe
peLlLloners ln relaLlon Lo
Lhelr alleged vlolaLlon of
8A 3019 (AnLl-CrafL Law)
eLlLloners conLend
LhaL slnce Lhe
respondenL dld noL
pursue prellmlnary
lnvesLlgaLlon ln
anoLher slmllar case
(CCA v. Cabor),
pursulng lL ln Lhelr
case would be
conLrary Lo Lhe LC
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (N]A) - LesL ls noL appllcable
b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (N]A) - LesL ls noL
appllcable
c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (N]A) - LesL ls noL appllcable
d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (N]A) -
LesL ls noL appllcable

1he Cmbudsman, by vlrLue of Lhe lnvesLlgaLory powers glven Lo
lL by law and by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon, has sole dlscreLlon on wheLher
or noL Lo pursue prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon and prosecuLlon ln
cases lL handles
1he Cfflce of Lhe
Cmbudsman has Lhe
sole dlscreLlon of
wheLher or noL Lo
pursue prellmlnary
lnvesLlgaLlon and
furLher proceedlngs
ln cases lL handles
46 ?rasuegul v. AL Art. 282(e) of the Labor
Code whlch provldes
reasons LhaL [usLlfy an
employee's dlsmlssal from
servlce by hls employer
eLlLloner alleges
LhaL hls obeslLy,
belng noL lnLended
wllfully, does noL fall
under Lhe
analogous cases"
provlded as reasons
for [usL dlsmlssal as
provlded ln Lhe
Labor Code
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - an obese cabln aLLendanL,
belng raLher lmmoblle, may lmpede passengers from evacuaLlng
Lhe alrcrafL ln cases of emergency

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - Lhe purpose of
AL ln promoLlng such law ls Lo provlde fllghL safeLy

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS) -
peLlLloner cannoL esLabllsh dlscrlmlnaLlon by slmply namlng
1here ls subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon beLween
obese cabln
aLLendanLs agalnsL
oLhers glven LhaL
Lhe former's
lmmoblllLy can
lmpede passengers
from evacuaLlng Lhe
alrcrafL ln cases of
emergency
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
46
supposed cabln aLLendanLs who are allegedly slmllarly slLuaLed
as hlm
47 S!S v. ALlenza Crd|nance 8027 whlch
reclasslfled andacan from
lndusLrlal Lo commerclal
and lnsLrucLed owners and
operaLors dlsallowed
under Lhe reclasslflcaLlon
Lo cease and deslsL from
operaLlng Lhelr buslnesses
wlLhln 6 monLhs from Lhe
law's daLe of effecLlvlLy
Cll companles
conLend LhaL Lhe
ordlnance
dlscrlmlnaLed by
slngllng ouL
andacan 1ermlnals
desplLe Lhe facL LhaL
several oLhers ln Lhe
area do noL comply
wlLh cerLaln
malnLenance laws
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - unllke Lhe depoL, Lhose ln Lhe
surroundlng communlLy are noL hlgh-value LerrorlsL LargeLs, any
exploslon or flre caused ln Lhe depoL would lead Lo unmaLched
damage

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - Lhe purpose of
Lhe law ls Lo ellmlnaLe Lhe LhreaLs LhaL Lhe depoLs may cause

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS)
Clven Lhe presence
of LerrorlsL acLlvlLy,
oll depoLs have a
subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon agalnsL
oLher lndusLrles
because of Lhe
severlLy of damage
Lhey may cause
48 Cobenclong v. CA kA 6770 (1he Cmbudsman
AcL of 1989) whlch granLs
Lo Lhe Cmbudsman Lhe
power Lo lmpose a slx-
monLh prevenLlve
suspenslon
lL ls alleged LhaL Lhe
power glven Lo Lhe
Cmbudsman vlolaLes
Lhe LC because
prlor Lo such granL of
power, he can only
lmpose a prevenLlon
suspenslon for a
perlod noL exceedlng
90 days (under Lhe
clvll servlce
provlslons of Lhe
AdmlnlsLraLlve Code)
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - Lhe purpose of
Lhe law ls Lo arm Lhe offlce of Lhe ombudsman Lhe power Lo
prevenL Lhe accused offlclal from uslng hls offlce Lo lnLlmldaLe or
Lo lnfluence wlLnesses or Lo Lamper wlLh records LhaL mlghL be
vlLal Lo Lhe prosecuLlon of Lhe case

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS)
1he Cmbudsman
may lmpose
suspenslon Lo
prevenL accused
publlc offlcers from
commlLLlng acLs LhaL
would elLher affecL
Lhe case or Lhose
LhaL could creaLe
more harm
49 MlAA v.
Clongapo
MalnLenance
Servlces, lnc.
1he concesslon areas of
CMSl and 1CSl were
awarded Lo new servlce
conLracLors Lhrough a
negoLlaLed conLracL

lL was alleged LhaL Lo
award 8espondenLs'
conLracLs by mere
negoLlaLlon would
vlolaLe Lhelr rlghL Lo
Lqual roLecLlon, lL ls
alleged LhaL MlAA
should conducL
publlc blddlng for
Lhe conLracL Lo be
awarded
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (NC) - Lhere ls no subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon beLween CMSl and 1CSl agalnsL Lo whom Lhe
concesslon areas were awarded,

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (NC)
- MlAA should've conducLed Lhe publlc blddlng because Lhe law
requlres lL
- 8y negoLlaLlng Lhe concesslon area Lhrough negoLlaLlon, MlAA,
ln effecL, dld noL allow CMSl and 1CSl Lo submlL Lhelr proposals
ln Lhe publlc buddlng. Clven Lhls, MlAA vlolaLed Lhe LC

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (Not d|scussed)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (Not

CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
47
d|scussed)
30 nlcolas v.
8omulo
V|s|t|ng Iorces Agreement

Sec 6 provldes LhaL Lhe
Lransfer of cusLody of an
accused uS personnel Lo
Lhe forelgn power ls
allowed, lf Lhey requesL lL,
from Lhe commlsslon of
Lhe offense unLll Lhe
compleLlon of all [udlclal
proceedlngs

Sec 10 provldes LhaL Lhe
deLenLlon by hlllpplne
auLhorlLles of Lhe uS
personnel shall be carrled
ouL ln faclllLles agreed
upon by boLh Lhe
hlllpplnes and Lhe uS
auLhorlLles
lL ls alleged LhaL
Lhere ls a vlolaLlon of
Lhe LC glven Lhe
dlfference ln Lhe
rules of procedure
applled Lo uS
personnel as agalnsL
oLher persons
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - Lhere ls subsLanLlal basls for a
dlfferenL LreaLmenL of a member of a forelgn mlllLary armed
forces allowed Lo enLer our LerrlLory and all oLher accused

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS)

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS)
1here ls subsLanLlal
basls for a dlfferenL
LreaLmenL of a
member of a forelgn
mlllLary armed
forces allowed Lo
enLer our LerrlLory
and all oLher
accused
31 Serrano v. CalanL
MarlLlme
Servlces, lnc.
Last c|ause |n the S
th

paragraph of Sect|on 10,
k.A. 8042 whlch sLaLes
LhaL aslde from an ClW
(afLer belng LermlnaLed by
an overseas employer
wlLhouL [usL cause) geLLlng
full relmbursemenL of hls
placemenL fee wlLh
lnLeresL, he shall also be
enLlLled Lo hls salarles for
the unexp|red port|on of
h|s emp|oyment contract
or for 3 months for every
year of the unexp|red
term, wh|chever |s |ess
lL ls alleged LhaL Lhe
lasL clause vlolaLes
Lhe LC because lL
LreaLs ClWs
dlfferenLly from local
llllplno workers by
puLLlng a cap on Lhe
amounL of lump-
salary Lo whlch
ClWs are enLlLled ln
case of lllegal
dlsmlssal, whlle
seLLlng no llmlL Lo
Lhe same moneLary
award for local
workers
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (NC) - sub[ecL clause ls dlscrlmlnaLory
agalnsL ClWs, no subsLanLlal dlfference ls shown

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (NC) - even lf Lhe
purpose of Lhe law ls Lo proLecL Lhe employmenL of ClWs by
mlLlgaLlng Lhe solldary llablllLy of placemenL agencles, lL lmposes
burden on Lhe ClWs who have been lllegally dlsmlssed

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (NC)
Lven lf a law seeks
Lo allevlaLe Lhe
burden of anoLher
secLor of socleLy, lf
lL Lransfers such
un[usL and
dlscrlmlnaLory
burden on oLhers, lL
ls conLrary Lo law
32 eople v. SlLon Art. 202(2) of the kC
whlch punlshes any person
found lolLerlng abouL
lL ls alleged LhaL such
law vlolaLes Lhe LC
as lL dlscrlmlnaLes
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (N]A) - no classlflcaLlon ls made,
offenders of publlc order laws are punlshed not for the|r status
as poor or unemployed, but for conduct|ng themse|ves under
enal sLaLuLes do
noL go agalnsL Lhe
LC as Lhey do noL
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
48
publlc or seml-publlc
bulldlngs or places or
Lramplng or wanderlng
abouL Lhe counLry or
sLreeLs w|thout v|s|b|e
means of support
agalnsL poor people such c|rcumstances as to endanger the pub||c peace

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (N]A)

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (N]A)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (N]A)
punlsh people for
who Lhey are,
raLher, whaL ls
punlshed ls whaL
Lhey do or how Lhey
conducL Lhemselves
33 League of ClLles
v. CCMLLLC
(2011)
Several k.A.s converLlng
munlclpallLles Lo clLles
1he clLyhood laws,
by granLlng speclal
LreaLmenL Lo
munlclpallLles/LCus
by way exempLlon
from Lhe sLandard
100M mlnlmum
lncome requlremenL
vlolaLes Lhe LC
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - Lhe subsLanLlal dlfference lles
ln Lhe capablllLy of Lhe chosen munlclpallLles Lo become
component c|t|es of Lhelr respecLlve provlnces

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - Lhe purpose of
Lhe law ls Lo creaLe a more responslve and accounLable local
governmenL sLrucLure lnsLlLuLed Lhrough a sysLem of
decenLrallzaLlon whereby LCus shall be glven more powers,
auLhorlLy, responslblllLles, and resources

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS)
1he clLles
enumeraLed ln Lhe
clLyhood laws have
subsLanLlal
dlfference agalnsL
Lhose noL
enumeraLed glven
Lhelr capablllLy Lo
become componenL
clLles of Lhelr
respecLlve provlnces
34 CulnLo v.
CCMLLLC
Cmn|bus L|ect|on Code,
CCMLLLC keso|ut|on
8678, and kA 9369 whlch
provlde LhaL any
appolnLlve publlc offlclal
shall be consldered lpso
facLo reslgned upon flllng
hls or her cerLlflcaLe of
candldacy for an elecLlve
poslLlon
Llke ln lotloos v.
xecotlve 5ectetoty,
peLlLloners seek Lhe
same LreaLmenL as
elecLlve offlclals who
are able Lo conLlnue
acLlng as elecLlve
offlclals even afLer
flllng CCCs for Lhe
forLhcomlng
elecLlons
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - Lhere ls subsLanLlal dlfference
as appolnLlve offlclals hold Lhelr offlce by vlrLue of Lhelr
deslgnaLlon LhereLo by an appolnLlng auLhorlLy whlle elecLlve
offlclals occupy Lhelr offlce by vlrLue of Lhe mandaLe of Lhe
elecLoraLe
b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS)

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS)
1here ls subsLanLlal
dlfference beLween
appolnLlve and
elecLlve offlclals as
Lhe former hold
Lhelr offlce by vlrLue
of Lhelr deslgnaLlon
LhereLo by an
appolnLlng auLhorlLy
whlle Lhe laLLer
occupy Lhelr offlce
by vlrLue of Lhe
mandaLe of Lhe
elecLoraLe
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
49
33 C8L8A v. 8omulo Sec. 27 of kA 8424 and Lhe
kevenue kegu|at|ons (88s)
lssued by Lhe 8l8
eLlLloners asserL
LhaL such laws
vlolaLe Lhe LC slnce
CredlLable
WlLhholdlng 1ax
(CW1) ls belng levled
upon real esLaLe
enLerprlses and noL
agalnsL oLhers
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) - Lhe real esLaLe lndusLry ls, by
lLself, a class and can be valldly LreaLed dlfferenLly from oLher
buslness enLerprlses (Lhe sale of a real properLy ls blgger and Lhe
frequency of LransacLlons ls llmlLed, maklng lL less cumbersome
for Lhe parLles Lo comply wlLh Lhe wlLhholdlng Lax scheme)
- ALSC, Lhe sLaLe, glven lLs Laxlng power, has Lhe auLhorlLy Lo
creaLe classlflcaLlons for Lhe purpose of LaxaLlon

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS)

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS)
1he sLaLe, glven lLs
Laxlng power, has
Lhe auLhorlLy Lo
creaLe classlflcaLlons
for Lhe purpose of
LaxaLlon
36 nC v. lnaLubo NC C|rcu|ar No. 99-S7,
|tems 3 and 3.1
lL ls alleged LhaL such
clrcular favoured
sale Lo
manufacLurers and
processors of
alumlnlum
conducLor sLeel
relnforced (ACS8)
over dealers/Lraders
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (LS) lf Lhe buyer were a manufacLurer
or processor, Lhe scrap ACS8s would end up ln hls possesslon
whlle lf Lhe buyer were a Lrader, Lhere ls a greaLer chance LhaL
Lhe purchased ACS8s wlll pass from one Lrader Lo anoLher

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (LS) - Lhe purpose of
Lhe law ls Lo enable nC Lo beLLer monlLor Lhe markeL of Lhe
scrap ACS8 and verlfy wheLher possesslon of lL ls lllegal or noL

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (LS)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (LS)
A valld classlflcaLlon
can be made lf
subsLanLlal
dlfferences are
shown beLween Lhe
dlfferenL groups
37 8lraogo v. 1C Sec. 1 of L.C. 1 (CreaLlng
Lhe hlllpplne 1ruLh
Commlsslon of 2010)
whlch lnlLlaLes Lhe creaLlon
of such commlsslon LhaL
seeks Lo lnvesLlgaLe cases
of grafL and corrupLlon of
Lhe prev|ous
adm|n|strat|on
eLlLloners alleged
LhaL L.C. 1 vlolaLes
Lhe LC as lL
selecLlvely LargeLs
[usL Lhe Arroyo
admlnlsLraLlon
a. Substant|a| D|st|nct|on (NC) - Lhe reporLed dlfferences
beLween Lhe Arroyo admlnlsLraLlons and Lhose before lL were
noL consldered subsLanLlal enough Lo merlL a separaLe
classlflcaLlon

b. Germane to the purpose of the |aw (NC) - Lhe purpose of Lhe
law ls Lo flnd LruLh - llmlLlng lLs coverage Lo [usL Lhe Arroyo
admlnlsLraLlon does noL make sense

c. resent and Iuture cond|t|ons (Not d|scussed)

d. Lqua| app||cat|on to the members of the same c|ass (NC) -
Lhe Arroyo admlnlsLraLlon ls noL a class of lLs own
SubsLanLlal
dlfferences musL be
shown Lo [usLlfy a
valld classlflcaLlon
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
S0
SecLlon 2.
1nL kIGn1 CI 1nL LCLL 1C 8L SLCUkL IN 1nLIk LkSCNS, nCUSLS, ALkS, AND
LIILC1S AGAINS1 UNkLASCNA8LL SLAkCnLS AND SLI2UkLS CI WnA1LVLk NA1UkL
AND ICk AN UkCSL SnALL 8L INVICLA8LL, AND NC SLAkCn WAkkAN1 Ck
WAkkAN1 CI AkkLS1 SnALL ISSUL LkCL1 UCN kC8A8LL CAUSL 1C 8L
DL1LkMINLD LkSCNALL 8 1nL IUDGL AI1Lk LkAMINA1ICN UNDLk CA1n Ck
AIIIkMA1ICN CI 1nL CCMLAINAN1 AND 1nL WI1NLSSLS nL MA kCDUCL, AND
Ak1ICULAkL DLSCkI8ING 1nL LACL 1C 8L SLAkCnLD AND 1nL LkSCNS Ck
1nINGS 1C 8L SLI2LD.
I. When |s a search a "search"?
kout|ne checkpo|nt. SLop lnvolves only a brlef deLenLlon of Lravellers durlng whlch
Lhe vehlcle's occupanLs are requlred Lo answer a brlef quesLlon or Lwo. lor as long
as tbe veblcle ls oeltbet seotcbeJ oot lts occopoots sobjecteJ to o boJy seotcb, and
Lhe lnspecLlon of Lhe vehlcle ls llmlLed Lo a vlsual search, sald rouLlne checks cannoL
be regarded as vlolaLlve of an lndlvldual's rlghL agalnsL unreasonable search. (1)
Va|monte v. De V|||a


Stand|ng. 1he consLlLuLlonal rlghL agalnsL unreasonable searches and selzures ls a
personal rlghL lovocoble ooly by tbose wbose tlqbts bove beeo loftloqeJ, ot
tbteoteoeJ to be loftloqeJ. 1hey musL be octool pottles lo lotetest. (2) SIS v. DD8
kequ|s|tes of stand|ng (I1k)
1. he has suffered some acLual or LhreaLened ln[ury as a resulL of Lhe allegedly
lllegal governmenL conducL
2. ln[ury ls falrly Lraceable Lo Lhe challenged acLlon
3. ln[ury ls llkely Lo be redressed by a favorable acLlon

ku|e on stand|ng can be re|axed. lor non-LradlLlonal plalnLlffs, llke ordlnary clLlzens,
Laxpayers, and leglslaLors when Lhe publlc lnLeresL requlres, such as wbeo tbe
mottet ls of ttoosceoJeotol lmpottooce, of ovetotcbloq slqolflcooce to soclety, ot of
potomooot pobllc lotetest.
























CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
S1
Search










Case Number Case Name Iacts ne|d]kat|o
1 Va|monte v. De V|||a Checkpo|nts were seL up ln valenzuela pursuanL Lo LeLLer of
lnsLrucLlon 02/87. eLlLloners aver LhaL lL glves blankeL auLhorlLy Lo
offlcers Lo make searches and selzures wlLhouL warranL, whlch may
be abused.
noL all searches and selzures are forbldden, only
unreasonable ones. 1he welfare of Lhe publlc
prevalls over lndlvldual rlghL. Moreover, lL ls
only a vlsual search/rouLlne check.
2 SIS v. DD8 8A 9163 requlres mandatory drug test|ng of elecLlve candldaLes,
secondary and LerLlary sLudenLs, publlc and prlvaLe offlce
employees, and persons charged before Lhe prosecuLor's offlce
for cerLaln offenses. ConsLlLuLlonal?

LlecLlve candldaLes: oocoostltotloool for
addlng a requlremenL for elecLlve offlce oLher
Lhan whaL ls seL forLh ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
ersons charged: oocoostltotloool because lL
cannoL be random and susplclonless, aLLempL
Lo harness a medlcal LesL as a Lool for crlmlnal
prosecuLlon
SLudenLs: coostltotloool because lL ls random
and lL ls pursuanL Lo a leglLlmaLe governmenL
concern
Lmployees: coostltotloool because lL ls
random and Lhere are safeguards agalnsL
leakages
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
S2

II. kequ|s|tes of a va||d warrant and exc|us|onary doctr|ne
Statutory construct|on. SLaLuLes auLhorlzlng searches and selzures or search
warranLs musL be sttlctly coosttoeJ. (Alvarez v. Cll)

keasonab|eness of a search and se|zure |s pure|y a [ud|c|a| quest|on. ueLermlned
from Lhe clrcumsLances lnvolved, such as Lhe moooet lt wos moJe, ploce ot tbloq
seotcbeJ, cbotoctet of ottlcles ptocoteJ. (eople v. Cll 8lzal)

kequ|s|tes of a va||d search warrant (kev|sed ku|es on Cr|m|na| rocedure, ku|e
126)
1. probable cause
2. deLermlned personally by a [udge
3. examlnaLlon upon oaLh or afflrmaLlon of Lhe complalnanL and Lhe wlLnesses
he may produce
4. parLlcularly descrlblng Lhe place Lo be searched and Lhe Lhlngs or persons Lo
be selzed

robab|e cause
a. uefloeJ. Such reasons, supporLed by facLs and clrcumsLances, as wlll
warranL a cauLlous man ln Lhe bellef LhaL hls acLlons, and Lhe means Laken
ln prosecuLlng lL, are legally [usL and proper (Corro v. Llslng)
b. Ooe speclflc offeose. under Lhe 8ules of CourL: no search warranL shall
lssue for more Lhan ooe speclflc offeose, 5cottet-sbot wottoot-warranL
lssued for more Lhan one speclflc offense (valle[o v. CA)
c. 5ommoty ptoceeJloq. ueLermlned ln summary manner because lL merely
lmplles probablllLy of gullL and low quanLum and quallLy of evldence ls
requlred. (Webb v. ue Leon)
d. Appeol of floJloq. An appeal/moLlon for relnvesLlgaLlon from a resoluLlon
flndlng probable cause shall noL hold Lhe flllng of Lhe lnformaLlon ln courL.
(Webb v. de Leon)
e. 5opteme cootts tole. 1he CourL's duLy ln Lhese cases ls conflned Lo Lhe
lssue of wheLher Lhe execuLlve or [udlclal deLermlnaLlon of probable cause
was done wlLh CAuALL!. (8oberLs v. CA)

1hls ls conslsLenL wlLh Lhe qeoetol tole tbot ctlmlool ptosecotloo moy
oot be stoyeJ by lojooctloo. (8oberLs v. CA)
LxcepLlons:
1. 1o afford adequaLe proLecLlon Lo Lhe consLlLuLlonal rlghLs of Lhe
accused
2. When necessary for Lhe orderly admlnlsLraLlon of [usLlce or Lo
avold oppresslon or mulLlpllclLy of acLlons
3. When Lhere ls a pre-[udlclal quesLlon
4. When Lhe acLs of Lhe offlcer are wlLhouL or ln excess of
auLhorlLy
3. Where Lhe prosecuLlon ls under an lnvalld law, ordlnance or
regulaLlon
6. When double [eopardy ls clearly apparenL
7. Where Lhe courL has no [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe offense
8. Where lL ls a case of persecuLlon raLher Lhan prosecuLlon
9. Where Lhe charges are manlfesLly false and moLlvaLed by Lhe
lusL for vengeance
10. When Lhere ls clearly no ptlmo focle case agalnsL Lhe accused
and a moLlon Lo quash on LhaL ground has been denled
uantum of ev|dence requ|red to estab||sh probab|e cause to arrest or search
(Webb v. ue Leon)
a. Search cases - LhaL Lhe lLems soughL are ln facL selzable by vlrLue of belng
connecLed wlLh crlmlnal acLlvlLy, and LhaL Lhe lLems wlll be found ln Lhe
place Lo be searched. lL ls noL also necessary LhaL a parLlcular person be
lmpllcaLed.
b. ArresL cases - Lhere musL be probable cause LhaL a crlme has been
commlLLed and LhaL Lhe person Lo be arresLed commlLLed lL, whlch of
course can exlsL wlLhouL any showlng LhaL evldence of Lhe crlme wlll be
found aL premlses under LhaL person's conLrol

After exam|nat|on upon oath or aff|rmat|on, of the comp|a|nant and the
w|tnesses he may produce
a. Ootb. Any form of aLLesLaLlon by whlch a parLy slgnlfles LhaL he ls bound ln
consclence Lo perform an acL falLhfully and LruLhfully, and lL ls someLlmes
deflned as an ouLward pledge glven by Lhe person Laklng lL LhaL hls
aLLesLaLlon or promlse ls made under an lmmedlaLe sense of hls
responslblllLy Lo Cod (Alvarez v. Cll)
b. ltobloq ooJ exboostlve. LxamlnaLlon musL be problng and exhausLlve, noL
merely rouLlne or pto fotmo. Search warranLs are noL lssued on loose,
vague or doubLful basls of facL, nor on mere susplclon or bellef. lf Lhe
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
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[udge ls saLlsfled wlLh Lhe affldavlL of Lhe complalnanL, he may dlspense
wlLh LhaL of Lhe wlLnesses (uy v. 8l8)
c. letsoool koowleJqe. 1he oaLh requlred musL refer Lo Lhe ttotb of tbe focts
wltblo tbe petsoool koowleJqe of tbe petltlooet ot bls wltoesses, because
he ls Lo convlnce Lhe maglsLraLe, noL Lhe lndlvldual seeklng lssuance of Lhe
warranL, LhaL probable cause exlsLs (uy v. 8l8)
d. neotsoy evlJeoce. When Lhe appllcanL's knowledge of Lhe facLs ls mere
hearsay, Lhe affldavlL of one or more wlLnesses havlng a personal
knowledge of Lhe facL ls necessary. (Alvarez v. Cll)
e. letsoool exomlootloo oooecessoty. 1he [udge ls noL requlred Lo personally
examlne Lhe complalnanL and hls wlLnesses (Sollven v. Makaslar). Pe shall:
l. personally evaluaLe Lhe reporL and Lhe supporLlng documenLs
submlLLed by Lhe flscal regardlng Lhe exlsLence of probable cause
and, on Lhe basls Lhereof, lssue a warranL of arresL, or
ll. lf on Lhe basls Lhereof he flnds no probable cause, he may
dlsregard Lhe flscal's reporL and requlre Lhe submlsslon of
supporLlng affldavlLs of wlLnesses Lo ald hlm ln arrlvlng aL a
concluslon as Lo Lhe exlsLence of probable cause.

art|cu|ar|y descr|b|ng the p|ace to be searched and the person or th|ngs to be
se|zed
a. lotpose of tepoltemeot. 1o llmlL Lhe Lhlngs Lo be selzed Lo Lhose, and only
Lhose, parLlcularly descrlbed ln Lhe search warranL-Lo leave Lhe offlcers
of Lhe law wlLh no dlscreLlon regardlng whaL arLlcles Lhey shall selze, LhaL
abuses may noL be commlLLed. (8ache & Co. v. 8ulz)
b. lottlcolotlty. A search warranL may be sald Lo parLlcularly descrlbe Lhe
Lhlngs Lo be selzed (8ache & Co. v. 8ulz):
1. when Lhe descrlpLlon Lhereln ls as speclflc as Lhe clrcumsLances
wlll ordlnarlly allow or
2. when Lhe descrlpLlon expresses a concluslon of facL-noL of
law-by whlch Lhe warranL offlcer may be gulded ln maklng Lhe
search and selzure or
3. when Lhe Lhlngs descrlbed are llmlLed Lo Lhose whlch bear dlrecL
relaLlon Lo Lhe offense for whlch Lhe warranL ls belng lssued.
c. Not pottlcolot. Selzure of lLems noL speclfled ln Lhe warranLs cannoL be
[usLlfled by Lhe dlrecLlve Lo selze and Lake possesslon of oLher properLles
relaLlve Lo such vlolaLlon," whlch ln no way can be characLerlzed as a
parLlcular descrlpLlon of Lhe Lhlngs Lo be selzed. (uy v. 8l8)
d. lloce. A descrlpLlon of a place Lo be searched ls sufflclenL lf Lhe offlcer
wlLh Lhe warranL can, wlLh reasonable efforL, ascerLaln and ldenLlfy Lhe
place lnLended. (eople v. veloso)
e. locooslsteocles lo oomes llsteJ. Where Lhe warranL was lssued noL for
search of Lhe persons ownlng or occupylng Lhe premlses, buL only a
search of Lhe premlses occupled by Lhem, Lhe search could noL be
declared unlawful or ln vlolaLlon of Lhe consLlLuLlonal rlghLs of Lhe owner
or occupanLs of Lhe premlses, because of Lhe lnconslsLencles ln sLaLlng
Lhelr names. (uy v. 8l8)
f. kole of pollce/oqeots. 1he place cannoL be changed, enlarged, or
ampllfled by Lhe pollce. 1he parLlcularlzaLlon of Lhe descrlpLlon of Lhe
place Lo be searched may properly be done only by Lhe !udge, and only ln
Lhe warranL lLself. A search warranL ls noL a sweeplng auLhorlLy
empowerlng a readlng parLy Lo underLake a flshlng expedlLlon Lo selze and
conflscaLe any and all klnds of evldence or arLlcles relaLlng Lo a crlme.
(eople v. lranclsco)

ICnN DCL warrant. MusL conLaln Lhe besL Jesctlptlo petsoooe posslble Lo be
obLalned of Lhe person or persons Lo be apprehended, and Lhls descrlpLlon musL be
sufflclenL Lo lndlcaLe clearly Lhe proper person or persons upon whom Lhe warranL ls
Lo be served, and should sLaLe hls personal appearance and pecullarlLles, glve hls
occupaLlon and place of resldence, and any oLher clrcumsLances by means of whlch
he can be ldenLlfled. (1) eop|e v. Ve|oso

Search made at n|ght. SecLlon 101 of Ceneral Crders, no. 38 auLhorlzes LhaL Lhe
search be made aL nlghL when lL ls poslLlvely asserLed ln Lhe affldavlLs LhaL Lhe
properLy ls on Lhe person or ln Lhe place ordered Lo be searched. (2) A|varez v. CII

Genera| warrants. Ceneral search warranLs are ouLlawed because Lhey place Lhe
sancLlLy of Lhe domlclle and Lhe prlvacy of communlcaLlon and correspondence aL
Lhe mercy of Lhe whlms, caprlce or passlon of peace offlcer. (3) Stoneh||| v. D|okno
Lxc|us|onary ru|e. All evldence obLalned from lllegal searches and selzures are
deemed lnadmlsslble
xceptloo. Cfflcers of cerLaln corporaLlons cannoL valldly ob[ecL Lo Lhe use
ln evldence agalnsL Lhem of Lhe documenLs, papers and Lhlngs selzed from Lhe
offlces and premlses of Lhe corporaLlons slnce Lhe rlghL Lo ob[ecL Lo Lhelr admlsslon
ln evldence belongs excluslvely Lo Lhe corporaLlons, Lo whlch Lhe selzed effecLs
belong, and may noL be lnvoked by Lhe corporaLe offlcers ln proceedlngs agalnsL
Lhem ln Lhelr lndlvldual capaclLy
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
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Corporat|ons are protected by Sec. 2. lL ls an assoclaLlon of lndlvlduals under an
assumed name and wlLh a dlsLlncL legal enLlLy. ln organlzlng lLself as a collecLlve
body lL walves no consLlLuLlonal lmmunlLles approprlaLe Lo such body. lLs properLy
cannoL be Laken wlLhouL compensaLlon. lL can only be proceeded agalnsL by due
process of law, and ls proLecLed agalnsL unlawful dlscrlmlnaLlon. (S) 8ache & Co. v.
ku|z

C|osure of a pub||sh|ng house |n search warrant |ssuances |s anathema to a
democracy. [s]uch closure ls ln Lhe naLure of prevlous resLralnL or censorshlp
abhorrenL Lo Lhe freedom of Lhe press guaranLeed under Lhe fundamenLal law, and
consLlLuLes a vlrLual denlal of peLlLloners' freedom Lo express Lhemselves ln prlnL.
1hls sLaLe of belng ls paLenLly anaLhemaLlc Lo a democraLlc framework where a free,
alerL and even mlllLanL press ls essenLlal for Lhe pollLlcal enllghLenmenL and growLh
of Lhe clLlzenry."(7) 8urgos v. Ch|ef of Staff, AI
kLSIDLN1 may |ssue WAkkAN1 CI AkkLS1 of a||ens for deportat|on. 1he power Lo
deporL an allen ls a pollce measure agalnsL undeslrable allens whose presence ln Lhe
counLry ls found Lo be ln[urlous Lo Lhe publlc good and domesLlc LranqulllLy of Lhe
people.

ower of Comm|ss|oner of Imm|grat|on. lmmlgraLlon AcL of 1940: Sec. 37. (a) 1he
followlng allens shall be arresLed upon Lhe warranL of Lhe Commlssloner of
lmmlgraLlon or of any oLher offlcer deslgnaLed by hlm for Lhe purpose and deporLed
upon Lhe warranL of Lhe Commlssloner of lmmlgraLlon oftet o Jetetmlootloo by tbe
8ootJ of commlsslooet of tbe exlsteoce of tbe qtoooJ fot Jepottotloo os cbotqeJ
oqolost tbe olleo. (11) 8oard of Comm|ss|oners (CID) v. de|a kosa

a. Lhe Commlssloner of lmmlgraLlon may lssue warranLs of arresL only afLer a
deLermlnaLlon by Lhe 8oard of Commlssloners of Lhe exlsteoce of tbe
qtoooJ fot Jepottotloo os cbotqeJ oqolost tbe olleo.
b. Lhe warranL of arresL musL be for Lhe sole purpose of execuLlng a flnal order
of deporLaLlon. A warranL of arresL lssued by Lhe Commlssloner of
lmmlgraLlon for purposes of lnvesLlgaLlon only, as ln Lhe case aL bar, ls null
and vold for belng unconsLlLuLlonal.



1wo types of re||m|nary Invest|gat|on. (12) L|m, Sr. v. Iudge Ie||x
1. rellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon roper-made by llscal, execuLlve ln naLure, Lo
deLermlne probable cause WCn Lo flle a case
2. rellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon Lo lssue warranL-made by !udge, !udlclary ln
naLure, Lo deLermlne probable cause WCn Lo lssue warranL

art|a||y defect|ve warrant. lL remalns valld as Lo Lhe lLems speclflcally descrlbed ln
Lhe warranL. A search warranL ls severable, Lhe lLems noL sufflclenLly descrlbed may
be cuL off wlLhouL desLroylng Lhe whole warranL.

Supersed|ng warrant. Where Lhe apparenL lnLenL ln lssulng anoLher warranL was Lo
supersede an earller warranL, Lhe laLLer should be deemed revoked by Lhe former.
lndeed, lL would be absurd for Lhe [udge Lo lssue on a slngle occaslon Lwo warranLs
auLhorlzlng Lhe search of a slngle place for a slngle offense.














CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
SS
kequ|s|tes of a va||d warrant and exc|us|onary doctr|ne
Case Number Case Name Iacts ne|d]kat|o
1 eop|e v. Ve|oso veloso reslsLed arresL when ollce ralded Lhe arllamenLary Club," a
gambllng house managed by veloso. Pe conLends LhaL hls reslsLance
was lawful because Lhe pollce had an lnvalld search warrant LhaL
sLaLed person Lo be search as only !ohn uoe and noL !ose veloso.

" robable Cause-Club as gambllng house was
reporLed Lo ueL. Ceronlmo by a rellable
person and survelllance on Lhe premlses was
conducLed
" ueLermlned personally by a [udge
" Lxamlne under oaLh or afflrmaLlon Lhe
complalnanL and Lhe wlLness he may
produce-an affldavlL and a C & A porLlon
beLween Carduno and Ceronlmo under oaLh
" arLlcularly descrlbe Lhe place Lo be searched
and Lhe person or Lhlngs Lo be selzed-place
was speclfled and Lhe descrlpLlon of Lhe Iobo
uoe clearly ldenLlfled veloso
*veloso wos ottesteJ oot potsooot to tbe seotcb
wottoot, bot becoose be wos cooqbt lo tbe mlJJle
of tbe commlssloo of o ctlme, wblcb ls ollowoble
ooJet wottootless ottests.
2 A|varez v. CII Cll lssued a search warrant for Alvarez's sLore based upon
lnformaLlon of hls money-lendlng acLlvlLles, charglng usurlous raLes
ln vlolaLlon of law. AgenLs conducLed search aL nlghL.
C-based on Lhe affldavlL of agenL Almeda ln
whose oaLh he declared LhaL be boJ oo
petsoool koowleJqe of Lhe facLs buL LhaL he
had knowledge Lhereof Lhrough mere
lnformaLlon from a rellable source
" 8y [udge
Lxamlne complalnanL and wlLnesses-[udge
relled excluslvely upon Lhe affldavlL made by
agenL Almeda and LhaL he dld noL requlre nor
Lake Lhe deposlLlon of any oLher wlLness
" arLlcular descrlpLlon

3 Stoneh||| v. D|okno Search warrants were lssued agalnsL peLlLloners for vlolaLlons of
ceottol 8ook lows, 1otlff ooJ costoms lows, lotetool keveooe ooJ
kevlseJ leool coJes. remlses Lo be searched were boLh offlces and
resldences.


C-no speclflc offense was alleged, aL leasL 4
laws were clLed
" 8y [udge
" Lxamlne complalnanL and wlLnesses
arLlcular descrlpLlon-warranLs provlded for
Lhe search and selzure of ALL buslness
LransacLlons, regardless of wheLher or noL
Lhey were lllegal
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
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*lottoJocloq tbe \clu5lONAk kul
4 Centra| 8ank v. Morfe CenLral 8ank applled for search warrant agalnsL llrsL MuLual Savlng
and Loan CrganlzaLlon for engaglng ln lllegal banklng acLlvlLles.
resldlng [udge denled for belng general ln Lerms.

" C
" 8y [udge
" LxamlnaLlon of complalnanL and
wlLnesses
arLlcular descrlpLlon-1he banklng laws seek Lo
proLecL Lhe publlc agalnsL acLual, as well
as poteotlol, ln[ury. 1ransacLlons ob[ecLed Lo by
Lhe 8ank lnvolves qeoetol potteto of Lhe buslness
of Lhe organlzaLlon and noL lsoloteJ ttoosoctloos. lL
ls noL necessary Lo speclfy or ldenLlfy Lhe parLles
lnvolved ln sald lsolaLed LransacLlons, so LhaL Lhe
search and selzure be llmlLed Lo Lhe records
perLlnenL LhereLo.
S 8ache & Co. v. ku|z !udge 8ulz lssued a search warrant agalnsL peLlLloner for vlolaLlon of
several secLlons of Lhe naLlonal lnLernal 8evenue Code. 1he valldlLy of
Lhe warranL ls conLesLed.
C-lssued for more Lhan one speclflc
offense
8y [udge-deposlLlons sworn Lo before
Lhe [udge buL noL acLually Laken by hlm,
buL by Lhe depuLy clerk of courL
LxamlnaLlon of complalnanL and
wlLnesses-relled on Lhe deposlLlons
Laken by depuLy clerk of courL and dld noL
lnLervlew complalnanL and wlLness
hlmself
arLlcular descrlpLlon-1he language used
ln Lhe search warranL ls so all-embraclng
as Lo lnclude all concelvable records of
peLlLloner corporaLlon, whlch, lf selzed,
could posslbly render lLs buslness
lnoperaLlve
6 |acer v. V|||anueva llscal lacer flled lnformaLlons afLer prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon where
he found LhaL Lhere's reason Lo belleve a crlme was commlLLed.
uurlng hearlng, !udge vlllanueva ordered Lhe submlsslon of
documenLary evldence so he can deLermlne WCn Lhere's probable
cause. llscal quesLlons Lhls because he already deLermlned probable
cause.

D 911 author|zes f|sca| to determ|ne ex|stence of
probab|e cause
!udge can rely on such cerLlflcaLlon Lo
lssue a warranL, buL he ls nC1 bound by lL
8ules of CourL: lf Lhe [udge be saLlsfled
from Lhe prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon.he
musL lssue a warranL of arresL."
1hus, Lhe [udge MuS1 SA1lSl? PlMSLLl Lo
Lhe exlsLence of probable cause before
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
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lssulng a warranL.
he ls noL bound Lo lssue warranLs and lL ls well
wlLhln hls power Lo remand Lhe case for furLher
lnvesLlgaLlon, or Lo dlsmlss lL.
7 8urgos v. Ch|ef of Staff, AI Col. Abadllla applled for and was granLed search warrants agalnsL a
newspaper publlsher/edlLor for publlshlng subverslve maLerlals.
eLlLloners conLesL Lhe valldlLy.

C-general appllcaLlon and Lhe
lnsufflclenL sLaLemenLs made ln Lhe
affldavlLs hardly meL Lhe LesL of
sufflclency. When agalnsL a newspaper, lL
musL sLaLe wlLh part|cu|ar|ty Lhe alleged
subverslve maLerlal he has publlshed or ls
lnLendlng Lo publlsh
" 8y [udge
" LxamlnaLlon of complalnanL and
wlLnesses
" arLlcular descrlpLlon-eLlLloner submlLs
alLhough Lhe warranLs were dlrecLed
agalnsL !ose 8urgos, !r. alone, arLlcles
belonglng Lo hls co-peLlLloners were also
selzed." CourL ruled LhaL CWNLkSnI |s
of no consequence. lL ls sufflclenL LhaL Lhe
person agalnsL whom Lhe warranL ls
dlrecLed has CCN1kCL or CSSLSSICN of
Lhe properLy soughL Lo be selzed."
8 Corro v. L|s|ng !udge Llslng lssued search warrant agalnsL Lhe hlllpplne 1lmes Lo
selze documenLs allegedly used for Lhe crlme of lnclLlng Lo sedlLlon.
1he valldlLy of warranL ls ln quesLlon.
C-sLaLemenLs of appllcanLs were Loo
general. 1hey [usL sald LhaL Lhe
newspaper publlshed arLlcles whlch Lend
Lo lnclLe dlsLrusL and haLred of Lhe
CovernmenL" wlLhouL showlng any proof
" 8y [udge
" LxamlnaLlon of Lhe complalnanL and
wlLnesses
" arLlcular descrlpLlon-noL speclflc
enough. As a resulL, almosL all records of
Lhe newspaper were selzed
9

Sa|azar v. Achacoso AdmnlsLraLor of CLA, acLlng on auLhorlLy derlved from Sec. 38(c) of
Lhe Labor Code, lssued C|osure and se|zure order agalnsL Salazar for
alleged lllegal recrulLmenL. Salazar quesLlons Lhe valldlLy.
Sec. 38 (c) of Labor Code |s UNCCNS1I1U1ICNAL.
Cnly !uuCLS can lssue now under Lhe
1987 ConsLlLuLlon
nC1 even prosecuLlng bodles can
10 So||ven v. Makas|ar WCn Lhe consLlLuLlonal rlghLs of 8elLran were vlolaLed when WhaL Lhe ConsLlLuLlon underscores ls Lhe
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
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respondenL 81C [udge lssued a warrant of arrest wltboot petsooolly
exomloloq tbe complolooot ooJ tbe wltoesses Lo deLermlne probable
cause
exc|us|ve and persona| respons|b|||ty of
the |ssu|ng [udge to sat|sfy h|mse|f of the
ex|stence of probab|e cause
1he [udge ls not requ|red to persona||y
exam|ne Lhe complalnanL and hls
wlLnesses.
11 8oard of Comm|ss|oners (CID)
v. de|a kosa
CaLchallan famlly came Lo Lhe hlllpplnes wlLh Lhelr CerLlflcaLes of
8eglsLraLlon. LaLer on, Wllllam CaLchallan was lssued a warrant of
exc|us|on. LaLer on, Clu commlssloner nlLuda valldaLed Wllllam's
ldenLlflcaLlon CerLlflcaLe, recalllng Lhe warranL. LaLer on, Wllllam was
sLlll arresLed by n8l. ls Lhls valld?
Imm|grat|on Act of 1940
1he n8l arresL was due Lo Lhe lssued
warranL of excluslon.
8u1, tbe wottoot of exclosloo oqolost
wllllom wos oot o wottoot to Jepott blm,
bot to sobject blm to costoJlol
lovestlqotloo. Such warranL ls null and
vold for belng unconsLlLuLlonal, because
Lhere ls no probable cause for Lhe arresL.
1bos, tbe clu commlsslooet most fltst Jetetmloe
wbetbet qtoooJs fot Jepottotloo bove tlseo befote
lssoloq o wottoot
12 L|m, Sr. v. Iudge Ie||x M1C MasbaLe lssued arrest warrant for Llm. Llm was granLed by SC a
change of venue Lo MakaLl Lo avold mlscarrlage of !usLlce. MakaLl
[udge lssued a warranL of arresL oo tbe sole bosls of tbe cettlflcotloo
moJe by M1c Mosbote ooJ ltosecotot. valld?
" C-deLermlned by MasbaLe M1C [udge
8y [udge-MakaLl [udge relled solely on
Lhe cerLlflcaLlons and slnce Lhe records
were sLlll ln MasbaLe when he lssued Lhe
warranL, respondenL [udge had no basls
Lo make hls own personal deLermlnaLlon
LxamlnaLlon of complalnanL and
wlLnesses (above reasonlng)
" arLlcular descrlpLlon
13 S||va v. res|d|ng Iudge A search warranL was lssued agalnsL nlcomedes and Marlon Sllva for
alleged vlolaLlon of uangerous urugs AcL. Powever, agenLs also selzed
money belonglng Lo AnLonleLa Sllva, so she peLlLloned for lLs reLurn.
!udge ordered Lo hold Lhe money pendlng Lhe flllng of lnformaLlon
agalnsL broLhers Sllva. CAuALL!?
C-lnsufflclenL evldence
" 8y [udge
LxamlnaLlon of complalnanL and
wlLnesses-Lhe [olnL deposlLlon execuLed
by fc. Alcoran and aL. Culndo,
submlLLed wlLh Lhe appllcaLlon mosLly
conLalned suggesLlve quesLlons
answerable by merely placlng "yes" or
"no" ln Lhe blanks provlded Lhereon,
broad and leadlng quesLlons (uoc vl, l)
" arLlcular descrlpLlon

*IoJqe commltteJ CAuAlI wbeo be tejecteJ tbe
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
S9
motloo of petltlooet Aotooleto 5llvo seekloq tbe
tetoto of bet mooey
lrregular conslderlng LhaL AnLonleLa was
noL named as one of Lhe respondenLs.
14 A||ado v. D|okno AfLer evaluaLlon of evldence charglng peLlLloners of murder wlLh
kldnapplng and oLher crlmes, respondenL [udge lssued arrest warrant
agalnsL Lhem. 1hey quesLlon lL for lack of probable cause because Lhe
[udge dldn'L deLermlne Lhe admlsslblllLy of Lhe evldence.
C-cotpos Jellctl noL esLabllshed,
lnconslsLencles ln umbal's sLaLemenL,
whlch Lhe prosecuLors relled on heavlly ln
deLermlnlng probable cause
8y [udge-he relled merely on Lhe
prosecuLor's sLaLemenLs and dld noL even
personally examlne evldence
LxamlnaLlon of complalnanL and
wlLnesses-he dldn'L call on Lhe
complalnanL and wlLnesses ln Lhe face of
Lhelr lncredlble accounLs
" arLlcular descrlpLlon
1S Webb v. De Leon !udge lssued warrants of arrest for peLlLloners for Lhe rape wlLh
homlclde of moLher and daughLer vlzconde. 1hey quesLlon lL because
lL was lssued upon probable cause deLermlned by uC! panel malnly
based on !esslca Alfaro's LesLlmony
" C-LesLlmonlal and maLerlal evldence
were enough and clarlflcaLory hearlng
was unnecessary
" 8y [udge
" LxamlnaLlon of complalnanL and
wlLnesses
" arLlcular descrlpLlon
16 koberts v. CA 81C [udge lssued warrants of arrest agalnsL peLlLloners based on Lhe
[olnL resoluLlon of prosecuLor's offlce. eLlLloners quesLlon Lhe
valldlLy. Many moLlons laLer, peLlLloners ask Lhe SC Lo deLermlne
probable cause.
C-SC evenLually ordered relnvesLlgaLlon
of Lhe case, so undeLermlned
8y [udge-no affldavlLs of Lhe wlLnesses,
LranscrlpLs of sLenographlc noLes of Lhe
proceedlngs durlng Lhe prellmlnary
lnvesLlgaLlon, or oLher documenLs
submlLLed ln Lhe course Lhereof were
found ln Lhe records of Lhe crlmlnal case
flled ln Lhe 81C. !udge Asunclon dld noL
have Lhe records or evldence supporLlng
Lhe prosecuLor's flndlng of probable cause
LxamlnaLlon of complalnanL and
wlLnesses-see above reasonlng
" arLlcular descrlpLlon
*5c JlJ oot Jetetmloe ptoboble coose oo lts owo
bot otJeteJ telovestlqotloo by tbe uOI ooJ k1c
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60
17 20
th
Century Iox v. CA 81C lssued search warranLs agalnsL cerLaln ouLleLs ln Manlla for
vlolaLlon of u 49 (uecree on roLecLlon of lnLellecLual roperLy).
LaLer, Lhey llfLed lL and ordered Lhe reLurn of Lhe lLems selzed.
C-confllcLlng reporLs beLween Lhe
wlLnesses, Lhere was lnsufflclenL
L8SCnAL knCWLLuCL of Lhe crlme
commlLLed, WlLnesses clalmed LhaL Lhe
vlds were reLaped from a masLer Lape" -
Lhese Lapes or aL leasL Lhe plraLed ones
were noL shown Lo Lhe courL durlng
appllcaLlon for warranLs
" 8y [udge
" LxamlnaLlon of complalnanL and
wlLnesses
arLlcular descrlpLlon-1he lLems ln Lhe
descrlpLlon of Lhe warranL can be found ln
any vldeo sLore, plraLe-owned or noL. (1v
seLs, recorders, eLc.)
18 eop|e v. Iranc|sco A search warrant was lssued agalnsL verona and lranclsco for
vlolaLlons of Lhe uangerous urugs AcL. 1he warranL was for premlses
aL 122 M. Plzon sL., buL Lhe premlses agenLs searched was 120 M.
Plzon sL. Was Lhe selzure valld?

" C
" 8y [udge
" LxamlnaLlon of complalnanL and
wlLnesses
arLlcular descrlpLlon-Lhe pollce who
conducLed survelllance gave a descrlpLlon
maLchlng Lhe house aL 122 M. Plzon so
Lhe warranL was lssued for Lhe search of
LhaL house. 1he conLrolllng sub[ecL of Lhe
search warranLs ls Lhe place lndlcaLed ln
Lhe warranL lLself and noL Lhe place
ldenLlfled by Lhe pollce.
19 M|crosoft Corp. v. Max|corp A search warrant was lssued by 81C agalnsL Maxlcorp for copyrlghL
lnfrlngemenL and unfalr compeLlLlon. CA reversed 81C declslon. valld
warranL?
" C-n8l AgenL Samlnlano and Sacrlz, a
clvlllan, LesLlfled LhaL Lhey personally saw
Maxlcorp produce and offer for sale
counLerfelL sofLware (of MlcrosofL), Lhere
was also maLerlal evldence
" 8y [udge
" LxamlnaLlon of complalnanL and
wlLnesses
" arLlcular descrlpLlon-LxCL1 par. (c),
whlch ls Loo general: lLems ln sald
paragraph are noL auLomaLlcally relaLed
Lo copyrlghL lnfrlngemenL or unfalr
compeLlLlon because Lhey may be used
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for oLher personal and legal uses.
20

A|-Ghou| v. CA 81C [udge lssued search warrant for AparLmenL no. 2 buL pollce also
searched and selzed lLems ln aparLmenL no. 8. ls Lhe warranL valld and
are Lhe lLems selzed admlsslble as evldence ln Lhe crlmlnal
prosecuLlon for lllegal possesslon of flrearms?
" C
" 8y [udge
" LxamlnaLlon of complalnanL and
wlLnesses
" arLlcular descrlpLlon-8u1, slnce
AparLmenL no. 8 was noL lncluded ln Lhe
warranL, search Lhereof was lnvalld and
lLems selzed Lherefrom are lnadmlsslble
as evldence
21 Uy v. 8Ik F> )" GH3 " C
" 8y [udge
" LxamlnaLlon of complalnanL and
wlLnesses
arLlcular descrlpLlon-mosL of Lhe lLems
were Loo general, especlally when Lhey
were already furnlshed a copy of Lhe
lLems LhaL need Lo be selzed, however,
selzure of unreglsLered dellvery recelpLs,
purchase and sales lnvolces remaln valld
*1he lnconslsLency ln namlng Lhe place ls noL so
grave as Lo render Lhe whole warranL vold, Lhe
lnconslsLency ln Lhe name ls also noL grave
because lL ls a search warranL, noL an arresL
warranL
22 Va||e[o v. CA 81C lssued search warranL for falslflcaLlon of land LlLles and grafL
charges.
C-lssued for more Lhan one speclflc
offense
" 8y [udge
" LxamlnaLlon of complalnanL and
wlLnesses
" arLlcular descrlpLlon-Loo all-embraclng
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WAkkAN1LLSS SLAkCnLS AND SLI2UkLS
I|ve except|ons to the search warrant requ|rement: (IM-C-WLS)
1. Search |ncldenLal Lo an arresL
2. Search of movlng vehlcles
3. Selzure of evldence ln plaln vlew
4. CusLoms searches
3. Where Lhere ls a walver of Lhe rlghL
8are excepLlons are Lhe rules on:
6. LxlgenL clrcumsLance (4) Mn Garments v. Court of Appea|s
7. SLop and frlsk

1he requlslLe of probable cause musL sLlll be saLlsfled before a warranLless
search and selzure can be lawfully conducLed. robable cause musL be
based only on reasonable ground of susplclon or bellef LhaL a crlme has
been or abouL Lo be commlLLed. 1hls ls declded noL by a [udge buL by a
searchlng offlcer.
9


Search |nc|denta| to arrest
revalllng docLrlne ls from Lhe case of Nolosco v. loo, where Chlef !usLlce
1eehankee oplned LhaL searches lncldenLal Lo an arresL should be a 'sLrlcL
appllcaLlon of Lhe excepLlon provlded ln 8ule 126, Sec.12' and llmlLed Lo
'dangerous weapons or anyLhlng whlch may be used as proof of Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe offense.' 1hls excludes searches ln places oLher Lhan Lhe
place of arresL.
10


Search of mov|ng veh|c|e. (8) eop|e v. Lo no W|ng
lrom Lhe leadlng case cottol v, uolteJ stotes rose a porLlon of Lhe volsLead
AcL allowlng warranLless arresLs where lL ls noL pracLlcable Lo secure a
warranL because Lhe vehlcle can be qulckly moved ouL of Lhe locallLy or
[urlsdlcLlon ln whlch Lhe warranL musL be soughL."
robable cause ls sLlll requlred for a reasonable search of a movlng vehlcle.

9
!CACuln C. 8L8nAS, S.!., 1PL 1987 CCnS1l1u1lCn Cl 1PL 8Lu8LlC Cl 1PL PlLllnLS: A CCMMLn1A8? 203 (2009
ed.)
10
ld., page 192
1hls excepLlon musL be dlsLlngulshed from cusLoms searches.
As shown ln leople v. MolmsteJt, pollce checkpolnLs can also be a slLuaLlon where a
movlng vehlcle can be searched. (9) eop|e v. Ma|mstedt
Lv|dence |n p|a|n v|ew
nottls v. uolteJ 5totes deflned Lhls excepLlon as ob[ecLs falllng ln Lhe plaln
vlew of an offlcer who has Lhe rlghL Lo be ln poslLlon Lo have LhaL vlew are
sub[ecL Lo selzure and may be lnLroduced ln evldence."
1hls was modlfled ln coollJqe whlch sald LhaL Lhe dlscovery musL be
lnadverLenL". lL ls noL lnadverLenL lf Lhe evldence was dlscovered by an
offlcer afLer poklng around.
11

Customs searches. (12) apa v. Mago
Wa|ver of r|ght
8lghL agalnsL unreasonable searches may be walved expressly or lmplledly.
Walver can be shown by fallure Lo make and ob[ecLlon or proLesL.
12

A walver musL be undersLood Lo cover only whaL ls lncluded wlLhln Lhe
Lerms of Lhe language.
13

Lx|gent c|rcumstance
Came abouL durlng aLLempLs Lo overLhrow res. Cory Aqulno's
admlnlsLraLlon. ln leople v. ue Ctoclo, a survelllance Leam was flred upon
by a group of men comlng ouL of a bulldlng belleved Lo be used as
headquarLers of 8AM.
Stop and fr|sk ru|e
SLop and frlsk serves Lwo-fold lnLeresL:
1. LffecLlve crlme prevenLlon and deLecLlon - under approprlaLe
clrcumsLances and manner, a pollce offlcer may approach a person Lo
lnvesLlgaLe posslble crlmlnal behavlor even wlLhouL probable cause
2. SafeLy and self-preservaLlon - for an offlcer Lo assure hlmself LhaL Lhe
person he ls deallng wlLh ls noL armed wlLh a deadly weapon LhaL can be
faLally used agalnsL hlm.


11
lJ., page 197
12
lJ., page 198
13
ld., page 200
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Susp|c|on-|ess drug tests
1wo uS declslons, vetooolo 5cbool ulsttlct v. Actloo and 8ootJ of
Jocotloo v. otls, upheld Lhe pollcy of requlrlng drug LesLs for sLudenLs.
1he laLLer case lndlcaLed LhaL whaL ls essenLlal are Lhe schools' cusLodlal
responslblllLy and auLhorlLy, naLure of Lhe lnLruslon, confldenLlallLy of LesL
resulLs, and leglLlmaLe governmenL lnLeresL.
Arrests w|th warrant
1he case Amotqo v. Abbos held LhaL boLh search warranLs and warranLs of
arresL musL saLlsfy Lhe same requlremenLs as Lo probable cause and
manner of lLs deLermlnaLlon.
A [udge musL personally examlne Lhe complalnanL and wlLnesses ln wrlLlng
and under oaLh before deLermlnlng probable cause and lssulng a warranL
of arresL.

Warrant|ess arrest
LxcepLlons Lo Lhe requlremenL of an arresL warranL are dlscussed ln 8ule 113,
SecLlon 3, 8ules of CourL.
Sec. 3. Attest wltboot o wottoot, wbeo lowfol. - A peace offlcer or prlvaLe may,
wlLhouL a warranL, arresL a person:
a) When ln hls presence, person Lo be arresLed has commlLLed, ls acLually
commlLLlng, or aLLempLlng Lo commlL an offense,
b) When an offense has been commlLLed, and he has personal knowledge of
facLs lndlcaLlng LhaL person Lo be arresLed has commlLLed lL,
c) When Lhe person Lo be arresLed ls a prlsoner who has escaped from penal
esLabllshmenL or place where he ls servlng flnal [udgmenL or Lemporarlly
conflned whlle hls case ls pendlng, or has escaped whlle belng Lransferred
from one conflnemenL Lo anoLher.

ln cases falllng under paragraphs a) and b) hereof, Lhe person arresLed wlLhouL
a warranL shall be forLhwlLh dellvered Lo Lhe nearesL pollce sLaLlon or [all, and
he shall be proceeded agalnsL ln accordance wlLh 8ule 112, SecLlon 7.
A buy-busL operaLlon ls a form of enLrapmenL where Lhe offlcer poses as a
buyer. Pe doesn'L lnsLlgaLe Lhe accused Lo commlL a crlme because Lhe
seller" has already declded Lo commlL a crlme. 1he offense happens ln hls
presence, so Lhere ls no longer a need for a warranL of arresL or for selzure
of goods.
14

1he Lype of enLrapmenL forbldden by law ls Lhe lnduclng of anoLher, who ls
oLherwlse an lnnocenL person, Lo vlolaLe Lhe law. 1he crlmlnal lnLenL
orlglnaLes ln Lhe mlnd of Lhe enLrapplng person and Lhe accused ls lured
lnLo commlLLlng Lhe offense.
13

Where Lhe crlmlnal lnLenL orlglnaLes from Lhe accused and Lhe crlmlnal
offense ls compleLed, a person acLlng as a decoy for Lhe sLaLe, or alded ln
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme Lo secure evldence, Lhere ls no enLrapmenL
and Lhe accused musL be convlcLed.
16

ln warranLless arresLs, Lhe law LllLs ln favor of Lhe auLhorlLy.
17

ln conLlnulng crlmes", Lhe accused ls assumed Lo be always commlLLlng
Lhe offense even when asleep. Pence, he may be arresLed any Llme he may
be encounLered.
18


When to cha||enge the va||d|ty of arrest
SecLlon 26, 8ule 114 of 8evlsed 8ules ln Crlmlnal rocedure says LhaL an
appllcaLlon for ball or admlsslon Lo ball by an accused ls noL consldered a
walver of hls rlghL Lo assall Lhe warranL lssued for hls arresL or Lhe legallLles
or lrregularlLles Lhereof.
19


ASSCs and res|dent|a| Comm|tment Crders (CC)
ArresL, Search and Selzure Crder (ASSC) generally lssued by Lhe MlnlsLer of
uefense by vlrLue of Ceneral Crder no. 2-A lssued by Lhe resldenL
pursuanL of Lhe proclamaLlon of marLlal law. Search and selzures by Lhe
mlllLary of persons suspecLed Lo be parL of Lhe revoluLlonary groups used
ASSC.
AfLer llfLlng marLlal law came Lhe resldenLlal CommlLmenL Crder (CC). lL
was an order of prevenLlve deLenLlon lssued by Lhe resldenL as
Commander-ln-Chlef.

14
ld., page 209
13
lblJ.
16
lblJ.
17
lblJ.
18
lJ, poqe 210
19
lJ., page 211

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64
Warrant|ess Searches and Se|zures
Case Number Case Name Iacts ne|d]kat|o
1 Mater|a| D|str|butors Inc., v.
Nat|v|dad
8espondenL flled a moLlon for producLlon of documenLs ln relaLlon
Lo separaLe cases flled by respondenL agalnsL peLlLloner. !udge
allows producLlon of documenLs. eLlLloner conLends LhaL moLlon ls
equal Lo flshlng expedlLlon.
ueclslon of respondenL [udge held. uocumenLs
maLerlal Lo case of respondenL agalnsL
peLlLloner. ConsLlLuLlonal guaranLee of prlvacy
of communlcaLlons noL vlolaLed, courL has
power Lo lssue orders Lo lnspecL such
documenLs.
2 Ck|ahoma ress ub||sh|ng
Company v. Wa|||ng
8espondenL AdmlnlsLraLor of Pours and Wages ulvlslon of
ueparLmenL of Labor ordered subpoenas agalnsL peLlLloner Lo
produce records Lo deLermlne lf peLlLloner vlolaLed lalr Labor
SLandards AcL. eLlLloner conLends lL would be equal Lo
unreasonable search and selzure.
eLlLlon denled. lnvesLlgaLlon has auLhorlzed
purpose wlLhln Lhe power of Congress Lo
command. 8ecords soughL are corporaLe
records. eLlLloners' rlghLs are noL lnvolved.
3 Camara v. Mun|c|pa| Court

ulvlslon of Pouslng lnspecLor Lrled Lo lnspecL peLlLloner's house for
posslble vlolaLlons of Pouslng Code. AppellanL refused lnspecLlon
clalmlng lL dldn'L have a warranL. AppellanL argues LhaL lnspecLlon ls
vlolaLlon of rlghL agalnsL unreasonable searches and selzures.
eLlLlon held. AppellanL has consLlLuLlonal
rlghL Lo reslsL warranLless search. lnspecLlon ls
noL urgenL ln naLure and has probable cause,
whlch meeLs requlslLes for a valld warranL.
4 Mn Garments v. Court of
Appea|s

hlllpplne ConsLabulary (C) and peLlLloner, wlLhouL warranL, ralded
and selzed unauLhorlzed boy scouL producLs sold by respondenL.
eLlLloner complalnL of unfalr compeLlLlon was dlsmlssed and was
ordered Lo reLurn producLs and pay for damages.
WarranLless search and selzure was lllegal. C
had sufflclenL Llme Lo apply for a search and
selzure warranL
S eop|e v. Court of I|rst
Instance of k|za|
AcLlng on a Llp from an lnformanL, 8eglonal AnLl-Smuggllng AcLlon
CenLer (8ASAC) lnLercepLed a car conLalnlng duLlable goods aL
norLh ulverslon 8oad. Coods were declared noL sub[ecL Lo
forfelLure afLer paymenL of Laxes buL were sLlll used as evldence
agalnsL respondenLs.
WarranLless search and selzure ls auLhorlzed
for cusLoms offlclals wlLh probable cause.
1haL goods were selzed from a movlng vehlcle
adds credence Lo warranLless search. Crlmlnal
case agalnsL respondenLs ls dlfferenL from
admlnlsLraLlve forfelLure case on goods.
6 koan v. Gonza|es A search warranL was lssued agalnsL peLlLloner buL none of Lhe
arLlcles ln Lhe search warranL was found. lnsLead, offlcers found a
revolver and bulleLs whlch were selzed and used Lo flle an lllegal
possesslon of flrearms case. eLlLloner argues search and selzure
was lllegal.
Search warranL ls vold. no deposlLlon of
complalnanL ln search warranL was Laken and
examlnaLlon was noL problng and exhausLlve. Slnce
Lhere ls no valld search warranL, revolver and
bulleLs cannoL be used as evldence agalnsL
peLlLloner.

Add|t|ona| Doctr|ne: rohlblLed lLems (l.e.
guns, drugs, eLc.), Lhough selzed ln an lllegal
search, can be valldly conflscaLed by Lhe
governmenL and puL ln costoJlo leqes.
7 No|asco v. ao A search warranL was lssued agalnsL peLlLloner's house ln relaLlon Lo Search warranL ls vold. lnlLlally, SC held LhaL
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
6S
a rebelllon case. eLlLloners were arresLed away from Lhelr house
Lhen Lhe search warranL was execuLed. eLlLloners argue LhaL
search warranL lssued was Loo general, Lherefore vold.
subsequenL search was lncldenLal Lo arresL of
peLlLloners. SC reconsldered declslon and sald LhaL
search was lllegal and cannoL be used as evldence.
C! 1eehankee oplned LhaL search lncldenLal Lo
arresL should be made only on Lhe place of arresL.
8 eop|e v. Lo no W|ng

hlllpplne ConsLabulary Speclal CperaLlons Croup (SCC) agenL
lnfllLraLed syndlcaLe of respondenL and lnformed agency of Lhelr
arrlval Lo Manlla from Pk. Cnce Lhey arrlved, SCC sLopped Lhelr cab
and found drugs. AppellanL argues LhaL warranLless search ls lllegal
because pollce had knowledge of Lhelr movemenL.
WarranLless search ls valld. ln a search of movlng
vehlcle, rules are llberallzed. Lven lf pollce had
Llme, Lhey dldn'L have enough facLs Lo saLlsfy
warranL requlremenL.
9 eop|e v. Ma|mstedt ollce seLup checkpolnL ln ML. rovlnce based on lnfo LhaL vehlcles
from Sagada were LransporLlng drugs, ln parLlcular a Caucaslan was
carrylng drugs on hls Lrlp. 8us LransporLlng defendanL was sLopped
and he was found Lo carry bags of hashlsh. uefendanL argues LhaL
search was lllegal because lL dldn'L have a warranL hence Lhe drugs
are lnadmlsslble as evldence.
WarranLless search ls valld. Accused was caughL lo
floqtoote Jellcto. WarranLless search based on
lnformaLlon recelved durlng checkpolnL dld noL
glve enough Llme Lo obLaln warranL.
10 Mustang Lumber Inc., v. Court
of Appea|s

uLn8 foresLers and pollce conducLed survelllance of peLlLloner's
lumberyard. A Lruck comlng ouL of lumberyard was searched wlLhouL
warranL and found undocumenLed lumber. 1wo consecuLlve searches
uslng one warranL was done aL lumberyard and reLurned
undocumenLed lumber.

WarranLless search done on Lruck ls a valld search
of movlng vehlcle. under Sec 9 8ule 126 of 8ules
of CourL, search warranL has explry of 10 days, and
could be served anyLlme wlLhln perlod. Search can
conLlnue Lhe followlng day as long as wlLhln Lhe
Len-day perlod.
11 Asunc|on v. Court of Appea|s

lrom Llp recelved, pollce conducLed a paLrol of Lhelr area and waLch
for a drug pusher. lnformanL polnLed Lo Lhe car of peLlLloner whlch
was flagged and searched by pollce. 1hey found shabu on Lhe vehlcle
and peLlLloner. eLlLloner conLends warranLless search was lllegal.
WarranLless search of a movlng vehlcle ls valld. 1lp
provlded gave pollce reasonable cause, buL noL
enough lnformaLlon Lo secure a warranL. 1hey dld
noL know Lhe Llme peLlLloner wlll go ouL and
vehlcle used.
12 apa v. Mago 8ased on lnformaLlon LhaL undeclared goods wlll be released,
peLlLloner conducLed survelllance of gaLe 1 of cusLoms zone. 1rucks
were lnLercepLed aL LrmlLa Manlla. 8espondenL [udge released goods
ln quesLlon. eLlLloners argue LhaL [udge acLed wlLhouL [urlsdlcLlon
whlle respondenLs allege LhaL Manlla ollce effecLed selzure wlLhouL
valld warranL.
8espondenL Cll does noL have [urlsdlcLlon. 8ureau
of CusLoms ls auLhorlzed under 1arlff and CusLoms
Code Lo hold all lmporLed arLlcles unLll Laxes ls
pald. eLlLloner was formally depuLlzed by
Commlssloner of CusLoms.
13 An|ag Ir. v. Comm|ss|on on
L|ect|ons

eLlLloner lnsLrucLed drlver Lo reLurn flrearms lssued by Pouse of
8epresenLaLlves Lo peLlLloner due Lo elecLlon gun ban. urlver was
caughL ln a checkpolnL 20 meLers away from 8aLasan Complex where
he wlll reLurn flrearms. eLlLloner argues LhaL search wlLhouL warranL
conducLed by pollce on hls car was lllegal.
WarranLless search was lllegal. 1here was no
evldence or probable cause Lo belleve prlor Lo Lhe
search LhaL drlver was a law offender.
14 Ma|acat v. Court of Appea|s ollce were on fooL paLrol when Lhey noLlced peLlLloner LogeLher wlLh
oLher Musllm-looklng men, wlLh eyes movlng very fasL. 1hey
WarranLless arresL was lllegal. eLlLloner was noL
lo floqtoote Jellcto. SubsequenL search ls noL
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66
approached and found a grenade Lucked lnslde peLlLloner's abdomen.
eLlLloner argues LhaL warranLless arresL was lllegal.

lncldenLal Lo arresL. 1hls ls noL a sLop-and-frlsk
because noLhlng ln peLlLloner' behavlor LhaL
provldes reasonable cause.
1S eop|e v. Canton uefendanL was bound for Salgon, and her aLLenLlon was called afLer
passlng Lhrough a meLal deLecLor aL Lhe alrporL. AlrporL auLhorlLles
found shabu ln her possesslon. uefendanL argues LhaL warranLless
search was lllegal.
WarranLless search by alrporL securlLy ls a sLop-
and-frlsk, whlch was made ln pursuanL of alrporL
securlLy procedure allowed under 8A 6233. Per
subsequenL arresL wlLhouL warranL ls [usLlfled,
slnce she was caughL lo floqtoote Jellcto.
16 narvey v. Defensor-Sant|ago Commlsslon on lmmlgraLlon and ueporLaLlon (Clu) placed allen
peLlLloners under survelllance (3 mos.) Lhen arresLed Lhem and selzed
evldences provlng pedophllla. eLlLloner flled a peLlLlon for wrlL of
habeas corpus and quesLloned Lhe valldlLy of Lhe arresL warranL lssued
by respondenL Clu commlssloner.

eLlLlon denled. 8ules on Crlmlnal rocedure
provlde LhaL person can be arresLed lf he has
commlLLed / ls commlLLlng crlme, probable cause
was deLermlned Lhrough survelllance, peLlLlon for
wrlL ls mooL slnce Lhey were evenLually charged
wlLh vlolaLlon of lmmlgraLlon AcL and
AdmlnlsLraLlve Code.
17 eop|e v. Am|nnud|n 8ased on an lnformanL's Llp recelved 2 days prlor, hlllpplne
ConsLabulary (C) arresLed defendanL for possesslng 3 kllos of
marl[uana whlle dlsembarklng from shlp. uefendanL clalmed LhaL hls
arresL wlLhouL warranL was lllegal and LhaL Lhe marl[uana found ln hls
possesslon ls lnadmlsslble as evldence.
uefendanL ls acqulLLed. Accused was dlsembarklng
from a shlp and noL caughL lo floqtoote. C knew
Lhe name of Lhe deLalls of arrlval and had enough
Llme Lo obLaln from a [udge a warranL of arresL for
defendanL. Lvldence found cannoL be used
because lL was selzed lllegally.
18 eop|e v. 8urgos 8ased on lnformaLlon provlded by a wlLness, hlllpplne ConsLabulary
(C) arresLed defendanL whlle worklng aL hls farm. C Lhen searched
and found flrearms burled under hls house and sedlLlous maLerlals
hldden ln a nearby cogon grass sLack. uefendanL appealed 81C
declslon saylng hls arresL wlLhouL valld warranL was lllegal.

ueclslon by 81C ls reversed. SLaLemenL of a
wlLness ls noL equal Lo a personal knowledge of
facL, and defendanL was noL ln Lhe acL of
commlLLlng a crlme. C had enough Llme Lo secure
a warranL. SubsequenL search was also lllegal.
19 Um|| v. kamos 1he peLlLloners were arresLed ln separaLe lnsLances for subverslon and
relaLed acLlvlLles such as murder and lllegal possesslon of flrearms.
1hey flled elghL peLlLlons for wrlL of habeas corpus and clalmed Lhelr
arresLs were lllegal for noL havlng a valld warranL and noL conducLlng a
prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon before flllng lnformaLlons agalnsL Lhem.

eLlLlons denled. eLlLloners were lnlLlally arresLed
or searched due Lo subverslon, whlch ls consldered
a conLlnulng crlme. SubsequenL crlmlnal cases flled
agalnsL peLlLloners no longer allow wrlL of habeas
corpus.
20 Go v. Court of Appea|s eLlLloner presenLed hlmself Lo Lhe pollce upon flndlng ouL LhaL he
was a suspecL Lo a shooLlng lncldenL 6 days prlor. rosecuLor
proceeded Lo flle a murder case wlLhouL ball. eLlLloner alleged LhaL
hls warranLless arresL was unlawful and LhaL a prellmlnary
lnvesLlgaLlon should be conducLed before flllng of lnformaLlon agalnsL
hlm.
eLlLlon granLed. eLlLloner was noL arresLed buL
placed hlmself under cusLody of pollce auLhorlLles.
rellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon should be conducLed
before Lrlal ls sLarLed.
21 eop|e v. Mengote Accused was approached by pollcemen from a Llp LhaL peLlLloner was ueclslon ls reversed and accused ls acqulLLed. no
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67

sLandlng susplclously ln a sLreeL, holdlng hls abdomen and looklng
from slde Lo slde. Accused was found wlLh a .38 callber and was
subsequenLly lmpllcaLed ln a robbery monLhs before Lhe selzure.
Accused appeals declslon senLenclng hlm Lo teclosloo petpetoo.
crlme was belng commlLLed durlng selzure. Cun
found ls lnadmlsslble as evldence slnce lL was from
an lllegal search.
22 Ve|asco v. Court of Appea|s eLlLloner, as head of n8l, quesLlons Lhe declslon of courL of appeals
Lo granL wrlL of habeas corpus of accused, who was lnlLlally held lnLo
cusLody due Lo vlolaLlon of 8..8lg. 22 and subsequenLly Lo a rape
case. eLlLloner argued LhaL warranLless arresL ls valld, rape case was
already flled and Lrlal courL had denled appllcaLlon for ball of accused.
CA declslon ls annulled. Lven lf lnlLlal arresL was
lllegal, subsequenL flllng of rape case bar accused
from belng released. WrlL of habeas corpus ls also
no longer avallable.
23 eop|e v. Samson AppellanL was among several convlcLed of kldnapplng for ransom,
wlLh vlcLlm as prlmary wlLness. AppellanL argues LhaL LesLlmony of
vlcLlm falled Lo prove hls gulld beyond reasonable doubL and LhaL
appellanL was a vlcLlm of lllegal arresL.

Appeal ls denled. 1rlal courL was able Lo deLermlne
LhaL sLaLemenLs of prosecuLlon wlLnesses were
poslLlve, clear and convlnclng. AppellanL ls also
esLopped from quesLlonlng hls arresL as he falled
Lo move for Lhe quashlng of Lhe lnformaLlon. Any
lrregularlLy was also cured by hls enLerlng a plea of
noL gullLy" and parLlclpaLlng ln Lhe Lrlal.
24 eop|e v. Sequ|o uefendanLs were found gullLy of robbery wlLh homlclde when Lhey
sLole money from 3 men on moLorcycle carrylng monLhly payroll,
kllllng one of Lhe vlcLlms. 1hey argued LhaL Lhey were noL read Lhelr
rlghL Lo remaln sllenL and be asslsLed by counsel.
1he arresL of one of Lhe accused was consldered
lllegal slnce Lhe pollcemen dldn'L have personal
knowledge of Lhe crlme and Lhe only evldence was
Lhe blo-daLa of Lhe accused lefL near Lhe crlme
scene. orLlon of Lhe payroll money found wlLh Lhe
accused was also consldered lnadmlsslble as
evldence slnce lL came from an lllegal search and
selzure. uesplLe Lhls, all Lhree were sLlll convlcLed.
1hey were poslLlvely ldenLlfled by Lhe survlvlng
vlcLlms.
2S Larraaga v. Court of Appea|s n ClC Lrled Lo arresL peLlLloner as suspecL ln Chlong slsLers
kldnapplng case whlle he was ln school. Pe was evenLually deLalned
and charged wlLh kldnapplng and serlous lllegal deLenLlon. eLlLloner
argues LhaL he was denled rlghL Lo prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon and
soughL Lo annul Lhe lnformaLlon and warranL of arresL lssued.
eLlLloner ls enLlLled Lo a prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon
slnce Lhe warranLless arresL ls lllegal, he was noL
commlLLlng an offense when he was arresLed.
SubsequenL flllng of charges and lssuance of
warranL of arresL cures Lhe defecL of lllegal
deLenLlon.
26 Mana|||| v. Court of Appea|s ollce conducLed survelllance aL Lhe cemeLery based on lnformaLlon
LhaL drug addlcLs were roamlng Lhe area. 1hey noLlced peLlLloner who
appeared hlgh on drugs. eLlLloner argues LhaL marl[uana resldue
found ls lnadmlsslble as evldence because lL came from an lllegal
search.

Search ls valld and ls akln Lo a sLop-and-frlsk.
uurlng Lhelr survelllance, pollce noLlced LhaL
peLlLloner acLed llke he was hlgh on drugs. 1he
pollce had sufflclenL reason Lo sLop peLlLloner Lo
check hlm.
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68

SecLlon 3.
(1) 1nL kIVAC CI CCMMUNICA1ICN AND CCkkLSCNDLNCL SnALL 8L
INVICLA8LL LkCL1 UCN LAWIUL CkDLk CI 1nL CCUk1, Ck WnLN U8LIC SAIL1
Ck CkDLk kLUIkLS C1nLkWISL AS kLSCkI8LD 8 LAW.
(2) AN LVIDLNCL C81AINLD IN VICLA1ICN CI 1nIS Ck 1nL kLCLDING SLC1ICN
SnALL 8L INADMISSI8LL ICk AN UkCSL IN AN kCCLLDING.
1he Lxc|us|onary ku|e
lnvaslon of communlcaLlon and correspondence ls one klnd of search.
20

CommunlcaLlon and correspondence" ls Lo be used ln lLs general sense. 1hus, lL
covers all forms of communlcaLlon such as leLLers, phone calls, and even elecLronlc
communlcaLlon llke emall, LexL messaglng, eLc.
1he presenL form of Lhe excluslonary rule was an adapLaLlon of Lhe frulL of Lhe
polsoned Lree" docLrlne enunclaLed ln 5tooeblll v. ulokoo. lL was lncorporaLed lnLo
Lhe 1973 ConsLlLuLlon and Lhen lnLo Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon. 1hus, lL ls no longer
sub[ecL Lo Lhe vagarles of a flucLuaLlng [udlclal cllmaLe.
21
(1) Sa|cedo-Crtanez v. CA











20
lJ., page 217
21
lJ., page 229



























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69
1he Lxc|us|onary ku|e






Case Number Case Name Iacts ne|d]kat|o
1 Sa|cedo-Crtanez v. CA 8afael flled an annulmenL case agalnsL 1ereslLa, hls wlfe, uslng wlre-
Lapped conversaLlons conLalned ln casseLLe Lapes as evldence
agalnsL her. 81C admlLLed Lhe evldence, prompLlng 1ereslLa Lo flle a
peLlLlon for cettlototl and declde on Lhe valldlLy of Lhe admlsslon of
evldence.
8afael flled an annulmenL case agalnsL 1ereslLa,
hls wlfe, uslng wlre-Lapped conversaLlons
conLalned ln casseLLe Lapes as evldence agalnsL
her. 81C admlLLed Lhe evldence, prompLlng
1ereslLa Lo flle a peLlLlon for cettlototl and
declde on Lhe valldlLy of Lhe admlsslon of
evldence.
2 2u|ueta v. CA eLlLloner ls Lhe wlfe of publlc respondenL. She wenL Lo Lhe laLLer's
cllnlc and desLroyed Lhe cablneLs Lo geL cerLaln documenLs Lo use
Lhem as evldence ln a legal separaLlon case she flled. Lvldence
admlsslble?

no, 1he SC also ruled LhaL Lhe documenLs are
lnadmlsslble because Lhe consLlLuLlon
provldes LhaL Lhe prlvacy of correspondence
and communlcaLlon shall be lnvlolable.
3 eop|e v. Mart| MarLl was convlcLed for possesslon of lllegal drugs afLer marl[uana was
found ln 4 packages whlch he was Lo shlp Lo SwlLzerland. lL was found
by Lhe lnspecLors of Lhe prlvaLe shlpplng company. MarLl clalms LhaL
Lhe packages were lllegally selzed hence lnadmlsslble as evldence.
lL was held LhaL a vlolaLlon of Sec. 2 of ArL. lll
cannoL be lnvoked because Lhe guaranLees of
Lhe 8lll of 8lghLs only apply Lo searches by Lhe
SLaLe and noL a prlvaLe lndlvldual or
corporaLlon.
4 kMU v. D|r. Gen, NLDA CMA released LC 420 requlrlng all governmenL agencles wlLh
exlstloq lu sysLems Lo lmplemenL a unlform lu sysLem. ConsLlLuLlonal?
ConsLlLuLlonal because (a) lncumbenL upon
Lhe LxecuLlve branch only, whlch ls wlLhln Lhe
scope of Lhe resldenL's power of conLrol, (b)
lu sysLems are already exlsLlng and no new
approprlaLlons are necessary whlch needs
leglslaLlon, buL slmply maklng Lhe lu sysLems
more unlform, (c) Lhe lnformaLlon collecLed
are Lhose usually collecLed for Lhe purpose
and safeguards are puL ln place Lo avold
unnecessary and unlawful release of personal
lnformaLlon
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70
WAIVLk CI kIGn1S UNDLk SLC1ICNS 2 AND 3


Case Number Case Name Iacts ne|d]kat|o
1 eop|e v. Damaso uamaso was charged wlLh vlolaLlon of u 1866 ln connecLlon wlLh
Lhe crlme of subverslon. Lvldence agalnsL hlm were an M-14 rlfle,
ammunlLlons and oLher books and pamphleLs of subverslve
orlenLaLlon. 1hese were selzed from appelanL's house afLer Luz
Morados, Lhe occupanL of Lhe house leL Lhe soldlers ln.
1here was no valld search warranL and hence,
Lhe evldence are lnadmlsslble. 1he facL LhaL Lhe
occupanL leL Lhe soldlers ln ls noL a walver of Lhe
rlghL of uamaso agalnsL warranLless search and
selzure. Such walver can only be made by Lhe
person whose rlghLs are lnvaded, or one whom
he auLhorlzes Lo do so. 1here ls no evldence LhaL
Luz Morados was glven such auLhorlLy.
2 Spouses Veroy v. Layague eLlLloners prevlously reslded aL uavao and moved Lo Cuezon ClLy,
leavlng Lhelr old house Lo Lhe care of houseboys. n recelves
lnformaLlon LhaL Lhe uavao house ls used as a safe house of rebel
soldlers. WlLh permlsslon from peLlLloners only Lo enLer Lhe house,
pollce flnds a handgun, bulleLs, and subverslve maLerlals.
eLlLloners argue LhaL Lhe evldences gaLhered were lnadmlsslble for
belng vlolaLlve of prohlblLlon agalnsL unreasonable searches and
selzures.
Lvldences lnadmlsslble, arLlcles were obLalned
unlawfully wlLhouL warranL. ollce only had
permlsslon Lo check Lhe presence of rebels ln
Lhe house, noL Lo conducL a room Lo room
search lnslde Lhe house. lllegal possesslon of
flrearms and ammunlLlons ln furLherance of
rebelllon case agalnsL peLlLloners ls dlsmlssed.
4 kMU v. D|r. Gen, NLDA CMA released LC 420 requlrlng all governmenL agencles wlLh
exlstloq lu sysLems Lo lmplemenL a unlform lu sysLem. ConsLlLuLlonal?
ConsLlLuLlonal because (a) lncumbenL upon
Lhe LxecuLlve branch only, whlch ls wlLhln Lhe
scope of Lhe resldenL's power of conLrol, (b)
lu sysLems are already exlsLlng and no new
approprlaLlons are necessary whlch needs
leglslaLlon, buL slmply maklng Lhe lu sysLems
more unlform, (c) Lhe lnformaLlon collecLed
are Lhose usually collecLed for Lhe purpose
and safeguards are puL ln place Lo avold
unnecessary and unlawful release of personal
lnformaLlon
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71
Sect|on 4
NC LAW SnALL 8L ASSLD A8kIDGING 1nL IkLLDCM CI SLLCn, CI LkkLSSICN,
Ck CI 1nL kLSS, Ck CI 1nL kIGn1 CI 1nL LCLL LACLA8L 1C ASSLM8LL AND
L1I1ICN 1nL GCVLkNMLN1 ICk kLDkLSS CI GkILVANCLS.
Ceneral prlnclples:
(7) Iree speech and free press-Lhe llberLy Lo dlscuss publlcly and
LruLhfully any maLLer of publlc lnLeresL wlLhouL censorshlp and
punlshmenL. 1here ls Lo be no prlor resLralnL on Lhe communlcaLlon of
vlews or subsequenL llablllLy wheLher ln llbel sulLs, prosecuLlon for
sedlLlon, or acLlon for damages, or conLempL proceedlngs unless Lhere be a
clear and presenL danger of subsLanLlve evll LhaL Congress has a rlghL Lo
prevenL.

(6) Ireedom of Speech, Lxpress|on, and of the ress
o 1he ldeas expressed under Lhls freedom are conflned noL only Lo
Lhose LhaL are convenLlonal and accepLable Lo Lhe ma[orlLy buL
also Lhose LhaL presenL Lhe arLlculaLlon of Lhe unorLhodox vlew,
Lhough lL be hosLlle Lo or derlded by oLhers
o 1he scope of freedom of expresslon ls so broad LhaL lL exLends
proLecLlon Lo nearly all forms of communlcaLlon

(6) D|fferent|at|on: L|m|ts and kestra|nts of Iree Speech
o 3 LesLs LhaL deLermlne Lhe valldlLy of resLralnLs on freedom of
speech and expresslon (D8C)
1. uangerous Lendency docLrlne - permlLs llmlLaLlons once a
raLlonal connecLlon has been esLabllshed beLween Lhe
speech resLralned and Lhe danger conLemplaLed
2. 8alanclng of lnLeresLs LesLs - used when Lhere ls a need
Lo balance confllcLlng soclal values and lndlvldual
lnLeresLs, requlres a consclous and deLalled conslderaLlon
of Lhe lnLerplay of lnLeresLs observable ln a glven
slLuaLlon
3. Clear and presenL danger rule - speech may be resLralned
because Lhere ls subsLanLlal danger LhaL Lhe speech wlll
llkely lead Lo an evll Lhe governmenL has Lo prevenL
(subsLanLlve, exLremely serlous danger where Lhe degree
of lmmlnence ls really hlgh)

(6) Anatomy of kestr|ct|ons: r|or kestra|nt, Content-Neutra| and
Content-8ased kegu|at|ons
o rlor resLralnL-offlclal governmenLal resLrlcLlons on Lhe press or
oLher forms of expresslon ln advance of acLual publlcaLlon or
dlssemlnaLlon, deLermlned on a case-Lo-case basls, always LesLed
by scruLlnlzlng Lhe governmenLal lssuance or acL agalnsL Lhe
clrcumsLances ln whlch Lhey operaLe, and Lhen deLermlnlng Lhe
approprlaLe LesL wlLh whlch Lo evaluaLe
1. conLenL-neuLral regulaLlon - merely concerned wlLh Lhe
lncldenLs of Lhe speech, or one LhaL merely conLrols Lhe
Llme, place or manner, and under well deflned sLandards
8egulaLlons of Lhls Lype are noL deslgned Lo
suppress any parLlcular message, Lhey are noL
sub[ecL Lo Lhe sLrlcLesL form of [udlclal scruLlny
buy an !"#$%&$'!(#$ (**%+(,- (somewhere
beLween Lhe mere raLlonallLy LhaL ls requlred of
any oLher law and Lhe compelllng lnLeresL
sLandard applled Lo conLenL-based regulaLlons
(17) C'8r|en test (CSUL) musL be used. 1hls LesL
provldes LhaL a governmenL regulaLlon ls
sufflclenLly [usLlfled lf:
1. lL ls wlLhln Lhe consLlLuLlonal power of Lhe
Cov'L
2. lL furLhers an lmporLanL or subsLanLlal
governmenLal lnLeresL
3. 1he governmenLal lnLeresL ls unrelaLed Lo
Lhe suppresslon of free expresslon
4. 1he lncldenL resLrlcLlon on alleged llrsL
AmendmenL freedoms ls no greaLer Lhan ls
essenLlal Lo Lhe furLherance of LhaL lnLeresL.

2. conLenL-based resLralnL or censorshlp - resLrlcLlon based
on Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of Lhe uLLerance or speech
lL has Lo pass Lhe ,.$(% ("' *%$/$"# '("0$% %1.$
for lL Lo be accepLed

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72
(6) D|chotomy of Iree ress: r|nt v. 8roadcast Med|a
o u.S. CourLs have excluded broadcasL medla from Lhe appllcaLlon
of Lhe sLrlcL scruLlny sLandard because of Lhree ma[or reasons
(lnsLead, Lhe lnLermedlaLe approach applles)
! ScarclLy of Lhe frequencles by whlch Lhe medlum
operaLes
! ervaslveness as a medlum
! unlque accesslblllLy Lo chlldren
o Powever, ln Lhls [urlsdlcLlon, cases show Lwo dlsLlncL feaLures of
Lhls dlchoLomy
1. 1he he dlfference ln LreaLmenL, ls ln Lhe regulaLory
scheme applled Lo broadcasL medla LhaL ls noL lmposed
on LradlLlonal prlnL medla, and narrowly conflned Lo
unproLecLed speech (e.g. CbscenlLy, pornography), or ls
based on a compelllng governmenL lnLeresL LhaL also has
consLlLuLlonal proLecLlon, such as naLlonal securlLy of Lhe
elecLoral process
2. 8egardless of Lhe regulaLory schemes LhaL broadcasL
medla ls sub[ecLed Lo, Lhe CourL has conslsLenLly held
LhaL Lhe clear and presenL danger LesL applles Lo conLenL-
based resLrlcLlons on medla, wlLhouL maklng a dlsLlncLlon
as Lo LradlLlonal prlnL or broadcasL medla
o 1he clear and presenL danger rule does noL apply Lo all cases
lnvolvlng broadcasL medla - lL only applles Lo Lhose lnvolvlng
conLenL-based resLrlcLlons

(11) Gu|de||nes for |nfer|or courts and quas|-[ud|c|a| adm|n|strat|ve
tr|buna|s
1. 1he seven requlslLes of admlnlsLraLlve proceedlngs ln !"# %&'() *+ ,-.
should be followed before a broadcasL sLaLlon ls closed or lLs
operaLlons curLalled.
2. Whlle Lhere ls no conLrolllng and preclse deflnlLlon of due process, lL
furnlshes an unavoldable sLandard Lo whlch governmenL acLlon musL
conform ln order LhaL any deprlvaLlon of llfe, llberLy, or properLy, ln
each approprlaLe case, may be valld.
3. Medla ls enLlLled Lo Lhe broad proLecLlon of freedom of speech and
expresslon clause. 1he LesL for llmlLaLlons on freedom of expresslon ls
Lhe clear and presenL danger rule" - LhaL words are used ln such
clrcumsLances and are of such naLure as Lo creaLe a clear and presenL
danger LhaL Lhey wlll brlng abouL Lhe subsLanLlve evlls LhaL Lhe
lawmaker has a rlghL Lo prevenL.
4. 8roadcasLlng has Lo be llcensed. 1he freedom of Lelevlslon and radlo
broadcasLlng ls somewhaL lesser ln scope Lhan prlnL medla. 1hls ls
because (1) broadcasL medla ls more pervaslve, and (2) easlly
accesslble Lo chlldren. 8ecause of lLs pervaslveness, Lhe lmpacL of
lnflammaLory or offenslve speech on people would be dlfflculL Lo
monlLor or predlcL. unllke readers of Lhe prlnLed work, Lhe radlo (and
Lelevlslon) audlence has lesser opporLunlLy Lo coglLaLe, analyze, and
re[ecL Lhe uLLerance."
3. 1he clear and presenL danger LesL musL Lake Lhe parLlcular
clrcumsLance of broadcasL medla lnLo accounL. 1here has Lo be a
balance beLween Lhe governmenL's rlghL Lo be proLecLed agalnsL
broadcasLs whlch lnclLe llsLeners Lo overLhrow lL, and Lhe people's
rlghL Lo be lnformed.
6. 1he freedom Lo commenL on publlc affalrs ls essenLlal Lo Lhe vlLallLy of
a represenLaLlve democracy.
7. 8roadcasL sLaLlons deserve Lhe speclal proLecLlon glven Lo all forms of
medla by Lhe due process and freedom of expresslon clauses of Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon. (Sec. 1 and Sec. 4, ArL. lll).
ress (newspapers, perlodlcals):
(6) Ireedom of the ress
o MosL pervaslve and powerful vehlcle of oplnlon on publlc quesLlons
o WlLhouL a vlgllanL press, Lhe mlsLakes of every admlnlsLraLlon would
go uncorrecLed and lLs abuses unexposed
o Clven lLs conLrlbuLlons Lo Lhe publlc, Lhe press deserves exLra
proLecLlon

(3) 1he burden of proof |s upon the government to show cause as to why
such art|c|es shou|d not be pub||shed

(1) 1he ||berty of the press, and of speech, |s w|th|n the ||berty
safeguarded by the due process c|ause of the Iourteenth
Amendment from |nvas|on by state act|on
o 1hls lmmunlLy from prevlous resLralnL, however, ls noL absoluLe.
(example: ln Llmes of war, Lhere are some Lhlngs whlch Lhe press
cannoL reporL on lesL lL [eopardlze mlllLary operaLlons)
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012


73
o Ln[olnlng press upon mere proof of publlcaLlon ls lnvalld prlor
resLralnL. 1he proper remedy for such klnd of publlcaLlons ls a llbel
case flled agalnsL Lhe publlshers, noL an ln[uncLlon. ln a llbel case, Lhe
facLual bases of Lhe publlcaLlons are examlned.

(26) L|be| |aws protect two separate |nterests of the |nd|v|dua|
1. hls deslre Lo preserve prlvacy from lnLruslon and
2. Lo preserve hls good name and repuLaLlon.

(23) 1he lmmunlLy en[oyed by Lhe press presupposes LhaL Lhe derogaLory
lnformaLlon Lhey publlsh are boLh 1kUL and IAIk and made |n good fa|th,
wlLhouL any commenLs or remarks.
(23) ketract|on or correct|on does noL wlpe ouL Lhe responslblllLy arlslng
from Lhe publlcaLlon of Lhe flrsL arLlcle. lL merely mlLlgaLes lL.

(24) 1reat|se of Newe|| on S|ander and L|be|: "ubllcaLlon of a person's
phoLograph ln connecLlon wlLh an arLlcle llbelous of a Lhlrd person, ls a
!"#$! &' ()$ *$+,&' -)&,$ *".(/+$ ", */#!",)$0, where Lhe acLs seL ouL ln Lhe
arLlcle are lmpuLed Lo such person."
(24) ln cases of retract|on or correct|on:
o newspaper: "should noL be held Lo accounL Lo a polnL of
suppresslon for honesL mlsLakes or lmperfecLlon ln Lhe cholce of
words" because lL ls under pressure of a dally deadllne
o Magazlne: Lhere ls no such pressure so correcLlons do noL wlpe
ouL Lhe llablllLy for Lhe flrsL mlsLake

(2S) A publlcaLlon ls ||be|ous per se lf Lhe words Lend Lo ln[ure a person ln
hls repuLaLlon or Lo brlng hlm lnLo publlc conLempL. Cnce llbel per se has
been esLabllshed, Lhe defendanL has no defense as Lo sLaLed facLs unless
he can persuade Lhe [ury LhaL Lhey were Lrue ln all Lhelr parLlculars.
1. A rule compelllng Lhe crlLlc of offlclal conducL Lo guaranLee Lhe
LruLh of all hls facLual asserLlons - and Lo do so on paln of llbel
[udgmenLs vlrLually unllmlLed ln amounL - leads Lo a comparable
"self-censorshlp."
2. Lhe consLlLuLlonal guaranLees requlre a federal rule LhaL prohlblLs
a publlc offlclal from recoverlng damages for a defamaLory
falsehood relaLlng Lo hls offlclal conducL unless he proves LhaL Lhe
sLaLemenL was made wlLh "actua| ma||ce" - LhaL ls, wlLh
knowledge LhaL lL was false or wlLh reckless dlsregard of wheLher
lL was false or noL.


MoLlon lcLures/1v/8adlo:
(6) 1he freedom of f||m, te|ev|s|on and rad|o broadcast|ng |s somewhat
|esser |n scope than the freedom accorded to newspapers and other pr|nt
med|a, s|nce the med|um |s more pervas|ve

(7) Noth|ng |n nat|ona| |aw exempts med|a ent|t|es from be|ng requ|red
to obta|n perm|ts or ||censes from |oca| governments ln Lhe same manner
as oLher buslnesses are expecLed Lo do so, so long as such requlremenL has
been duly ordalned Lhrough local leglslaLlon and conLenL-neuLral ln
characLer. no oLher resLralnLs are allowed by law.


(2) A noncrlmlnal process whlch requlres Lhe prlor submlsslon of a fllm Lo a
censor avolds consLlLuLlonal lnflrmlLy only lf lL Lakes place under
procedura| safeguards des|gned to obv|ate the dangers of a censorsh|p
system

(31) Censorsh|p must show proof of a c|ear and present danger of a
substant|ve ev||

(2) three gu|de||nes as adequate safeguards to protect aga|nst the
"undue |nh|b|t|on of protected express|on." 1hese guldellnes are Lo:
1. place Lhe burden of provlng Lhe fllm ls unproLecLed expresslon on
Lhe censors,
2. requlre [udlclal deLermlnaLlon Lo lmpose a valld deLermlnaLlon, and
3. requlre prompL deLermlnaLlon "wlLhln a speclfled Llme perlod."

(31) ower of the [censorh|p] 8oard - llmlLed Lo Lhe classlflcaLlon of fllms,
buL lL cannoL lmpose a censorshlp ln Lhe producLlon of movles, whlch
would consLlLuLe a prlor resLralnL.

CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012


74
(4) Congress can granL an admlnlsLraLlve body quasl-[udlclal power Lo
prevlew and classlfy 1v programs and enforce lLs declslon sub[ecL Lo
revlew by our courLs.
o resumpLlon ls ln favor of Lhe correcLness of hls acLlon and courLs
wlll noL lnLerfere wlLh hls declslon unless clearly of oplnlon LhaL lL
was wrong

8ellglon:

(4) It |s on|y where |t |s unavo|dab|y necessary to prevent an |mmed|ate
and grave danger (c|ear and present daner) to the secur|ty and we|fare of
the commun|ty that |nfr|ngement of re||g|ous freedom may be [ust|f|ed
o Where Lhe lndlvldual exLernallzed hls bellef ln acLs or omlsslons
LhaL affecL Lhe publlc, hls freedom Lo do so becomes sub[ecL Lo
Lhe auLhorlLy of Lhe sLaLe
o lnherenL pollce power can be exerclsed Lo prevenL rellglous
pracLlces lnlmlcal Lo socleLy

Assembly:
(32) k|ght to peaceab|e assemb|e |s ||m|tab|e. 1he rlghL Lo peaceably
assemble and peLlLlon for redress of grlevances en[oys prlmacy ln Lhe
realm of consLlLuLlonal proLecLlon. Powever, Lhe exerclse of Lhose rlghLs ls
noL absoluLe for lL may be so regulaLed under Lhe exerclse of soverelgn
pollce power", upon a showlng of a CLLA8 Anu 8LSLn1 uAnCL8 of a
subsLanLlve evll LhaL Lhe SLaLe has a rlghL Lo prevenL
(6) 1he rlghL Lo assemble ls noL sub[ecL Lo prevlous resLralnL or censorshlp.
lL may noL be condlLloned upon Lhe pr|or |ssuance of a perm|t or
auLhorlzaLlon from Lhe governmenL auLhorlLles excepL lf Lhe assembly ls
!"#$"%$% #' ($ )$*% !" + ,-(*!. ,*+.$/ + ,$01!# 2'0 #)$ -3$ '2 3-.) ,*+.$/ +"%
"'# 2'0 #)$ +33$1(*4 !#3$*2/ may be valldly requlred.
(6) under 8 880, Lhe auLhorlLy Lo regulaLe assemblles and rallles ls lodged
wlLh Lhe LCus. 1hey have Lhe power Lo lssue permlLs and Lo revoke such
permlLs after due not|ce and hear|ng on the determ|nat|on of the
presence of c|ear and present danger
SedlLlous speech and CommunlsL parLy assoclaLlon
(8) CrlLlclsm, no maLLer how severe, on Lhe LxecuLlve, Lhe LeglslaLure, and
Lhe !udlclary, ls wlLhln Lhe range of llberLy of speech, unless Lhe lnLenLlon
and effecL be sedlLlous. 8uL when Lhe lnLenLlon and effecL of Lhe acL ls
sedlLlous, Lhe consLlLuLlonal guaranLles of freedom of speech and press
and of assembly and peLlLlon musL yleld Lo punlLlve measures deslgned Lo
malnLaln Lhe presLlge of consLlLuLed auLhorlLy, Lhe supremacy of Lhe
consLlLuLlon and Lhe laws, and Lhe exlsLence of Lhe SLaLe.-Dangerous
tendency ru|e |s app||cab|e to sed|t|ous speech

(9) 1he quesLlon ln every case ls wheLher Lhe words used are used ln such
clrcumsLances and are of such a naLure as Lo creaLe a clear and presenL
danger LhaL Lhey wlll brlng abouL Lhe subsLanLlve evlls LhaL Congress has a
rlghL Lo prevenL."
o 1he SC sald LhaL Lhe requlslLe danger exlsLed ln Lhls case.
(CommunlsL parLy)
! 1here was a group ready Lo make Lhe aLLempL
! Plghly organlzed consplracy
! ldeologlcally aLLuned
o 1he effecL of resLralnlng speech here ls only lncldenLal Lo
suppresslng Lhe assoclaLlon, whaL ls belng resLralned ls noL
dlscusslon, buL advocacy

rlvacy of prlvaLe and publlc flgures/ crlLlclsm of courLs:
(29) 1he proLecLlon of Lhe rlghL of lndlvldual persons Lo prlvaLe repuLaLlons ls also a
maLLer of publlc lnLeresL and musL be reckoned wlLh as a facLor ln ldenLlfylng and
laylng down Lhe norms concernlng Lhe exerclse of press freedom and free speech.

5-(*!. 2!6-0$3
(12) 1he r|ght of pr|vacy or "the r|ght to be |et a|one," ||ke the r|ght of
free express|on, |s not an abso|ute r|ght.
a. A llmlLed lnLruslon lnLo a person's prlvacy has long been regarded
as permlsslble where:
l. LhaL person ls a publlc flgure, and
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,


89
ll. Lhe lnformaLlon soughL Lo be ellclLed from hlm or Lo be
publlshed abouL hlm consLlLuLe of a publlc characLer.
b. 1he lnLeresL soughL Lo be proLecLed by Lhe rlghL of prlvacy ls Lhe
rlghL Lo be free from !"#$%%$"&'( publlclLy, from Lhe #%*"+,!-
publlclzlng of Lhe prlvaLe affalrs and acLlvlLles of an lndlvldual
#./0. $%' *!&1/(' &.' %'$-2 *, -'+/&/2$&' 3!4-/0 0*"0'%"
:,;< =>?@AB CAD>EF GHI JK@L H M=FHNFE @AH?@F CKE OJF LHGHDF OK EF=>OHOAKP
BH>MFL ?I =>?@ABHOAKP KC H LFCHGHOKEI CH@MFJKKLQ ?>O KP@I AC OJF
MOHOFGFPO RHM GHLF SRAOJ NPKR@FLDF OJHO AO RHM CH@MF KE RAOJ EFBN@FMM
LAMEFDHEL KC RJFOJFE AO RHM CH@MF KE PKOTHBO>H@ GH@ABF
o :,;< publlc flgures and publlc offlclals may noL recover for OJF OKEO
KC APOFPOAKPH@ APC@ABOAKP KC FGKOAKPH@ LAMOEFMM by reason of
publlcaLlons such as Lhe one here aL lssue wlLhouL showlng ln
addlLlon LhaL Lhe publlcaLlon conLalns a false sLaLemenL of facL
whlch was made wlLh "acLual mallce," l. e., wlLh knowledge LhaL
Lhe sLaLemenL was false or wlLh reckless dlsregard as Lo wheLher
or noL lL was Lrue.
5%/6$&' /"(/6/(!$-1
(27) A publlsher or broadcasLer of defamaLory falsehoods abouL prlvaLe lndlvldual
flgure may noL clalm Lhe 78 9/2'1 proLecLlon agalnsL llablllLy for defamaLlon on Lhe
ground LhaL Lhe defamaLory sLaLemenLs concern an lssue of publlc or general
lnLeresL. 8ecause Lhey are noL.

:%/&/0/121 *, &.' 0*!%&1
:6U< Pls leLLer ls full of conLempLuous remarks Lendlng Lo degrade Lhe
dlgnlLy of Lhe $>E=EFGF !K>EO and erode publlc confldence LhaL should be
accorded lL. SC does noL prohlblL a lawyer Lo be crlLlcal of courLs and
[udges as long as Lhey are made ln properly respecLful Lerms and Lhrough
leglLlmaLe channels (ln re Almacen)
:,V< W>LDFM volunLarlly sub[ecL Lhemselves Lo norms of conducL, whlch
embody more sLrlngenL sLandards of honesLy, lnLegrlLy, and compeLence
Lhan are requlred from prlvaLe persons.
o 1hey have noL forfelLed any rlghL Lo prlvaLe honor and repuLaLlon.
o 1he polnL of ad[usLmenL or accommodaLlon beLween Lhese Lwo
leglLlmaLe lnLeresL ls found ln Lhe norm whlch requlres Lhose who,
lnvoklng freedom of speech, publlsh sLaLemenLs whlch are clearly
defamaLory Lo ldenLlflable [udges or oLher publlc offlclals Lo
exerclse 4*"$ ,/(' care ln ascerLalnlng Lhe LruLh of Lhe sLaLemenLs
Lhey publlsh.

;;7*&'1 ,%*2 <&&=> :$"('-$%/$
?" 0%/&/0/@/"+ &.' 0*!%&1A
1&%/0&'% 1&$"($%( #/&. B: $1 ./+.'1& 0*!%& *, &.' -$"(
-*#'% 0*!%& C!(+'1 $%' *3'" &* 0%/&/0/12
5%/6$0=A
3%/6$&' 3'%1*"1D0*23-'&' 3%*&'0&/*"
3!4-/0 *,,/0/$-
o 3%/6$&' -/,'D3%*&'0&'(
o 3!4-/0 -/,'D2*%' *3'" &* 10!&/"=
< 3!4-/0 ,/+!%' /1 "*& $-#$=1 "'0'11$%/-= $ 3!4-/0 1'%6$"& E-/F' G$""=
5$0H!/$*IJ 4!& $ 3!4-/0 1'%6$"& /1 $-#$=1 "'0'11$%/-= $ 3!4-/0 ,/+!%'

LlecLlon:
:6X< ( B@FHE HPL =EFMFPO LHPDFE G>MO ?F MJKRP OK FCCFBO H BKPOFPO7?HMFL
EFD>@HOAKP

:69< -FD>@HOAKP KC F@FBOAKP BHG=HADP HBOAYAOI GHI PKO =HMM OJF OFMO KC
YH@ALAOI AC AO AM OKK DFPFEH@ AP AOM OFEGM KE PKO @AGAOFL AP OAGF HPL MBK=F AP
AOM H==@ABHOAKP, lf lL resLrlcLs one's expresslon of bellef ln a candldaLe or
one's oplnlon of hls or her quallflcaLlons, lf lL cuLs off Lhe flow of medla
reporLlng, and lf Lhe regulaLory measure bears no clear and reasonable
nexus wlLh Lhe consLlLuLlonally sancLloned ob[ecLlve


CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012


76
(14) roh|b|t|on on co|umn|sts, commentators and announcers Lo use
Lhelr column, radlo or Lelevlslon Llme Lo campalgn for or agalnL pleblsclLe
lssues on pleblsclLe day ls conLenL-based. Pere Lhe CCMLLLC has acLed
beyond lLs power and such resLrlcLlon ls noL saLlsfled by Lhe LesL.

(1S) Not content-based restr|ct|on:
o lL does noL purporL ln any way Lo resLrlcL Lhe reporLlng by
newspapers or radlo or Lelevlslon sLaLlons of news or news-
worLhy evenLs relaLlng Lo Lhe elecLlons.
o lL does noL reach commenLarles and expresslons of bellef or
oplnlon by reporLers or broadcasLers or edlLors or commenLaLors
or columnlsLs xxx so long aL leasL as such commenLs, oplnlons and
bellefs are noL ln facL adverLlsemenLs for parLlcular candldaLes
coverLly pald for."

(16) Content-based:
o the proh|b|t|on use of property to campa|gn would noL only
deprlve Lhe owner who consenLs Lo such posLlng of Lhe decals and
sLlckers Lhe use of hls properLy buL more lmporLanL, ln Lhe
process, lL would deprlve Lhe clLlzen of hls rlghL Lo free speech ln
LhaL he cannoL supporL, uslng hls properLy, Lhe candldaLe whom
he wlshes Lo be elecLed

o (18) Lx|t po||s generaLe lmporLanL research daLa whlch may be
used Lo sLudy lnfluenclng facLors and Lrends ln voLlng behavlour
! An absoluLe prohlblLlon of such would Lhus be
unreasonably resLrlcLlve
revenLs elecLlon day pro[ecLlons
revenLs long Lerm research

(19) A 1S and 7 day wa|t per|od for the re|ease of survey resu|ts |s more
than necessary to further the governmenta| |nterestfalls Lhe C'brlen
1esL for conLenL-neuLral resLrlcLlons

Commerclal speech:
(21) Government's r|ght to regu|ate commerc|a| speechspeech that
concerns on|y commerc|a| or econom|c act|v|tyIs greater than |ts r|ght
to regu|ate non-commerc|a| speech.
(20) Centra| nudson 1est-LesL Lo deLermlne wheLher a resLrlcLlon on
commerclal speech passes Lhe scruLlny of Lhe llrsL AmendmenL prohlblLlon
(LSDN):
1. commerclal speech musL concern |awful acLlvlLy and ls noL
mlsleadlng
2. Lhere ls a subsLanLlal governmenL lnLeresL
3. Lhe regulaLlon dlrecLly advances Lhe asserLed governmenL lnLeresL
4. wheLher lL ls noL more exLenslve Lhan necessary Lo serve LhaL
lnLeresL

(21) A local governmenLal enLlLy may regulaLe Lhe placemenL and number
of newsracks Lo promoLe lLs subsLanLlal lnLeresL ln publlc safeLy and
aesLheLlcs, buL LhaL enLlLy musL esLabllsh a reasonab|e "f|t" beLween lLs
regulaLlon and Lhe goals soughL Lo be achleved.

(22) 8ann|ng s|gns a|together |s content-based. A Llme, place and manner
resLrlcLlon ls permlsslble (conLenL-neuLral), buL such resLralnLs lmposed
such as Lo ban a mode of expresslon compleLely wlhoLu leavlng an
alLernaLlve medlum ls conLenL-based. lL was noL Lled Lo a harm LhaL pollce
power could prevenL.

CbscenlLy:
(30) Cbscen|ty |s not covered by the protect|on of the I|rst Amendment
(30) 8as|c gu|de||ne for the tr|er of fact (V)US standards
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,


88
"# $%&'%&( '%& )*&()+& ,&(-./0 ),,123/+ 4./'&5,.()(2 4.556/3'2
-')/7)(7- 8.617 93/7 '%& 8.(:0 '):&/ )- ) 8%.1&0 ),,&)1- '. '%&
!!"!#$%& #%&$!$(&
;# $%&'%&( '%& 8.(: 7&,34'- .( 7&-4(3<&-0 3/ ) !)&$%&*+ ,--$%(#.$
/)+0 -&=6)1 4./764' -,&43934)112 7&93/&7 <2 '%& ),,134)<1& -')'&
1)8
12 $%&'%&( '%& 8.(:0 '):&/ )- ) 8%.1&0 1)4:- -&(3.6- *#&$!)!+0
)!&#(&#30 4,*#&#3)*0 ,! (3#$%&#-#3 ")*"$
9:5; "<<=>?@A=>=?? B< CD= EFC=G@FH '. <& 7&'&(53/&7 <)-&7 ./ 4.556/3'20
)/7 /.' /)'3./)1 -')/7)(7-
9:6; %=?C CB I=C=GE@>= BJ?K=>@CL 9MD@H@NN@>= ?CF>IFGI?;>$%&'%&( '. '%&
)*&()+& ,&(-./0 ),,123/+ 4./'&5,.()(2 4.556/3'2 -')/7)(7-0 '%&
7.53/)/' '%&5& .9 '%& 5)'&(3)1 '):&/ )- ) 8%.1& ),,&)1- '. 4!"!#$%&
#%&$!$(&2

































CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012


78
!"#$ &"'
# Case Iacts Act creat|ng |ssue ne|d Doctr|ne(s)
I. r|or restra|nt
1 near v.
MlnnesoLa
(283 uS 697,
1931)
Sesslon Laws of MlnnesoLa
provlde for Lhe abaLemenL as a
publlc nulsance of any
defamaLory, scandalous, and
mallclous newspaper." A !ewlsh
gangsLer was gambllng,
rackeLeerlng and booLlegglng ln
Lhe clLy and !"# %&'()*&+ ,)#--
publlshed arLlcles of how key
offlclals weren'L dolng Lhelr [ob of
prevenLlng crlme.
!"# %&'()*&+ ,)#-- was
abaLed and perpeLually
en[olned from publlshlng
any more arLlcles,
pursuanL Lo Lhe sLaLuLe
Sesslon Laws are
unconsLlLuLlonal.
Ln[olnlng press upon mere proof of
publlcaLlon, wlLhouL looklng lnLo Lhe falslLy
of Lhe publlcaLlon consLlLuLes lnvalld prlor
resLralnL. 1he proper remedy ls a llbel sulL,
where Lhe facLs are lnvesLlgaLed.
2 lreedman v.
Maryland (380
uS 31, 1963)
lreedman showed hls fllm
8evenge aL uaybreak" aL a
8alLlmore LheaLer wlLhouL flrsL
seeklng llcense from Lhe 8oard of
Censors as dlrecLed by a Maryland
censorshlp sLaLuLe.
Pe was convlcLed wlLh
vlolaLlon of sec. 2 of Lhe
sLaLuLe
1he sLaLuLe ls
unconsLlLuLlonal. 8equlrlng
a prlor fllm censor wlLhouL
procedural safeguards
consLlLuLes lnvalld prlor
resLralnL.
3 guldellnes as adequaLe safeguards Lo
proLecL agalnsL Lhe undue lnhlblLlon of
proLecLed expresslon: (8uIu)
1. place Lhe burden of provlng Lhe
fllm ls unproLecLed expresslon on
Lhe censors,
2. requlre [udlclal deLermlnaLlon Lo
lmpose a valld deLermlnaLlon, and
3. requlre prompL deLermlnaLlon
wlLhln a speclfled Llme perlod.
3 new ?ork 1lmes
v. unlLed SLaLes
(403 uS 713,
1971)
uS uefense SecreLary ordered Lhe
maklng of a Lop-secreL hlsLory
called PlsLory of uS ueclslon-
Maklng rocess ln vleLnam
ollcy", whlch was lncluded ln Lhe
enLagon apers". 1he n?1 goL
hold of Lhls and sLarLed publlshlng
arLlcles on lL.
1he uS governmenL lssued
an ln[uncLlon agalnsL Lhe
n?1 from publlshlng any
more arLlcles pursuanL Lo
Lhe Lsplonage AcL.
ln[uncLlon ls lnvalld. llrsL AmendmenL guaranLees Lhe press
musL be lefL free Lo publlsh news,
whaLever Lhe source, wlLhouL censorshlp,
ln[uncLlons, or prlor resLralnLs, and Lhe
governmenL has Lhe heavy burden of
showlng [usLlflcaLlon for Lhe enforcemenL
of such resLralnL.
4 lnC v. CA (C.8.
no. 119673,
1996)
lnC submlLLed Lapes of Lhelr show
Ang lglesla nl CrlsLo" Lo Lhe
8oard, whlch Lhen raLed Lhem
unflL for publlc vlewlng because
Lhey aLLack oLher rellglons.
1hey weren'L allowed Lo
show Lhe serles pursuanL
Lo Lhe power of Lhe 8oard
Lo censor and a posslble
vlolaLlon of ArL. 201 8C
8esLralnL dld noL pass Lhe
clear and presenL danger
LesL. ArL. 201 could noL be
lmposed as prlor resLralnL
buL maybe subsequenL
punlshmenL.
AcLs of prlor resLralnL have a presumpLlon
of lnvalldlLy. lL ls only upon a showlng of a
clear and presenL danger of a subsLanLlve
evll LhaL Lhe SLaLe musL prevenL, LhaL an
lnfrlngemenL of rellglous expresslon may
be [usLlfled.

!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,


89
**Congress can granL an admlnlsLraLlve
body quasl-[udlclal power Lo prevlew and
classlfy 1v programs and enforce lLs
declslon sub[ecL Lo revlew by our courLs.
3 uavld v.
Macapagal-
Arroyo (C.8. no.
171396, 2006)
CMA lssued 1017 and CC 3
due Lo plans of assasslnaLlon
agalnsL her and also Lhe escape of
a Magdalo leader. 1he lssuances
led Lo Lhe cancellaLlon of all
celebraLlons of Ldsa l and
cancellaLlon of permlLs for rally
and peaceful organlzaLlon.
8allylsLs proceeded wlLh
assembly anyway. 1hey
were dlspersed, vlolence
was exerLed and some
members were arresLed
wlLhouL warranL.
CancellaLlon of permlLs was
lnvalld prlor resLralnL.
lreedom of expresslon may noL be llmlLed
excepL upon a showlng of a clear and
presenL danger of a subsLanLlve evll LhaL
Lhe SLaLe musL prevenL.

**A permlL may be requlred for Lhe use of
a publlc place Lo conducL assembly, buL a
permlL may noL be requlred for Lhe
conducL of Lhe assembly as Lhls ls a
proLecLed rlghL.

**under 8 880, Lhe auLhorlLy Lo regulaLe
assemblles and rallles ls lodged wlLh Lhe
LCus. 1hey have Lhe power Lo lssue
permlLs and Lo revoke such permlLs afLer
due noLlce and hearlng on Lhe
deLermlnaLlon of Lhe presence of clear and
presenL danger.
6 Chavez v.
Conzales (C.8.
no. 168338,
2008)
1apes came ouL afLer Lhe 2004
naLlonal elecLlons of CMA Lalklng
wlLh Comelec commlssloner
Carclllano, whlch were obLalned
Lhrough wlre-Lapplng.
1he n1C released a
warnlng Lo medla
organlzaLlons LhaL
releaslng, playlng and
prlnLlng conLenLs of Lhe
Lapes would be [usL cause
for cancellaLlon,
suspenslon and revocaLlon
of all llcenses, pursuanL Lo
Lhe AnLl-WlreLapplng law
Such warnlng consLlLuLes
lnvalld prlor resLralnL. Clven
Lhe amblvalence and
vagueness surroundlng Lhe
Lapes, lL ls arguable
wheLher Lhere was a
vlolaLlon of Lhe law aL all
8urden of proof ls on Lhe governmenL Lo
show LhaL Lhere ls a clear and presenL
danger before resLralnlng free press.

lurLhermore, Lhe sLrlcL scruLlny LesL musL
be passed before conLenL-based regulaLlon
ls allowed.

**lL dld noL maLLer LhaL Lhe warnlngs were
noL followed by formal clrculars or orders.
Any sLaLemenLs made by Lhe execuLlve ln
Lhelr offlclal capaclLy are covered by Lhe
rule on prlor resLralnL.
7 newsounds v.
uy (C.8. nos.
170270 &
179411, 2009)
newsounds operaLes lLs
broadcasLlng sLaLlons on a land
owned by C8S uev'L Corp. upon
appllcaLlon for renewal of Lhelr
mayor's permlL, Lhe zonlng
8espondenLs closed Lhelr
broadcasLlng sLaLlons.
1here ls no law LhaL
requlres a cerLlflcaLlon of
converslon of land before
medla ls allowed Lo
operaLe, so respondenLs
8equlremenL of obLalnlng a permlL or
llcense for Lhe conducL of any buslness ls
allowed by law as long as such are
ordalned Lhrough leglslaLlon and are
conLenL-neuLral. lf conLenL based, lL musL
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,


85
admlnlsLraLor requlred a
cerLlflcaLlon from newsounds LhaL
Lhe land Lhey were operaLlng on
was converLed Lo commerclal
land. 1hey goL Lhe recognlLlon
from uA8, buL sald admlnlsLraLor
sLruck lL down as lnvalld. 1he
appllcaLlon for Lhe permlL lapsed.
acLlons are lnvalld. pass Lhe sLrlcL scruLlny LesL.
&&9 $:;<=>:=?@ A:?B<CD=?@
8 eople v. erez
(C.8. no. 21049,
1923)
erez uLLered Lhe followlng (ln
Spanlsh buL hereln LranslaLed) ln a
gaLherlng aL Lhe !"#$%&#'(%) of
llar ln fronL of many people
(absenL Wood): 1he
llllplnos.musL use bolos for
cuLLlng off [Cov. Cen Leonard]
Wood's head for havlng
recommended a bad Lhlng for Lhe
llllplnos, for he has kllled our
lndependence."
llscal charged hlm wlLh
vlolaLlon of ArL. 236 of Lhe
enal Code and Lhe Lrlal
courL so convlcLed.
SC convlcLed hlm lnsLead of
Lhe vlolaLlon of Lhe 1reason
and SedlLlon Law
CrlLlclsms on Lhe execuLlve, leglslaLlve or
[udlclary ls proLecLed as free speech,
excepL when Lhe lnLenL ls sedlLlous. 1hls
musL Lhen yleld Lo Lhe dangerous Lendency
rule. SedlLlous sLaLemenLs musL be
punlshed Lo malnLaln Lhe lnLegrlLy and
presLlge of auLhorlLy and Lhe SLaLe.

**1he flscal's deslgnaLlon of Lhe crlme ls
noL concluslve. An accused may be found
gullLy and convlcLed of a graver offense
Lhan LhaL deslgnaLed ln Lhe lnformaLlon, lf
such graver offense ls lncluded or
descrlbed ln Lhe body of Lhe lnformaLlon,
and ls afLerwards [usLlfled by Lhe proof
presenLed durlng Lhe Lrlal.
9 uennls v. uS
(341 uS 494,
494)
1he SmlLh AcL makes lL a crlme for
knowlngly and wlllfully advocaLlng
Lhe overLhrow of Lhe governmenL
by force or vlolence, or organlzlng
a group, whlch does so or
consplres Lo do so. eLlLloners are
leaders of Lhe CommunlsL arLy ln
Lhe uS, whlch LaughL Lhe necesslLy
of overLhrowlng Lhe governmenL
and soughL Lo overLhrow Lhe
governmenL.
1hey were convlcLed wlLh
vlolaLlon of Lhe SmlLh AcL.
ConvlcLlons upheld and Lhe
law ls consLlLuLlonal.
WhaL Lhe law punlshes ls noL speech buL
advocacy-resLralnL on speech ls
lncldenLal. A convlcLlon relylng on speech
as evldence of vlolaLlon may only be
susLalned when Lhe speech creaLes a clear
and presenL danger of aLLempLlng or
accompllshlng Lhe prohlblLed crlme.

10 Conzales v.
Comelec (C.8.
no. L-27833
1969)
+, &%$(-$$%,' ,. .)(/$0 8A 4880 whlch prohlblLed
Lhe Loo early nomlnaLlon
of candldaLes (130 days/
90 days) and llmlLlng Lhe
Ma[orlLy belleves 8A 4880
ls unconsLlLuLlonal buL Lhe
CourL lacked 1 voLe Lo
declare.
Lven Lhough Lhe governmenLal purpose be
leglLlmaLe and subsLanLlal (such as Lhe
conducL of free, orderly and honesL
elecLlons), Lhey cannoL be pursued by
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012


81
perlod of elecLlon
campalgn or parLlsan
pollLlcal acLlvlLy (120
days/90 days)
means LhaL broadly sLlfle fundamenLal
personal llberLles when Lhe end can be
more narrowly achleved. Clear and presenL
danger LesL ls appllcable.
11 L8C v. uans
(C.8. no. L-
39329, 1983)
!" $%&'(&&%") "* *+',& "- -(.%)/
01'+(&1 ,21 3+-,%1& $1&%&,1$ *-"4
3(-&(%)/ ,21 '+&15
CourL lssued: Culdellnes for lnferlor courLs
and quasl-[udlclal admlnlsLraLlve Lrlbunals
12 Ayer v.
Capulong (C.8.
no. L-82380,
1988)
eLlLloners were Lo make a fllm
enLlLled 1he lour uay
8evoluLlon", whlch chronlcled Lhe
sLruggles of Lhe llllplnos aL Ldsa l.
M18C8 and oLher governmenL
agencles gave Lhelr endorsemenL
and approval.
!L soughL ln[uncLlon
because a porLrayal or hls
llfe or LhaL of hls famlly
wlLhouL hls consenL
vlolaLes hls rlghL Lo prlvacy
ln[uncLlon ls lnvalld. 1here was no flndlng of a clear and presenL
danger of a vlolaLlon of rlghL Lo prlvacy ln
maklng Lhe fllm.

**A llmlLed lnLruslon lnLo a person's
prlvacy has long been regarded as
permlsslble where:
1he person ls a publlc flgure, and
1he lnformaLlon soughL Lo be ellclLed from
hlm or Lo be publlshed abouL hlm
consLlLuLe of a publlc characLer.
13 8oxas v. de
Zuzuarregul
(C.8. no.
132072, 2006)
1here was an agreemenL beLween
ALLy. 8oxas and Lhe de
Zuzuareggul's LhaL any excess for
Lhe sale of Lhelr plece of land
would go Lo Lhe lawyers. When
Lhe deal was done, a large amounL
of excess wenL Lo Lhe lawyers, and
Lhe CourL sald LhaL pursuanL Lo
Lhe Cannons of rofesslonal
LLhlcs, Lhese were unconsclonable
fees. 1he CourL ordered Lhe reLurn
of 80 of lL.
8oxas wroLe a leLLer Lo
!usLlce nazarlo and C!
anganlban ranLlng abouL
how lmposslble and unfalr
Lhe declslon was and
lmplylng undue lnfluence
ln Lhe declslon-maklng
and quesLlonlng Lhe
lnLegrlLy of Lhe CourL.
8oxas was found gullLy of
lndlrecL conLempL.
ConLempLuous remarks agalnsL Lhe SC
cannoL be LoleraLed on Lhe basls of free
speech when Lhey Lend Lo degrade Lhe
dlgnlLy of Lhe SC and erode Lhe publlc
confldence accorded Lo lL.
III. Speech and e|ectora| process
14 Sanldad v.
Comelec (C.8.
no. 90878,
1990)
8A 6766, Lhe Crganlc AcL for CA8
was enacLed lnLo law. Comelec
lssued Lhe rules regardlng Lhe
conducL of Lhe pleblsclLe. Cne rule
ls: on Lhe day before and on
pleblsclLe day, no mass medla
columnlsL, commenLaLor,
announcer or personallLy shall use
hls column or radlo or Lelevlslon
eLlLloner asserLs freedom
of expresslon and of Lhe
press
Comelec rule ls
unconsLlLuLlonal.
ConsLlLuLlon granLed Lo Lhe CCMLLLC Lhe
power Lo supervlse and regulaLe Lhe use
and en[oymenL of franchlses, permlLs or
oLher granLs lssued for Lhe operaLlon of
LransporLaLlon or oLher publlc uLlllLles,
medla of communlcaLlon or lnformaLlon Lo
ensure equal campalgn opporLunlLles for
candldaLes.
ln a pleblsclLe, Lhere are no candldaLes
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,


8,
Llme Lo campalgn for or agalnsL
Lhe pleblsclLe lssues.
lnvolved, so Comelec unduly resLrlcLed
freedom of expresslon.
13 naLlonal ress
Club v. Comelec
(C.8. no.
102633, 1992)
SecLlon 11 of 8A 6646 prohlblLs
Lhe sale or donaLlon of prlnL space
and alrLlme "for campalgn or
oLher pollLlcal purposes," excepL
Lo Lhe Commlsslon on LlecLlons,
whlch shall allocaLe Lhem equally
and lmparLlally among all
candldaLes.
eLlLloner asserLs vlolaLlon
of freedom of expresslon.
Sec. 11 of 8A 6646 ls
consLlLuLlonal.
1he law serves a leglLlmaLe lnLeresL-
equallLy of opporLunlLles for all candldaLes.
lurLhermore, Lhe resLrlcLlons are (a)
llmlLed ln scope (campalgn perlod) and (b)
conLenL-neuLral (Llme and space only, noL
acLual conLenL)
16 Adlong v.
Comelec (C.8.
103936, 1992)
1o enforce Lhe Cmblnus LlecLlon
Code, Comelec lssued resoluLlons
on lawful and prohlblLed forms of
elecLlon propaganda. 8aslcally,
propaganda may noL be posLed
anywhere oLher Lhan Lhe
CCMLLLC common posLed areas
and/or blllboards, aL Lhe campalgn
headquarLers of Lhe candldaLe or
pollLlcal parLy, organlzaLlon or
coallLlon, or aL Lhe candldaLe's
own resldenLlal house or one of
hls resldenLlal houses.
eLlLloner quesLlons Lhe
consLlLuLlonallLy of Lhe
resoluLlons because Lhe
prohlblLlons encompass
even prlvaLe properLy (llke
Lhelr cars, eLc.), deprlvlng
clLlzens of rlghL Lo free
speech and expresslon
8esoluLlons are
unconsLlLuLlonal.
Cnly Lhe presence of a clear and presenL
danger wlll warranL such conLenL-based
resLrlcLlons.
17 Csmena v.
Comelec
eLlLloners are seeklng Lhe
reexamlnaLlon of Sec. 11 8A 6646
(See case 13) because based on
experlence, lL's caused more
dlsparlLy beLween rlch and poor
candldaLes Lhan equallLy. 8lch
candldaLes can resorL Lo oLher,
more exLravaganL means such as
boaLs, parades and handbllls.
eLlLloners aver LhaL Lhe
law works more ln favor of
Lhe rlcher candldaLes.
1he law ls upheld. lL's
purpose ls noL equallLy
among all candldaLes, buL
equallLy ln opporLunlLy. lL
only regulaLes Llme, place
and manner of adverLlslng,
noL conLenL.
1he C'8rlen LesL musL be used Lo
deLermlne wheLher or noL conLenL-neuLral
regulaLlons are proper: (97$'.)
1. lL ls wlLhln Lhe consLlLuLlonal
:ower of Lhe Cov'L
2. lL furLhers an lmporLanL or
;ubsLanLlal governmenLal lnLeresL
3. 1he governmenLal lnLeresL ls
<nrelaLed Lo Lhe suppresslon of
free expresslon
4. 1he lncldenL resLrlcLlon on alleged
llrsL AmendmenL freedoms ls no
greaLer Lhan ls =ssenLlal Lo Lhe
furLherance of LhaL lnLeresL.
18 A8S-C8n v.
Comelec (C.8.
no. 133846,
A Comelec en banc resoluLlon
prohlblLed Lhe conducL of exlL
polls and dlssemlnaLlon of resulLs
A8S-C8n and oLher medla
corporaLlons were
dlsallowed from
rohlblLlon ls lnvalld. LxlL
polls are useful for long-
Lerm research and also
Cnly a showlng of clear and presenL
danger wlll warranL resLrlcLlon of freedom
of expresslon.
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83
2000) Lhrough mass medla, because
Lhey mlghL confllcL wlLh Lhe
offlclal counL as well as LhaL of
nAMl8LL's.
conducLlng exlL polls. elecLlon pro[ecLlons. 1here
can be no free and orderly
elecLlons lf free speech and
press are unduly curLalled
!"#$#%&' Llme elemenL
()%*#"' very llkely Lo be lnevlLable

19 SWS v.
Comelec (C8
no. 147371,
2001)
8A 9006 (lalr LlecLlon AcL),
provldes:
Surveys affecLlng naLlonal
candldaLes shall noL be publlshed
13 days before an elecLlon and
surveys affecLlng local candldaLes
shall noL be publlshed seven 7
days before an elecLlon."

eLlLloners seek
prohlblLlon of
lmplemenLaLlon on Lhe
basls of lnvalld prlor
resLralnL
Law ls lnvalld. lL ls a dlrecL
and LoLal suppresslon of a
caLegory of expresslon even
Lhough such suppresslon ls
only for a llmlLed perlod.
Such suppresslon musL pass Lhe C'8rlen
LesL. 1he 4
Lh
requlslLe ls mlsslng. 1here are
oLher, less lnLruslve means of prevenLlng
bandwagon effecL and manlpulaLlon of
surveys, such as punlshlng releaslng of
false lnformaLlon or survey maLerlals.
IV. Commerc|a| Speech
20 8ubln v. Coors
8rewlng (414
uS 476, 1993)
Coors submlLLed Lhelr llquor labels
and oLher adverLlsemenLs Lo
8A1l. Sald bureau denled
approval because reveallng
alcohol conLenL on llquor labels ls
lnvalld as Lhey promoLe sLrengLh
wars", based on a law.
1he uS dlsLrlcL and courL
of appeals sLruck down
Lhe law.
uS SC held LhaL whlle Lhere
was a subsLanLlal
governmenL lnLeresL, Lhe
means dld noL furLher Lhls
lnLeresL ln a maLerlal way.
rohlblLlon of dlsplaylng
alcohol conLenL Lo llquor
labels, buL noL oLher
adverLlsemenLs doesn'L
make sense.
CenLral Pudson LesL for deLermlnlng
wheLher or noL suppresslon of commerclal
speech passes scruLlny: (LSAN)
1. commerclal speech musL concern
|awful acLlvlLy and ls noL
mlsleadlng
2. Lhere ls a subsLanLlal governmenL
lnLeresL
3. Lhe regulaLlon dlrecLly advances
Lhe asserLed governmenL lnLeresL
4. WheLher lL ls noL more exLenslve
Lhan necessary Lo serve LhaL
lnLeresL
21 ClnclnnaLl v.
ulscovery
neLwork (307
uS 410, 1993)
ulscovery neLwork and Parmon
ubllshlng adverLlse Lhelr
programs ln free magazlnes,
whlch Lhey dlsLrlbuLe Lhrough
news racks around ClnclnnaLl.
ursuanL Lo an ordlnance, Lhe clLy
revoked Lhelr permlL Lo dlsLrlbuLe
based on lmporLanL safeLy and
aesLheLlc goals.
ulscovery and Parmon
clalm a vlolaLlon of llrsL
AmendmenL.
unconsLlLuLlonal. 1he CourL
found LhaL Lhe ClLy's
ordlnance dld noL
reasonably flL Lhe ClLy's
goals of safeLy and
aesLheLlcs.
A local governmenLal enLlLy may regulaLe
Lhe placemenL and number of newsracks
Lo promoLe lLs subsLanLlal lnLeresL ln publlc
safeLy and aesLheLlcs, buL LhaL enLlLy musL
esLabllsh a reasonable flL beLween lLs
regulaLlon and Lhe goals soughL Lo be
achleved.
8easonable flL LesL only because lL has a
greaLer rlghL Lo regulaLe commerclal
speech, Lhan non-commerclal speech.
22 ClLy of Ladue v.
Cllleo (114 S. CL.
2038, 1994)
A Ladue ordlnance prohlblLed
slgnage on house excepL
resldence ldenLlflcaLlon, for sale"
Cllleo quesLlons Lhe
consLlLuLlonallLy
unconsLlLuLlonal. 1he ordlnance cuL off compleLely Lhe
freedom of expresslon Lhrough slgns. lL
was no longer conLenL-neuLral because
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84
slgns and warnlng slgns for safeLy
hazards. LaLer lL was expanded
lncludlng slgnage on wlndows.
Lhere was no alLernaLlve medlum for Lhe
expresslon on properLy. 1hus, lL was noL
[usL a Llme, place or manner resLrlcLlon. lL
was ln effecL conLenL-based.
V. Unprotected speech
L|be|
23 ollcarplo v.
Manlla 1lmes
(C8 no. L-
16027, 1962)
ollcarplo flled charges agalnsL
8eyes, whlch caused Lhe laLLer's
LermlnaLlon. 8eyes ln Lurn
lnsLlLuLed an admlnlsLraLlve and a
crlmlnal proceedlng agalnsL
ollcarplo. !"# %&'()& !(*#+
sLarLed publlshlng arLlcles abouL
Lhese cases, whlch 8eyes assalls as
llbel because Lhey publlshed a loL
of wrong Lhlngs abouL Lhe
proceedlngs. A second arLlcle was
publlshed correcLlng lnaccuracles.
8eyes sLlll soughL damages
from Lhe courL.
uamages were awarded Lo
8eyes. 1he mlsLakes are
subsLanLlal.
uerogaLory maLerlal publlshed by press
would only be proLecLed lf Lhey were Lrue
and falr and made ln good falLh, wlLhouL
commenLs or remarks.
ArL. 334 of Lhe 8evlsed enal Code Lvery
defamaLory lmpuLaLlon ls presumed Lo be
mallclous, even lf lL be Lrue, lf no good
lnLenLlon and [usLlflable moLlve for maklng
lL ls shown."
CorrecLlon of lnaccuracles does noL wlpe
ouL Lhe llablllLy from Lhe flrsL llbelous acL.
24 Lopez v. CA (C8
no. L-26349,
1970)
!"# %&'()& ,"-.'(/)# (a magazlne)
publlshed a sLory, whlch was
Lermed Lhe hoax of Lhe year-
abouL one lldel Cruz, a sanlLaLlon
englneer who wenL Lo 8abuyan
lslands who Lhen LransmlLLed a
message Lo Lhe governmenL LhaL
Lhey were llvlng ln Lerror Lhere. lL
Lurned ouL, he was [usL looklng for
a rlde home. 1he magazlne
publlshed a plcLure of Lhls Cruz.
1he plcLure posLed was
acLually LhaL of a lldel C.
Cruz, a buslnessman from
8ulacan. 1he magazlne
lmmedlaLely reLracLed and
correcLed Lhe mlsLake, buL
lldel C. wenL Lo Lhe courL
for damages sLlll.
Award of damages granLed. 1reaLlse of newell on Slander and Llbel:
"ubllcaLlon of a person's phoLograph ln
connecLlon wlLh an arLlcle llbelous of a
Lhlrd person, ls a llbel on Lhe person whose
plcLure ls publlshed, where Lhe acLs seL ouL
ln Lhe arLlcle are lmpuLed Lo such person."
ln Lhe 01(+1*2('3 case, lL was a
newspaper LhaL made Lhls honesL mlsLake,
lL was noL held llable because a newspaper
ls under a dally deadllne. A magazlne, llke
ln Lhls case, ls noL.
1he recLlflcaLlon does noL wlpe ouL Lhe
llablllLy for Lhe flrsL mlsLake (4.)(/&-5(.).
23 new ?ork 1lmes
v. Sulllvan (376
uS 234, 1964)
Sulllvan flled a case of llbel agalnsL
Lhe new ?ork 1lmes for an
adverLlsemenL whlch lncluded
false sLaLemenLs abouL pollce
acLlon agalnsL sLudenLs who
parLlclpaLed ln a clvll rlghLs. Pe
feels alluded Lo belng Lhe chlef of
pollce. 1he [ury found for
respondenL afLer lnsLrucLlons from
uamages were awarded Lo
Sulllvan
lmproper. 1he case was
remanded.
llbelous per se" means proof of mallce ls
no longer requlred. Such ls prlor
censorshlp. AcLual mallce musL be Lhe
sLandard before a reporLer can be held
gullLy of llbel
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,


89
Lhe [udge LhaL sald sLaLemenLs are
llbelous per se", Lhe lmpuLaLlons
havlng been found Lo be
defamaLory
26 8osenbloom v.
MeLromedla,
lnc. (403 uS 29,
1971)
8osenbloom was a dlsLrlbuLor of
nudlsL magazlnes. ollce
enforcemenL evenLually arresLed
hlm and conflscaLed magazlnes,
Lhen Lhey reporLed Lhls Lo
MeLromedla and oLher medla
sLaLlons, whlch broadcasLed abouL
Lhe sLory. 8osenbloom was
evenLually acqulLLed.
Pe's now sulng
MeLromedla for llbel and
ls demandlng damages.
uamages granLed. Llbel laws proLecL Lwo separaLe lnLeresLs
of Lhe lndlvldual:
1. hls deslre Lo preserve prlvacy
from lnLruslon and
2. Lo preserve hls good name and
repuLaLlon.
A llbel sulL agalnsL a radlo sLaLlon may be
susLalned upon clear and convlnclng proof
LhaL news was publlshed wlLh knowledge lL
was false or reckless dlsregard of lLs
accuracy.
27 CerLz v. 8oberL
Welch, lnc. (418
uS 323, 1974)
nucclo kllled a man. 1he vlcLlm's
famlly hlred ALLy. CerLz. Welch's
magazlne ran an arLlcle saylng
LhaL CerLz framed nucclo.
CerLz sued Welch for llbel.
Lower courL granLed
punlLlve damages.
AcLual mallce was noL
proven so punlLlve damages
noL proper.
A lawyer ls a prlvaLe lndlvldual: A publlsher
or broadcasLer of defamaLory falsehoods
abouL prlvaLe lndlvlduals may noL clalm
Lhe !" $%&'( proLecLlon agalnsL llablllLy for
defamaLlon on Lhe ground LhaL Lhe
defamaLory sLaLemenLs concern an lssue
of publlc or general lnLeresL.
28 PusLler
Magazlne, eL. al.
v. lalwell (483
uS 46, 1988)
PusLler magazlne publlshed a
llquor ad conLalnlng celebrlLles
Lalklng abouL Lhelr flrsL Llme". lL
lncluded a parody (Lhe parody
expressed by dlsclalmer) abouL
lalwell-a renowned mlnlsLer and
pollLlcal commenLaLor-Lo Lhe
effecL LhaL he and hls moLher
were hypocrlLes and lmmoral.
lalwell sued for llbel and
lnfllcLlon of emoLlonal
dlsLress. 1he parody was
publlshed a second Llme
Lhru fooLnoLes.
AcLual mallce noL proven so
award of damages
lmproper.


ubllc flgures and publlc offlclals may noL
recover for Lhe LorL of lnLenLlonal lnfllcLlon
of emoLlonal dlsLress by reason of
publlcaLlons such as Lhe one here aL lssue
wlLhouL showlng ln addlLlon LhaL Lhe
publlcaLlon conLalns a false sLaLemenL of
facL whlch was made wlLh "acLual mallce,"
l. e., wlLh knowledge LhaL Lhe sLaLemenL
was false or wlLh reckless dlsregard as Lo
wheLher or noL lL was Lrue.
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,


89
29 ln re: !urado
(A.M. no. 93-2-
037 SC, 1993)
!urado was a wrlLe for Lhe Manlla
SLandard. Cver many monLhs he
had been wrlLlng abouL alleged
corrupLlon ln Lhe [udlclary, such as
paylng off and free Pk LlckeLs,
wlLhouL subsLanLlaLlng Lhem.
C! creaLed an ad hoc
commlLLee Lo lnvesLlgaLe
WCn !urado should be
held llable for conLempL of
courL.
Pe was llable for conLempL
of courL and ordered Lo pay
a flne
freedom of speech v. lndlvldual lnLeresL of
[udges ln Lhe malnLenance of prlvaLe
honor and repuLaLlon:
1he norm requlres Lhose who, lnvoklng
freedom of speech, publlsh sLaLemenLs
whlch are clearly defamaLory Lo
ldenLlflable [udges or oLher publlc offlclals
Lo exerclse !"#$ &'() care ln ascerLalnlng
Lhe LruLh of Lhe sLaLemenLs Lhey publlsh.
1he Clvll code (ArL. 19) and hlllpplnes
!ournallsL's Code of LLhlcs requlre good
falLh ln Lhe exerclse of rlghLs and LhaL
reporLs musL be made scrupulously
wlLhouL suppresslng essenLlal facLs and
dlsLorLlng Lhe LruLh.
":;<=>?@A
30 Mlller v.
Callfornla (413
uS 13, 1973)
Mlller conducLed a mass malllng
campalgn of books and brochures
called adulL maLerlal", whlch
porLrayed graphlc and descrlpLlve
prlnL maLerlal of sexual
lnLercourse and relaLed maLLers.
Pe was convlcLed of
vlolaLlon Lhe Callfornla
enal Code
Case was remanded Lo Lrlal
courL Lo deLermlne wheLher
or noL Lhe obscene maLerlal
dlsLrlbuLed here should be
regulaLed.
CbscenlLy does noL come under llrsL
AmendmenL proLecLlon. 8uL sLaLuLes
deslgned Lo regulaLe Lhese musL be
carefully llmlLed.
8aslc guldellnes for Lhe Lrler of facL:
- WheLher Lhe average person,
applylng conLemporary
communlLy sLandards would flnd
Lhe work, Laken as a whole,
appeals Lo Lhe prurlenL lnLeresL
(sexual maLLers)
- WheLher Lhe work deplcLs or
descrlbes, ln a paLenLly offenslve
way, sexual conducL speclflcally
deflned by Lhe appllcable sLaLe
law
- WheLher Lhe work, Laken as a
whole, lacks serlous llLerary,
arLlsLlc, pollLlcal, or sclenLlflc
value
CommunlLy sLandards musL be used, noL
naLlonal sLandards.
31 Conzales v.
kalaw-kaLlgbak
1he 8oard (88M1, now M18C8)
classlfled peLlLloners' fllm kaplL
eLlLloners conLend LhaL
Lhls consLlLuLes undue
ulsmlssed because Lhere
were noL enough voLes Lo
Censorshlp ls prlor resLralnL on free
expresslon and lL may only be applled
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,


89
(C8 no. L-
69300, 1983)
sa aLallm" as for adulLs only, wlLh
some changes and deleLlons. 1he
8oard sald LhaL lf Lhey wanL Lo
change Lhe raLlng Lo general
paLronage, Lhey have Lo deleLe
and change some scenes.
resLraln on arLlsLlc
expresslon and LhaL Lhe
obscenlLles shown are
essenLlal Lo Lhe lnLegrlLy
of Lhe fllm.
rule LhaL Lhe 8oard had
commlLLed a grave abuse of
dlscreLlon.
upon a showlng of clear and presenL
danger. 8uL obscenlLy ls noL proLecLed.
1esL Lo deLermlne obscenlLy: WheLher Lo
Lhe average person, applylng
conLemporary communlLy sLandards, Lhe
domlnanL Lheme of Lhe maLerlal Laken as a
whole appeals Lo prurlenL lnLeresL.
1he rule ls dlfferenL (sLrlcLer) for Lelevlslon
because Lhls ls more accesslble Lo Lhe
publlc, especlally chlldren-Lhey don'L
have Lo pay Lo waLch.
(::;<=>? @AB C;DEDEFA
32 8ayan v. LrmlLa
(C8 no. 169838,
2006)
eLlLloners allege Lhelr peaceful
mass acLlons and rallles were
blocked and vlolenLly dlspersed by
pollce, on auLhorlLy from 8 880.
eople were ln[ured and arresLed.
LrmlLa also announced LhaL Lhe
CallbraLed reempLlve 8esponse
(C8) was ln force ln lleu of
maxlmum Lolerance" provlded ln
sald law.
eLlLloners assall Lhe
consLlLuLlonallLy of 8
880, as well as Lhe C8.
8 880 ls consLlLuLlonal.
C8 ls noL.
1he rlghL Lo peaceably assemble ls
llmlLable upon a showlng of a clear and
presenL danger. 8ally permlLs may be
denled on Lhls basls.
8 880 lmposes conLenL-neuLral (Llme,
place, manner) resLrlcLlons only.
Maxlmum Lolerance ls for publlc safeLy
and order, lL has noLhlng Lo do wlLh Lhe
conLenL of speeches.


CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012

88

Sect|on S
NC LAW SnALL 8L MADL kLSLC1ING AN LS1A8LISnMLN1 CI kLLIGICN, Ck
kCnI8I1ING 1nL IkLL LkLkCISL 1nLkLCI. 1nL IkLL LkLkCISL AND LNICMLN1 CI
kLLIGICUS kCILSSICN AND WCkSnI, WI1nCU1 DISCkIMINA1ICN Ck kLILkLNCL,
SnALL ICkLVLk 8L ALLCWLD. NC kLLIGICUS 1LS1 SnALL 8L kLUIkLD ICk 1nL
LkLkCISL CI CIVIL Ck CLI1ICAL kIGn1S.
Non-estab||shment of ke||g|on:
1hls means LhaL Lhe governmenL cannoL pass laws whlch promoLe or
lnhlblL any rellglon. ln oLher words, lL mandaLes governmenL neuLrallLy.
Iour Genera| ropos|t|ons of Government Neutra||ty: !"#$%&' )$##%
"**+, (AlL)
1. CovernmenL musL noL prefer one rellglon over anoLher, or
rellglon over lrrellglon
2. CovernmenL funds musL noL be used for rellglous purposes
3. CovernmenL acLlon musL noL ald rellglon
4. CovernmenL acLlon musL noL resulL ln excesslve enLanglemenL
wlLh rellglon
A||owab|e government a|d - 1here are forms of governmenL ald whlch are
allowable. 1he requlslLes are: (SLn) (2) Schoo| D|str|ct v. Schempp, (3)
8oard of Lducat|on v. A||en, (4) Lemon v. kurtzman, (S) 1||ton v.
k|chardson
1. a secular leglslaLlve purpose
2. a prlmary effecL LhaL nelLher advances nor lnhlblLs rellglon
3. musL noL requlre excesslve enLaglemenL wlLh Lhe rellglous
lnsLlLuLlon
Cn ke||g|ous Symbo|s
o 1he dlsplay of rellglous symbols (e.g. cruclflx, menorah, creche,
eLc.) ln publlc places and bulldlngs can be dlsallowed lf lL Lends Lo
show LhaL Lhe governmenL endorses lLs rellglous message. (6)
County of A||egheny v. ACLU
o ConLenL-neuLral llmlLs are valld for regulaLlng dlsplays of rellglous
symbols ln publlc places.
o Slmllar Lo free speech, conLenL-based resLrlcLlons on rellglous
messages can only be lmplemenLed lf Lhere ls a compelllng SLaLe
lnLeresL. (8) Cap|to| Square kev|ew 8oard v. |nette & ku k|ux
k|an
o Powever, because of hlllpplne culLure, Lhls rule ls noL as sLrlcL ln
our [urlsdlcLlon. lor example, lL ls noL uncommon Lo flnd a cruclflx
ln a courL room.
ub||c Schoo|s and ke||g|ous Instruct|on
o 8ased on Amerlcan [urlsprudence, rellglous lnsLrucLlon,
parLlcularly Lhe use of SLaLe resources for rellglous lnsLrucLlon ls
noL allowed. 1here ls excesslve enLanglemenL.
! Powever, lf Lhe law provldes a general beneflL Lo sLudenLs,
regardless of rellglon, lL can be valld. (3) 8oard of Lducat|on
v. A||en, (7) 2obrest v. Cata||na Iooth|||s Schoo| D|str|ct
o ln Lhe hlllpplnes, Lhls ls noL enLlrely dlsallowed. 1he ConsLlLuLlon
allows for rellglous lnsLrucLlon durlng school hours Lo be
conducLed by lnsLrucLors deslgnaLed by Lhe rellglon Lhey belong
Lo. 1hls ls wlLhouL cosL Lo Lhe governmenL Anu wlLh wrlLLen
consenL by parenLs. -#./0*% 1!1,2 3$/0.4# 5672 89:; <*%'/0/=/0*%
State [ur|sd|ct|on over re||g|ous affa|rs - 1he governmenL does noL have
Lhe power Lo lnLerfere and subsLlLuLe lLs [udgmenL on maLLers of rellglous
docLrlne and oLher purely rellglous affalrs. (9) Is|am|c Da'wah Counc|| v.
Lxecut|ve Secretary, (10) 1aruc v. De |a Cruz
o Lxamples: >&4&4 cerLlflcaLlon, excommunlcaLlon from a church
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012

89

"#$%&'(%') '%*)&+,-). -/ '#) 0#(1&#(-/%2 %$%' -3 /#(% +0)/ 0+*/% /#(%
-'0-2%')+, 4%'%3-) )# +'. &%,-5-#'6 78% 2%)%&(-'-'5 3+0)#& -/ )8+) -) -/ '#)
1&-(+&-,. +-(%2 +) 1&#$-2-'5 /*08 4%'%3-)6 (1) Ag|p|ay v. ku|z
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012

90

Iree Lxerc|se of ke||g|on
2 AspecLs of lree Lxerclse of 8ellglon (12) Cantwe|| v. Connect|cut
1. lreedom Lo 8elleve - AbsoluLe freedom whlch cannoL be
regulaLed. eople are free Lo belleve whaLever Lhey wanL, even lf
Lhey cannoL prove lL.
2. lreedom Lo AcL - When bellef ls LranslaLed lnLo exLernal acLs, Lhey
can be sub[ecLs of regulaLlon and pollce power, especlally lf Lhey
are ln[urlous Lo publlc safeLy.
Whlle Lhe courLs can look lnLo Lhe good falLh of an lndlvldual, Lhey cannoL
lnqulre lnLo Lhe LruLhfullness or falslLy of rellglous bellefs. (13) US v.
8a||ard
lree exerclse of rellglon carrles wlLh lL Lhe rlghL Lo dlssemlnaLe rellglous
lnformaLlon. Any resLralnL of such rlghL musL pass Lhe LesL of clear and
presenL danger of any subsLanLlve evll whlch Lhe SLaLe may prevenL. (14)
Amer|can 8|b|e Soc|ety v. C|ty of Man||a
SollclLaLlons for rellglous purposes may be regulaLed by Lhe SLaLe ln lLs
exerclse of pollce power. 1he SLaLe may proLecL lLs clLlzens from fraudulenL
sollclLaLlons. lL may regulaLe Lhe Llme and manner of sollclLaLlons. (21)
Centeno v. V|||a|on-orn|||os
lreedom of rellglon ls a valld reason for people Lo be exempLed from Lhe
operaLlon of cerLaln laws and pollcles.
o Cn un|on membersh|p - uesplLe havlng a closed shop provlslon ln
Lhe C8A, a member of Lhe lglesla nl CrlsLo may opL noL Lo [oln Lhe
labor unlon slnce Lhls ls dlsallowed by hls rellglon. lreedom of
rellglon ls superlor over conLracLual rlghLs llke Lhe C8A. (11)
V|ctor|ano v. L||za|de
o Cn f|ag ceremony - !ehovah's WlLnesses may be excluded from
Lhe mandaLory flag ceremony ln publlc schools mandaLed by 8A
1263 because lL ls agalnsL Lhelr rellglon Lo worshlp oLher ldols.
Whlle malnLalnlng LhaL Lhe hlllpplne flag and Lhe flag ceremony
are noL rellglous ldols and rlLuals, Lhe SC upheld Lhelr rlghL Lo noL
parLlclpaLe. 1hey may noL dlsrupL lL elLher. (1S) Lbra||nag v.
D|v|s|on Super|ntendent
o Cn mandatory educat|on - 1he Amlsh communlLy may refuse Lo
enrol Lhelr chlldren from Lhe publlc school sysLem desplLe a
compulsory educaLlon pollcy by Lhe sLaLe of Wlsconsln. 1hey have
Lhelr own sysLem of educaLlon whlch ls more approprlaLe for Lhelr
rellglous bellefs. (16) W|scons|n v. oder
o Cn government off|ce hours - Musllm courL employees were
exempLed from Lhe 8am Lo 3pm work hours. lnsLead, Lhey were
allowed Lo work from 7:30am Lo 3:30pm wlLhouL breaks ln order
Lo comply wlLh Lhelr 8amadan obllgaLlon of fasLlng. (27) In ke:
kequest of Mus||m Lmp|oyees
A law LhaL burdens rellglous pracLlces need noL be [usLlfled by a compelllng
governmenL lnLeresL lf lL ls neuLral and of general appllcablllLy. CLherwlse,
lL musL be:
1. !usLlfled by a compelllng lnLeresL
2. narrowly Lallored Lo advance LhaL lnLeresL (l.e. lL musL noL be
overbroad nor underlncluslve or Loo speclflc Lo a cerLaln rellglon)
(23) Church of the Lukum| v. C|ty of n|a|eah
8enevo|ent Neutra||ty - Lhe approach LhaL glves room for accommodaLlon
of rellglous exerclses, provlded LhaL lL does noL offend compelllng sLaLe
lnLeresL (26) Lstrada v. Lscr|tor
o Compe|||ng State Interest 1est: (SLl)
1. Look lnLo slncerlLy of bellef
2. 1he SLaLe has Lo prove LhaL lLs purposes are |eglLlmaLe and
compelllng
3. 1he SLaLe musL use Lhe leasL |nLruslve means posslble
ke||g|ous 1ests - CovernmenL may noL use rellglon as a basls of
classlflcaLlon for Lhe lmposlLlon of duLles, penalLles, prlvlleges or beneflLs.
o 1he prohlblLlon ln Lhe 8evlsed AdmlnlsLraLlve Code of 1917 of an
eccleslasLlc from elecLed offlce was consldered as a prohlblLed
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012

91

"#$%&%'() *#)*+ ,'-#.#"/ *0# 12 -3) 4 .'*# )0'"* *' 5#6$3"# )(60
7"'.%)%'8 (86'8)*%*(*%'83$+ (17) am|| v. 1e|eron
o 90# )*3*(*# -0%60 :3") 3 ;37*%)* <%8%)*#" ="'< :#%8& 3 <#<:#" '=
*0# 9#88#))## 6'8)*%*(*%'83$ 6'8.#8*%'8 -3) 0#$5 *' :#
(86'8)*%*(*%'83$+ (18) McDan|e| v. aty
ke||g|ous c|oth|ng - >#3"%8& 3"*%6$#) '= 6$'*0%8& -%*0 "#$%&%'() )%&8%=%6386#
?#+&+ @3"<($A#/ *(":38/ .#%$/ #*6+B %) 3 ='"< '= "#$%&%'() #C7"#))%'8+
D"'0%:%*%'8 3&3%8)* -#3"%8& *0#< <()* (85#"&' *0# )3<# *#)*) ='"
"#)*"%6*%'8) '8 "#$%&%'() #C7"#))%'8+
o 90# -#3"%8& '= 3 @3"<($A# %8)*#35 '= *0# "#E(%"#5 0#35&#3" '= 38
F%" G'"6# '==%6#"H) (8%='"< -3) 7"'0%:%*#5 5(# *' *0# )7#6%3$
83*("# 385 )*"(6*("# '= *0# <%$%*3"@+ 90# (8%='"< %) 73"* '= *0#
<#38) :@ -0%60 *0# <%$%*3"@ #8='"6#) 5%)6%7$%8#+ (19) Go|dman v.
We|nberger
I#$%&%'() "%*(3$) 385 36*%'8) -0%60 3"# 8'* 5'8# %8 &''5 =3%*0 385 3"#
%8)*#35 5'8# *' 5' )'<#*0%8& 5#*"%<#8*3$ *' 83*%'83$ %8*#"#)* ?#+&+ &'%8&
*' 1*+ J(5#H) 6037#$ :#)%5# K3$363838& -%*0 38 %8*#8* *' 5%)*(": *0#
&'.#"8<#8*B 638 :# .3$%5$@ "#&($3*#5 385 #.#8 7"'0%:%**#5 :@ *0# 1*3*#+
(20) German v. 8arangan
90# %86$()%'8 '= 7"3@#" "%*#) %8 3 7(:$%6 0%&0 )60''$ &"35(3*%'8 :@ *0#
7"%86%73$ 638 :# 6'8)*"(#5 3) 38 %85%"#6* 36*%'8 :@ *0# 1*3*# '= 6'#"6%8&
)*(5#8*) %8*' 7"'=#))%8& 3 6#"*3%8 "#$%&%'8+ 90%) %) 7"'0%:%*#5 :@ *0# G"##
LC#"6()# 6$3()#+ (22) Lee v. We|sman
90# 7"'0%:%*%'8 3&3%8)* *0# )0'-%8& '= 3 =%$< '8 =3<%$@ .3$(#) %8 *0# 7(:$%6
)60''$ ='"(< '(*)%5# '= 6$3)) 0'(") :3)#5 )'$#$@ '8 *0# =36* *03* %* %)
"#$%&%'() %8 83*("# %) %8.3$%5+ M* %) 3&3%8)* ="##5'< '= #C7"#))%'8 '= "#$%&%'8
385 3$$'-%8& )(60 =%$< -'($5 8'* 03.# 63()#5 #C6#))%.# #8*38&$#<#8*
)%86# %* %) 5'8# '(*)%5# '= 6$3)) 0'(")+ (24) Lamb's Chape| v. Center
Mor|ches Schoo| D|str|ct
2"%*%6%)<) '= '*0#" "#$%&%'8) :@ 38@ '*0#" "#$%&%'8) %) 8'* 3 .3$%5 &"'(85 *'
7"'0%:%* *03* "#$%&'8H) )0'- '8 9N )%86# %* 5'#) 8'* 73)) *0# O6$#3" 385
7"#)#8* 538&#" *#)*P ='" 7"'0%:%*%8& ="## )7##60 385 ="## #C#"6%)# '=
"#$%&%'8+ (2S) INC v. CA

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92

Cases
Case
Number
Case Name Iacts ne|d]kat|o Doctr|ne
1 Ag||pay v. ku|z !uan 8ulz, Lhe ulrecLor of osLs,
caused Lhe lssuance of posLage
sLamps whlch feaLured Lhe 33
rd

lnLernaLlonal LucharlsLlc Congress
held ln Manlla.
Cregorlo Agpllpay flled for
prohlblLlon Lo sLop 8ulz from
lssulng Lhe sLamps. Pe clalms LhaL
publlc funds were used for rellglous
purposes, Lhus unconsLlLuLlonal.
Not unconst|tut|ona|
1he purpose of Lhe sLamps was Lo
promoLe Lhe hlllpplnes. 1here was
no rellglous purpose behlnd lL.
1he funds used were from prevlous
approprlaLlons by Congress and Lhe
funds ralsed would noL beneflL any
rellglon.
AcLs of Lhe governmenL whlch do noL
have rellglous purposes are valld even lf
Lhey cause an lncldenLal beneflL Lo a
rellglous secL.
2 Schoo| D|str|ct v. Schempp A ennsylvanla sLaLuLe forced
publlc schools Lo belng each day
wlLh 10 blble verses broadcasL over
Lhe A sysLem.
A Maryland school board rule
requlred schools Lo begln Lhe day
wlLh a blble readlng, Lhe Lord's
rayer, or boLh.
8oLh rules were held Lo be
unconst|tut|ona| by Lhe uS
Supreme CourL.
CovernmenL acLlons musL be for a
secular purpose noL meanL Lo
advance or lnhlblL any rellglon.
8lble readlng and prayers are
rellglous exercuses whlch are
deflnlLely noL secular.
1he SLaLe may noL force a person Lo
profess bellef or dlsbellef ln any rellglon,
nor can lL pass laws LhaL ald all rellglons
as agalnsL nonbellevers.
3 8oard of Lducat|on v. A||en A law by Lhe SLaLe of new ?ork
requlres publlc school auLhorlLles Lo
lend LexLbooks free of charge Lo all
sLudenLs ln Cr. 7-12. arochlal
schools are lncluded.
eLlLloners allege LhaL such law ls
unconsLlLuLlonal because publlc
funds are used for prlvaLe rellglous
schools.
Not unconst|tut|ona|
1he purpose of Lhe law ls Lhe
furLherance of educaLlonal
opporLunlLles avallable Lo Lhe
young. no rellglous purpose.
1he books whlch are Lo be lenL are
secular ln naLure so Lhere ls no
danger of uslng Lhem for rellglous
lnsLrucLlon.
1he law ls meanL Lo cover all
sLudenLs, regardless of wheLher or
noL Lhey aLLend a parochlal school.
CovernmenL ald Lo sLudenLs ln parochlal
schools are noL unconsLlLuLlonal lf such
ald ls noL used for rellglous purposes and
LhaL lL ls avallable Lo Lhe general
populaLlon of sLudenLs, regardless of
rellglon.
4 Lemon v. kurtzman 1he 8hode lsland Salary 8oth statutes were dec|ared 1he kurtzman 1est
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93

SupplemenL AcL allowed sLaLe
offlclals Lo supplemenL Lhe salarles
of Leachers of secular sub[ecLs ln
nonpubllc schools.
1he ennsylvanla nonpubllc
LlemenLary and Secondary
LducaLlon AcL allowed governmenL
supporL ln Lerms of
relmbursemenLs for Lhose purely
secular ob[ecLlves ln nonpubllc
schools.
unconst|tut|ona|.
ln 8hode lsland, 93 of Lhe schools
affecLed were parochlal schools. ln
ennsylvanla, 96 of sLudenLs ln
nonpubllc schools aLLend parochlal
schools.
Lven lf only secular ob[ecLlves of
Lhe schools are helped, Lhe
parochlal school lLself ls afflllaLed
wlLh Lhe 8oman CaLhollc Church.
1hus, Lhey have rellglous ob[ecLlves
whlch can permeaLe even ln
secular sub[ecLs.
Pelplng Lhese schools would resulL
ln excesslve enLanglemenL.
1. 1he sLaLuLe musL have a secular
leglslaLlve purpose
2. lLs prlnclpal effecL musL be one
LhaL nelLher advances nor lnhlblLs
rellglon
3. 1he sLaLuLe musL noL fosLer
excesslve governmenL
enLanglemenL wlLh rellglon"
S 1||ton v. k|chardson 1he Plgher LducaLlon laclllLles AcL
of 1963 provldes federal
consLrucLlon granLs for colleges and
unlverslLles for faclllLles whlch are
noL Lo be used for rellglous
acLlvlLles. 1hls prohlblLlon agalnsL
rellglous use runs for 20 years.
lour church relaLed lnsLlLuLlons
recelved Lhe granL. 1he granLs were
Lo be used for Lhe consLrucLlon of a
llbrary, muslc bulldlng, language
laboraLory and a sclence lab.
Const|tut|ona| except for the 20-
year c|ause.
1he law advances educaLlon, noL
any rellglon. 1herefore, lL ls valld.
1he bulldlngs consLrucLed are
rellglously neuLral, unllke Lhe
Leachers whlch were lnLended Lo
be helped by Lhe laws dlscussed ln
Lemon v. kurLzman.
1he 20-year clause ls
unconsLlLuLlonal because lL allows
Lhe bulldlngs Lo be used for
rellglous purposes afLer 20 years
have elapsed, Lhus, lndlrecLly
helplng a rellglous secL.
llnanclal ald Lo rellglous lnsLlLuLlons are
noL per se lnvalld. 1hey can be glven for
a purely secular purpose, such as ln Lhls
case.
6 County of A||egheny v.
Amer|can C|v|| L|bert|es Un|on
1he CounLy of Allegheny dlsplayed a
creche (belen) wlLh a banner whlch
says Clorla ln Lxcelsls ueo" ln Lhe
grand sLalrcase of Lhe counLy
courLhouse.
CuLslde Lhe bulldlng, Lhere was also
1he creche was unconsLlLuLlonal
buL Lhe menorah was noL.
1he creche obvlously sends a
rellglous message. 8y placlng lL ln
Lhe Crand SLalrcase, shows LhaL Lhe
governmenL ls endorslng LhaL
1he dlsplay of rellglous symbols by Lhe
governmenL ls dlsallowed lf Lhese Lend
Lo show LhaL Lhe governmenL endorses
Lhe rellglous message forwarded by Lhe
sald symbol.
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94

an 18-fooL menorah, a 43-fooL
ChlrsLmas Lree and a plaque wlLh
Lhe mayor's name whlch sald
SaluLe Lo LlberLy".
rellglous message.
1he menorah ls noL sLrlcLly
rellglous because lL ls puL slde by
slde Lhe chrlsLmas Lree and Lhe
plaque. 1he clLy celebraLes boLh
ChrlsLmas and Chanukah as
holldays durlng Lhe wlnLer season.
7 2obrest v. Cata||na Iooth|||s
Schoo| D|str|ct
!ames ZobresL ls a deaf sLudenL
who aLLend Lhe SalpolnLe CaLhollc
Plgh School.
Pls parenLs asked Lhe school dlsLrlcL
Lo provlde hlm wlLh an lnLerpreLer,
as Lhey had when !ames was sLlll
aLLendlng a publlc school.
1he school dlsLrlcL refused, clLlng
Lhe non-esLabllshmenL Clause.
CaLallna looLhllls School ulsLrlcL
musL provlde ZobresL wlLh an
lnLerpreLed because of Lhe
lndlvlduals wlLh ulsablllLles
LducaLlon AcL (luLA)
1he luLA provldes a neuLral
governmenL program whlch helps
lndlvlduals, noL schools. lL has no
rellglous ob[ecLlve behlnd lL.
luLA ls avallable Lo all sLudenLs,
regardless of Lhelr rellglon or Lhelr
cholce of schol (secLarlan or noL).
8ellglous lnsLlLuLlons are noL precluded
from parLlclpaLlng ln soclal welfare and
servlces programs whlch are avallable Lo
Lhe general publlc and are rellglon-
neuLral.
8 Cap|to| Square kev|ew 8oard v.
|nette & ku k|ux k|an
eLlLloners denled Lhe respondenLs'
requesL of puLLlng a cross on
CaplLol Square on Lhe grounds LhaL
lL vlolaLed Lhe esLabllshmenL clause.
eLlLloners have allowed Lhe dlsplay
of a menorah and a chrlsLmas Lree
ln Lhe same locaLlon before.
8espondenLs sued peLlLloners on
Lhe ground LhaL Lhey were denled
freedom of expresslon.
1he SLaLe may lmpose reasonable
content-neutra| restr|ct|ons on a
publlc forum such as CaplLol
Square.
8egulaLlon of conLenL can only be
done lf Lhere ls a compelllng sLaLe
lnLeresL such as Lhe esLabllshmenL
clause.
rohlblLlon agalnsL Lhe dlsplay of a
cross ls a conLenL-based resLrlcLlon.
Powever, lL ls lnvalld because Lhe
esLabllshmenL clause was noL
vlolaLed. lL was noL shown LhaL Lhe
governmenL endorsed Lhe rellglous
message of Lhe respondenLs.
1est on whether or not re||g|ous
express|on v|o|ates the estab||shment
c|ause:
1. urely prlvaLe
2. Cccurs ln LradlLlonal or deslgnaLed
publlc forums, publlcly announced
and open Lo all on equal Lerms
9 Is|am|c Da'wah Counc|| v.
Lxecut|ve Secretary
LC 463 creaLed Lhe hlllpplne Palal
CerLlflcaLlon Scheme Lo be
LC 463 ls unconsLlLuLlonal.
Classlfylng someLhlng as halal
Palal cerLlflcaLlon ls a maLLer of rellglous
docLrlne whlch Lhe SLaLe should noL and
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012

9S

lmplemenLed by Lhe Cfflce on
Musllm Affalrs under Lhe Cfflce of
Lhe resldenL.
Palal ls a meLhod of preparlng food
whlch ls ln accordance wlLh Lhe
koran.
enLalls an lnLerpreLaLlon of Lhe
guldellnes wrlLLen down ln Lhe
koran.
ln effecL, Lhe SLaLe wlll force
Musllms Lo accepL lLs own
lnLerpreLaLlon of someLhlng
rellglous.
cannoL lnLerfere ln.
10 1aruc v. De |a Cruz eLlLloners were members of Lhe
hlllpplne lndependenL Church who
were excommunlcaLed by
respondenL 8lshop.
eLlLloners Lhen pray for a wrlL of
mandamus Lo compel Lhe blshop Lo
relnsLaLe Lhem lnLo Lhe Church.
1he CourL does noL have
[urlsdlcLlon on Lhls case. lL ls a
rellglous maLLer besL lefL Lo Lhe
auLhorlLles of LhaL cerLaln rellglon.
LxcommunlcaLlon ls a purely rellglous
maLLer whlch Lhe CourLs cannoL declde
on. 1he only reason for courLs Lo
lnLervene would be when Lhere ls a
subsLanLlve rlghL whlch ls vlolaLed ln Lhe
process.
11 V|ctor|ano v. L||za|de Lllzalde 8ope lacLory and Lhe unlon
enLered lnLo a C8A wlLh Lhe
closed-shop" agreemenL. (unlon
membershlp ls a requlremenL for
employmenL.)
eLlLloner vlcLorlano ls an
employee and a member of Lhe
lglesla nl CrlsLo whlch prohlblLs
Lhelr members from [olnlng unlons.
8A 3330 whlch provlded for an
exempLlon Lo workers belonglng Lo
dlfferenL secLs Lo [oln unlons ls not
unconst|tut|ona|. lL respecLs Lhe
free exerclse of rellglon.
1he C8A ls a conLracL. ConLracLual
obllgaLlons musL glve way Lo free
exerclse of rellglon.
uesplLe havlng a closed shop provlslon ln
Lhe C8A, a member of Lhe lglesla nl
CrlsLo may opL noL Lo [oln Lhe labor
unlon slnce Lhls ls dlsallowed by hls
rellglon. lreedom of rellglon ls superlor
over conLracLual rlghLs llke Lhe C8A.
12 Cantwe|| v. Connect|cut eLlLloners are members of
!ehovah's WlLnesses who wenL
from house Lo house ln new Paven,
ConnecLlcuL.
1hey asked people Lo llsLen Lo a
recordlng or Lo buy a book abouL
Lhelr rellglon. 8oLh aLLacked
CaLhollclsm.
1hey were convlcLed under Sec. 294
of Lhe Ceneral SLaLuLes of
ConnecLlcuL whlch dlsallows
sollclLlng for any alleged rellglous or
charlLable cause wlLhouL a permlL.
Sec. 294 of Lhe Ceneral SLaLues of
ConnecLlcuL were held Lo be
unconsLlLuLlonal. 1he need for a
permlL consLlLuLes a prlor resLralnL
on rellglon. Such ls
unconsLlLuLlonal.
rlor resLralnL on rellglous expresslon ls
noL allowed.
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96

13 US v. 8a||ard "#$%&'(#')$ *#+# ,&'-.,)#( &/
0$.'1 )2# 34.5$ )& (#/+40(6
72#8 $4.( )24) )2#8 *#+# (.-.'#
3#$$#'1#+$ &/ 4 ,#+)4.' 94.')
:#+34.'6
72# ;9 9< +05#( )24) )2# ,&0+)$
,4''&) 5&&= .')& )2# -#+4,.)8 &/ )2#
+#5.1.&0$ >#5.#/$ &/ )2#
+#$%&'(#')$6 72#8 ,4' &'58 5&&= 4)
)2# 1&&( /4.)2 >#5.#/ &/ )2#
+#$%&'(#')$6
<4$# +#34'(#( )& )2# 5&*#+
,&0+)$6
?2.5# )2# ,&0+)$ ,4' 5&&= .')& )2# 1&&(
/4.)2 &/ 4' .'(.-.(045@ )2#8 ,4''&)
.'A0.+# .')& )2# )+0)2/055'#$$ &+ /45$.)8 &/
+#5.1.&0$ >#5.#/$6
14 Amer|can 8|b|e Soc|ety v. C|ty of
Man||a
B#).).&'#+ .$ 4 '&'$)&,=@ '&'%+&/.)
+#5.1.&0$ 3.$$.&'4+8 ,&+%&+4).&'
#'141#( .' )2# (.$)+.>0).&' &/ >.>5#$
.' )2# B2.5.%%.'#$6
72# <.)8 &/ C4'.54 $4.( )24) )2#8
24-# )& &>)4.' 4 348&+D$ %#+3.) 4$
*#55 4$ %48 /&+ 4 5.,#'$# /## /&+ )2#.+
4,).-.).#$6
72# &+(.'4',# +#A0.+.'1 )2#
348&+D$ %#+3.) .$ -45.(6
72# &+(.'4',# +#A0.+.'1 )2#
%483#') &/ 5.,#'$# /##$ $2&05( '&)
4%%58 )& EF9 >#,40$# )2.$ *&05(
.3%4.+ )2# /+## #G#+,.$# &/ +#5.1.&'6
E'8 +#$)+4.') &' )2# /+## #G#+,.$# &/
+#5.1.&' ,4' &'58 ># H0$)./.#( *2#' )2#+#
.$ 4 ,5#4+ 4'( %+#$#') (4'1#+ &/ 4'8
$0>$)4').-# #-.5 *2.,2 )2# 9)4)# 24$ )2#
+.12) )& %+#-#')6
1S Lbra||nag v. D|v|s|on
Super|ntendent
I.12 $,2&&5 4'( #5#3#')4+8
$)0(#')$ *2& *#+# 3#3>#+$ &/
J#2&-42D$ ?.)'#$$#$ *#+# #G%#55#(
/&+ '&) %4+).,.%4).'1 .' )2# /541
,#+#3&'86
72.$ *4$ 4 -.&54).&' &/ "E KLMN@ OP
Q 4'( !"#$%& () *"+) $, -./+&01$%
72# !"#$%& +05.'1 *4$ 4>4'(&'#(6
<&3%#55.'1 %#&%5# )& $450)# )2#
/541 4'( $.'1 )2# '4).&'45 4')2#3
0'(#+ %4.' &/ #G%05$.&'@ #-#' ./
$0,2 .$ 414.'$) )2#.+ +#5.1.&'@
-.&54)#$ )2# +.12) )& /+## #G#+,.$# &/
+#5.1.&'6
72#+# .$ '& 1+4-# 4'( %+#$#')
(4'1#+ #-#' ./ )2# $)0(#')$ (& '&)
%4+).,.%4)# .' )2# /541 ,#+#3&'86
72# 9< #G#3%)#( )2# $)0(#')$
/+&3 )2# 34'(4)&+8 /541
,#+#3&'86 F0) )2#8 348 '&)
(.$+0%) .)6
J#2&-42D$ ?.)'#$$#$ 348 ># #G,50(#(
/+&3 )2# 34'(4)&+8 /541 ,#+#3&'8 .'
%0>5., $,2&&5$ 34'(4)#( >8 "E KLMN
>#,40$# .) .$ 414.'$) )2#.+ +#5.1.&' )&
*&+$2.% &)2#+ .(&5$6 ?2.5# 34.')4.'.'1
)24) )2# B2.5.%%.'# /541 4'( )2# /541
,#+#3&'8 4+# '&) +#5.1.&0$ .(&5$ 4'(
+.)045$@ )2# 9< 0%2#5( )2#.+ +.12) )& '&)
%4+).,.%4)#6 72#8 348 '&) (.$+0%) .)
#.)2#+
16 W|scons|n v. oder "#$%&'(#')$ 4+# 3#3>#+$ &/ )2#
E3.$2 ,&330'.)86 72#8 +#/0$#( )&
$#'( )2#.+ ,2.5(+#' )& 2.12 $,2&&5
(#$%.)# 4 ,&3%05$&+8 $,2&&5
4))#'(4',# 54* >8 )2# $)4)# &/
?.$,&'$.'6
72# ;9 9< 0%2#5( )2# +.12) &/ )2#
E3.$2 )& #G,50(# )2#.+ ,2.5(+#'
/+&3 )2# $)4)# $,2&&5 $8$)#3
>#,40$# &/ )2#.+ +#5.1.&0$ >#5.#/$6
72# 2&#"%3 2&0#1&" 4+103#') &/
?.$,&'$.' ,4''&) ># $0$)4.'#(
72# E3.$2 ,&330'.)8 348 +#/0$# )&
#'+&5 )2#.+ ,2.5(+#' /+&3 )2# %0>5.,
$,2&&5 $8$)#3 (#$%.)# 4 ,&3%05$&+8
#(0,4).&' %&5.,8 >8 )2# $)4)# &/
?.$,&'$.'6 72#8 24-# )2#.+ &*' $8$)#3
&/ #(0,4).&' *2.,2 .$ 3&+# 4%%+&%+.4)#
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97

1he Amlsh have Lhelr own sysLem
of educaLlon whlch ls more ln llne
wlLh Lhelr rellglous bellefs.
agalnsL Lhe rlghL Lo free expresslon
of rellglon.
8esldes, Lhe Amlsh sysLem has
been proven Lo produce good-
naLured clLlzens.
for Lhelr rellglous bellefs.
17 am|| v. 1e|eron Conzaga was a prlesL who was
elecLed as mayor of Albuquerque,
8ohol. amll, Lhe loslng candldaLe,
assalled hls ellglblllLy for Lhe
poslLlon.
Sec. 2173 of Lhe 8evlsed
AdmlnlsLraLlve Code of 1917
prohlblLed eccleslasLlcs from belng
elecLed or appolnLed Lo munlclpal
offlce.
Ma[orlLy of Lhe CourL belleved LhaL
such provlslon ln Lhe 8AC
consLlLuLed a rellglous LesL whlch ls
prohlblLed by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon.
Powever, Lhey lacked 1 voLe Lo
declare such law unconsLlLuLlonal.
(under Lhe 1973 ConLlLuLlon, Lhey
needed 8 voLes.)
1he prohlblLlon ln Lhe 8evlsed
AdmlnlsLraLlve Code of 1917 of an
eccleslasLlc from elecLed offlce was
consldered as a prohlblLed rellglous LesL.
Powever, Lhe SC was 1 voLe shorL Lo
declare such provlslon unconsLlLuLlonal.
18 McDan|e| v. aty Mcuanlel was a 8apLlsL mlnlsLer
who was a candldaLe for Lhe
1ennessee consLlLuLlonal
convenLlon.
Pe was dlsquallfled pursuanL Lo a
sLaLuLe whlch barred rellglous
mlnlsLers from belng a
represenLaLlve.
1he challenged law vlolaLes Lhe
lree Lxerclse clause because lL
condlLlons hls rlghL Lo free exerclse
of rellglon on Lhe surrender of hls
rlghL Lo seek offlce.
1here was no clear showlng LhaL
allowlng rellglous mlnlsLers Lo
become members of Lhe
consLlLuLlonal convenLlon would
vlolaLe Lhe esLabllshmenL clause.
1he sLaLuLe whlch bars a 8apLlsL
mlnlsLer from belng a member of Lhe
1ennessee consLlLuLlonal convenLlon
was held Lo be unconsLlLuLlonal.
19 Go|dman v. We|nberger Coldman, an CrLhodox [ew servlng
ln Lhe mlllLary, was en[olned from
wearlng hls yarmulke durlng a courL
marLlal hearlng.
Pe alleges LhaL Lhls ls a vlolaLlon of
hls rlghL Lo free expresslon of
rellglon.
Wearlng a yarmulke ls lndeed a
from of rellglous expresslon.
Powever, Lhe mlllLary ls a unlque
organlzaLlon. SLrlcL adherence Lo
Lhe unlform ls essenLlal for
lnsLllllng dlsclpllne and unlLy ln Lhe
mlllLary.
lndlvldual deslres and lnLeresLs
musL be subordlnaLed Lo Lhe needs
of Lhe servlce.
1he wearlng of a yarmulke lnsLead of Lhe
requlred headgear of an Alr lorce
offlcer's unlform was prohlblLed due Lo
Lhe speclal naLure and sLrucLure of Lhe
mlllLary. 1he unlform ls parL of Lhe
means by whlch Lhe mlllLary enforces
dlsclpllne.
Powever, Congress subsequenLly passed
a law whlch allowed servlce members Lo
wear rellglous apparel whlle wearlng Lhe
unlform.
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012

98

20 German v. 8arangan eLlLloners were members of Lhe
AugusL 1wenLy Cne MovemenL
(A1CM) who were agalnsL res.
Marcos.
1hey assembled LogeLher and
proceeded Lo SL. !ude's Chapel
whlch was very near Malacanang.
1hey were wearlng yellow shlrLs
and shouLlng anLl-governmenL
sLaLemenLs whlle marchlng Lowards
Lhe chapel. 1hey were blocked by
Cen. 8arangan.
1he acLlons done by Cen. 8arangan
do noL consLlLuLe resLralnL on Lhe
rellglous freedom of peLlLloners.
8ellglous freedom musL be
exerclsed ln good falLh. 1he
peLlLloners obvlously wanLed Lo go
near Malacanang Lo proLesL agalnsL
Lhe governmenL. 1hls posed a
danger Lo naLlonal securlLy.
1helr conLenLlon of wanLlng Lo go
Lo mass ln Lhe sald chapel ls [usL a
means Lo geL nearer Malacanang.
8ellglous rlLuals and acLlons whlch are
noL done ln good falLh and are lnsLead
done Lo do someLhlng deLrlmenLal Lo
naLlonal lnLeresL (e.g. golng Lo SL. !ude's
chapel beslde Malacanang wlLh an lnLenL
Lo dlsLurb Lhe governmenL) can be
valldly regulaLed and even prohlblLLed by
Lhe SLaLe.
21 Centeno v. V|||a|on-orn|||os eLlLloner sollclLed money from
!udge Angeles for Lhe purpose of
renovaLlng a chapel.
!udge Angeles flled a complalnL
under u 1364 (SollclLaLlon ermlL
Law) whlch prohlblLed sollclLaLlons
for charlLable or publlc welfare
servlces wlLhouL permlLs.
eLlLloners were convlcLed.
1he parLlcular law does noL cover
rellglous purposes. CharlLable"
and rellglous" are used separaLely
and lndependenLly of each oLher ln
varlous laws. 1hey don'L mean Lhe
same Lhlng.
eLlLloners were acqulLLed.
Powever, Lhe CourL sald LhaL Lhe
SLaLe can sLlll valldly regulaLe
sollclaLlons for rellglous purposes
ln order Lo proLecL lLs clLlzens
agalnsL fraudulenL sollclLaLlons.
SollclLaLlons for rellglous purposes may
be regulaLed by Lhe SLaLe ln lLs exerclse
of pollce power. 1he SLaLe may proLecL
lLs clLlzens from fraudulenL sollclLaLlons.
lL may regulaLe Lhe Llme and manner of
sollclLaLlons.
22 Lee v. We|sman eLlLloner 8oberL Lee, prlnclpal of
naLhan 8lshop Mlddle School,
lnvlLed a rabbl Lo lead Lhe
lnvocaLlon durlng Lhe school
graduaLlon.
1hls was allowed by a pollcy of Lhe
school dlsLrlcL.
uanlel Welsman, faLher of one of
Lhe graduaLes assall Lhls as vlolaLlve
of free exerclse of Lhelr rellglon.
Allowlng rellglous mlnlsLers Lo lead
prayers ln a publlc school
graduaLlon ls lnconslsLenL wlLh Lhe
non-esLabllshmenL clause.
1he acLlon of Lhe prlnclpal can be
consLrued as an acLlon of Lhe SLaLe.
1hus, excesslve enLanglemenL ls
presenL.
SLudenLs wlll be coerced Lo llsLen
and parLlclpaLe ln Lhe rellglous
prayer durlng Lhe graduaLlon.

1he lncluslon of prayer rlLes ln a publlc
hlgh school graduaLlon by Lhe prlnclpal
can be consLrued as an lndlrecL acLlon
by Lhe SLaLe of coerclng sLudenLs lnLo
professlng a cerLaln rellglon. 1hls ls
prohlblLed by Lhe lree Lxercuse clause.

CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012

99

23 Church of the Lukum| v. C|ty of
n|a|eah
1he SanLerla rellglon conducLs
anlmal sacrlflces ln cerLaln
occaslons. 1hey planned Lo bulld a
church ln Lhe ClLy of Plaleah.
Plaleah subsequenLly passed
ordlnances whlch prohlblLed
sacrlflclng anlmals, among oLher
Lhlngs.
1he ordlnances are
unconsLlLuLlonal. 1hey pose a
hlndrance Lo Lhe free exerclse of
rellglon by Lhe SanLerla rellglon.
1hey are noL neuLral regulaLlons as
Lhey are obvlously dlrecLed agalnsL
Lhe SanLerla rellglon.
1he ordlnance fall Lhe sLrlcL
scruLlny LesL.
A law whlch ls noL neuLral and does noL
apply generally musL follow Lhe followlng
requlslLes:
1. !usLlfled by a compelllng
governmenL lnLeresL
2. narrowly Lallored (nelLher
overbroad nor Loo speclflc)
24 Lamb's Chape| v. Schoo| D|str|ct Lamb's Chapel church applled Lwlce
Lo Lhe dlsLrlcL for permlsslon Lo
show a fllm serles Lhey produced
abouL famlly lssues.
1hey asked LhaL Lhe fllm be shown
ln Lhe publlc forum of Lhe school
ouLslde school hours.
1he school dlsLrlcL denled Lhem on
Lhe ground LhaL Lhey are rellglous ln
naLure.
Such prohlblLlon vlolaLes free
expresslon of rellglon.
1here wouldn'L have been any
excesslve enLanglemenL slnce Lhe
fllms would be shown ouLslde
school hours.
lL would pass Lhe kurLzman LesL.
1he prohlblLlon agalnsL Lhe showlng of a
fllm on famlly values ln Lhe publlc school
forum ouLslde of class hours based
solely on Lhe facL LhaL lL ls rellglous ln
naLure ls lnvalld. lL ls agalnsL freedom of
expresslon of rellglon and allowlng such
fllm would noL have caused excesslve
enLanglemenL slnce lL ls done ouLslde of
class hours.
2S INC v. CA 1he 8oard of 8evlew for MoLlon
lcLures and 1elevlslon (now Lhe
M18C8) banned Lhe 1v program of
lglesla nl CrlsLo because lL aLLacks
oLher rellglons (parLlcularly
CaLhollclsm)
Such prohlblLlon vlolaLes free
expresslon of rellglon.
1he 8oard falled Lo show LhaL Lhere
was lndeed a clear and presenL
danger posed by Lhe showlng of
Lhe 1v program.
1he program merely crlLlclzed, and
noL aLLacked oLher rellglons.
Powever, SC upheld Lhe
[urlsdlcLlon of Lhe M18C8 Lo revlew
Lhese klnds of 1v programs.
CrlLlclsms of oLher rellglons by any oLher
rellglons ls noL a valld ground Lo prohlblL
LhaL rellgon's show on 1v slnce lL does
noL pass Lhe clear and presenL danger
LesL" for prohlblLlng free speech and
free exerclse of rellglon
26 Lstrada v. Lscr|tor Soledad LscrlLor ls a courL
employee who has been llvlng wlLh
a man noL her husband for 20
years.
Ale[andro LsLrada flled a complalnL
agalnsL her, clLlng her dlsgraceful
LscrlLor already slgned a
ueclaraLlon of ledglng
lalLhfulness". 1hls ls allowed ln Lhe
!ehovah's WlLnesses rellglon as
accepLance for her unlon, glven
LhaL she was abandoned by her
1he 8enevolenL neuLrallLy uocLrlne
glves room for Lhe accommodaLlon of
rellglous exerclses as requlred by Lhe
lree Lxerclse Clause, provlded LhaL lL
does noL offend compelllng sLaLe
lnLeresLs.
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,

655

and lmmoral conducL" whlch ls a
ground for expulslon from Lhe
[udlclary.
husband.
1he Supreme CourL held LhaL she
can'L be llable based on Lhe
89:9;<=9:> :9?>@A=B>C D<E>@B:9.
,F &: -9G -9H?9I> <J 3?I=BK
.KL=<C99I
Musllm courL employees peLlLloned
Lhe courLs Lo allow Lhem Lo work
from 7:30-3:30pm sLralghL wlLhouL
breaks (lnsLead of 8-3pm wlLh
breaks), durlng Lhe monLh of
8amadan.
1hey also asked LhaL Lhey be
excused from work from 10am Lo
2pm every lrlday, Lhe musllm day
of prayer.
1he flrsL requesL was granLed
because Lhls was based on a law
whlch recognlzed Lhe monLh of
8amadan and Lhe flexl-Llme for Lhe
sald monLh.
Powever, Lhe secon requesL was
denled. 1he law mandaLes LhaL
governmenL employees render aL
leasL 8 hours of work per day.
Musllm courL employees were
exempLed from Lhe 8am Lo 3pm work
hours. lnsLead, Lhey were allowed Lo
work from 7:30am Lo 3:30pm wlLhouL
breaks ln order Lo comply wlLh Lhelr
8amadan obllgaLlon of fasLlng.
Lxerclse of rellglous freedom does noL
exempL anyone from compllance wlLh
reasonable requlremenLs of Lhe law,
lncludlng clvll servlce laws.




CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
101
Sect|on 6.
1nL LI8Lk1 CI A8CDL AND CI CnANGING 1nL SAML WI1nIN 1nL LIMI1S
kLSCkI8LD 8 LAW SnALL NC1 8L IMAIkLD LkCL1 UCN LAWIUL CkDLk CI 1nL
CCUk1. NLI1nLk SnALL 1nL kIGn1 1C 1kAVLL SnALL 8L IMAIkLD LkCL1 IN 1nL
IN1LkLS1 CI NA1ICNAL SLCUkI1, U8LIC SAIL1, Ck U8LIC nLA1n, AS MA 8L
kCVIDLD 8 LAW.

IkLLDCM CI MCVLMLN1: LI8Lk1 CI A8CDL AND CI 1kAVLL
lreedom of movemenL ln SecLlon 6 lncludes Lwo rlghLs: (1) Lhe llberLy of abode, and
(2) Lhe llberLy of Lravel.
1he llberLy of abode may only be lmpalred upon lawful order of Lhe courL", based
on llmlLs prescrlbed by law" on Lhe llberLy lLself.
1

lnLenL was Lo proscrlbe pracLlces llke hamleLLlng.
o PamleLLlng - pracLlce of herdlng people lnLo a mlllLarlly
quaranLlned sancLuary wlLhln rebel areas
1he llberLy of Lravel may be lmpalred even wlLhouL a courL order, buL Lhe
approprlaLe execuLlve offlcer ls noL armed wlLh arblLrary dlscreLlon Lo lmpose
llmlLaLlons. Pe can lmpose llmlLs based on naLlonal securlLy, publlc safeLy, or publlc
healLh" and as may be provlded by law."
2

Sub[ecL Lo [udlclal revlew.
8lghL Lo Lravel can be lmpalred Lhrough sLaLues or 8ules of CourL. lor
example, a person on ball can be prevenLed from leavlng Lhe counLry.
A person on ball asklng Lo Lravel for medlcal reasons, Lhe CourL can seek
Lhe advlce of medlcal experLs Lo deLermlne Lhe necesslLy Lo Lravel abroad.



1
!oaquln C. 8ernas, S.!., 1he 1987 ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe hlllpplnes: A CommenLary 376
(2009 ed.)
2
!"#$ page 377
ln &'() &*+(, -# ./00, SC held LhaL when a hold order has explred and no
good reason appears for exLendlng, an allen may noL be prevenLed Lo leave
Lhe counLry.


!"##$%"&'(&") %+ ,-./$(
Iacts: 8espondenL Mayor of Manlla deporLed 170 prosLlLuLes from Manlla Lo
uavao. lrlends and relaLlves of deporLees applled for wrlL of habeas corpus wlLh Lhe
Supreme CourL. MulLlple aLLempLs Lo presenL Lhe prosLlLuLes were made buL noL all
of Lhem showed up.
ne|d: no law whlch empowers respondenL Lo force a clLlzen Lo change Lhelr
domlclle. enal law punlshes publlc offlcer, who wlLhouL auLhorlzaLlon by law,
compels a person Lo change hls resldence.

0$1&)2 %+ 0$(3#$4-2
Iacts: eLlLloners flle for mandamus Lo compel respondenLs Lo lssue Lravel
documenLs LhaL wlll allow res. Marcos and hls famlly Lo reLurn Lo Lhe hlllpplnes
and Lo en[oln lmplemenLaLlon of res. Aqulno's order Lo ban Lhe famlly from
reLurnlng Lo Lhe counLry.
ne|d: res. Aqulno dld noL acL wlLh grave abuse of dlscreLlon. ower lnherenL ln Lhe
governmenL noL belonglng Lo leglslaLlve or [udlclal musL be execuLlve. 1he resldenL
exerclsed her resldual power Lo proLecL Lhe general welfare of Lhe people. 1he
reLurn of peLlLloner and hls famlly under presenL clrcumsLances poses a LhreaL Lo
naLlonal lnLeresL and welfare. 1he rlghL Lo reLurn Lo one's counLry ls dlsLlncL,
alLhough relaLed Lo, rlghL Lo Lravel.

0$1&)2 %+ 5$(6"3$(/$7$(
Iacts: eLlLloner, convlcLed Lo 2 grafL and corrupLlon cases, flled several moLlons Lo
Lravel for medlcal LreaLmenL. 8esulLs of examlnaLlon by her physlclan were senL Lo
Lhe PearL CenLer Lhen Lo Sandlganbayan. 8espondenL denled Lhe moLlon for noL
havlng esLabllshed Lhe necesslLy Lo Lravel. eLlLloner flled a cerLlorarl and argued
LhaL respondenL commlLLed grave abuse of dlscreLlon.
ne|d: eLlLlon denled wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo flllng anoLher moLlon where her


"#$%&'&(&'#$)* *)+ , -./'.+.- 0.)$ %.01-.2 ")$0.*)-') "-#34#$0% ,5667,56,
65,
condlLlon wlll be examlned by a [olnL panel. 1he resulLs of Lhe commlLLee who
lnvesLlgaLed Lhe reporLs dld noL conflrm LhaL peLlLloner's condlLlon belongs ln Lhe
hlgh rlsk group of sudden cardlac deaLh. eLlLloner dld noL have an absoluLe rlghL Lo
leave Lhe counLry as she was convlcLed ln grafL cases. WheLher Lhe accused should
be permlLLed Lo leave Lhe counLry ls for Lhe courL's dlscreLlon, sub[ecL Lo Lhe
consLralnLs necessary Lo safeguard Lhe [usLlce sysLem. She had Lhe burden Lo prove
LhaL lL was necessary Lo seek medlcal LreaLmenL ln anoLher counLry.

)*'.$% )$0 -'89& #1 .$&-2
Admlsslon of allens lnLo Lhe counLry ls a pollLlcal maLLer beyond Lhe reach of [udlclal
revlew.
Lvery counLry has rlghL Lo forbld Lhe enLry of forelgners wlLhln lLs
domlnlon, or Lo admlL Lhem upon condlLlons lL may see flL Lo prescrlbe.

%:;<=>? @A
&9. -'89& #1 &9. B.#B*. &# '$1#-3)&'#$ #$ 3)&&.-% #1 B(4*'" "#$".-$
%9)** 4. -."#8$'C.0A )"".%% &# #11'"')* -."#-0%D )$0 &# 0#"(3.$&% )$0
B)B.-% B.-&)'$'$8 &# #11'"')* )"&%D &-)$%)"&'#$%D #- 0."'%'#$%D )% +.** )%
&# 8#/.-$3.$& -.%.)-"9 0)&) (%.0 )% 4)%'% 1#- B#*'"2 0./.*#B3.$&D %9)**
4. )11#-0.0 &9. "'&'C.$D %(4E."& &# %("9 *'3'&)&'#$% )% 3)2 4. B-#/'0.0 42
*)+A

-'89&% &# '$1#-3)&'#$D )"".%% &# B(4*'" 0#"(3.$&%
1987 ConsLlLuLlon lncluded Lhe phrase as well as Lo governmenL research daLa
used as basls for pollcy developmenL." 1hls was a reacLlon Lo a pracLlce durlng
marLlal law of wlLhholdlng soclal research daLa from Lhe publlc whenever Lhe daLa
conLradlcLed wlLh governmenL pollcles.
3

CovernmenL research daLa refers Lo governmenL funded research and noL prlvaLely
funded research.
Whlle access Lo offlclal records may noL be prohlblLed, lL can sLlll be regulaLed. 1hls
ls based on lnherenL power of an offlcer Lo conLrol hls offlce and records under hls
cusLody. 1he offlce also has Lhe power Lo regulaLe Lhe manner records may be
lnspecLed, examlned or copled.
8lghLs guaranLeed of 7 are (1) rlghL Lo lnformaLlon on maLLers of publlc concern
and (2) access Lo offlclal records and documenLs.
7 guaranLees only a general rlghL. 1he rlghL of access Lo offlclal records ls
glven as an lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe rlghL Lo lnformaLlon.
1hese pollLlcal rlghLs are avallable Lo clLlzens only.
ln !"#$%& $( )!**, Lhe SC enumeraLed some recognlzed llmlLaLlons on Lhe rlghL Lo
lnformaLlon:



3
+,(- page 381


"#$%&'&(&'#$)* *)+ , -./'.+.- 0.)$ %.01-.2 ")$0.*)-') "-#34#$0% ,5667,56,
658
naLlonal securlLy maLLers - mlllLary, dlplomaLlc, and oLher naLlonal securlLy
sLaLe secreLs, lnformaLlon on lnLer-governmenL exchanges prlor Lo
concluslon of LreaLles and execuLlve agreemenLs.
1rade secreLs and banklng LransacLlons - pursuanL Lo lnLellecLual roperLy
Code (8.A. 8283) and relaLed laws, Lhe Secrecy of 8ank ueposlLs AcL (8.A.
1403)
Crlmlnal maLLers or law enforcemenL maLLers - lnfo on apprehenslon,
prosecuLlon and deLenLlon of crlmlnals.
CLher confldenLlal maLLers - LLhlcal SLandards AcL (8.A. 6713) prohlblLs
dlsclosure of confldenLlal lnformaLlon known Lo publlc offlclals and
employees by vlrLue of Lhelr offlce. CLher llmlLaLlons lnclude dlplomaLlc
correspondence, closed door cablneL meeLlngs, execuLlve sesslons ln
Congress, and lnLernal dellberaLlons of Lhe Supreme CourL.
1he rlghL may be asserLed even agalnsL CCCCs because Lhelr funcLlon slmllar Lo
governmenL agencles - LhaL ls, Lo serve Lhe people.
1rade secreLs are of a prlvlleged naLure. 1he SecurlLles 8egulaLlon Code ls
expllclL LhaL SLC ls noL auLhorlzed Lo requlre Lhe revelaLlon of Lrade secreLs
or processes ln any appllcaLlon flled wlLh SLC.
4

ueclslons and oplnlons of a courL are publlc maLLers. Powever, pleadlngs and oLher
documenLs flled by parLles Lo a case are noL maLLers of publlc concern.
Access Lo courL records may be permlLLed aL Lhe dlscreLlon of Lhe courL,
conslderlng purpose of documenLs requesLed, and posslble pre[udlce
agalnsL any of Lhe parLles.
3





4
!"#$ page 386
3
!"#$ page 386


CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
104
Case
Number
Case Name Iacts]Issue kat|o]ne|d
1
Legasp| v. C|v|| Serv|ce Comm|ss|on

eLlLloner requesLed lnformaLlon on Lhe ellglblllLy of
Slbonghanoy and Agas as sanlLarlans. CSC denled Lhe
requesL whlch prompLed peLlLloner Lo flle a wrlL of
mandamus Lo compel CSC Lo dlsclose Lhe lnformaLlon.
eLlLlon granLed. CSC ls ordered Lo conflrm ellglblllLy of
Slbonghanoy and Agas as sanlLarlans. ArLlcle lll SecLlon 7
became operaLlve by vlrLue of adopLlon of 1987
ConsLlLuLlon. CovernmenL agencles are wlLhouL dlscreLlon
ln refuslng dlsclosure of, or access Lo, lnformaLlon of
publlc concern. 1he auLhorlLy Lo regulaLe Lhe manner of
examlnlng publlc records does noL carry wlLh lL Lhe power
Lo prohlblL.
2
Sab|o v. Gordon

8espondenL subpoenaed peLlLloner Lo appear aL Lhe
SenaLe as a resource person for a leglslaLlve lnqulry.
eLlLloner decllned lnvoklng SecLlon 4(b) of res. Aqulno's
L.C. 1. 1he L.C organlzed CCC, and SecLlon 4 sLaLed LhaL
no member of CCC ls requlred Lo LesLlfy or produce
evldence concernlng maLLers ln lLs offlclal cognlzance.
SenaLe arresLed peLlLloner and he flled for a wrlL of
habeas corpus.
SC sLaLed LhaL L.C. 1 was repealed by Lhe 1987
ConsLlLuLlon. Sablo and CCC commlssloners are requlred
Lo comply wlLh Lhe subpoena. ArLlcle lll SecLlon 7 was
lnLended Lo promoLe Lransparency ln pollcy-maklng and
ln Lhe operaLlons of Lhe governmenL. SenaLe lnqulrles are
consldered Lo be of publlc concern. 1he lnformaLlon
requesLed by SenaLe concerns acLs of peLlLloners as publlc
offlclals. LnforcemenL of SecLlon 4(b) vlolaLes ArLlcle lll
SecLlon 7.

3
8antay v. CCMLLLC

eLlLloners challenged Lhe quallflcaLlon of parLy-llsL
organlzaLlons LhaL were granLed accredlLaLlon by
CCMLLLC. eLlLloner asked for Lhe llsL of nomlnees of Lhe
dlfferenL parLy-llsL groups. CCMLLLC declared Lhem
confldenLlal and LhaL parLy-llsL elecLlon should noL be
personallLy based. eLlLloner argued LhaL CCMLLLC grave
abuse of dlscreLlon for accredlLlng groups wlLhouL
revlewlng quallflcaLlon of nomlnees. eLlLloner also
complalns LhaL lL has rlghL Lo know Lhe nomlnees of parLy
llsLs.
SC held LhaL ArLlcle lll SecLlon 7 granLed Lhe people Lhe
rlghL Lo lnformaLlon. eople have Lhe rlghL Lo elecL
offlclals based on lnformed [udgmenL. 1here ls noLhlng ln
Lhe arLy LlsL AcL LhaL prohlblLs CCMLLLC from publlshlng
Lhe llsL of nomlnees.
4
Ner| v. Senate

nerl was lnvlLed by Lhe SenaLe 8lue 8lbbon CommlLLee Lo
LesLlfy on anomalles relaLed Lo Lhe n8n pro[ecL. Pe was
lnLerrogaLed for 11 hours where he admlLLed LhaL
CCMLLLC Chalrman Abalos Lrled Lo brlbe hlm wlLh 200M
ln exchange for hls approval of Lhe pro[ecL. nerl lnvoked
Lhe execuLlve prlvllege" when he was asked abouL
CMA's lnvolvemenL ln Lhe pro[ecL. SenaLe clLed
peLlLloner for conLempL.

1he SC held LhaL Lhe answers ellclLed are covered by
execuLlve prlvllege" as nerl ls a close advlsor of Lhe
resldenL. CommunlcaLlons relaLe Lo a qulnLessenLlal
and non-delegable power" of Lhe resldenL. 1he rlghL Lo
publlc lnformaLlon ls sub[ecL Lo llmlLaLlon provlded by
law. 1he power of Lhe SenaLe Lo lnvesLlgaLe ls sub[ecL Lo
publlshed rules of procedure and rlghLs of persons
appearlng need Lo be respecLed.


CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
10S
S
Sup||co v. NLDA

MulLlple peLlLlons were flled Lo en[oln respondenLs from
lmplemenLlng Lhe n8n-Z1L deal and Lo compel
respondenLs Lo provlde Lrue coples of Lhe conLracL
enLered for Lhe deal. 1he CSC argued LhaL Lhe peLlLlons
should be dlsmlssed slnce lL became mooL as Lhe
governmenL declded noL Lo push Lhrough wlLh Lhe pro[ecL.
1he pro[ecL was sLlll aL negoLlaLlon phase, and Lhe
lnformaLlon requesLed concern execuLlve pollcy.
eLlLlons dlsmlssed. SC wlll noL respond Lo lssues whlch
are no longer valld. 1he peLlLlons lnvolve facLual
deLermlnaLlon aL a lower courL. lL ls lmposslble Lo annul
Lhe deal wlLhouL any evldence of vlolaLlon on Lhe slde of
Lhe respondenLs.
6
Ak8AAN v. Aqu|no

eLlLloners flle for mandamus Lo compel !LA delegaLes
Lo provlde full LexL of Lhe !LA lncludlng offers submlLLed
durlng Lhe negoLlaLlon process. 8espondenLs denled
requesL and sLaLed LhaL Congress wlll be provlded a copy
once negoLlaLlons are compleLed. Speaker de venecla
requesLed Congress Lo hold subpoena unLll CMA glves
her consenL for dlsclosure of documenLs. eLlLloners
argue LhaL non-dlsclosure of documenLs vlolaLe Lhelr rlghL
Lo lnformaLlon on maLLers of publlc concern.
eLlLlon dlsmlssed. !LA negoLlaLlons are maLLers of
publlc concern buL are covered by Lhe docLrlne of
execuLlve prlvllege, whlch ls an excepLlon Lo Lhe rlghL Lo
lnformaLlon. naLure of dlplomaLlc negoLlaLlons requlred
cenLrallzaLlon of acLlons and expedlLlon of declslons.
7
rov|nce of North Cotabato v. Gk ane|

MCA-Au was an agreemenL made by Lhe C8 and MlLl.
lncluded ln Lhe documenL ls Lhe creaLlon of a 8angsamoro
!udlclal LnLlLy. eLlLloners argue LhaL C8 vlolaLed
consLlLuLlonal rlghLs on publlc consulLaLlon and
lnformaLlon when Lhey negoLlaLed and slgned MCA-Au.
C8 replles
MoLlon Lo dlsmlss ls denled. MCA-Au ls declared conLrary
Lo law and ConsLlLuLlon. eople have rlghL Lo publlc
lnformaLlon and offlclals have duLy Lo dlsclose
lnformaLlon, lncludlng negoLlaLlons and sLeps leadlng Lo
consummaLlon of conLracL. LxecuLlve prlvllege wlll noL
sLand agalnsL L.C. no. 3 and Local CovernmenL Code
mandaLlng consulLaLlon and dlalogue wlLh local and
naLlonal offlclals, LCus, and nCCs.










CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
106
Sect|on 8.
1nL kIGn1 CI 1nL LCLL, INCLUDING 1nCSL LMLCLD IN 1nL U8LIC AND
kIVA1L SLC1CkS, 1C ICkM UNICNS, ASSCCIA1ICNS, Ck SCCIL1ILS ICk UkCSLS
NC1 CCN1kAk 1C LAW SnALL NC1 8L A8kIDGLD.
1he rlghL Lo form unlons and assoclaLlons ls recognlzed Lo belong Lo people wheLher
employed or unemployed, worklng ln Lhe governmenL or prlvaLe secLor.
1he rlghL Lo form assoclaLlons shall noL be lmpalred excepL Lhrough a valld
exerclse of pollce power, hence for purposes noL conLrary Lo law."
ln ArLlcle xlll 13, Lhe rlghL Lo sLrlke ls quallfled wlLh Lhe phrase ln accordance Lo
wlLh law." 1he rlghL Lo organlze ls seen as broader Lhan rlghL Lo sLrlke. 1he laLLer
may be curLalled by law for valld reasons.
1he currenL ban on governmenL employees Lo go on sLrlke ls sLaLuLory and
may be llfLed by anoLher sLaLuLe.
!"#$%" '()%$* +*,--% ./"*,/01 23 4"5($-

Iacts: eLlLloners conducLed a sLrlke ln proLesL of fallure by uepL. of LducaLlon Lo
hear Lhelr numerous concerns. Sec. Carlno ordered Lhe Leachers Lo reLurn Lo work
wlLhln 24 hours, several were evenLually dlsmlssed for noL followlng. eLlLloner flled
a complalnL aL 81C, and !udge Lagulo found Lhe reLurn Lo work order valld.

ne|d: Lmployees ln publlc servlce do noL have Lhe rlghL Lo sLrlke. eLlLloners were
glven repeaLed noLlces Lo reLurn Lo work, buL chose noL Lo.

'6789! 23 90:$5"1 8/#:/0

Iacts: eLlLloners boughL a parcel of land from 1lerra uev'L Corp., where Lhe 1C1
lncluded a condlLlon whlch auLomaLlcally made Lhe owner a member of Lhe CrlLlgas
CenLer AssoclaLlon and collecLlon of fees. AuCCM conLends LhaL lL cannoL be
compelled Lo [oln Lhe assoclaLlon wlLhouL vlolaLlng lLs rlghL Lo assoclaLlon.

ne|d: eLlLlon denled. AuLomaLlc membershlp ls noL vlolaLlve of freedom of
assoclaLlon. AuCCM could have avolded auLomaLlc membershlp by noL buylng
properLy from 1lerra. 8y slgnlng Lhe conLracL, AuCCM agreed Lo lLs Lerms and
condlLlons.
Sect|on 9.
kIVA1L kCLk1 SnALL NC1 8L 1AkLN ICk U8LIC USL WI1nCU1 IUS1
CCMLNSA1ICN.

LMINLN1 DCMAIN: DLIINI1ICN, NA1UkL
8lghL of emlnenL domaln - soverelgn power Lo approprlaLe publlc and prlvaLe
properLy of all clLlzens wlLhln lLs LerrlLory for publlc use.
6

1he power ls LradlLlonally execuLlve ln naLure buL requlres leglslaLlon before lL can
be used.
7

May be conferred upon munlclpal governmenLs and oLher governmenL
enLlLles
8

LeglslaLure also has auLhorlLy Lo delegaLe rlghL of emlnenL domaln Lo
prlvaLe enLlLles operaLlng publlc uLlllLles.
9

ower of emlnenL domaln ln Lhe hands of Congress ls plenary.
10

uelegaLed power Lo local governmenLs ls sLrlcLly speaklng noL a power of
emlnenL buL of lnferlor domaln - merely a share ln Lhe emlnenL domaln. lL
ls only as broad as Lhe emlnenL auLhorlLy would allow lL Lo be.
11









6
!"#$ page 396
7
!"#$ page 397
8
!"#$ page 398
9
!"#$
10
!"#$ page 399
11
!"#$


"#$%&'&(&'#$)* *)+ , -./'.+.- 0.)$ %.01-.2 ")$0.*)-') "-#34#$0% ,5667,56,
658
&)9'$:
ClrcumsLances consLlLuLlng Laklng for purposes of emlnenL domaln
12
: ;.73)<7#=
1. LxproprlaLor musL >nLer prlvaLe properLy
2. LnLrance musL noL be for a ?omenLary perlod, LhaL ls, Lhe enLrance musL
be permanenL
3. LnLry musL be under warranL or color of legal @uLhorlLy
4. roperLy musL be devoLed Lo Aubllc use or oLherwlse lnformally
approprlaLed or ln[urlously affecLed
3. uLlllzaLlon of properLy musL be ln such a way as Lo BusL Lhe owner and
deprlve hlm of all beneflclal en[oymenL of Lhe properLy.
When properLy rlghL ls lmpalred by regulaLlon, compensaLlon ls noL requlred,
whereas, when properLy ls Laken, Lhe ConsLlLuLlon prescrlbes [usL compensaLlon.
13

When LlLle Lo properLy ls Lransferred Lo exproprlaLlng auLhorlLy, Lhere ls a
clear case of compensable Laklng.
14

lL ls a seLLled rule LhaL nelLher acqulslLlon of LlLle nor LoLal desLrucLlon of
value ls essenLlal Lo Laklng.
13

When a properLy lnLeresL ls approprlaLed and applled Lo some publlc
purpose, Lhere ls compensable Laklng.
16

Where a properLy lnLeresL ls merely resLrlcLed because conLlnued
unresLrlcLed use would be ln[urlous Lo publlc welfare or where properLy ls
desLroyed because conLlnued exlsLence of Lhe properLy would be ln[urlous
Lo publlc lnLeresL, Lhere ls no compensable Laklng.
17

1he deprlvaLlon of use can be LoLal and lL wlll noL consLlLuLe compensable
Laklng lf nobody else acqulres use of Lhe properLy or any properLy lnLeresL
Lhereln.
18
1oLal desLrucLlon wlLhouL uLlllzaLlon ls noL approprlaLlon buL ls
merely regulaLlon by pollce power.
19




12
!oaquln C. 8ernas, S.!., 1he 1987 hlllpplne ConsLlLuLlon: A Comprehenslve 8evlewer, 98 (2011 LdlLlon)
13
!oaquln C. 8ernas, S.!., 1he 1987 ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe hlllpplnes: A CommenLary, 433
(2009 LdlLlon)
14
!"#$
13
!"#$
16
!"#$
17
!"#$
18
!"#$ page 434
19
!"#$ page 433
A mere declaraLlon of an lnLenLlon Lo exproprlaLe does noL yeL serve Lo curLall Lhe
domlnlcal rlghLs of Lhe owner.
20

&'()*'+) ,# -'+. )/ 012'*1 - SC held LhaL Lo deny plalnLlff a bulldlng permlL
on Lhe ground LhaL Lhe land he planned Lo bulld on would be used for
wldenlng Lhe sLreeL and before such land ls exproprlaLed ls Lo Lake
plalnLlff's properLy wlLhouL due process of law.
21

lacLors Lo be consldered ln deLermlnlng lf acLlon amounLs Lo Laklng or Lo
regulaLlon
22
:
Lconomlc lmpacL of Lhe regulaLlon on Lhe properLy
LxLenL Lo whlch Lhe regulaLlon mlghL lnLerfere wlLh lnvesLmenL
expecLaLlons.
8ecenL cases lnvolvlng Lhe meanlng of Laklng
23
:
LnLry for purposes of conducLlng mlnlng acLlvlLles such as exploraLlon,
exLracLlon and processlng of mlnerals.
8lghL of way enforced by Lhe sLaLe resulLs ln maklng ad[olnlng properLy
unusable.
lnsLallaLlon of Lransmlsslon llnes resulLs ln lmposlLlon of llmlLaLlon agalnsL
Lhe use of Lhe land for an lndeflnlLe perlod.

<(4*'" (%.
ConsLlLuLlonal llmlLaLlons on Lhe power of emlnenL domaln: (1) Laklng musL be for
publlc use, (2) [usL compensaLlon glven Lo Lhe prlvaLe owner.
24

WhaLever ls beneflclally employed for Lhe communlLy ls publlc use.
ConcepL of publlc use ls as broad as publlc welfare.
23




20
!"#$ page 438
21
!"#$ page 437
22
!"#$
23
!"#$ page 439
24
!"#$ page 400
23
!"#$ page 401


"#$%&'&(&'#$)* *)+ , -./'.+.- 0.)$ %.01-.2 ")$0.*)-') "-#34#$0% ,5667,56,
658
1he scope of power of emlnenL domaln has become as broad as Lhe scope
of pollce power.
26

As a rule, Lhe deLermlnaLlon of wheLher Lhere ls genulne necesslLy for Lhe exerclse
of emlnenL domaln ls a [usLlclable quesLlon. Powever, when Lhe power ls exerclsed
by Lhe LeglslaLure, Lhe quesLlon of necesslLy ls essenLlally a pollLlcal quesLlon.
27

lrom !"#$"% '()* +%$(,%"$-.%"/ 0-,1.,$ 23 4.5"6" 7,3:
1he exproprlaLor musL use Lhe properLy for Lhe purpose speclfled ln Lhe
peLlLlon. lf Lhls ls noL done, Lhe exproprlaLor musL reLurn Lhe properLy,
even lf Lhere was no agreemenL for reversal. 8uL Lhe owner musL reLurn Lo
Lhe exproprlaLor Lhe compensaLlon lL had recelved wlLh legal lnLeresL and
musL pay Lhe exproprlaLor for Lhe beneflLs Lhe loL may have obLalned.
28

9(%& "#3:.$%)&'#$
!usL compensaLlon - 1he prlce whlch Lhe properLy wlll command lf Lhe seller ls noL
bound Lo sell and Lhe buyer ls noL bound Lo buy.
29

MarkeL value - prlce flxed by buyer and seller ln Lhe open markeL.
30

o ConsequenLlal damages - damages Lo oLher lnLeresLs of Lhe
owner LhaL can be aLLrlbuLed Lo exproprlaLlon.
31

o ConsequenLlal beneflLs - lncrease ln value of Lhe oLher lnLeresLs
of Lhe owner aLLrlbuLed Lo Lhe new use of properLy by
exproprlaLlon.
32

! ConsequenLlal damages are deducLed from
consequenLlal beneflLs.



26
+638
27
+638 page 402
28
!oaquln C. 8ernas, S.!., 1he 1987 hlllpplne ConsLlLuLlon: A Comprehenslve 8evlewer, 100 (2011
LdlLlon)
29
!oaquln C. 8ernas, S.!., 1he 1987 ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe hlllpplnes: A CommenLary, 413
(2009 LdlLlon)
30
+638
31
+638 page 403
32
+638
lf properLy ls Laken before compensaLlon ls glven or deposlLed Lo courL, Lhe
flnal compensaLlon musL lnclude lnLeresLs on lLs [usL value, Lo be compuLed
from Lhe Llme properLy was Laken Lo Lhe Llme compensaLlon ls glven or
deposlLed wlLh Lhe courL.
33

lor purposes of enLry lnLo Lhe properLy before full paymenL, 8.A. 7160 10 requlres
a deposlL wlLh Lhe courL of aL leasL 13 of falr markeL value of properLy based on
Lhe currenL Lax declaraLlon of Lhe properLy.
34

under 8.A. 8974, ln lnfrasLrucLure pro[ecLs, Lhe governmenL musL make a
dlrecL paymenL of Lhe proffered value of Lhe properLy before lL can enLer
and exerclse proprleLary rlghLs.
33

!usL as Lhe ConsLlLuLlon does noL requlre prlor compensaLlon, nelLher does lL speclfy
LhaL compensaLlon be ln money. WhaL ls does requlre ls [usL compensaLlon.
36

Laws whlch aLLempL Lo flx [usL compensaLlon were declared
unconsLlLuLlonal.
value musL be deLermlned aL Lhe Llme of Lhe flllng of Lhe complalnL for
exproprlaLlon (4, 8ule 67, 8ules of CourL).
37

llllng of Lhe case usually colncldes wlLh Lhe Laklng of Lhe properLy.
38

LxcepLlon - when flllng of Lhe case comes laLer and properLy value grows
due Lo use exproprlaLor puL lL Lo, properLy shall be valued aL Lhe Llme of
Lhe earller Laklng.
39

4, ArLlcle xlll of 1987 ConsLlLuLlon mandaLes Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon of agrlculLural lands
sub[ecL Lo paymenL of [usL compensaLlon.
40




33
+638 page 403
34
+638
33
+638 page 403
36
+638 page 409
37
!oaquln C. 8ernas, S.!., 1he 1987 hlllpplne ConsLlLuLlon: A Comprehenslve 8evlewer, 103 (2011
LdlLlon)
38
+638
39
+638
40
!oaquln C. 8ernas, S.!., 1he 1987 ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe hlllpplnes: A CommenLary, 412
(2009 LdlLlon)


"#$%&'&(&'#$)* *)+ , -./'.+.- 0.)$ %.01-.2 ")$0.*)-') "-#34#$0% ,5667,56,
658
Landowners' rlghL Lo [usL compensaLlon should be balanced wlLh Lhe
purpose of agrarlan reform.
41

ConcepL of [usL compensaLlon also lncludes paymenL wlLhln a reasonable Llme from
lLs Laklng.
42

9(0'"')* -./'.+
1he followlng aspecLs of Lhe exerclse of Lhe power of emlnenL domaln have been
sub[ecLed Lo [udlclal revlew
43
:
Adequacy of Lhe compensaLlon
necesslLy of Lhe Laklng
ubllc use" characLer of Lhe purpose of Lhe Laklng
1hree commlssloners are appolnLed Lo vlew Lhe premlses and assess Lhe damages
Lo be pald for Lhe condemnaLlon.
!udlclary can sLlll change or modlfy Lhe reporL of Lhe commlssloners by
lncreaslng or decreaslng Lhe amounL lf facLs of Lhe case [usLlfy such
change.
44

When exproprlaLlon ls done noL dlrecLly by Lhe leglslaLlve auLhorlLy buL by anoLher
governmenL agency or by a munlclpal corporaLlon and ln vlrLue of an auLhorlzlng
sLaLuLe whlch nelLher speclfles Lhe purpose of Lhe Laklng nor Lhe properLy Lo be
Laken, Lhere should be no doubL buL LhaL Lhe courLs musL come ln Lo perform lLs
duLy of enforclng Lhe provlslon of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon.
43

1he necesslLy of Laklng ls a quesLlon of facL LhaL musL be esLabllshed by
proper evldence.
46

1he courLs can look lnLo Lhe publlc characLer of Lhe purpose of Lhe
governmenL agencles oLher Lhan Lhe leglslaLure.
47




41
!"#$
42
!"#$
43
!"#$ page 426
44
!"#$
43
!"#$ page 427
46
!"#$ page 428
1he prlnclple of &'( )*"+,-.- does noL apply Lo Lhe rlghL of Lhe sLaLe Lo exerclse
emlnenL domaln.
/'( )*"+,-.- applles Lo speclflc lssues declded ln a prevlous case (e.g., flnal
[udgmenL dlsmlsslng exproprlaLlon because Lhere was no prlor offer,
anoLher sulL cannoL be ralsed for Lhe same lssue). Powever, lL cannoL sLop
Lhe sLaLe from exerclslng lLs power of emlnenL domaln over Lhe same
properLy (e.g., complylng wlLh Lhe requlremenL of prlor offer from Lhe
prevlous example).
48


.:;-#;-')&'#$ #1 3($'"';)* ;-#;.-&2
lrom 0&12+3,' 14 5-671-38- "'9 :1&.' 2# ;+.< 14 5-671-38-:
lf Lhe properLy ls owned by Lhe munlclpallLy ln lLs publlc and governmenLal
capaclLy, Lhe properLy ls publlc and Congress has absoluLe conLrol over lL. lf
Lhe properLy ls owned ln lLs prlvaLe or proprleLary capaclLy Lhen lL ls
paLrlmonlal and Congress has no absoluLe conLrol. 1he munlclpallLy cannoL
be deprlved of lL wlLhouL due process and paymenL of [usL compensaLlon.
49

ArLlcle 423 and 424 of Lhe Clvll Code:
=&.# >?@# AB' C&1C'&.< 14 C&12+3,'($ ,+.+'( -3" 6*3+,+C-9+.+'( +( "+2+"'" +3.1
C&1C'&.< 41& C*79+, *(' -3" C-.&+613+-9 C&1C'&.<#
=&.# >?># 0&1C'&.< 41& C*79+, *('$ +3 .B' C&12+3,'($ ,+.+'( -3" 6*3+,+C-9+.+'($
,13(+(. 14 .B' C&12+3,+-9 &1-"($ ,+.< (.&''.($ 6*3+,+C-9 (.&''.($ .B' (D*-&'($
41*3.-+3($ C*79+, E-.'&($ C&16'3-"'( -3" C*79+, E1&F( 41& C*79+, ('&2+,'
C-+" 41& 7< (-+" C&12+3,'($ ,+.+'( 1& 6*3+,+C-9+.+'(#
=99 1.B'& C&1C'&.< C1(('(('" 7< -3< 14 .B'6 +( C-.&+613+-9 -3" (B-99 7'
812'&3'" 7< .B+( ;1"'$ E+.B1*. C&')*"+,' .1 .B' C&12+(+13( 14 (C',+-9 9-E(#



47
!"#$ page 429
48
!"#$ page 432
49
!"#$ page 440


"#$%&'&(&'#$)* *)+ , -./'.+.- 0.)$ %.01-.2 ")$0.*)-') "-#34#$0% ,5667,56,
665
lnLerpreLlng Lhese Clvll Code provlslons ln !"#$ !&'( )* +,-,.,, Lhe Supreme CourL
held:
1he Lerm publlc works for publlc servlce" musL be lnLerpreLed, followlng
Lhe prlnclple of "/$01"2 3"4"5&0, ln Lhe concepL of Lhe proceedlng words,
provlnclal roads, clLy sLreeLs, munlclpal sLreeLs, squares, founLalns, publlc
waLers and promenades" whlch are used freely by all, wlLhouL dlsLlncLlon.
Pence, lf Lhe publlc works ls noL for free publlc servlce, lL ls noL wlLhln Lhe
purvlew of Lhe flrsL paragraph, buL Lhe second paragraph of ArLlcle 424,
and consequenLly, paLrlmonlal ln characLer.
30

lf Lhe properLy ls devoLed Lo governmenLal purposes llke local admlnlsLraLlon, publlc
educaLlon, publlc healLh, eLc., Lhe properLy ls noL paLrlmonlal even lf lL ls noL
lndlscrlmlnaLely open Lo Lhe publlc.
31

.89-#9-')&'#$ 42 3($'"'9)* :#/.-$3.$&
ower of emlnenL domaln ls glven Lo local governmenLs by Lhe Local CovernmenL
Code.
8equlslLes for exerclse of power by local governmenLs
32
: ;97<#*=
1. lL musL be for >ubllc use
2. WlLh ?usL compensaLlon
3. AfLer a valld @ffer
4. MusL be done on Lhe sLrengLh of a AeglslaLlve acL of Lhe local governmenL,
LhaL ls, an ordlnance.
o lL cannoL be done merely on Lhe sLrengLh of a resoluLlon.
8ules Lo be followed on exproprlaLlon by local governmenLs under 19 of Lhe Local
CovernmenL Code (8.A. 7160)
33
:
Crdlnance ls enacLed by Lhe local leglslaLlve councll auLhorlzlng Lhe local
chlef execuLlve, ln behalf of Lhe LCu.



30
61*, page 441
31
61*7
32
61*7 page 442
33
61*7 page 443
ower of emlnenL domaln ls exerclsed for publlc use, purpose or welfare,
or for Lhe beneflL of Lhe poor and Lhe landless.
1here ls paymenL of [usL compensaLlon
A valld and deflnlLe offer has been prevlously made Lo Lhe owner of Lhe
properLy soughL Lo be exproprlaLed, buL offer was noL accepLed.
CLher llmlLaLlons on Lhe emlnenL domaln powers of local governmenLs
34
:
1he order of prlorlLy ln acqulrlng land for soclallzed houslng.
o rlvaLe lands rank lasL ln order of prlorlLy for purposes of
soclallzed houslng.
1he resorL Lo exproprlaLlon proceedlngs as a means Lo acqulrlng soclallzed
houslng.
o LxproprlaLlon proceedlngs may be resorLed Lo only afLer Lhe
oLher modes of acqulslLlon are exhausLed.



34
!oaquln C. 8ernas, 1he 1987 hlllpplne ConsLlLuLlon: A Comprehenslve 8evlewer, 103 (2011 LdlLlon).


"#$%&'&(&'#$)* *)+ , -./'.+.- 0.)$ %.01-.2 ")$0.*)-') "-#34#$0% ,5667,56,
666
"89:
$;<=:>
"89: $8<: 18?@9A'99;: -8@BCAD:EF
6
!"#$ &$' ()**+ ,-).#"/)0 12 3,

eLlLloner exproprlaLed Lhe properLy of respondenL
Marla CrlsLlna lerLlllzer (MClC) buL laLLer refused Lhe
compensaLlon. uurlng Lhe Lrlal, Lhe sLaLuLory Lerm of
peLlLloner explred. MClC conLends LhaL because of Lhe
explraLlon, lSA no longer has [urldlcal personallLy. lSA
requesLed Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe hlllpplnes Lo subsLlLuLe,
based on an LCl from res. Aqulno.
SC remanded case, wlLh 8epubllc as subsLlLuLe Lo lSA.
lSA, as a non-lncorporaLed agency, ls noL vesLed wlLh a
dlsLlncL [urldlcal personallLy. 1he power of emlnenL
,
4*5-6+/7 12 8'&2 '* 3&9)*+1/

8espondenL LermlnaLed conLracL and requesLed Alr lorce
Lo vacaLe her properLy whlch laLLer prevlously leased.
eLlLloner dld noL vacaLe premlses whlch compelled
peLlLloner Lo flle e[ecLmenL case. eLlLloner flled for
exproprlaLlon of respondenL properLy. arLles argue as Lo
correcL prlce per square meLer as basls for Lhe
compensaLlon.
SC sLaLed LhaL 1939 prlces (year or exproprlaLlon) wlll
apply. eLlLloner renLed Lhe properLy slnce 1947,
whlch showed LhaL Lhey dld noL lnLend Lo occupy Lhe
properLy permanenLly. 8espondenL also was noL
deprlved of Lhe beneflLs of Lhe properLy as peLlLloner
regularly pald and renewed lLs lease.
G
:( 12 3&-960

8espondenLs owned a chlcken farm and house near an
alrporL. 1helr properLy was dlrecLly below Lhe gllde paLh
Lo Lhe runway. 1he governmenL leased and mlllLary
alrcrafL used Lhe alrporL. 1he producLlon of Lhe chlcken
farm dropped due Lo Lhe nolse made by Lhe mlllLary
planes. CourL of Clalms found LhaL governmenL had Laken
easemenL of properLy.
SC reversed declslon sLaLlng LhaL Lhe uS had Laken Lhe
properLy of respondenL wlLhln 3
Lh
amendmenL. 1he
fllghLs ln quesLlon are well below Lhe navlgable
alrspace provlded by Lhe Clvll AeronauLlcs AcL. Case ls
remanded Lo CourL of Clalms Lo deLermlne value and
duraLlon of easemenL.
H
;*#5+* 12 <&=&"'#

8espondenLs were convlcLed for vlolaLlng an ordlnance
LhaL prohlblLed Lhe consLrucLlon, wlLhouL permlL of Lhe
mayor, of a bulldlng LhaL blocked Lhe vlew of Lhe publlc
plaza. 8espondenLs quesLlon Lhe valldlLy of Lhe
ordlnance.
SC held LhaL ordlnance ls vold. lL permanenLly
deprlved respondenLs Lhe rlghL Lo use Lhelr properLy
and amounL Lo Laklng of Lhe properLy wlLhouL [usL
compensaLlon.
I
4*5-6+/7 12 ;>?@

8C1 renLed Lhe Lrunk llnes of Lu1 Lo seLup a gov'L
Lelephone sysLem. 8C1 Lhen enLered lnLo a [olnL
overseas Lelephone servlce conLracL wlLh 8CA
CommunlcaLlons. Lu1 complalned LhaL Lhe Lrunk llnes
were belng used by Lhe publlc ln compeLlLlon Lo Lhelr
buslness. Lu1 subsequenLly dlsconnecLed Lhe Lrunk
llnes. 8C1 flled a sulL agalnsL Lu1 Lo execuLe a conLracL
for Lhe use of Lhe Lrunk llnes.
ln exerclse of emlnenL domaln, Lhe peLlLloner may
requlre Lu1 Lo permlL lnLerconnecLlon of Lhe gov'L
Lelephone sysLem. 1he sLaLe may compel a publlc
uLlllLy Lo render servlces ln Lhe lnLeresL of Lhe publlc,
provlded [usL compensaLlon ls pald.
J
;*$$ 3*$)"&+ 12 A*B C#"D 3/)0

enn CenLral enLered lnLo a conLracL Lo bulld a 33-sLorey
offlce bulldlng on Lop of Lhe Crand CenLral 1ermlnal. 1hls
was dlsallowed due Lo Lhe Landmarks reservaLlon Law,
whlch preserved hlsLorlc landmarks llke Lhe Crand
uS SC held LhaL compensaLlon ls noL necessary as Lhe
prohlblLlon was based on a subsLanLlal governmenL
lnLeresL and LhaL Lhe prlmary purpose of Lhe properLy,
as a Lermlnal, was noL dlsrupLed. 1he only prohlblLlon


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9
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6%36"%$8 <&0 #3$ 53% 6/9'+2 /0",
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:
74894& )* :";9";

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65
209< %= 74&0$4 )* >69-4;4

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66
74;"#34 )* +!?!

-"$+$+3#"% <3# & 53%"2'30"; 6%36"%$8 5%3* & :KRK 6/9'+2
9+;;+#., >" 355"%"; $3 6&8 /0+#. Q&#; V&#4 93#;0
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"#$%&'&(&'#$)* *)+ , -./'.+.- 0.)$ %.01-.2 ")$0.*)-') "-#34#$0% ,5667,56,
668
eLlLloner argued LhaL CSlS should accepL Lhe bonds aL
face value.
6,
!"#$"% '( )*+,--.

8espondenL properLy was exproprlaLed for Lhe Lahug
AlrporL wlLh a resoluLory condlLlon LhaL properLy wlll be
reLurned Lo owner once lL ls no longer used for alrporL.
roperLy was leased Lo MWP for 23 years and
respondenL requesLed for reconveyance.
SC held LhaL peLlLloners should reconvey properLy and
pay renLals sLarLlng from daLe respondenL flled for
reconveyance. eLlLloner agencles were requlred Lo
pay renL dependlng on promulgaLlon of laws LhaL
asslgned responslblllLy of Lhe exproprlaLed properLy Lo
Lhem.
68
/, 0%,#1$ '( 2"3$45$"

A plan Lo exLend LuSA Lhrough CuneLa Avenue was made
by MWP. 1hls plan was changed and would now cuL
Lhrough peLlLloner's properLy. eLlLloner flled a case Lo
en[oln respondenLs from lmplemenLlng new plan, buL
respondenL [udge declded ln favor of Lhe governmenL.
!udge acLed wlLh grave abuse of dlscreLlon. SC
followed Lhe recommendaLlons of Lhe Puman
SeLLlemenL Commlsslon LhaL favored Lhe orlglnal plan.
1he orlglnal plan had a sLralghLer sLrucLure and less
resldenLs were affecLed.
69
6,738-4# '( /, 0%,#1$

lollowlng Lhe case of !" $%"&'( )* +,-(./(,, 8aLasang
ambansa passed 8340 exproprlaLlng properLles
lmpacLed by new plan Lo exLend LuSA. 8espondenL
appealed case whlch CA granLed clLlng Lhe prevlous case.
LnacLmenL of 8340 ls proper ground for dlsmlssal of
exproprlaLlon case. lL effecLlvely superseded declslon
ln !" $%"&'( )* +,-(./(,. Soclal lmpacL of plan
dlsappeared when 8epubllc acqulred 83 properLles
lnvolved.
6:;
9"#4,%:" ;3454$" <%#( '( =>6? @!"4%
/,#454.%A

AfLer marLlal law, peLlLloner 1AuLCC was ordered Lo
seLup a sLock dlsLrlbuLlon plan for farmers of haclenda.
PLl converLed secLlons of haclenda for dlfferenL
purposes. eLlLlon flled Lo revoke Lhe sLock dlsLrlbuLlon
opLlon agreemenL, and uA8 recommended LhaL SuC be
cancelled and lands be placed under compulsory
coverage of CA8.
Land Lransferred Lo governmenL for SC1Lx ls excluded
from compulsory agrarlan reform coverage as Lhls was
exerclsed Lhrough governmenL power of emlnenL
domaln. PLl ls enLlLled Lo [usL compensaLlon LhaL wlll
be Lransferred Lo uA8 for dlsLrlbuLlon Lo farmers. uaLe
of Laklng ls when A8C approved Lhe sLock dlsLrlbuLlon
plan.
6:<
9"#4,%:" ;3454$" <%#( '( =>6? @6,5.-3$4.%A

MulLlple moLlons flled by boLh parLles on several lssues:
(1) appllcablllLy of operaLlve facL docLrlne, (2)
consLlLuLlonallLy of 31 of Comprehenslve Agrarlan
8eform Law, (3) ueLermlnlng [usL compensaLlon for PLl,
(4) sale Lo 3
rd
parLles of land by beneflclarles (4)
vlolaLlons of PLl as grounds for revocaLlon of Su
CperaLlve facL docLrlne appllcable, consLlLuLlonallLy of
31 8A 6637 noL crlLlcal Lo resoluLlon of case,
converslon of agrlculLural lands ls valld. PLl enLlLled Lo
[usL compensaLlon for land Lransferred Lo uA8 sLarLlng
from november 21, 1989 whlch ls Lhe daLe of lssuance
of A8C 8esoluLlon. SC also afflrmed revocaLlon of Su
based on vlolaLlons of PLl. CpLlon for farmers Lo
remaln as sLockholders of PLl ls revoked.





"#$%&'&(&'#$)* *)+ , -./'.+.- 0.)$ %.01-.2 ")$0.*)-') "-#34#$0% ,5667,56,
668
%9:;<=> 65?
$# *)+ '3@)'-'$A &B. #4*'A)&'#$ #1 "#$&-)"&% %B)** 4. @)%%.0?

lrom !"#$"% '( )*+,-".
1he law relaLlng Lo Lhe obllgaLlon of conLracLs does noL prohlblL every
change ln exlsLlng laws. 1o fall wlLhln Lhe prohlblLlon Lhe change musL
lmpalr Lhe obllgaLlon of Lhe exlsLlng conLracL, and Lhe lmpalrmenL musL be
subsLanLlal.
33

lrom /+01*-# '( 2*+3,-4:
A law whlch changes Lhe Lerms of a legal conLracL beLween parLles, elLher
ln Lhe Llme or mode of Lhe performance, or lmposes new condlLlons, or
dlspenses wlLh Lhose expressed, or auLhorlzes for lLs saLlsfacLlon
someLhlng dlfferenL from LhaL provlded ln lLs Lerms, ls law whlch lmpalrs
Lhe obllgaLlon of a conLracL and ls Lherefore null and vold
36
.
lrom 5(6( '( 7,"8 /*-90:
Any law whlch enlarges, abrldges, or ln any manner changes Lhe lnLenLlon
of Lhe parLles, necessarlly lmpalrs Lhe conLracL lLself
37
.
ln )"-,+" :%"9,-4 /*( '( ;0<0#, Lhe CourL ruled LhaL whaL Lhe conLracL clause
prohlblLs ls a subsLanLlal lmpalrmenL of conLracLs. Changes ln procedural remedles
whlch do noL dlmlnlsh subsLanLlve rlghLs or lncrease subsLanLlve obllgaLlons do noL
vlolaLe Lhe guaranLee
38
.



33
!oaquln C. 8ernas, S.!., 1he 1987 ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe hlllpplnes: A CommenLary, 444
(2009 LdlLlon)
36
=9(> page 443
37
=9(>
38
=9(> page 431
1he power of Lhe leglslaLure Lo change exlsLlng remedles and modes of procedures
resL on pollce power
39
.
MoraLorlum laws provldlng for posLponemenL of fulflllmenL of obllgaLlons
ls wlLhln Lhe pollce power of Lhe sLaLe as LhaL power was called lnLo
exerclse by Lhe publlc emergency LhaL Lhe leglslaLure found Lo exlsL
60
.
o When exLenslons are unreasonable, Lhey lnfrlnge agalnsL Lhe
lmpalrmenL of conLracLs
61
.
1he non-lmpalrmenL clause ls a llmlL on Lhe exerclse of leglslaLlve power
and noL of [udlclal or quasl-[udlclal power
62
.
1he consLlLuLlonal guaranLee of non-lmpalrmenL ls llmlLed by Lhe pollce power of
Lhe SLaLe, ln Lhe lnLeresL of publlc healLh, safeLy, morals and general welfare
63
.
ArLlcle xll 12 of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon ls a reservaLlon clause.
WlLh or wlLhouL a reservaLlon clause, franchlses are sub[ecL Lo alLeraLlons
Lhrough a reasonable exerclse of Lhe pollce power. 1hey are also sub[ecL Lo
alLeraLlon by Lhe power Lo Lax, whlch llke pollce power, cannoL be
conLracLed away
64
.
A llcense or a permlL ls noL a conLracL beLween Lhe soverelgn and Lhe
llcensee or permlLee, and ls noL a properLy ln any consLlLuLlonal sense. A
llcense ls raLher ln Lhe naLure of a speclal prlvllege, or permlsslon or
auLhorlLy Lo do whaL ls wlLhln lLs Lerms
63
.
o A llcense granLed by Lhe SLaLe ls always revocable. 1hls power Lo
revoke can only be resLralned by an expllclL conLracL upon good
conslderaLlon Lo LhaL effecL
66
.





39
=9(>
60
=9(>
61
=9(>
62
=9(>
63
=9(> page 433
64
=9(> page 461
63
!oaquln C. 8ernas, S.!., 1he 1987 hlllpplne ConsLlLuLlon: A Comprehenslve 8evlewer, 106 (2011
LdlLlon)
66
=9(>


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CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
117
Sect|on 11
IkLL ACCLSS 1C 1nL CCUk1S AND UASI IUDICIAL 8CDILS AND ADLUA1L LLGAL
ASSIS1ANCL SnALL NC 1 8L DLNILD 1C AN LkSCN 8 kLASCN CI CVLk1.
Iree Access to courts, quas|-[ud|c|a| bod|es, and adequate |ega| ass|stance
67

Who are proLecLed
o 1hose proLecLed lnclude low pald employees, domesLlc servanLs
and laborers
o 1hey need noL be persons so poor LhaL Lhey musL be supporLed aL
publlc expense
o lL sufflce LhaL plalnLlff ls lndlgenL
o ulfference beLween paupers and lndlgenL persons ls LhaL Lhe
laLLer are persons who have no properLy or sources of lncome
sufflclenL aslde from Lhelr own labor Lhrough self-supporLlng
when able Lo work and ln employmenL
urpose of Lhls provlslon ls Lo bar hlllpplne [urlsprudence from Lhe
dlsLlncLlon made ln Amerlcan [urlsprudence whlch requlres Lwo
requlremenLs before glvlng free access Lo courLs
o lnLeresL soughL Lo be proLecLed musL be fundamenLal
o Cb[ecLlvely lmposslble Lo proLecL Lhe lnLeresL excepL ln a courL of
law
1he expanslon of Lhe free access clause ln Lhe 1987 consLlLuLlon had ln
mlnd free access Lo labor courLs





67
noLes for secLlon 11 blll of rlghLs Laken from Lhe green book
Sect|on 12
AN LkSCN UNDLk INVLS1IGA1ICN ICk 1nL CCMMISSICN CI AN CIILNSL SnALL
nAVL 1nL kIGn1 1C 8L INICkMLD CI nIS kIGn1 1C kLMAIN SILLN1 AND 1C nAVL
CCML1LN1 AND INDLLNDLN1 CCUNSLL kLILkA8L CI nIS CWN CnCICL. II 1nL
LkSCN CANNC1 AIICkD 1nL SLkVICLS CI CCUNSLL, nL MUS1 8L kCVIDLD WI1n
CNL. 1nLSL kIGn1S CANNC1 8L WAIVLD LkCL1 IN WkI1ING AND IN 1nL kLSLNCL
CI CCUNSLL
NC 1Ck1UkL, ICkCL, VICLLNCL, 1nkLA1, IN1IMIDA1ICN Ck AN C1nLk MLANS
WnICn VI1IA1L 1nL IkLL WILL SnALL 8L USLD AGAINS1 nIM. SLCkL1 DL1LN1ICN
LACLS, SCLI1Ak, INCCMMUNICADC, Ck C1nLk SIMILAk ICkMS CI DL1LN1ICN
AkL kCnI8I1LD
AN CCNILSSICN Ck ADMISSICN C81AINLD IN VICLA1ICN CI 1nIS Ck SLC1ICN 17
nLkLCI SnALL 8L INADMISSI8LL IN LVIDLNCL AGAINS1 nIM.
1nL LAW SnALL kCVIDL ICk LNAL AND CIVIL SANC1ICNS ICk VICLA1ICNS CI 1nIS
SLC1ICN AS WLLL AS CCMLNSA1ICN 1C AND kLnA8ILI1A1ICN CI VIC1IMS CI
1Ck1UkL Ck SIMILAk kAC1ICLS, AND 1nLIk IAMILILS.
CASLS
68
SuMMA8?: SecLlon 12 glves new rlghLs Lo accused whlch was noL provlded
before Lhe passage of Lhe 1973 ConsLlLuLlon. More parLlcularly Lhls ls Lhe rlghL Lo be
lnformed of hls rlghL Lo be sllenL and Lo an aLLorney (Mlranda). 8elng so, such rlghL
was held Lo apply prospecLlvely (MagLoLo). WlLh regard Lo rlghL Lo lndependenL and
compeLenL counsel, Lhe courL held LhaL a clLy legal offlcer whlch provldes free legal
ald servlces for Lhe promoLlon of peace and order can'L be conslder as an
lndependenL legal counsel seelng LhaL Lhere's a confllcL of lnLeresL beLween such
offlcer and Lhe accused (Sunga). 8lghLs under secLlon 12 are noL also avallable
durlng ldenLlflcaLlon Lhrough pollce llne ups excepL when Lhe accused ls already



68
Candelarla Case LlsL


CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
118
under cusLodlal lnvesLlgaLlon (Camboa, Lscordlal). lL was also held LhaL Lhere ls no
hard and fasL rule wlLh regard Lo Lhe place where pollce llne ups can be held. 1hus
even lf lL was done ouLslde Lhe pollce sLaLlon, as long as done properly,
ldenLlflcaLlon ls valld (1eehankee). Cn Lhe lasL case asslgned, Lhe courL held LhaL a
law resLrlcLlng Lhe rlghL Lo remaln ln sllence (agalnsL rlghL Lo self-lncrlmlnaLlon)
durlng a lnvesLlgaLlon conducLed by a panel ls unconsLlLuLlonal. A wlLness/accused
has Lhese rlghLs even durlng such lnvesLlgaLlon (Calman).
C|t|zen's k|ghts under sect|on 12
8lghLs glven Lo clLlzens (lSl)
1) 8lghL Lo be lnformed of rlghLs (#2 & 3 below)
2) 8lghL Lo remaln sllenL
3) 8lghL Lo have compeLenL and lndependenL counsel
4) 8lghL Lo proper LreaLmenL of Lhose under lnvesLlgaLlon (8ernas
69
, 467)
M|randa k|ghts
1he Mlranda 8lghLs (rocedure) (Mlranda v Arlzona ClLed ln 8ernas, 467-
468)
1. 1he person ln cusLody musL be lnformed aL Lhe ouLseL ln clear and
unequlvocal Lerms LhaL he has Lhe rlghL Lo remaln sllenL.
2. AfLer belng so lnformed, he musL be Lold LhaL anyLhlng he says
can and wlll be used agalnsL hlm ln courL.
3. Pe musL be clearly lnformed LhaL he has Lhe rlghL Lo consulL wlLh
a lawyer and Lo have Lhe lawyer wlLh hlm durlng Lhe
lnLerrogaLlon. Pe does noL have Lo ask for a lawyer. 1he
lnvesLlgaLor should Lell hlm LhaL he has Lhe rlghL Lo counsel aL LhaL
polnL



69
Cl1A1lCn nC1L: All clLaLlons referrlng Lo 8ernas" ln SecLlon 11-13, dual alleglance and suffrage of Lhe
revlewer, refers Lo I.G. 8ernas, 1he 1987 Const|tut|on of the kepub||c of the h|||pp|nes: A
Commentary, (2009)
4. Pe should be warned LhaL noL only has he has Lhe rlghL Lo consulL
wlLh a lawyer buL also LhaL lf he ls lndlgenL, a lawyer wlll be
appolnLed Lo represenL hlm.
3. Lven lf Lhe person consenLs Lo answer quesLlons wlLhouL Lhe
asslsLance of counsel, Lhe momenL he asks for a lawyer aL any
polnL ln Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon, Lhe lnLerrogaLlon musL cease unLll an
aLLorney ls presenL.
6. lf Lhe foregolng proLecLlons and warnlngs are noL demonsLraLed
durlng Lhe Lrlal Lo have been observed by Lhe prosecuLlon, no
evldence obLalned as a resulL of Lhe lnLerrogaLlon can be used
agalnsL hlm.

8eason for Lhe rule
o lL recognlzed Lhe facL LhaL Lhe psychologlcal lf noL physlcal
aLmosphere of cusLodlal lnvesLlgaLlons, ln Lhe absence of proper
safeguards, ls lnherenLly coerclve
k|ght to Counse|
Counsel musL be compeLenL and lndependenL wlLhouL any confllcL of
lnLeresL wlLh Lhe accused (eople v Sunga)
noL lndependenL Counsel
70
(SC MM 8C)
o Speclal Counsel
o ubllc/prlvaLe prosecuLor
o Counsel of Lhe pollce
o Munlclpal aLLorney whose lnLeresL ls admlLLedly adverse Lo Lhe
accused
o A mayor unless Lhe accused approaches hlm as counselor or
advlser
o A barangay capLaln
o Any oLher whose lnLeresL may be adverse Lo LhaL of Lhe accused



70
eople v 8ardula clLed ln eople v Sunga, laLLer 3 from 8ernas 474 clLlng v 1omaquln


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AppllcaLlon of rlghL
o Applled prospecLlvely afLer Lhe effecLlvlLy of Lhe 1973
consLlLuLlon when rlghL Lo be lnformed of rlghLs flrsL appeared
(MagLoLo v Manguera)
AvallablllLy of 8lghLs
o ln 8ernas page 471, lL ls sald LhaL Lhe Calman case says LhaL Lhe
rlghL aLLaches when a person ls belng lnvesLlgaLed already and noL
necessary LhaL he ls ln cusLody (bernas, 471)
o 8ecenL [urlsprudence however saLes LhaL -<=9>A B;C:D A:@><E; 6,
<A ?F?<G?HG: E;GI J9:; >9: K:DAE; <A ?GD:?CI <; "BA>ECI (people v
Marra clLed ln 8ernas p472)
! CusLodlal lnvesLlgaLlon lnvolves any quesLlonlng lnlLlaLed
by law enforcemenL offlcer afLer a person has been Laken
lnLo cusLody or oLherwlse deprlved of hls freedom of
acLlon ln any slgnlflcanL way. '> <A E;GI ?L>:D >9:
<;F:A><=?><E; @:?A:A >E H: ? =:;:D?G <;MB<DI <;>E ?;
B;AEGF:C @D<N: ?;C H:=<;A >E LE@BA E; ? K?D><@BG?D
ABAK:@>O >9: ABAK:@> <A >?P:; <;>E @BA>ECI, and Lhe
pollce @?DD<:A EB> ? KDE@:AA EL <;>:DDE=?><E;A LhaL lends
lLself Lo ellclLlng lncrlmlnaLlng sLaLemenLs LhaL Lhe rule
belngs Lo operaLe
o Powever 8A 7438 :Q>:;C:C >9: =B?D?;>:: Lo slLuaLlon ln whlch
an lndlvldual has noL been formally arresLed buL 9?A N:D:GI H::;
R<;F<>:CS LED MB:A><E;<;=. 1here ls Lherefore a sLaLuLory
guaranLee broader LhaL Lhe consLlLuLlonal (bernas 472)
$E;7?KKG<@?H<G<>I EL D<=9>A
SecLlon 12(1) does noL apply Lo a slLuaLlon where a person presenLs
hlmself Lo Lhe pollce and ln Lhe process make hls admlsslons (eople v
1aylaran clLed ln 8ernas 470)
arrafln 1esL
o Such LesLs ls noL a communlcaLlve acLlon or LesLlmonlal
compulslon
ollce Llne up
o LxcepLlon ls when Lhere ls a move on Lhe parL of lnvesLlgaLors Lo
ellclL admlsslons
o LxcepLlon when Lhe person ls already under cusLodlal
lnvesLlgaLlon
o &E>?G<>I EL @<D@BNA>?;@: LesL Lo deLermlne valldlLy of ouL of courL
ldenLlflcaLlon: [#0) *&%T
1. Lhe wlLness' EpporLunlLy Lo vlew Lhe crlmlnal aL Lhe Llme
of Lhe crlme,
2. Lhe wlLness' Cegree of aLLenLlon aL LhaL Llme,
3. Lhe ?ccuracy of any prlor descrlpLlon glven by Lhe
wlLness,
4. Lhe Gevel of cerLalnLy demonsLraLed by Lhe wlLness aL Lhe
ldenLlflcaLlon,
3. Lhe lengLh of >lme beLween Lhe crlme and Lhe
ldenLlflcaLlon, and,
6. Lhe AuggesLlveness of Lhe ldenLlflcaLlon procedure
When rlghLs ends
o SecLlon 12(1) applles only Lo Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon prlor Lo Lhe flllng of
charges, afLer whlch SecLlons 14 and 17 comes ln Lo proLecL Lhe
accused (8ernas 476)
+?<F:D EL D<=9>A B;C:D %:@><E; 6,
1here's a presumpLlon LhaL accused dld noL walve Lhe rlghL, burden of
proof on prosecuLlon (8ernas, 478)
Can only walve lf done volunLarlly, knowlngly, and lnLelllgenLly and ln
wrlLlng and ln Lhe presence of counsel (bernas 477-478)
Powever fallure Lo ob[ecL or ralse Lhe vlolaLlon as early as posslble (durlng
Lrlal), lL shall be deemed accused walved hls rlghLs under secLlon 12
(bernas 473)




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8&$)1% ,5 %$9.6 6, 3,:'/10 <:/6 ;1 $'
8%$6$'9 &'( $' 6.1 7%1/1'31 ,5 &
3,<7161'6 &'( $'(171'(1'6 3,:'/10
P #&96,6, )
#&'9:1%&
-.$/ $'),0)1/ 6.%11 3&/1/4
*00 ,5 8.$3. &/H 6.1 $'61%7%16&6$,' ,5 &%6$301 P
/136$,' !D4
*33:/1( .1%1 30&$</ 6.&6 /&$( 7%,)$/$,' /.,:0(
;1 &770$1( %16%,&36$)10= <&H$'9 $6 &770$3&;01
6, 6.1$% 3&/1 6.:/ <&H$'9 6.1$% 3,'51//$,'/
>,:%6 ($/<$//1( 6.1 716$6$,'
6.1 %$9.6 6, ;1 $'5,%<1( ,5 6.1 %$9.6 6,
%1<&$' /$01'6 &'( %$9.6 6, & 3,:'/10 .&/
7%,/7136$)1 &770$3&6$,' 5,%
7%1)$,:/ 6, 6.1 7&//&91 ,5 & /$<$0&% 7%,)$/$,'
$' 6.1 !QRP 3,'/6$6:6$,'@ /:3. %$9.6 8&/ ',6
O$9.6 6, ;1 $'5,%<1( ,5 %$9.6/ 6,
%1<&$' /$01'6 &'( 6, 3,:'/10 $/
7%,/7136$)10= &770$1( &561% 6.1
7&//&91 ,5 !QRP 3,'/6$6:6$,' 8.1'
6.1 %$9.6 8&/ 5$%/6 9$)1' 6, 6.1
3$6$+1'


"#$%&'&(&'#$)* *)+ , -./'.+.- 0.)$ %.01-.2 ")$0.*)-') "-#34#$0% ,5667,56,
6,6
lnadmlsslble. yeL avallable Lo Lhe clLlzen.
lurLhermore lL would work ln[usLlce lf lL
would be reLroacLlvely applled as lL would
acqulL prevlously convlcLed gullLy crlmlnals.

4 Camboa v Cruz Camboa was arresLed for vagrancy.
Pe was placed ln a llne up and
was ldenLlfled by a wlLness LhaL he Look parL ln
a robbery.
Pe was laLer charge for Lhe laLLer crlme.
Pe laLer clalm LhaL Lhe pollce vlolaLed hls rlghL
under secLlon 12
eLlLlon uenled
rlghL Lo counsel only aLLaches upon Lhe sLarL
of Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon or lnLerrogaLlon.
uurlng Lhe llne-up no such rlghL could have
been vlolaLed because lL was noL yeL parL of
Lhe cusLodlal lnquesL Lo be conducLed by Lhe
pollce
8lghL Lo counsel ls noL avallable
durlng pollce llne up before
cusLodlal lnvesLlgaLlon sLarLed
3 eople v Lscordlal 1here was a crlme of rape and robbery
Accused here flL Lhe descrlpLlon of Lhe
suspecL.
Pe was arresLed.
WlLnesses and Lhe vlcLlm ldenLlfled hlm as Lhe
crlmlnal.
1hus he was charged for robbery wlLh rape.
Pe assalled LhaL Lhe pollce vlolaLed hls rlghLs
under arL 3 sec 12.
Pe alleged LhaL Lhe pollce had LorLured hlm
and LhaL hls rlghLs was vlolaLed when he was
noL glven an aLLorney when he was placed ln a
llne-up
Accused acqulLLed
Accused was already under cusLodlal
lnvesLlgaLlon when Lhe pollce place hlm ln a
llne-up for ldenLlflcaLlon
no vlolaLlon under paragraph 1 as Lhere was
no sLaLemenL obLalned when he was
lnLerrogaLed (LorLured).

1here ls rlghL Lo counsel durlng
pollce llne-up when cusLodlal
lnvesLlgaLlon has already sLarLed
agalnsL Lhe accused
6 eople v
1eehankee
Accused here was charged wlLh 2 murders and
1 frusLraLed murder.
Pe was ldenLlfled by wlLnesses and Lhe
survlvlng vlcLlm Lhrough an ouL-of-courL
ldenLlflcaLlon.
Pe was convlcLed because of Lhe
ldenLlflcaLlon and LesLlmonles of Lhe wlLnesses
and vlcLlm.
Pe conLesLed Lhe ouL-of-courL ldenLlflcaLlon
saylng LhaL lL was lrregularly done as he was
placed ln a llne up ouLslde of a prlvaLe house
wlLhouL an aLLorney presenL.
eLlLlon denled, accused convlcLed
ClLlng Lhe LoLallLy of clrcumsLance LesL, SC
held LhaL Lhe alleged lrregularlLles clLed by
appellanL dld noL resulL ln hls mlsldenLlflcaLlon
nor was he denled due process.
1here ls noLhlng wrong ln Lelno's (survlvlng
vlcLlm) ldenLlflcaLlon of appellanL ln an
unoccupled house ln lorbes ark.
Lhls mode was resorLed Lo by Lhe auLhorlLles
for securlLy reasons.
1here ls no hard and fasL rule as Lo Lhe place
where suspecLs are ldenLlfled by wlLnesses.
ldenLlflcaLlon may be done ln open fleld. lL ls
ofLen done ln hosplLals whlle Lhe crlme and
8lghL Lo counsel of accused durlng
Lhe llne up done ouLslde of an
unoccupled house was noL vlolaLed
slnce lL was done for Lhe safeLy of
Lhe vlcLlm and LhaL Lhere was sLlll no
cusLodlal lnvesLlgaLlon. 1he LoLallLy
of clrcumsLance LesL was also
applled and Lhe vlcLlm/wlLness
passed lL.


"#$%&'&(&'#$)* *)+ , -./'.+.- 0.)$ %.01-.2 ")$0.*)-') "-#34#$0% ,5667,56,
6,,
Lhe crlmlnal are sLlll fresh ln Lhe mlnd of Lhe
vlcLlm.
7 Calman v
amaran
AfLer Lhe assasslnaLlon of nlnoy Aqulno, res.
Marcoses formed a commlsslon Lo lnvesLlgaLe
Lhe asslgnaLlon.
A law was passed whlch compel wlLnesses Lo
answer Lhe quesLlon asked by Lhe panel even
lf lL ls self-lncrlmlnaLlng
buL lf lL ls self-lncrlmlnaLlng lL wlll noL be used
Lo convlcL Lhe wlLness.
Calman LesLlfled and gave self lncrlmlnaLlng
answers.
AfLer Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon he was charged,
LogeLher wlLh oLher peLlLloners, for Lhe
asslgnaLlon, and Lhe self-lncrlmlnaLlng
sLaLemenLs were submlLLed as evldence.
Calman now ralse LhaL Lhelr rlghL under arLlcle
3 secLlon 12 was vlolaLed.
eLlLlon granLed
sLaLemenLs made are lnadmlsslble as lL ls ln
vlolaLlon of Lhelr rlghL agalnsL self-
lncrlmlnaLlon (sec 17).
1hey also lnvalldaLed Lhe law whlch compelled
wlLnesses Lo answer even lncrlmlnaLlng
quesLlon as lL precluded any opporLunlLy Lo
clalm Lhe rlghL agalnsL self-lncrlmlnaLlon
because lL would punlsh wlLh conLempL
anyone who would refuse Lo LesLlfy.

SLaLemenLs/confesslons made
durlng lnvesLlgaLlon whlch ls ln
vlolaLlon Lo arLlcle 12 and 17 are
lnadmlsslble.




CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
123
Sect|on 13
ALL LkSCNS, LkCL1 1nCSL CnAkGLD WI1n CIILNSLS UNISnA8LL 8 kLCLUSICN
LkL1UA WnLN LVIDLNCL CI GUIL1 IS S1kCNG, SnALL, 8LICkL CCNVIC1ICN, 8L
8AILA8LL 8 SUIIICILN1 SUkL1ILS, Ck 8L kLLLASLD CN kLCCGNI2ANCL AS MA 8L
kCVIDLD 8 LAW. 1nL kIGn1 1C 8AIL SnALL NC1 8L IMAIkLD LVLN WnLN 1nL
kIVILLGL CI 1nL WkI1 CI nA8LAS CCkUS IS SUSLNDLD. LkCLSSIVL 8AIL SnALL
NC1 8L kLUIkLD.
k|ght to 8a||
AnoLher means of lmmedlaLely obLalnlng llberLy
Lnables Lhe accused Lo prepare hls defense
urpose
o usually wlLh 8ecluslon perpeLua cases, only conflnemenL can
lnsure Lhe aLLendance of ne who expecLs Lo recelve such senLence
o urpose of ball ls Lo guaranLee appearance of Lhe accused aL Lhe
Lrlal (?ap v CA)
Sett|ng up ba||
CourL cannoL requlre a sLrlcLly cash bond (Almeda v vlllaluz)
AmounL should be hlgh enough Lo assure presence when requlred, buL no
h|gher than |s reasonab|y ca|cu|ated to fu|f||| th|s purpose (yap v CA).
8all should noL be excesslve. lf lL were excesslve, lL becomes meanlngless
slnce Lhe accused won'L be able Lo afford lL (ue La Camara v Lnage)
Culdellnes: (yap v ca, !"##$%&'() +, -.$/( 01"2&3 "/ 4&#$ 1$5$)$ + 6/$7&8
[AnC 8AL ll8]
1. AblllLy of Lhe accused Lo glve ball
2. NaLure and clrcumsLance of Lhe offense
3. enalLy for Lhe offense charged
4. CharacLer and repuLaLlon of Lhe accused
3. Age and PealLh of Lhe accused
6. CharacLer and sLrengLh (welghL) of Lhe evldence
7. robablllLy of Lhe accused appearlng ln Lrlal
8. IorfelLure of oLher bonds
9. WheLher Lhe accused was a fuglLlve from [usLlce when arresLed
10. lf Lhe accused ls under bond for appearance aL Lrlal ln oLher cases

Degree of ev|dence
When offense charged ls caplLal ln naLure,
o burden ls on Lhe prosecuLlon Lo show LhaL Lhe evldence meeLs Lhe
requlred quanLum (sLrong evldence). 1he prosecuLlon musL be
glven opporLunlLy Lo presenL evldence, oLherwlse granL of ball ls
vold
SLrong evldence
o means accused wlll probably be punlshed, noL wheLher Lhe
evldence esLabllshes gullL beyond reasonable doubL buL raLher
wheLher lL shows evldenL gullL or a greaL presumpLlon of gullL
Ava||ab|||ty of the r|ght
8all musL be avallable Lo one who ls deLalned even before formal charges
are flled (Perras 1eehankee v 8ovlra)
8all ls avallable Lo defendanLs ln exLradlLlon proceedlngs as well as
deporLaLlon proceedlngs (CovernmenL of Pong kong v Clalla)
8lghL Lo ball ls noL avallable Lo mlllLary personnel (Commendador v
Ceneral de vllla)
8lghL Lo ball may be walved even lmpllclLly ln an lrrecoverable manner as
ln Lhe case when accused agreed Lo remaln ln legal cusLody durlng Lhe
pendency of Lhe Lrlal of hls crlmlnal case





"#$%&'&(&'#$)* *)+ , -./'.+.- 0.)$ %.01-.2 ")$0.*)-') "-#34#$0% ,5667,56,
6,8
"9:;: < )=>?@A; BC %;@>?DE 6B
F ")%. 1)"&% G.*0H-)&'# 0#"&-'$.
! #$% & '( #$% )$* +,-&.+/01 ,2 3*/$2$ 45 /60 78'9
60 $%%0$:01 $-1 %0/./.,-01 2,; 4$.:<
=$.: )$* *0/ $/ ><>?<
@0/./.,- A;$-/01
><> ? 4$.: .* 0B+0**.&09
/6,CA6 /60 +,C;/ ,2 $%%0$:* *0/ /60 4$.: /,,
6.A69 /60 +$*0 ,2 #$% )$;;$-/* $ 6.A60; 4$.:
/6$- C*C$:
60 )$* $:;0$15 +,-&.+/01 45 /60 :,)0; +,C;/
4C/ ,-:5<
=0.-A *,9 $++C*01 .* D,;0 :.E0:5 /, 0*+$%0 .2
4$.: .* A;$-/01<

F-+0 +,-&.+/01 45 $ :,)0; +,C;/ 2,; $
+;.D09 G)6.+6 $++C*01 /60-
$%%0$:01 $- $%%:.01 2,; 4$.:H9 *C+6 $
+$*0 )$;;$-/ $ 6.A60; 4$.: /6$- C*C$:
I J,&K/ ,2 LM &
F:$:.$
( N.:.%.-, G%;.&$/0 ;0*%,-10-/H )$* )$-/01 45
/60 L,-AE,-A J,&0;-D0-/<
LM ;0OC0*/01 /60 0B/;$1./.,- ,2 %;.&$/0
;0*%,-10-/<
860 :$//0;9 )6.:0 $)$./.-A /60 10+.*.,- ,2 /60
0B/;$1./.,- %;,+001.-A9 ;0OC0*/01 2,; 4$.:<
86.* )$* 10-.01 45 /60 :,)0; +,C;/ *.-+0 /60
A0-0;$: ;C:0 )$* /6$/ 4$.: .* $&$.:$4:0 /,
+;.D.-$: +$*0* ,-:5 $-1 -,/ $1D.-.*/;$/.&0
+$*0* G0B/;$1./.,-H<
@0/./.,- J;$-/01
P' $::,)01 4$.: +./.-A .-/0;-$/.,-$: :$) A.&.-A
%;.D$+5 ,&0; 6CD$- ;.A6/*<
P' ;0+,A-.Q0 /60 ;.A6/ /, :.209 :.40;/5 $-1
%;,%0;/5<
/60 +6$;$+/0;.*/.+* ,2 0B/;$1./.,- %;,+001.-A*
$;0 :.E0 +;.D.-$: %;,+001.-A*
4,/69 .2 +,-&.+/019 +,C:1 :0$1 /, /60
1020-1$-/K* 10%;.&$/.,- ,2 :.40;/5<

7.A6/ /, 4$.: .* $&$.:$4:0 /,
1020-1$-/* .- $- 0B/;$1./.,-
%;,+001.-A
R S0 T$ '$D$;$ &
3-$A0
@0/./.,-0; )$* $;;0*/01 2,; %$;/.+.%$/.,- .- $
+;.D0
(%%:.01 2,; 4$.:
=$.: )$* *0/ $/ !<I D.::.,-
@0/./.,-0; $%%0$:01 4C/ 60 0*+$%01 402,;0
+,C;/ +$- 10+.10 /60 +$*0
@0/./.,- D,,/
=$.: *6,C:1 -,/ 40 0B+0**.&0< U2 ./ )0;0
0B+0**.&09 ./ 40+,D0* D0$-.-A:0** *.-+0 /60
$++C*01 ),-K/ 40 $4:0 /, $22,;1 ./
',C;/ VC*/ .**C01 AC.10:.-0* .- 2.B.-A 4$.:

=$.: *6,C:1 -,/ 40 0B+0**.&0< U2 ./
)0;0 0B+0**.&09 ./ 40+,D0*
D0$-.-A:0** *.-+0 /60 $++C*01 ),-K/
40 $4:0 /, $22,;1 ./

JC.10:.-0*
!H (4.:./5 ,2 /60 $++C*01 /, A.&0
4$.:
IH W$/C;0 ,2 /60 ,220-*0
RH @0-$:/5 2,; /60 ,220-*0
+6$;A01
XH '6$;$+/0; $-1 ;0%C/$/.,- ,2
/60 $++C*01
>H L0$:/6 ,2 /60 $++C*01
YH '6$;$+/0; $-1 */;0-A/6 ,2 /60
0&.10-+0
ZH @;,4$4.:./5 ,2 /60 $++C*01


"#$%&'&(&'#$)* *)+ , -./'.+.- 0.)$ %.01-.2 ")$0.*)-') "-#34#$0% ,5667,56,
6,8
appearlng ln Lrlal
8) lorfelLure of oLher bonds
9) WheLher Lhe accused was a
fuglLlve from [usLlce when
arresLed
10) lf Lhe accused ls under bond
for appearance aL Lrlal ln
oLher cases


4 Comendador v
Cen ue vllla
Accused are faclng prosecuLlon for Lhelr
parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe falled coup aLLempL ln
uecember 1-9, 1989. Whlle Lhelr Lrlal was
pendlng Lhey requesLed for ball buL Lhe lower
courL denled lL.
SC afflrmed saylng LhaL Lhey are Lhe
excepLlon Lo general rule under ArLlcle 3
SecLlon 13
mlllLary personnel are allowed Lo carry
flrearms by Lhe governmenL and because
mlllLary sLrucLure ls unlque
SC based Lhelr declslon on naLlonal securlLy
conslderaLlon.
MlllLary personnel does noL have Lhe
rlghL Lo ball as Lhe mlllLary sLrucLure
ls unlque and for naLlonal securlLy
conslderaLlon as Lhey are allowed Lo
carry flrearms by Lhe governmenL


CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
126
Sect|on 14
NC LkSCN SnALL 8L nLLD 1C ANSWLk ICk A CkIMINAL CIILNSL WI1nCU1 DUL
kCCLSS CI LAW.
IN ALL CkIMINAL kCSLCU1ICN, 1nL ACCUSLD SnALL 8L kLSUMLD INNCCLN1 UN1IL
1nL CCN1kAk IS kCVLD, AND SnALL LNIC 1nL kIGn1 1C 8L nLAkD 8 nIMSLLI
AND CCUNSLL, 1C 8L INICkMLD CI 1nL NA1UkL AND CAUSL CI 1nL ACCUSA1ICN
AGAINS1 nIM, 1C nAVL A SLLD, IMAk1IAL, AND U8LIC 1kIAL, 1C MLL1 1nL
WI1NLSS IACL 1C IACL, AND 1C nAVL CCMULSCk kCCLSS 1C SLCUkL 1nL
A11LNDANCL CI WI1NLSSLS AND 1nL kCDUC1ICN CI LVIDLNCL IN nIS 8LnALI.
nCWLVLk, AI1Lk AkkAIGNMLN1, 1kIAL MA kCCLLD NC1WI1nS1ANDING 1nL
A8SLNCL CI 1nL ACCUSLD kCVIDLD 1nA1 nL nAS 8LLN DUL NC1IIILD AND nIS
IAILUkL 1C ALAk IS UNIUS1IIIA8LL
C|t|zen's k|ghts Under Sect|on 14 (ulPl-SWA)
1) 8lghL Lo due process of law
2) 8lghL Lo be presumed |nnocenL
3) 8lghL Lo be heard by hlmself and counsel
4) 8lghL Lo be |nformed of Lhe naLure and cause of Lhe accusaLlon agalnsL hlm
3) 8lghL Lo have a speedy, lmparLlal and publlc Lrlal
6) 8lghL Lo meeL Lhe wlLness face Lo face
7) 8lghL Lo have compulsory process Lo secure Lhe aLLendance of wlLnesses
and Lhe producLlon of evldence ln hls behalf.
Due rocess of |aw
8equlres LhaL Lhe procedure esLabllshed by law be followed (uS v Ccampo,
clLed ln bernas 498)
uue process here ls procedural due process (uS v CranL, clLed ln bernas
498)
uue process ls saLlsfled lf Lhe accused ls
o lnformed as Lo why he ls proceeded agalnsL and
o lnformed whaL charge he has Lo meeL,
o wlLh hls convlcLlon [passed by a courL wlLh compeLenL
[urlsdlcLlon] belng made Lo resL on ev|dence that |s not ta|nted
w|th fa|s|ty
o afLer full opporLunlLy for hlm Lo rebuL lL and
o Lhe senLence belng lmposed ln accordance wlLh a valld law.
(nunez v Sandlganbayan - clLed ln bernas 499)

k|ght Aga|nst tr|a| by pub||c|ty
1here's a presumpt|on of |mpart|a||ty Lowards Lhe [udge
1o warranL a flndlng of pre[udlclal publlclLy Lhere musL be
o allegaLlon and proof LhaL Lhe [udges have been unduly
lnfluenced,
o noL slmply LhaL Lhey mlghL be, by Lhe barrage of publlclLy
(Webb v de Leon clLed ln bernas 300).
LffecL of publlclLy on [udges cannoL be presumed especlally slnce, unllke
[urors, [udges are tra|ned profess|ona|s (eople v 1eehankee !r clLed ln
bernas 300)

Due rocess and M|||tary tr|buna|s
Crdlnarlly, Lhe supreme court cannot rev|ew the ru||ngs and proceed|ngs
of the m|||tary comm|ss|on.
o generally, Lhls courL does noL exerclse over mlllLary
commlsslons Lhe supervlsory [urlsdlcLlon whlch lL possesses
over clvll Lrlal courLs. (8uscayno v MlllLary commlsslon clLed
ln bernas 303)

C|v|||an Iur|sd|ct|on of m|||tary comm|ss|on or Lrlbunal (Claguer v MlllLary
Commlsslon no. 34)
o nC !urlsdlcLlon


"#$%&'&(&'#$)* *)+ , -./'.+.- 0.)$ %.01-.2 ")$0.*)-') "-#34#$0% ,5667,56,
6,8
o 9:;;<= =>? :;@ ABA>9CDA EF>CD@C9=C<; AGA; @F>C;H =IA JA>C<@
<K L:>=C:M M:NO <GA> 9CGCMC:;D for offences allegedly
commlLLed by Lhem
o as long :D =IA 9CGCM 9<F>=D :>A <JA; :;@ KF;9=C<;C;H,
o any [udgmenL rendered by such body relaLlng Lo a clvlllan ls
null and vold for lack of [urlsdlcLlon on Lhe parL of Lhe mlllLary
Lrlbunal
o Claguer reversed Aqulno !r v MlllLary commlsslon where lL was held
MlllLary courL has [urlsdlcLlon durlng marLlal law over clvlllans
o 1hls case dld noL acqulL Lhe convlcLed accused buL ordered
rehearlng
P>ADFLJ=C<; <K C;;<9A;9A
8urden of roof
o rosecuLlon has Lhe burden Lo overcome such presumpLlon of
lnnocence by presenLlng Lhe quanLum of evldence requlred (proof
beyond reasonable doubL)
o 1he prosecuLlon musL resL on lLs own merlLs and musL noL rely on
Lhe weakness of Lhe defense
8easonable doubL
o 1haL doubL engendered by an lnvesLlgaLlon of Lhe whole proof and
an lnablllLy afLer such lnvesLlgaLlon Lo leL Lhe mlnd resL upon Lhe
cerLalnLy of gullLy
1he presumpLlon
o resumpLlon of lnnocence lncludes LhaL of morallLy and
decency and chasLlLy (l.e. presumpLlon of vlrglnlLy)
(valdepenas v eople [seducLlon case] clLed ln 8ernas 310)
o lf accused appeal afLer belng convlcLed by lower courL, Lhe
presumpLlon of lnnocence sLlll applles (MangubaL v
Sandlganbayan clLed ln 8ernas 312)

LeglslaLlon
o Congress I:D =IA J<NA> =< @AKC;A NI:= DI:MM 9<;D=C=F=A J>CL: K:9CA
AGC@A;9A <K HFCM= K<> : crlme and such power ls noL vlolaLlve of rlghL
agalnsL presumpLlon of lnnocence, slnce such prlma facle evldence
can easlly be rebuLLed (uS v Lullng)
o A law sLaLlng LhaL one shall be @CDQF:MCKCA@ =< >F; K<> <KKC9A <; =IA
H><F;@ :M<;A =I:= 9I:>HAD I:GA RAA; KCMA@ :H:C;D= ICL RAK<>A =IA
9<F>= CD 9<;DC@A>A@ :D GC<M:=CGA of Lhe rlghL Lo be presumed
lnnocenL (uumlao v Comelec)
o ln Marquez !r v Comelec, CourL FJIAM@ =IA @CDQF:MCKC9:=C<; <K :
9:;@C@:=A <; =IA H><F;@D =I:= IA CD : KFHC=CGA K><L EFD=C9A. 1he
courL here sald LhaL luglLlve applles Lo Lhose who was noL yeL
convlcLed buL was runnlng away from Lrlal. 1hls dld noL vlolaLe Lhe
presumpLlon of lnnocenL as dlsquallflcaLlon ls noL a penalLy and LhaL
congress ls allowed Lo prescrlbe reasonable quallflcaLlons for local
candldaLes (bernas 311)

whaL prosecuLlon musL do before Lhere can be a convlcLlon (eople v
Mlng)
o 1he accused en[oys Lhe consLlLuLlonal presumpLlon of lnnocence
unLll flnal convlcLlon, 9<;GC9=C<; >AQFC>AD ;< MADD =I:; AGC@A;9A
DFKKC9CA;= =< :>>CGA := : L<>:M 9A>=:C;=? <K HFCM=O noL only wlLh
respecL Lo Lhe exlsLence of a crlme, buL, more lmporLanLly, of Lhe
ldenLlLy of Lhe accused as Lhe auLhor of Lhe crlme.
o rosecuLlon's case musL >CDA :;@ K:MM <; C=D <N; LA>C=D :;@ 9:;;<=
@>:N C=D D=>A;H=I K><L =IA NA:S;ADD of Lhe defense
-CHI= =< RA IA:>@ (bernas 314-313)
1he Pearer
o CuallLy demanded: falrness and lmparLlallLy
! !udge may noL play Lhe double role of prosecuLor and [udge
ln one and Lhe same case.
1he one belng Peard
o 8lghL Lo presenL evldence and Lo be presenL aL Lhe Lrlal
o 1he rlghL Lo be asslsLed by counsel
o 8lghL Lo compulsory process Lo compel Lhe aLLendance of wlLness ln
hls behalf
8lghL Lo presenL evldence


"#$%&'&(&'#$)* *)+ , -./'.+.- 0.)$ %.01-.2 ")$0.*)-') "-#34#$0% ,5667,56,
6,8
o 8lghL Lo LesLlfy ln one's favor and Lhe rlghL Lo be glven Llme Lo call
wlLnesses
Cne has Lhe rlghL also, lf belng accused of Lwo offense, for Lrlal of each of
Lhe case
-9:;< <= >? <@9?A >B CD 9EFC@<9CG HIA:?
lmperaLlve characLer of Lhe JCK?:IC@A =K AI? F@=L?JJ [connoLes], aL Lhe
very leasL, CD 9EFC@<9CG <@9>IDCG.(bernas 302 clLlng MaLeo !r v vlllaluz)
Crounds ln whlch [udge can dlsquallfy hlmself (rules of courL clLed ln
MaLeo !8 v vlllaluz) [8-C]
o ecunlary lnLeresL
o 8elaLlonshlp
o revlous parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe maLLer LhaL calls for ad[udlcaLlon
o CLher [usL or valld reason whlch erodes LralL of ob[ecLlvlLy

Lxample when [udge ls parLlal
o Llne of quesLlonlng showed hls hosLlllLy agalnsL Lhe accused who
was a noLorlous crlmlnal (eople v Cplda clLed ln bernas 302)
o !udge convlcLed Lhe peLlLloner of arson, he aLLrlbuLed Lhe acL Lo Lhe
deslre of peLlLloner Lo desLroy evldence of malversaLlon, Lhe [udge
was dlsquallfled from subsequenLly Lrylng Lhe peLlLloner for
malversaLlon (lgnaclo v vlllaluz clLed 8ernas 302)
!udge who lnherlL a case from anoLher [udge, even Lhough he was noL able
Lo hear all Lhe wlLnesses presenLed, sLlll have Lhe presumpLlon of belng
lmparLlal (bernas 303 clLlng eople nara[os)
-9:;< <= L=IDJ?G
8aslc elemenLs of Lhe rlghL Lo counsel (8ernas 320 clLlng dlfferenL
[urlsprudence and rules of courL)
1) CourL ls duLy bound Lo 9DK=@E Lhe defendanL LhaL he has a @9:;< <o
an aLLorney before he ls arralgned,
2) 1he courL EIJ< CJM hlm lf he deslres Lhe servlce of counsel
3) lf he does, and ls unable Lo geL one, Lhe courL EIJ< CJJ9:D counsel
de offlclo,
4) Cr, lf Lhe accused N9J;?J <= F@=LI@? prlvaLe counsel, Lhe courL EIJ<
:9O? ;9E <9E? Lo obLaln one. lf appolnLed counsel's lnLeresLs are
dlvlded beLween prosecuLor and Lhe defense, hls appolnLmenL
consLlLuLes reverslble error
3) Where duly auLhorlzed members of Lhe bar are noL avallable, Lhe
courL may appolnL any person resldenL of Lhe provlnce and of good
repuLe for problLy and ablllLy

1he rlghL
o accused musL be lnformed by Lhe courL LhaL he has a @9:;< <= ;CO?
L=IDJ?G >?K=@? >?9D: C@@C9:D?A, and musL >? CJM?A 9K <;? A?J9@?J
<;? C9A =K L=IDsel. lf he deslres and ls unable Lo employ counsel, Lhe
courL EIJ< CJJ9:D L=IDJ?G (counsel de offlclo) Lo defend hlm (uS v
Clmeno, clLed ln bernas 317)
o lL ls essenLlal LhaL Lhe courL should asslgn one de oflclo lf he deslres
and lf h ls poor, and granL hlm a reasonable Llme Lo procure an
aLLorney of hls own.
o uenlal such rlghL would be sufflclenL cause for Lhe reversal of Lhe
case (uS v Seradoy, clLed ln 8ernas 318)
o Counsel de offlclo musL be a quallfled lawyer

resumpLlon of 8egularlLy
o 1here ls a presumpLlon LhaL Lhe courL dld Lhe sald acLs above
(people v Mlranda clLed ln bernas 320)

When rlghL aLLaches.(sayson v people clLed by 8ernas 321)
o 1lme of arralgnmenL
o before arralgnmenL, 8lghLs under arLlcle 12 shall apply Lo Lhe
accused

Cases where Lhere's no denlal of rlghL Lo counsel
o Lhe accused has proceeded wlLh Lhe arralgnmenL and Lhe Lrlal wlLh a
counsel of hls cholce buL when Lhe Llme for Lhe presenLaLlon of
evldence for Lhe defense has arrlved, he appears by hlmself alone


"#$%&'&(&'#$)* *)+ , -./'.+.- 0.)$ %.01-.2 ")$0.*)-') "-#34#$0% ,5667,56,
6,8
and Lhe absence of hls counsel was lnexcusable.(sayson v people
clLed by 8ernas 321)
o a counsel de offlclo was appolnLed durlng Lhe absence of Lhe
accused counsel de parLe pursuanL Lo Lhe courL's deslre Lo flnlsh Lhe
case as early as pracLlcable under conLlnuous Lrlal sysLem
o eLlLloner was represenLed by counsel de parLe aL Lhe arralgnmenL
and Lrlal, Lhe Lrlal courL could noL be deemed duLy-bound Lo appolnL
a counsel de offlclo for Lhe conLlnuaLlon of hls cross examlnaLlon

Walver of rlghL Lo counsel (8ernas 322-323)
o Accused sald he dld noL wanL a counsel (people v slm ben)
o Accused wenL Lo Lrlal alone and conducLed hls own defense afLer
belng ask lf he wanLed a counsel
o resumpLlon ls always agalnsL Lhe walver
o rosecuLlon musL prove wlLh sLrong evldence walver was made
wllllngly and volunLarlly
-9:;< <= >? 9@A=BC?DE
Cardlnal requlslLe: accused be lnformed of facLs LhaL are lmpuLed Lo hlm
(323)
o lnformaLlon musL descrlbe Lhe acL wlLh FGAA9H9?@< IJB<9HGKJB9<L
o 0?FHB9I<9M? Lerms used musL be FGAA9H9?@< 9@ Lhelr common and
ordlnary accepLaLlon Lo F;=N N9<; H?B<J9@<L Lo Lhe common
undersLandlng of lnLelllgenL men whaL Lhe properLy was and Lo fully
ldenLlfy lL
o OGJK9AL9@: H9BHGCF<J@H?F CGF< >? JKK?:?D
o 1he rlghL Lo assall Lhe sufflclency of Lhe lnformaLlon or Lhe
admlsslon of evldence CJL >? NJ9M?D by Lhe accused lf he AJ9KF <=
=>P?H< <= 9<F FGAA9H9?@HL DGB9@: <;? <B9JK J@D Lhe deflclency ls cured
by compeLenL evldence presenLed Lhereln
o $??D @=< JKK?:? <;? IB?H9F? <9C? of Lhe commlsslon of an offence,
unless Llme ls an essenLlal elemenL of Lhe crlme charged
o 1lme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense musL be alleged as near Lo
Lhe acLual daLe as Lhe lnformaLlon or complalnL wlll permlL (secLlon
11 8ule 110 rules of courL)
o uue process requlres LhaL noL only ;? QJHHGF?DR @??DF <= >?
9@A=BC?D he musL be J>K? <= G@D?BF<J@D whaL Lhe law commands
or prohlblLs (oLherwlse lLs vold for vagueness)
o 8lghL Lo sufflclenL lnformaLlon ls J B9:;< 9@ HB9C9@JK IB=H??D9@:F and
noL ln admlnlsLraLlve proceedlngs whlch only requlres LhaL Lhe
respondenL be glven Lhe opporLunlLy Lo be heard
An lnformaLlon flled musL conLaln all Lhe [valld] charges agalnsL Lhe
accused as lL ls Lhe rlghL of Lhe accused Lo be lnformed of Lhe naLure and
Lhe cause of accusaLlon agalnsL hlm (people v regala)
%I??DLS 9CIJB<9JK J@D IG>K9H <B9JK
8lghL Lo lmparLlal Lrlal ls noL a bar Lo a [udge's lnLervenLlon ln cross-
examlnaLlon (bernas, 326)
lL ls Lhe duLy of a Lrlal [udge Lo examlne wlLnesses when lL appears
necessary for Lhe elucldaLlon of Lhe record (8ernas 326)
uenlal of Lhe rlghL Lo speedy Lrlal shall enLlLle Lhe accused Lo Lhe dlsmlssal
of Lhe case flled agalnsL hlm (Conde v 8lvera)
WhaL Lhe consLlLuLlon prohlblLs are unreasonable delays (8ernas 327)
1hus lf delay was reasonable lL does noL vlolaLe rlghL Lo speedy Lrlal
o Absence of Lhe complalnanL due Lo medlcal reasons - reasonable
(eople v Clnes)
o lour days ln Lhe Lransmlsslon of appeal papers - reasonable
o War/llberaLlon - reasonable
o 1yphoon - [usLlfled
lf accused ralsed Lhe defense of denlal of speedy Lrlal only on appeal, lL's
deemed Lo have been walved
Walver or abandonmenL may be presumed only when Lhe posLponemenL
of Lhe Lrlal has been soughL and obLalned by Lhe accused hlmself or by hls
aLLorney
8emedy of an accused when Lhere's a vlolaLlon of rlghL Lo speedy Lrlal ls
dlsmlssal whlch ls equlvalenL Lo acqulLLal, Lhus double [eopardy applles or
habeas corpus lf deLalned
TG>K9H <B9JK


CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012
130
When anyone lnLeresLed ln observlng Lhe manner a [udge conducLs Lhe
proceedlngs ln hls courLroom may do so
LxcepLlon: general publlc may be excluded when Lhe evldence Lo be
presenLed ln Lhe proceedlng may be characLerlzed as offens|ve to decency
or pub||c mora|s.
o 8uL even ln such lnsLances Lhe consLlLuLlon demands LhaL Lhe
accused should be allowed aL leasL Lo have hls frlends,
relaLlves and counsel presenL, no maLLer wlLh whaL offense
he may be charged
8lghL ls a safeguard agalnsL any aLLempL Lo employ our courLs as
lnsLrumenLs of persecuLlon
k|ght to confrontat|on
8lghL Lo meeL Lhe wlLness face Lo face
1wo fold purpose
o Afford Lhe accused an opportun|ty to test Lhe LesLlmony of Lhe
wlLness by cross-examlnaLlon
o Secondarlly Lo a||ow the [udge to observe Lhe deporLmenL of Lhe
wlLness
A docLor who execuLes Lhe medlcal cerLlflcaLe musL be presenLed for cross
examlnaLlon (uS v Lorenzana from bernas 331)
AgreemenL beLween prosecuLlon and Lhe defense Lo Lhe effecL LhaL cerLaln
wlLnesses, lf presenLed, would LesLlfy Lo cerLaln facLs can deprlve Lhe
defendanL of Lhe rlghL of confronLaLlon ls noL compleLely dlsallowed
(8ernas 331, clLlng, us v uonaLo)
1esLlmony noL sub[ecL Lo cross examlnaLlon musL be excluded from
conslderaLlon
o LxcepLlon: when cross examlnaLlon was sLarLed, buL was noL
flnlshed, before w|tness can comeback he d|es. 1esLlmony
already made ls admlsslble (eople v Senerls, clLed ln 8ernas)
Lhe provlslon whlch allows Lhe sharla courL Lo render a declslon based on
an unexam|ned oath made by Lhe defendanL wlLhouL any oLher evldence,
den|es a party h|s r|ght to confront the w|tnesses aga|nst h|m and to
cross-exam|ne Lhem, Lhus lL ls a vlolaLlon of due process (1ampar v usman)
8lghL of confronLaLlon ls recognlzed dur|ng pre||m|nary |nvest|gat|on
proper (w/n Lo flle a case) buL noL durlng prellmlnary examlnaLlon (w/n
lssue warranL) ( Marlnas v slochl, clLed ln bernas)
Compu|sory process
1o esLabllsh Lhe rlghL Lo conLlnuance by reason of Lhe absence of wlLnesses Lhe
accused musL show [M-nAL]
1) 1haL Lhe wlLness ls really maLerlal,
2) 1haL he ls gullLy of no neglecL ln prevlously obLalnlng aLLendance of sald
wlLness,
3) 1haL Lhe wlLness wlll be avallable aL Lhe Llme deslred
4) 1haL no slmllar evldence could be obLaln
1he followlng are klnds of compulsory processes avallable Lo Lhe accused:
1. !"#$%&'( *"+&, -&+". - summon documenLs ln courL
2. !"#$%&'( (* -&,-/0/+('*". - summon wlLnesses Lo LesLlfy ln courL
3. Contempt - punlshmenL for dlsobedlence or dlshonor Lo Lhe courL, may be
dlrecL or lndlrecL
4. 8ench warrant - compels Lhe aLLendance ln courL of a key wlLness,
dlfferenL from an arresL or search warranL, Lhus, no need for probable
cause

Slnce a prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon can resulL ln arresL, Lhe accused should
noL be denled access Lo evldence favorable Lo hlm (Webb v ue Leon clLed
ln bernas 334)

1r|a| |n absent|a
Accused was so nolsy, dlsorderly and dlsrupLlve durlng Lhe Lrlal LhaL lL was
lmposslble for Lhe Lrlal Lo proceed. 1he [udge ordered accused Lo be
removed. SC sald he forfelLed hls rlghL Lo be presenL LhroughouL Lhe Lrlal
(llllnols v Allen, ClLed ln bernas 334)



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1 Claguer v MlllLary
Commlsslon
eLlLloners were charged wlLh consplracy Lo
assasslnaLe Lhe presldenL, Lo commlL rebelllon
among oLhers.
MlllLary Commlsslon no 34 was seL Lo Lry Lhelr
case.
eLlLloner conLesLed Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe
MlllLary over Lhem (clvlllans).

eLlLlon granLed
0G; H<A?;:: <;IG><;: =J9= ?>K>@>9B L; =<>;M >B 9
?AG<= AN H<AH;< OG<>:M>?=>AB P">K>@ ?AG<=Q
llfLlng of marLlal law, a mlllLary commlsslon or
Lrlbunal cannoL Lry and exerclse [urlsdlcLlon,
Same rule shall be applled ;K;B MG<>BR =J; H;<>AM
AN S9<=>9@ @9T over clvlllans for offenses allegedly
commlLLed by Lhem as long as Lhe ?>K>@ ?AG<=: 9<;
AH;B 9BM NGB?=>AB>BR,
any [udgemenL rendered by such body relaLlng Lo
a clvlllan ls null and vold for lack of [urlsdlcLlon on
parL of Lhe mlllLary Lrlbunal concerned
MlllLary courLs cannoL Lry
clvlllan cases even durlng
marLlal law lf clvll courLs are
open
2 uS v Lullng A law was passed saylng LhaL a parLlcular acL
shall consLlLuLe a prlma facle evldence of a
crlme.
Lullng was convlcLed under such law - sollclLlng.
Pe assalls Lhe valldlLy of such law clLlng LhaL lL
vlolaLes hls rlghL Lo be presumed lnnocenL.
Accused ls convlcLed
1he sLaLe has =J; HAT;< =A M;N>B; ?<>S;:U and Lo
H<AK>M; H<>S9 N9?>; ;K>M;B?; AN RG>@=.
8esldes prlma facle evldence can easlly be
rebuLLed by clear and convlnclng evldence.
Congress has Lhe power Lo
deflne whaL shall consLlLuLe
prlma facle evldence of gullL
for a crlme and such power
ls noL vlolaLlve of rlghL
agalnsL presumpLlon of
lnnocence
3 uumlao v Comelec A provlslon of law allowed Lhe M>:IG9@>N>?9=>AB AN
9 ?9BM>M9=; AB =J; R<AGBM 9@AB; =J9= ?J9<R;:
J9K; L;;B N>@;M 9R9>B:= J>S before a clvll or
mlllLary Lrlbunal.
eLlLloner challenged Lhe provlslon as lL vlolaLed
Lhe rlghL Lo be presumed lnnocenL.
eLlLlon granLed
BA M>:=>B?=>AB >: S9M; L;=T;;B 9 H;<:AB
?ABK>?=;M AN 9?=: AN M>:@AV9@=V 9BM AB; 9R9>B:=
TJAS ?J9<R;: J9K; L;;B N>@;M NA< :G?J 9?=:, as
boLh of Lhem would be lnellglble Lo run for publlc
offlce.
1hey are K><=G9@@V H@9?;M >B =J; :9S; ?9=;RA<V 9:
9 H;<:AB 9@<;9MV ?ABK>?=;M AN 9 ?<>S; T>=J =J;
H;B9@=V AN !""#$%&! whlch carrles wlLh lL Lhe
accessory penalLy of suspenslon of Lhe rlghL Lo
hold offlce durlng Lhe Lerm of Lhe senLence
1hls case does noL overrule Lullng, courL quallfles
LhaL ;@;?=>AB T9: B;9< 9BM =J;<; >: BA =>S; =A
<;LG= ;K>M;B?; (see bernas 311)
A law sLaLlng LhaL one shall
be dlsquallfled Lo run for
offlce on Lhe ground alone
LhaL charges have been flled
agalnsL hlm before Lhe
courL ls consldered as
vlolaLlve of Lhe rlghL Lo be
presumed lnnocenL


"#$%&'&(&'#$)* *)+ , -./'.+.- 0.)$ %.01-.2 ")$0.*)-') "-#34#$0% ,5667,56,
688
4 eople v Polgado uefendanL was charged wlLh sllghL lllegal
deLenLlon
Pe pleaded gullLy Lo lL wlLhouL asslsLance of legal
counsel.
1he lower courL rendered [udgmenL wlLhouL
conducLlng furLher Lrlal and Lhe [udge relled only
wlLh Lhe flndlngs of Lhe flscal.
ln 8ernas' commenLary (p322): Lhe courL asked
Lo Lhe accused lf uo you an aLLorney or are you
golng Lo plead gullLy?" ln whlch Lhe accused
replled: l have no a lawyer and l wlll plead
gullLy."
uue rocess was denled Lo Lhe accused - 9:;<=9>
?<9;@A BC A9DEFG
1here can be no falr hearlng unless Lhe accused
be glven Lhe opporLunlLy Lo be heard by counsel
$BF @:BHDE CBA FE@ IBHAF FB <GJ E9K wheLher or
noL he deslres Lhe ald of an aLLorney, buL lL ls
@GG@:F9<= FE<F FE@ IBHAF GEBH=> <GG9D: B:@ >@
BC9I9B 9C E@ >@G9A@G and lf hls poor, and granL hlm a
reasonable Llme Lo procure an aLLorney of hls
own.
1rlal CourL musL lnqulre as Lo Lhe Lrue lmporL of
Lhe quallfled plea of Lhe accussed.
llscal's sLaLemenL ls noL sufflclenL Lo overcome a
quallfled plea of Lhe accused

noL enough for Lhe courL Lo
ask hlm wheLher or noL he
deslres Lhe ald of an
aLLorney, buL lL ls essenLlal
LhaL Lhe courL should asslgn
one de oflclo lf he deslres
and lf h ls poor, and granL
hlm a reasonable Llme Lo
procure an aLLorney of hls
own.

3 eople v 8egala Accused was charged wlLh murder
Lhe lnformaLlon flled dld noL allege Lhe essenLlal
elemenLs of Lhe quallfylng clrcumsLance of
assaulL upon an agenL of a person ln auLhorlLy.
Lower CourL convlcLed Lhem of murder, upon
appeal courL ruled lL was only homlclde.
Accused acqulLLed
An lnformaLlon flled musL conLaln all Lhe charges
agalnsL Lhe accused as lL ls Lhe rlghL of Lhe
accused Lo be lnformed of Lhe naLure and Lhe
cause of accusaLlon agalnsL hlm.
An lnformaLlon flled musL
conLaln all Lhe charges
agalnsL Lhe accused as lL ls
Lhe rlghL of Lhe accused Lo
be lnformed of Lhe naLure
and Lhe cause of accusaLlon
agalnsL hlm.
6 Lnrlle v Salazar Lnrlle was arresLed afLer a falled coup aLLempL.
Pe was charged wlLh rebelllon wlLh murder and
mulLlple frusLraLed murder.
Pe flled a moLlon Lo quash slnce such a crlme
dld noL exlsL.
eLlLlon granLed
murder and frusLraLed murder are absorbed by
rebelllon Lhereby lL can'L be lncluded Lo complex
robbery.
So slnce Lhe lnformaLlon flled agalnsL accused
does noL exlsL, he musL be released.

1here should be valld
charge/lnformaLlon before
an accused can be
convlcLed/Lrled
7 Conde v 8lvera Aurella Conde, a former munlclpal mldwlfe ln
1ayabas, has had Lo answer Lo 3 lnformaLlons for
varlous crlmes,
She appeared wlLh wlLnesses and counsel 8
Llmes, requlred Lo come Lo Lhe SC 2 Llmes for
proLecLlon,
and now afLer one year slnce Lhe flllng of Lhe
flrsL lnformaLlon, ls farLher from a resoluLlon
Lhan when she flrsL sLarLed.
Accused acqulLLed
Accused has a rlghL Lo speedy Lrlal.
Where a prosecuLlng offlcer, wlLhouL good cause,
secures posLponemenLs of Lhe Lrlal of a defendanL
agalnsL hls proLesL beyond a reasonable perlod of
Llme, as ln Lhls lnsLance for more Lhan a year, Lhe
accused ls enLlLled Lo rellef by a proceedlng ln
mandamus Lo compel a dlsmlssal of Lhe
lnformaLlon, or lf he be resLralned of hls llberLy,
by habeas corpus Lo obLaln hls freedom.
uenlal of Lhe rlghL Lo
speedy Lrlal warranLs Lhe
dlsmlssal of Lhe case whlch
llkewlse glve rlse Lo double
[eopardy
8 eople v Clnes A complalnL was flled agalnsL respondenLs for
llbel.
eLlLlon dlsmlssed
Lhe absence of complalnanL were ln good falLh,
When delay was ln good
falLh and reasonable, lL


"#$%&'&(&'#$)* *)+ , -./'.+.- 0.)$ %.01-.2 ")$0.*)-') "-#34#$0% ,5667,56,
689
1rlal for llbel commenced, buL lL lncurred delays
because of Lhe non-appearance of complalnanL
due Lo medlcal reasons.
1he quesLlon here ls wheLher or noL Lhe
respondenL's rlghL Lo a speedy Lrlal was vlolaLed.
and
Lhe delay (8 and a half monLhs) was noL long
enough Lo consLlLuLe caprlclous and vexaLlous
delay.
8lghL Lo a speedy Lrlal ls relaLlve, sub[ecL Lo
reasonable and [usLlfled delays.
does noL consLlLuLe a denlal
of Lhe rlghL Lo speedy Lrlal
9 MaLeo !r v Pon
vlllaluz
Cne of Lhe accused ln Lhls case execuLed an
exLra-[udlclal sLaLemenL lmpllcaLlng hls co-
accused.
lL was sworn before Lhe presldlng [udge of Lhelr
case.
LaLer, sald accused wanLs Lo repudlaLe Lhe
sLaLemenL as lL was made as a resulL of a LhreaL
made by auLhorlLles.
Accused also clalm LhaL Lhe [udge ls noL lmparLlal
anymore slnce Lhey clalm LhaL slnce he was Lhe
one who flrsL ascerLalned LhaL Lhe sLaLemenL
made by Lhe accused was Lrue, he could noL
repudlaLe Lhls.
1here ls a blas ln favor of hls prevlous
deLermlnaLlon of Lhe LruLhfulness of Lhe
sLaLemenL, because he would pracLlcally
overrule hls oplnlon lf he decldes Lo repudlaLe
Lhe sLaLemenL.
eLlLlon granLed
SC sald LhaL A [udge musL lnhlblL hlmself lf Lhere ls
a confllcL of lnLeresL.
uue process requlres an lmparLlal and ob[ecLlve
!udge.
A [udge should aL all Llmes be wholly free,
dlslnLeresLed, lmparLlal and lndependenL.
A [udge has boLh Lhe duLy of renderlng Lhe
declslon and Lhe duLy of dolng lL ln a manner
compleLely free from susplclon as Lo lLs falrness
and as Lo lLs lnLegrlLy.
Aslde from (1) pecunlary lnLeresL, (2) relaLlonshlp,
or (3) prevlous parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe maLLer LhaL
calls for ad[udlcaLlon, Lhere may be oLher causes
LhaL could concelvably erode Lhe LralL of
ob[ecLlvlLy, Lhus calllng for lnhlblLlon.
ln Lhls case lL ls unllkely LhaL he was noL offended
by Lhe accused sudden LurnabouL wlLh hls
declaraLlon LhaL Lhere was lnLlmldaLlon by a
governmenL agenL.
Pls sense of falrness under Lhe clrcumsLances
could be easlly be blunLed. 8elng so, courL ls
pracLlcally saylng LhaL [udges are dlscouraged
from noLarlzlng documenLs lesL Lhey become parL
of Lhe proceedlngs he or she ls handllng.
!udge ls dlsquallfled from
hearlng a case where hls
ob[ecLlvlLy ln such case has
been/ could be eroded.


!udge should conducL a
careful self-examlnaLlon
and exerclse dlscreLlon ln a
way LhaL people's falLh ln
courL of [usLlce ls noL
lmpalred
10 1ampar v usman ln Lhls case, peLlLloner flled a case Lo annul a
deed of sale.
ursuanL Lo Lhe Sharl'a 8ules of courL, lf Lhere's
no wlLness or oLher evldence, defendanL can [usL
Lake an oaLh
and Lhe courL can rule based on LhaL oaLh. 1haL's
whaL happened here.
eLlLlon granLed
SC sald LhaL Lhe provlslon whlch allows Lhe sharla
courL Lo render a declslon based on an
unexamlned oaLh made by Lhe defendanL wlLhouL
any oLher evldence, denles a parLy hls rlghL Lo
confronL Lhe wlLnesses agalnsL hlm and Lo cross-
examlne Lhem, Lhus lL ls a vlolaLlon of due process
An oaLh cannoL be used as
evldence unless lL ls sub[ecL
Lo a cross-examlne by Lhe
opposlng parLy
11 Carredo v eople 1he accused execuLed a walver sLaLlng LhaL
wlLnesses may ldenLlfy hlm durlng hls absence ln
eLlLlon denled
when Lhere's a walver of appearance and ln
Walver of rlghL Lo appear
does noL deprlve Lhe courL


"#$%&'&(&'#$)* *)+ , -./'.+.- 0.)$ %.01-.2 ")$0.*)-') "-#34#$0% ,5667,56,
689
Lhe Lrlal.
WlLh LhaL walver accused dld noL appear ln courL
durlng Lrlal.
Cn one occaslon, prosecuLlon wanLed Lhe
accused Lo appear ln Lrlal so LhaL he may be
ldenLlfled by a wlLness. 1he courL lssued a
subpoena agalnsL accused. A
accused dld noL appear and courL and Lhus was
arresLed.
Accused laLer challenge Lhe arresL saylng LhaL he
walved hls rlghL Lo appear ln courL Lhus noL
requlrlng hlm Lo do so.
Lrlal !" $%&'"(!$ - accused can sLlll be compelled
Lo appear by Lhe courL for purpose of
ldenLlflcaLlon by Lhe wlLness for lL ls hls duLy Lo
Lhe courLs Lo do so whlch he cannoL walve.
Such excepLlon can only made lf Lhe accused
unquallfledly admlLs ln open courL afLer hls
arralgnmenL LhaL he ls Lhe person named as
defendeanL ln Lhe case on Lrlal," no more no less.
lL ls noL Lhe case here because whaL he only sald ls
LhaL he can be ldenLlfled by a wlLness when he's
absenL.
Lo compel Lhe accused Lo
fulflll hls duLy Lo Lhe courL,
l.e. Lo appear and be
ldenLlfled by wlLness.
lf he really does noL wanL Lo
appear he musL
:;<:=>?@?AB>C =BD?E EF=E
AGAHC E?DA = I?E;AJJ
DA;E?K;J = ;=DA LC IF?MF
FA ?J N;KI;O Lhe wlLness ls
Lo be undersLood as
referrlng Lo hlm

!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,


689
$:;<=>? 6@
%A. B-&/&).C. "1 %A. +-&% "1 A(4.($ !"-B'$ $A()) #"% 4. $'$B.#0.0 .D!.B%
&# !($.$ "1 &#/($&"# "- -.4.))&"# +A.# %A. B'4)&! $(1.%2 -.E'&-.$ &%
"#$% &' ()*+), -&#./,
0% $, 1+'$2+1 ), ) 3#$% 1$#+-%+1 %& %4+ .+#,&2 1+%)$2$25 )2&%4+#6
-&77)21$25 4$7 %& .#&1/-+ %4+ *&18 &' %4+ .#$,&2+# )% ) 1+,$52)%+1 %$7+
)21 .9)-+6 3$%4 %4+ 1)8 )21 -)/,+ &' 4$, -).%$&2 )21 1+%+2%$&26 %& 1&6
,/*7$% %&6 )21 #+-+$:+ 34)%+:+# %4+ -&/#% &# ;/15+ )3)#1$25 %4+ 3#$% ,4)99
-&2,$1+# $2 %4)% *+4)9'< =4+2-+6 )2 +,,+2%$)9 #+>/$,$%+ '&# %4+ ):)$9)*$9$%8 &'
%4+ 3#$% $, )-%/)9 1+.#$:)%$&2 &' .+#,&2)9 9$*+#%8? =*+#2), .#$7+# @AB?
C#$:$9+5+ &' %4+ 3#$% &' 4)*+), -&#./, =*+#2), .#$7+# @AD?
E$54% %& 4):+ )2 $77+1$)%+ 1+%+#7$2)%$&2 &' %4+ 9+5)9$%8 &' %4+
1+.#$:)%$&2 &' .48,$-)9 9$*+#%8
"4)% $, ,/,.+21+1 $, %4+ .#$:$9+5+ )21 2&% %4+ 3#$%
0% $, %4+ .#+,$1+2% 34& ,/,.+21,
E+>/$,$%+ '&# ,/,.+2,$&2 =*+#2), .#$7+# @AD?
@< FG$,%+2-+ &' )-%/)9 $2:),$&2 &# #+*+99$&2
H< C/*9$- ,)'+%8 #+>/$#+, %4+ ,/,.+2,$&2


CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012


137
Sect|on 16
ALL LkSCNS SnALL nAVL 1nL kIGn1 1C A SLLD DISCSI1ICN CI
1nLIk CASLS 8LICkL ALL IUDICIAL, UASI-IUDICIAL Ck
ADMINIS1kA1IVL 8CDILS
Speedy D|spos|t|on of Cases:
1hls provlslon covers Lhe perlods before, durlng, and afLer Lrlal
lL glves a broader proLecLlon Lhan SecLlon 14 whlch guaranLees merely Lhe
rlghL Lo a speedy Lrlal
1hls provlslon applles Lo all clvll, crlmlnal, and admlnlsLraLlve cases
lL also applles Lo all [udlclal or quasl-[udlclal proceedlngs
"Speedy" as a ke|at|ve and I|ex|b|e 1erm
1he concepL of speedy dlsposlLlon" such as speedy Lrlal" ls relaLlve and
musL necessarlly be flexlble
lL ls conslsLenL wlLh reasonab|e de|ay
ln deLermlnaLlon of wheLher or noL Lhe rlghL has been vlolaLed, Lhe
followlng facLors may be consldered and balanced (Culanl v.
Sandlganbayan)
1. LengLh of delay
2. 8eason for Lhe delay
3. AsserLlon of Lhe rlghL or fallure Lo asserL lL
4. re[udlce caused by Lhe delay
roper remedy: MANDAMUS
1he remedy for vlolaLlon of Lhe rlghL Lo a speedy dlsposlLlon of a case ls
dlsmlssal Lhrough !"#$"!%&





Case Law
Gu|an| v. Sand|ganbayan
Iacts: Culanl and oLher offlclals of CoLabaLo and uWP-A8MM were accused of grafL and corrupLlon. A
complalnL was lnsLlLuLed ln 1992 buL lnformaLlons were flled only ln 1998. ln 1999, Culanl eL. al. assalled
LhaL Lhelr rlghL under ArL. lll Sec. 16 was vlolaLed by Lhe delay.
ne|d]kat|o: 1helr rlghL was noL vlolaLed. SecLlon 16 prohlblLs vexaLlous, caprlclous and oppresslve
delays. 1here was no such klnd of delay ln Lhe case aL hand. Aslde from Lhe lengLh of Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon,
Lhe delay was also caused by Lhe excesslve lengLh of Llme lL Look before Culanl eL.al. were able Lo flle
Lhelr counLer-affldavlLs. Also, lL would appear LhaL Lhe peLlLloners, by asserLlng Lhelr rlghL only ln 1999,
lmplledly acqulesced ln Lhe delay ln Lhe proceedlngs
Doctr|nes:
vlolaLlons of Lhls secLlon musL be Laken ln a case-Lo-case basls (wlLh regard Lo Lhe
facLs and clrcumsLances presenL)
1he rlghL under Lhls provlslon ls vlolaLed only when Lhe delay ls '()"*+,%&-
/"01+/+,%&- and ,001(&&+'(
1hls rlghL may be walved ()01(&&23 or +!02+($23

!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,


689
$:;<=>? 6@
#" A.-$"# $B()) 4. !"3A.)).0 %" 4. ( +&%#.$$ (C(&#$%
B&3$.)1
-=DE< (DF=?G< $:HI7&?;J=K=?F<=>?L
!usLlflcaLlon of Lhe guaranLee (u.S. v. navarro)
o ubllc pollcy: lf Lhe parLy where requlred Lo LesLlfy, lL would place
Lhe wlLness under Lhe sLrongesL LempLaLlon Lo commlL per[ury
o PumanlLy: lL would prevenL Lhe exLorLlng of confesslons by duress
urpose
o rohlblL compulsory oral examlnaLlon of prlsoner before Lrlal, or
upon Lrlal, for Lhe purpose of exLorLlng unwllllng confesslons or
declaraLlons lmpllcaLlng Lhem ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme
(u.S. v. 1an 1eng)
o Also covers Lhe facL LhaL an accused may noL be forced Lo creaLe
evldence LhaL wlll lmpllcaLe hlmself (8elLran v. Samson)
Who deLermlnes wheLher or noL a quesLlon ls lncrlmlnaLlng?
o Answer: 1he CourL
!>KMNHG=>? <> O6P %FQ: <E: R=<?:GG G<F?S >J <> O,P (?GR:J F? =?;J=K=?F<=?D
N:G<=>?
1aklng Lhe
WlLness
SLand
*1aklng Lhe
WlLness SLand ln
a !J=K=?FH !FG:
Answer an
lncrlmlnaLlng
CuesLlon
Accused CAn 8L
CCMLLLLu
CAnnC1 8L
CCMLLLLu
(Chavez v. CA)
CAnnC1 8L
CCMLLLLu
WlLness CAn 8L
CCMLLLLu
CAn 8L
CCMLLLLu
CAnnC1 8L
CCMLLLLu
* wlLh an excepLlon subsLanLlaLed ln Lhe nexL secLlon
Can also be applled ln admlnlsLraLlve proceedlngs parLaklng Lhe naLure of a
crlmlnal proceedlng or analogous Lo a crlmlnal proceedlng (e.g. Cabal v.
kapunan !r. - I>JI:=<NJ: >I MJ>M:J<T, ascual !r. v. 8oard of Medlcal Lxamlners -
J:U>;F<=>? >I H=;:?G:)

#>< (VG>HN<:
lL does noL prohlblL every form of prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon
o rellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon ls ofLen Lhe only means of dlscoverlng
Lhe persons who may be reasonably charged wlLh a crlme so as Lo
enable Lhe flscal Lo prepare hls complalnL or lnformaLlon"
1he guaranLee does noL prohlblL a parLy llLlganL from uslng hls adversary as
a wlLness when Lhe case ls noL a crlmlnal case where Lhe lnLended wlLness
ls Lhe accused hlmself
lf a subpoena was lssued by Lhe SenaLe Lo lssue querles !" $!% &'
()*!+($,!&"- Lhe wlLness (even lf accused ln a crlmlnal case) may be
compelled Lo Lake Lhe wlLness sLand even lf whaL ls Lo be asked ls relaLed
Lo Lhe crlmlnal case
o Powever, Lhey may sLlll lnvoke Lhe rlghL lf Lhey flnd LhaL Lhe
quesLlon lssued Lo Lhem ls lncrlmlnaLlng
+E:? <> JF=G: <E: MJ=U=H:D:
8efore Laklng Lhe
wlLness sLand
8efore answerlng an
lncrlmlnaLlng
quesLlon
Accused ln a
crlmlnal case
W
Accused noL ln a
crlmlnal case
W
WlLness W

AJ>E=V=<=>? S>:G ?>< MJ:;HNS: F V>ST ;E:;Q7NMX K:;EF?=;FH F;<G
SubsLance emlLLlng from Lhe body of Lhe defendanL was recelved as
evldence ln a prosecuLlon for a rape case (u.S. v. 1an 1eng)
Morphlne forced ouL of Lhe mouLh of Lhe accused was recelved as
evldence (u.S. v. Cng Sul Pong)
regnancy LesL ls noL a vlolaLlon of Lhe rlghL agalnsL self-lncrlmlnaLlon as
long as lL ls noL done wlLh LorLure or force (vlllaflor v. Summers)
BF?SRJ=<=?D
WrlLlng ls noL a purely mechanlcal acL, because lL requlres Lhe
appllcaLlon of Lhe lnLelllgence and aLLenLlon
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,


689
o lorclng someone Lo furnlsh a speclmen of hls handwrlLlng ls
equal Lo compelllng a person Lo produce a documenL whlch ls a
vlolaLlon of Lhls rlghL - :;< =>:?<@@ >@ A<BC>A<D :E FCA?>@;
<G>D<?H< IJI>?@: ;>K@<LF
+I>G<A EF A>J;:
When a person volunLarlly answers an lncrlmlnaLlng quesLlon, he ls
deemed Lo have walved hls rlghL
uenlal on Lhe parL of Lhe accused when lL was sald LhaL lL was she who
wroLe on Lhe documenLs !"#$ &"' consLlLuLe a walver and Lherefore
cannoL be requlred Lo produce a sample of her handwrlLlng (8ermudez
v. CasLlllo)
0EHCK<?:@ I?D A<HEAD@
1he rlghL agalnsL self-lncrlmlnaLlon covers documenLary evldence
1hls rlghL ls a personal one - Lhus applylng only Lo a naLural person
o Pence, a corporaLlon may be compelled Lo submlL Lo Lhe
vlslLorlal powers of Lhe sLaLe even lf Lhls resulLs ln dlsclosure of
crlmlnal acLs of Lhe corporaLlon

































CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012


140

Case
Number
Case Name Iacts kat|o Doctr|ne
1 "#$# %# &'%'(() *+,+-.'-/0 1+(+ 2)-%32/+. ), 344+5'4
.+/+-/3)- 6-.+( 7(/# 89: ), /;+ <+-'4
2).+ )-4= >+2'60+ /;+= .3. -)/ (+4'=
'-= 3-,)(?'/3)- (+5'(.3-5 /;+
1;+(+'>)6/0 ), /;+ <+(0)- /;+=
.+/'3-+. -)( +%3.+-2+ /;'/ /;+=
'2/6'44= (+4+'0+. 062; <+(0)-# @, /;+=
(+4'=+. 062; 3-,)(?'/3)-A /;+= 1)64.
>+ <()0+26/+. 6-.+( 7(/# 89BC435;/+(
<+-'4/=D# *)+0 /;30 %3)4'/+ /;+ (35;/
'5'3-0/ 0+4, 3-2(3?3-'/3)-E
F+0# G()%3.3-5 062; 3-,)(?'/3)-
(+H63(+. ), /;+? 1)64. >+
/'-/'?)6-/ /) 3-2(3?3-'/3-5
/;+?0+4%+0# 1he exerc|se of a r|ght
cannot form part of a cr|me.
72260+. ?'= -)/ >+ 2)?<+44+. /) (+4'=
3-,)(?'/3)- /;'/ 2)64. 3-2(3?3-'/+ ;3?0+4,
2 "#$# %# I'- I+-5 *+,+-.'-/ '(56+0 /;'/ ' 06>0/'-2+
/'J+- )6/ ), ;30 >).= 30 3-'.?3003>4+
'0 +%3.+-2+ '5'3-0/ ;3? 3- ' ('<+ 2'0+#
7(56?+-/ /+-'>4+E
&)# K;'/ 30 <();3>3/+. 30 ?)('4 )(
<;=032'4 2)?<6403)- /) +L/)(/ ora|
test|mon|es /;'/ 2)64. 3-2(3?3-'/+
)-+0+4,#
"03-5 06>0/'-2+0 +?3//+. ,()? '-
'2260+.M0 >).= '0 +%3.+-2+ '5'3-0/ ;3? 30
-)/ ' %3)4'/3)- ), ;30 (35;/ '5'3-0/ 0+4,
3-2(3?3-'/3)-#
3 "#$# %# N-5 $63 O)-5 *+,+-.'-/ '(56+0 /;'/ ?)(<;3-+
/'J+- )6/ ), ;30 >).= 30 3-'.?3003>4+
'0 +%3.+-2+ '5'3-0/ ;3?# 7(56?+-/
/+-'>4+E
&)# $++ "#$# %# I'- I+-5 $++ "#$# %# I'- I+-5
4 P344',4)( %# $6??+(0 *+,+-.'-/ '(56+0 /;'/ 2)?<+443-5 ;+(
/) .) ' <(+5-'-2= /+0/ 30 /'-/'?)6-/
/) ' %3)4'/3)- /) ;+( (35;/ '5'3-0/ 0+4,
3-2(3?3-'/3)-E 7(56?+-/ /+-'>4+E
&)# Q+//3-5 )-+0+4, 5) /;()65; '
<(+5-'-2= /+0/ .)+0 -)/ '?)6-/ /)
2(+'/3-5 +%3.+-2+ '5'3-0/ )-+0+4,# @/ 30
' <6(+4= ?+2;'-32'4 '2/#
7- )264'( 3-0<+2/3)- ), /;+ >).= 30 '44)1+.
'0 4)-5 /)(/6(+ )( ,)(2+ 30 '%)3.+.#
S R+4/('- %# $'?0)- I;+ 2)6(/ )(.+(+. /;+ '2260+. /)
,6(-30; /;+? ' 2)<= ), ;30 ;'-.1(3/3-5
0) /;'/ 3/ ?'= >+ 2)?<'(+. /) /;+
'44+5+. ,'403,3+. .)26?+-/0 '02(3>+.
/) ;3?# 744)1'>4+E
&)# S6(-30;3-5 )-+M0 ;'-.1(3/3-5 30
-)/ ' <6(+4= ?+2;'-32'4 '2/ '0 3/
3-%)4%+0 /;+ '<<432'/3)- ),
3-/+4435+-2+ '-. '//+-/3)-# @, .)-+A 3/
1)64. <().62+ +%3.+-2+ '5'3-0/ /;+
'2260+.#
7- '2260+. ?'= -)/ >+ 2)?<+44+. /)
,6(-30; +%3.+-2+ /;'/ ?'= >+ 60+. /)
3-2(3?3-'/+ ;3?#
6 R+(?6.+T %# U'0/344) 72260+. .+-3+. /;'/ /;+ +%3.+-2+
<(+0+-/+. 3- 2)6(/ 1'0 1(3//+- >= ;+(#
I;60A 0;+ 1'0 '0J+. /) 1(3/+ 0) /;'/
;+( ;'-.1(3/3-5 ?'= >+ 2)?<'(+. /)
/;+ )-+ 3- /;+ 4+//+(0# $;+ (+,60+. /)
.) 0)# G()<+( (+,60'4E

F+0# @, 0;+ 1(3/+0 '-. 3/ 30 ,)6-. )6/
/) >+ /;+ 0'?+ '0 /;+ ;'-.1(3/3-5 3-
/;+ 4+//+(A 0;+ 1)64. ;'%+ >++-
,)6-. 5634/= ), /;+ 2(3?+ ), <+(V6(=#
7 2)-0/3/6/3)-'4 (35;/ 0;)64. >+ 43>+('44=
2)-0/(6+. 3- ,'%)( ), /;+ )-+ '00+(/3-5 3/#
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,


686
9 Chavez v. CA A [udge compelled Lhe accused Lo Lake
Lhe wlLness sLand ln a crlmlnal case.
Allowable?
no. An accused ln a crlmlnal case ls
afforded a dlfferenL Ller of proLecLlon.
Pe may refuse Lo Lake Lhe sLand
alLogeLher.
ln a crlmlnal case, an accused may noL be
compelled Lo Lake Lhe wlLness sLand Lo
LesLlfy.
: Cabal v. kapunan Accused was charged wlLh a vlolaLlon
of 8A 3019 (AnLl-CrafL and CorrupL
racLlces). Pe was compelled Lo be a
wlLness for hls accuser. When he
falled Lo appear, he was clLed ln
conLempL. roper?
no. lf convlcLed for Lhe charge agalnsL
hlm, lL would resulL Lo forfelLure of
hls properLy. 1hls amounLs Lo a
penalLy whlch makes Lhe proceedlngs
crlmlnal ln naLure. Clven Lhls, he may
noL be compelled Lo Lake Lhe wlLness
sLand Lo LesLlfy.
Whenever a penalLy ls presenL, Lhe
proceedlngs parLake of a crlmlnal naLure.
Clven Lhls, Lhe accused may noL be
compelled Lo Lake Lhe wlLness sLand.
; ascual !r. v. 8oard of Lxamlners Accused was charged wlLh
malpracLlce. Pe was compelled Lo be a
wlLness. Powever, Lhe courL granLed a
prellmlnary ln[uncLlon upon Lhe
former's requesL. roper?
?es. 8evocaLlon of a llcense may also
be consldered a penalLy. 1he docLrlne
lald down ln Cabal v. kapunan may be
applled ln Lhls case.
See Cabal v. kapunan
65 SLandard CharLered v. SenaLe Lnrlle lssued subpoenas Lo compel
several accused ln a pendlng crlmlnal
case Lo answer Lhe senaLe's querles !"
$!% &' ()*!+($,!&" whlch are relaLed Lo
Lhe sald pendlng case- vlolaLlve of
Lhelr rlghL agalnsL self-lncrlmlnaLlon?
no. 1helr LesLlmonles ln Lhe senaLe
are noL parL of any crlmlnal
proceedlng. Powever, Lhey may sLlll
lnvoke Lhe rlghL lf lncrlmlnaLlng
quesLlons are asked.
Accused ln a pendlng crlmlnal case may sLlll
be compelled Lo answer senaLe's querles ln
ald of leglslaLlon even lf Lhe quesLlons are
relaLed Lo Lhe pendlng case. Powever, Lhls
does noL preclude Lhe rlghL Lo ob[ecL lf an
lncrlmlnaLlng quesLlon ls asked.










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142

Sect|on 18
NC LkSCN SnALL 8L DL1AINLD SCLLL 8 kLASCN CI nIS CLI1ICAL 8LLILIS AND
ASIkA1ICNS.
NC INVCLUN1Ak SLkVI1UDL IN AN ICkM SnALL LkIS1 LkCL1 AS A UNISnMLN1
ICk A CkIML WnLkLCI 1nL Ak1 SnALL nAVL 8LLN DUL CCNVIC1LD.
Sect|on 19
LkCLSSIVL IINLS SnALL NC1 8L IMCSLD, NCk CkULL, DLGkADING Ck INnUMAN
UNISnMLN1 INILIC1LD. NLI1nLk SnALL 1nL DLA1n LNAL1 8L IMCSLD, UNLLSS,
ICk CCMLLLING kLASCNS INVCLVING nLINCUS CkIMLS, 1nL CCNGkLSS
nLkLAI1Lk kCVIDLS ICk I1. AN DLA1n LNAL1 ALkLAD IMCSLD SnALL 8L
kLDUCLD 1C !"#$%&'() +"!+",%-.
1nL LMLCMLN1 CI nSICAL, SCnCLCGICAL, Ck DLGkADING UNISnMLN1
AGAINS1 AN kISCNLk Ck DL1AINLL, Ck 1nL USL CI SU8S1ANDAkD Ck
INADLUA1L LNAL IACILI1ILS UNDLk SU8nUMAN CCNDI1ICNS SnALL 8L DLAL1
WI1n 8 LAW.
"Crue|, degrad|ng or |nhuman":
1o come under Lhe ban, Lhe punlshmenL musL be flagranLly and plalnly
oppresslve," wholly dlsproporLlonaLe Lo Lhe naLure of Lhe offense as Lo
shock Lhe moral sense of Lhe communlLy" (eople v. LsLolsLa)
lnvolves LorLure or llngerlng deaLh
ena|ty const|tut|ona| but "excess|ve"
1here are lnsLances where ln Lhe penalLy for a cerLaln crlme ls generally
proporLlonaLe buL excesslve" lf cerLaln facLs and clrcumsLances are
changed.
ln such slLuaLlons, Lhe courL musL sLlll lmpose such penalLy buL wlLh
recommendaLlon for execuLlve clemency (eople v. LsLolsLa)
Death ena|ty
1he 1987 ConsLlLuLlon does noL ban Lhe lmposlLlon of Lhe deaLh penalLy, lL
merely suspended lL
o lLs framers have lefL Lhe dlscreLlon Lo Lhe leglslaLure Lo resLore lL lf
Lhey flnd compelllng reasons lnvolvlng helnous crlmes"
1hls ls noL cruel and unusual"
o lL only becomes such lf Lhe penalLy lnvolves torture and ||nger|ng
death
ne|nous Cr|mes
ueflned under 8.A. 7639 (ueaLh enalLy Law)
Crlmes are helnous for belng grlevous, odlous, and haLeful offenses and
whlch, by reason of Lhelr lnherenL or manlfesL wlckedness, vlclousness,
aLroclLy and perverslLy are repugnanL and ouLrageous Lo Lhe common
sLandards and norms of decency and morallLy ln a [usL, clvlllzed and
ordered socleLy"
ower to restore the Death ena|ty
uoes noL fall wlLhln Lhe plenary power of Lhe Congress: lL ls sub[ecL Lo a
clear showlng of 'compelllng reasons lnvolvlng helnous crlmes'"
LnLalls Lhe followlng (eople v. Lchegaray)
1. 1haL Lhe Congress musL deflne whaL ls meanL by helnous crlmes
2. 1haL Lhe Congress musL speclfy and penallze by deaLh, only crlmes
LhaL quallfy as helnous ln accordance wlLh Lhe deflnlLlon or
descrlpLlon seL ln Lhe deaLh penalLy blll and/or deslgnaLe crlmes
punlshable by !"#$%&'() +"!+",%- Lo deaLh ln whlch laLLer case,
deaLh can only be lmposed upon the attendance of
c|rcumstances du|y proven |n court that character|ze the cr|mes
to be he|nous ln accordance wlLh Lhe deflnlLlon seL ln Lhe deaLh
penalLy blll
3. 1haL Congress, ln enacLlng such law, be moLlvaLed by 'compelllng
reasons lnvolvlng helnous crlmes'



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143
Case Law
(1) eop|e v. Lsto|sta
Iacts: uefendanL ln Lhls case accldenLally shoL one of Lhelr laborers. Pe was subsequenLly convlcLed
wlLh lllegal ossesslon of llrearms whlch lnvolves Lhe punlshmenL of lmprlsonmenL of 3-10 years.
uefendanL clalms LhaL lL ls cruel.
ne|d]kat|o: Such penalLy ls noL cruel glven Lhe rampanL lawlessness dlrecLed Lowards people, properLy,
and even Lhe governmenL dlrecLly Lraceable Lo Lhe promlscuous carrylng of such powerful weapons.
Powever, glven LhaL Lhere ls a lower degree of mallce on Lhe parL of Lhe defendanL, Lhe courL
recommends for execuLlve clemency Lo shorLen Lhe punlshmenL.
Doctr|ne:
lf a penalLy appears Lo be excesslve" afLer Laklng lnLo conslderaLlon Lhe unlque facLs and
clrcumsLances of a cerLaln case, lL cannoL be ouLrlghL consldered unconsLlLuLlonal lf lL ls noL
shown LhaL such punlshmenL ls cruel and unusual."
ln such evenLs, whaL musL be done ls a recommendaLlon from Lhe courL LhaL Lhe power of
execuLlve clemency be uLlllzed.
(2) eop|e v. Lchegaray
Iacts: Lchegaray was convlcLed for rape quallfled by relaLlonshlp afLer raplng hls daughLer. 1he deaLh
penalLy was subsequenLly lmposed on hlm as punlshmenL for commlLLlng Lhe crlme. Pe alleged Lwo
Lhlngs: (1) LhaL Lhe deaLh penalLy law ls unconsLlLuLlonal, and (2) LhaL Lhe deaLh penalLy ls cruel,
degradlng, and lnhuman.
ne|d]kat|o: 1he ueaLh enalLy Law ls noL unconsLlLuLlonal as lL followed Lhe Lhree requlremenLs
lmposed by Lhe consLlLuLlon Lo valldly resLore Lhe deaLh penalLy (as seen above). Also, Lhe SC sald LhaL
Lhe deaLh penalLy ls noL cruel, degradlng, and lnhuman as lL does noL lnvolve LorLure noL llngerlng deaLh.
Doctr|ne: 1he deaLh penalLy, by lLself, ls noL cruel, degradlng no lnhuman as lL does noL
lnvolve LorLure and llngerlng deaLh.
Sect|on 20
NC LkSCN SnALL 8L IMkISCNLD ICk DL81 Ck NCN-AMLN1 CI A CLL 1Ak.
Coverage of "Debt"
no person may be lmprlsoned for debL ln vlrLue of an order ln a clvll
proceedlng, elLher as a subsLlLuLe for saLlsfacLlon of a debL or as a means
of compelllng saLlsfacLlon
!" $%&'()$'* +from a conLracL)
What |s not covered?
A person may be lmprlsoned as a pena|ty for a cr|me arlslng from a
conLracLual debL and lmposed ln a proper crlmlnal proceedlng
!" ,-./$'% (from a LorL)
o|| 1ax
A poll Lax may also be undersLood as Lhe $-,*.) ')" or resldence Lax
1he ConsLlLuLlon does noL prohlblL Lhe $-,*.) ')" buL lL prohlblLs
lmprlsonmenL for non-paymenL of Lhe cedula or resldence Lax.
Case Law
Lozano v. Mart|nez
Iacts: 1hls case lnvolves a consolldaLlon of 8 peLlLlons all assalllng Lhe consLlLuLlonallLy of 8 22
(8ounclng Checks Law). 1he maln conLenLlon of Lhe peLlLloners ls LhaL such law, by lmposlng a penalLy of
lmprlsonmenL for lLs vlolaLors, vlolaLes Lhe rlghL Lo non-lmprlsonmenL for fallure Lo pay a debL.
ne|d]kat|o: 1he SC dld noL accepL Lhe conLenLlon of Lhe peLlLloners. 1he gravamen of Lhe offense ls noL
Lhe non-paymenL of a debL buL Lhe puLLlng lnLo clrculaLlon of a worLhless check whlch ls deemed as a
publlc nulsance.
Doctr|ne: WhaL are covered by Lhe consLlLuLlonal guaranLee are debLs -" $%&'()$'* and noL Lhose -"
,-./$'%.


CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012


144
Sect|on 21
NC LkSCN SnALL 8L 1WICL U1 IN ILCAkD CI UNISnMLN1 ICk 1nL SAML
CIILNSL. II AN AC1 IS UNISnLD 8 A LAW AND AN CkDINANCL, CCNVIC1ICN Ck
ACUI11AL UNDLk LI1nLk SnALL CCNS1I1U1L A 8Ak 1C ANC1nLk kCSLCU1ICN
ICk 1nL SAML AC1.
IIkS1 Ak1: Same Cffense: !" $%&'"( ')*++ ,% -./0% $1- /( 2%"$*&34 "5 $1(/')6%(-
5"& -)% '*6% "55%('%
kequ|s|tes for the App||cat|on of Doub|e Ieopardy
1. A flrsL [eopardy musL have aLLached prlor Lo Lhe second (!"#$! &"'($)*+)
2. 1he flrsL [eopardy musL have LermlnaLed (,")-./$,.'/)
3. 1he second [eopardy musL be for Lhe same offense as LhaL ln Lhe flrsL
(.*"/,.,+ '0 '00"/1"7
1. kequ|s|tes for the Attachment of Lega| Ieopardy (eople v. ?lagan)
a) upon a valld lndlcLmenL/complalnL
b) 8efore a compeLenL courL wlLh [urlsdlcLlon
c) AfLer arralgnmenL
d) AfLer plea
2. Instances of 1erm|nat|on
a) AcqulLLal - when Lhe case ls LermlnaLed upon Lhe merlLs of Lhe lssue (e.g. gullL noL
proven beyond reasonable doubL)
b) llnAL ConvlcLlon - accused gullL ls proven and Lhere ls no more opporLunlLy for
appeal
c) ulsmlssal wlLhouL express consenL of Lhe accused - dlsmlssal on any ground
LhaL does noL declde Lhe merlLs of Lhe case, Lhere should be no consenL on Lhe parL
of Lhe accused (e.g. lack of [urlsdlcLlon)
d) ulsmlssal" on Lhe merlLs - mosL common example ls dlsmlssal on Lhe ground of
denlal of Lhe &/8)- -" * '$%%34 -&/*+
D|sm|ssa|
MusL be done by Lhe [udge ln wrlLlng
A mere verbal dlsmlssal ls noL flnal unLll .&/--%( and '/8(%3 by Lhe [udge
3. Ident|ty of Cffense
a) Cne CllLnSL ls ldenLlcal Lo anoLher
*noLe: when Lhe same seL of acts consLlLuLe Lwo or more offenses
dlsLlncLly punlshed by Lhe law, LermlnaLlon of elLher one does noL bar
prosecuLlon for anoLher (eople v. 1lozon - lllegal ossesslon of llrearms under a
speclal law and Pomlclde/Murder under Lhe 8C)
b) Cne ls an (a) aLLempL or (b) frusLraLlon of Lhe oLher
c) Cne (a) necessarlly lncludes or (b) ls necessarlly lncluded ln Lhe oLher

Superven|ng Iact
When afLer Lhe flllng of Lhe flrsL lnformaLlon, a superven|ng fact Lakes
place and changes Lhe characLer of Lhe crlme charged, amendlng Lhe
lnformaLlon would noL consLlLuLe a vlolaLlon of double [eopardy (Melo v.
eople)
o 1he second crlme musL noL have been ln exlsLence when Lhe flrsL
lnformaLlon was flled
o L.g. Death of the v|ct|m changes Lhe characLer of homlclde from
frusLraLed Lo consummaLed
1o be accepLed as a supervenlng facL LhaL creaLes an excepLlon, lL musL noL
have been presenL durlng Lhe flllng of Lhe flrsL lnformaLlon
o lf Lhe dlscovery of such facL (presence of a fracLure whlch changes
Lhe characLer of Lhe crlme) was [usL 3%+*4%3 due Lo Lhe
lncompeLence of a docLor, double [eopardy wlll aLLach (eople v.
8ullng)
SLCCND Ak1: Crd|nance and Statute: 95 *( *0- /' $1(/')%3 ,4 * +*. *(3 *(
"&3/(*(0%: 0"(;/0-/"( "& *0<1/--*+ 1(3%& %/-)%& ')*++ 0"('-/-1-% * ,*& -" *("-)%&
$&"'%01-/"( 5"& -)% '*6% *0-
ConLrary Lo whaL ls covered ln Lhe flrsL parL, Lhe second parL of Lhe
provlslon covers Lhe same acLs"
o 1hus, even lf Lhe same act consLlLuLes two d|fferent offenses
whereln one ls punlshed under an ord|nance and Lhe oLher under
a nat|ona| |aw, LermlnaLlon under elLher shall consLlLuLe a bar Lo
Lhe prosecuLlon of Lhe oLher (eople v. 8elova)

!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,


689
(::;<=>
1he proLecLlon agalnsL second [eopardy noL only means LhaL an accused
cannoL be prosecuLed a second Llme for Lhe same offense buL also LhaL ?@;
:AB>;CD?EBF C<FFB? <::;<= < GDHI;J;F? BK <CLDE??<=
o nor wlll Lhe prosecuLlon be allowed Lo appeal a [udgemenL of
convlcLlon ln order Lo obLaln a modlflcaLlon of Lhe penalLy when
Lhe penalLy lmposed ls llghLer Lhan whaL ls legally demandable
When Lhe accused hlmself appeals from a declslon of convlcLlon, he
effecLlvely walves hls rlghL agalnsL double [eopardy
o Clven Lhls, Lhe lmposlLlon of a hlgher penalLy upon appeal ls noL
conLrary Lo Lhe consLlLuLlonal guaranLee
$:;CE<= !<>;M &J:;<C@J;F? (LsLrada v. ueslerLo)
ConvlcLlon or acqulLLal ln an lmpeachmenL proceedlng ls noL a condlLlon
!"#$ &'( #)# Lo prosecuLlon under Lhe Cmbudsman
8eslgnaLlon from one's poslLlon ls express consenL for Lhe dlsmlssal of Lhe
lmpeachmenL case
o 1hus, when one reslgns, Lhe case auLomaLlcally does noL fall
under Lhe lnsLances of LermlnaLlon LhaL glve rlse Lo Lhe
aLLachmenL of double [eopardy
lf an lmpeachmenL Lrlal ls declared *'#+,'! )**"+"), Lhe besL argumenL
avallable for Lhe defendanL ln saylng LhaL double [eopardy should aLLach ls:
K<E=DA; ?B :AB>;CD?; <JBDF?EFI ?B < NEB=<?EBF BK BF;O> AEI@? ?B < >:;;HP
?AE<= whlch MA? lead Lo HE>JE>><= BF ?@; J;AE?> whlch ls one lf Lhe
lnsLances of LermlnaLlon LhaL glve rlse Lo Lhe aLLachmenL of double
[eopardy




























!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,


689
!:;< ):=
!:;<
#>?@<A
!:;< #:?< 1:BC; -:CDE 0EBCADF<
6 eople v. ?lagan uefendanL was lndlcLed for Lhe crlme
of serlous physlcal ln[urles. upon
arralgnmenL, she pleaded noL gullLy.
SubsequenLly, Lhe prosecuLlon
dlsmlssed Lhe case buL flled anoLher
charge wlLh Lhe same offense agalnsL
Lhe defendanL. vlolaLlon of double
[eopardy?
?es. AfLer belng placed once ln legal
[eopardy for an offense, Lhe accused
cannoL be lndlcLed for Lhe same
offense anymore (rlslng ouL from Lhe
same acLs as charged ln Lhe flrsL
lndlcLmenL) as Lhls consLlLuLes a
vlolaLlon of Lhe rule on double
[eopardy.
8equlslLes of legal [eopardy (see above)

A walver of Lhls consLlLuLlonal rlghL cannoL
be predlcaLed on sllence alone
, 8ulaong v. eople Accused was charged wlLh boLh Lhe
offenses of rebelllon and subverslon.
Whlle Lhe prosecuLlon of boLh crlmes
were sLlll pendlng (one ln Lhe lower
courL and one ln Lhe SC upon appeal),
Lhe accused pleaded for double
[eopardy. 1enable?
no. lor double [eopardy Lo aLLach,
Lhe flrsL legal [eopardy musL be
LermlnaLed pursuanL Lo Lhe requlslLes
as shown above.
uouble [eopardy, ln no way, can aLLach lf
Lhe flrsL legal [eopardy has noL been
LermlnaLed ln Lhe lnsLances whlch warranL
lLs appllcaLlon. (see above)
G Melo v. eople Accused was charged wlLh !"#$%"&%'(
homlclde. When Lhe vlcLlm dled,
prosecuLlng offlcer amended Lhe
charge Lo *+,$#--&%'( homlclde.
vlolaLlon of double [eopardy?
no. uocLrlne of supervenlng facL. When afLer Lhe flllng of Lhe flrsL
lnformaLlon, a ;>H<AI<FDFJ K:BC Lakes place
and changes Lhe characLer of Lhe crlme
charged, amendlng Lhe lnformaLlon would
noL consLlLuLe a vlolaLlon of double
[eopardy
8 eople v. 8ullng Accused was charged and convlcLed of
less serlous physlcal ln[urles. AfLer
servlng Lhe senLence, accused was
charged wlLh serlous physlcal ln[urles
because of Lhe facL LhaL Lhe ln[urles of
Lhe vlcLlm Look longer Llme Lo heal
(afLer a second examlnaLlon) Lhan
whaL was expecLed. vlolaLlon of
double [eopardy?
?es. uocLrlne of supervenlng facL
cannoL apply Lo Lhls case. 1he ln[ury
of Lhe vlcLlm was already presenL
durlng Lhe flrsL examlnaLlon. lallure
Lo flnd ouL abouL lL can be aLLrlbuLed
Lo Lhe lncompeLence of Lhe physlclan
(dld noL use an x-ray ln Lhe flrsL
exam).
Supervenlng facL Lalks of a facL LhaL was
noL presenL durlng Lhe flllng of Lhe flrsL
lnformaLlon.
L eople v. 1lozon Accused was belng charged wlLh Lwo
offenses: lllegal possesslon of flrearms
and murder. Accused conLended LhaL
slnce homlclde or murder was
quallfylng ln Lhe crlme of lllegal
possesslon of flrearms, lL was
no. Murder and homlclde were
quallfylng only ln Lhe sense LhaL Lhey
ralse Lhe penalLy. 1hey are ln no way
ldenLlcal Lo Lhe crlme of lllegal
possesslon of flrearms. Also, whaL ls
conLemplaLed by Lhe rule on double
uouble [eopardy cannoL apply lf Lhe acLs of
Lhe accused consLlLuLe Lwo or more
offenses.
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,


689
necessarlly lncluded ln Lhe crlme.
vlolaLlon of double [eopardy?
[eopardy ls a bar Lo Lhe prosecuLlon
of Lhe same offense, slnce Lhe crlmes
here are Laken from a speclal law and
Lhe 8C respecLlvely, Lhere ls no same
offense Lo Lalk abouL.
: eople v. 8elova Accused concealed wlres ln hls wall Lo
effecLlvely reduce elecLrlc
consumpLlon. Pe was charged wlLh a
vlolaLlon of an ordlnance buL was
subsequenLly acqulLLed due Lo
prescrlpLlon. AfLerwards, he was
charged wlLh a crlme under Lhe 8C, a
naLlonal sLaLuLe. vlolaLlon of double
[eopardy?
?es. 1hls case lllusLraLed Lhe second
parL of Lhe provlslon.
Lven lf Lhe same acL consLlLuLes Lwo
dlfferenL offenses whereln one ls punlshed
under an ordlnance and Lhe oLher under a
naLlonal law, LermlnaLlon under elLher shall
consLlLuLe a bar Lo Lhe prosecuLlon of Lhe
oLher.
9 LsLrada v. Sandlganbayan Accused ls belng lndlcLed for hls
crlmes. Pe pleads double [eopardy
because of Lhree confllcLlng reasons:
(1) he was noL yeL convlcLed ln Lhe
lmpeachmenL Lrlal, (2) he was
acqulLLed because Lhere was fallure Lo
prosecuLe, and (3) he dld noL consenL
Lo Lhe dlsmlssal of Lhe proceedlngs.
1enable?
no. ConvlcLlon or acqulLLal ln an
lmpeachmenL Lrlal ls noL a condlLlon
!"#$ &'( #)# Lo prosecuLlon under
Lhe Cmbudsman. 8eslgnaLlon from
hls poslLlon effecLlvely consLlLuLes
consenL Lo Lhe dlsmlssal of Lhe
proceedlngs.
ConvlcLlon or acqulLLal ln an lmpeachmenL
proceedlng ls noL a condlLlon !"#$ &'( #)#
Lo prosecuLlon under Lhe Cmbudsman

8eslgnaLlon from one's poslLlon ls express
consenL for Lhe dlsmlssal of Lhe
lmpeachmenL case



CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012


148
Sect|on 22
NC Lk-CS1 IAC1 LAW Ck 8ILL CI A11AINDLk SnALL 8L LNAC1LD.
Lx post facto |aw
a) Whlch makes an acLlon done before Lhe passlng of Lhe law and whlch was
lnnocenL when done !"#$#%&', and ()%#*+,* *)!+ &!.#/%, or
b) Whlch &00"&1&.,* a crlme or makes lL greaLer Lhan when lL was
commlLLed, or
c) Whlch changes Lhe punlshmenL and #%2'#!.* & 0",&.," ()%#*+$,%. Lhan Lhe
law annexed Lo Lhe crlme when lL was commlLLed,
d) Whlch &'.,"* .+, ',0&' ")',* /2 ,1#3,%!, and ",!,#1,* ',** /" 3#22,",%.
.,*.#$/%4 Lhan Lhe law requlred aL Lhe Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
offense ln order Lo !/%1#!. .+, 3,2,%3&%.
roh|b|ts a|| retrospect|ve |aws?
no, only reLrospecLlve penal laws (proscrlbes a crlmlnal penalLy or an
equlvalenL burden lmposable ln a crlmlnal Lrlal)
lf law ls favourable Lo Lhe accused, lL may applled reLrospecLlvely (e.g.
8evllla law's effecL on 8obln adllla)
8||| of Atta|nder
A leglslaLlve acL whlch lnfllcLs punlshmenL wlLhouL [udlclal Lrlal
1he essence of Lhe blll of aLLalnder ls Lhe subsLlLuLlon of a leglslaLlve,
raLher Lhan a [udlclal deLermlnaLlon of gullL.
LssenLlal elemenLs
a) 1here musL be a law
b) 1he law lmposes a penal burden on a named lndlvldual or easlly
ascerLalnable members of a group
c) 1he penal burden ls lmposed dlrecLly by Lhe law wlLhouL [udlclal
Lrlal
!urlsprudenLlal requlslLes (eople v. lerrer)
a) 1he sLaLuLe speclfles persons or groups
b) SLaLuLe ls applled reLroacLlvely and may reach pasL conducL

Case Law
(1) eop|e v. Ierrer
Iacts: ln Lhls case, peLlLloners were charged wlLh Lhe crlme of subverslon. lL punlshes Lhe acL of
knowlngly and wllllngly" afflllaLlng oneself Lo subverslve groups. Accused conLends LhaL whaL musL be
punlshed should be Lhe dlrecL acLs LhaL furLher Lhe subverslve Lendencles of Lhe organlzaLlons.
8espondenL [udge sLruck down Lhe law as a blll of aLLalnder.
ne|d]kat|o: 1he subverslon law ls noL a blll of aLLalnder. lL does noL speclfy Lhe CommunlsL arLy of Lhe
hlllpplnes as a subverslve group. AL mosL, lL was only used for purposes of deflnlLlon. Also, lf lL were a
blll of aLLalnder, Lhere would be no use Lo charge Lhe accused ln courL. lL punlshes noL mere membershlp
buL one LhaL lncludes acLlve and dlrecL parLlclpaLlon whlch may be regarded as consplracy.
Doctr|ne: lor a law Lo be consldered a blll of aLLalnder, Lwo requlslLes musL concur: (1) Lhe sLaLuLe musL
speclfy persons or groups, and (2) lL musL be applled reLroacLlvely Lhereby reachlng pasL conducL.
(2) V|rata v. Sand|ganbayan
Iacts: 1he CCC flled a case ln Lhe Sandlganbayan agalnsL Lhe Marcoses and 8omualdez for Lhe alleged
lll-goLLen wealLh. Accused conLends LhaL Lhe CCC charLer ls a blll of aLLalnder.
ne|d]kat|o: 1he CCC charLer ls noL a blll of aLLalnder. Laws have a presumpLlon of consLlLuLlonallLy
whlch was noL overcome by Lhe several accused ln Lhls case. 1he charLer does noL, ln any way,
auLomaLlcally declare Lhe accused as gullLy. ln facL, lL expressly provldes LhaL Lhe [udgemenL of gullL musL
be handled by a [udlclal Lrlbunal (ln Lhls case, Lhe Sandlganbayan). 1he courL also sald LhaL Lhe charLer
does noL alLer Lhe rules on evldence.
Doctr|ne: 1he essence of Lhe blll of aLLalnder ls Lhe subsLlLuLlon of a leglslaLlve, raLher Lhan a [udlclal
deLermlnaLlon of gullL.

(3) Lacson v. Lxecut|ve Secretary
Iacts: 8y Lhe passlng of 8A 8294, Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe Sandlganbayan ls lncreased. Clven Lhls, Lhe body
was able Lo Lake recognlzance of a case whlch lL dld noL have Lhe power Lo look aL pursuanL Lo Lhe
former law. eLlLloner and lnLerveners Lherefore argue LhaL Lhe amendlng law ls an ex posL facLo law.
ne|d]kat|o: 1he amendlng law ls noL an ex posL facLo law. Cnly penal laws may be consldered Lo be ex
posL facLo. 8A 8294, as ad[udged by former [urlsprudence ls merely a procedural law.
Doctr|ne: lor a law Lo be consldered ex posL facLo, lL musL flrsL and foremosL be a penal law. rocedural
laws cannoL be consldered Lo be ex posL facLo prlmarlly because no penalLy nor burden ls proscrlbed.

!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,


689
(-%&!). &/: !&%&;.#$<&=
$>?@ABC 6
%<. 1"))"+&#D (-. !&%&;.#$ "1 %<. =<&)&==&#.$:
E6F %<"$. +<" (-. !&%&;.#$ "1 %<. =<&)&==&#.$ (% %<. %&3. "1 %<. (0"=%&"#
"1 %<&$ !"#$%&%'%&"#G
E,F %<"$. +<"$. 1(%<.-$ "- 3"%<.-$ (-. !&%&;.#$ "1 %<. =<&)&==&#.$
EHF %<"$. 4"-# 4.1"-. I(#'(-2 6JK 69JHK "1 1&)&=&#" 3"%<.-$K +<" .).!%
=<&)&==&#. !&%&;.#$<&= '="# -.(!<&#D %<. (D. "1 3(I"-&%2G (#0
E8F %<"$. +<" (-. #(%'-()&;.0 &# (!!"-0(#!. +&%< )(+
!A@AL>CMNAO
ersonal and more or less permanenL membershlp ln a pollLlcal communlLy
uenoLes possesslon wlLhln LhaL parLlcular pollLlcal communlLy of full ?APAQ
RCS OBQA@A?RQ TAUN@M sub[ecL Lo speclal dlsquallflcaLlons
8eclprocally, lL lmposes Lhe duLy of alleglance
3BS>M BV R?WXATACU ?A@AL>CMNAO
IXM $RCUXACAM - blood relaLlonshlp
IXM $BQA - place of blrLh
#R@XTRQALR@ABC - adopLlng an allen
1he hlllpplnes follows Lhe rule of !"# #%&'"(&(# (valles v. CCMLLLC,
CaLchallan v. 8oard of Commlssloners) and has legal procedures for
&%)"*%+(,%)(-&
!NAQST>C BV 1AQAOACB VR@N>TM RCS YB@N>TM
8ule of !"# #%&'"(&(#
o Applles only Lo naLural flllaLlon and noL Lo flllaLlon by adopLlon
o Cnly leglLlmaLe chlldren follow Lhe clLlzenshlp of Lhe faLher
o llleglLlmaLe chlldren follow Lhe naLlonallLy of Lhelr moLher
! LxcepLlon: llleglLlmaLe chlldren may (posslblllLy of dual
clLlzenshlp) also follow Lhe naLlonallLy of Lhelr faLher lf
OR@>TCA@Z AM ?Q>RT (1ecson v. CCMLLLC)
! ConvenLlon on Lhe 8lghLs of Lhe Chlld: Chlldren shall noL
be dlscrlmlnaLed on Lhe basls of blrLh (l! was allowed Lo
run even lf he was an llleglLlmaLe chlld of a llllplno
faLher)
1here ls noLhlng prevenLlng Lhe leglslaLure from adopLlng Lhe prlnclple of
!"# #-+( or any of lLs feaLures as supplemenLary law on clLlzenshlp
o 1he leglslaLure ls endowed wlLh broad powers Lo pass
CR@XTRQALR@ABC QR[M
!A@AL>CM \Z >Q>?@ABC
LlecLlon musL be expressed ln a sLaLemenL sworn before any offlcer
auLhorlzed Lo admlnlsLer oaLhs and flled wlLh Lhe nearesL clvll reglsLry and
accompanled by an oaLh of alleglance Lo Lhe hlllpplne ConsLlLuLlon
lf a mlnor's faLher ls naLurallzed, he does noL need Lo elecL hlllpplne
clLlzenshlp anymore (Co v. LlecLoral 1rlbunal)
LlecLlon may be obLalned lmplledly. (Co v. LlecLoral 1rlbunal)
o e.g. poslLlve acLs such as llvlng one's whole llfe ln Lhe hlllpplnes
aragraph 3 ls lnLended Lo be ln Lhe naLure of a )*%&#()-*. /*-0(#(-&
appllcable Lo chlldren born under Lhe 1933 ConsLlLuLlon who had noL yeL
reached ma[orlLy wlLh Lhe 1973 ConsLlLuLlon Look effecL
o 1here ls no rlghL of elecLlon for chlldren born under Lhe 1973
ConsLlLuLlon
1here ls noLhlng ln Lhe law LhaL prevenLs Congress from granLlng a
sLaLuLory rlghL of elecLlon ldenLlcal wlLh Lhe rlghL formerly glven ln Lhe
1933 ConsLlLuLlon
o Powever, a chlld who elecLs under such sLaLuLe shall noL be
consldered a naLural-born clLlzen under SecLlon 2 because such
elecLlon ls noL ln Lhe vlrLue of SecLlon 1(3)
#R@XTRQALR@ABCK ]XSA?ARQ RCS RSYACAM@TR@AP>
naLurallzaLlon: legal acL of adopLlng an allen and cloLhlng hlm wlLh Lhe
rlghLs LhaL belong Lo a naLural born clLlzen. May be obLalned Lhrough:
o Ceneral law of naLurallzaLlon applled Lhrough a !"1(2(%+ /*-23##
o Speclal acL of Lhe +3'(#+%)"*3
o AdmlnlsLraLlve naLurallzaLlon: handled by Lhe Speclal CommlLLee
on naLurallzaLlon chalred by Lhe SollclLor Ceneral
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012


1S0
1he power of Lhe leglslaLure lncludes:
o ConLrol over processes Lhrough whlch clLlzenshlp ls acqulred or
losL
o ueLermlnaLlon of subsLanLlve crlLerla for admlsslon Lo clLlzenshlp
o llxlng of consequences of Lhe granL of clLlzenshlp on Lhe wlfe or
mlnor chlldren of Lhe granLee
C.A. 473 (8evlsed naLurallzaLlon Law)
o SubsLanLlve requlremenLs (Cng Chla v. CCMLLLC)
! names one has been known
! All pasL addresses
! ManlfesLaLlon of good and reproachable manner
! LucraLlve Lrade/professlon
o rocedural requlremenLs
! ueclaraLlon of lnLenLlon
! llllng of peLlLlon
! Pearlng and lnlLlal [udgemenL
! erlod of probaLlon
! 8ehearlng and flnal [udgemenL
1he granL of clLlzenshlp Lo a parenL also exLends clLlzenshlp Lo mlnor
chlldren !"#$% '(%$")(* (!)+,%-).
!"# %&'()*+*
Cenerally, %$/ 0!#-1()( does noL apply ln resolvlng lssues of clLlzenshlp
8equlslLes for LxcepLlon (8urca v. 8epubllc)
o A person's clLlzenshlp be ralsed as a maLerlal lssue ln a
conLroversy where sald person ls a parLy
o 1he SollclLor Ceneral or hls auLhorlzed represenLaLlve Look acLlve
parL ln Lhe resoluLlon Lhereof
o 1he flndlng on clLlzenshlp ls afflrmed by Lhe SC

Sect|on 2
NA1UkAL-8CkN CI1I2LNS AkL 1nCSL WnC AkL CI1I2LNS CI 1nL nILIINLS IkCM
8Ik1n WI1nCU1 nAVING 1C LkICkM AN AC1 1C ACUIkL Ck LkILC1 1nLIk
nILIINL CI1I2LNSnI. 1nCSL WnC LLLC1 nILIINL CI1I2LNSnI IN
ACCCkDANCL WI1n AkAGkAn (3), SLC1ICN 1 nLkLCI SnALL 8L DLLMLD
NA1UkAL-8CkN CI1I2LNS.
Natura|-born c|t|zen
1hose wlLhouL havlng Lo perform any acL Lo acqulre or perfecL hlllpplne
clLlzenshlp
o Lxcept|on: 1hose who repaLrlaLed (8engson v. P8L1)
1hose who elecL hlllpplne clLlzenshlp ln accordance wlLh ArL. lv, Sec. 1,
ar. 3
naLurallzed clLlzens are NC1 naLural-born
o 1he process of naLurallzaLlon ls a performance of an acL Lo acqulre
clLlzenshlp
urpose of add|ng the second sentence
1o equallze Lhe sLaLus of Lhose born of llllplna parenLs before !anuary 17,
1973, wlLh Lhose born of llllplna parenLs on or before Lhe sald daLe
Sect|on 3
nILIINL CI1I2LNSnI MA 8L LCS1 Ck kLACUIkLD IN 1nL MANNLk kCVIDLD 8
LAW.
Loss of c|t|zensh|p
1wo laws on loss of clLlzenshlp: CA no. 63 and CA 473
CA no. 63 applles Lo boLh naLural-born and naLurallzed clLlzenshlp
o SecLlon 1 provldes, sub[ecL Lo some excepLlons, LhaL clLlzenshlp ls
losL by
! naLurallzaLlon ln a forelgn counLry
! Lxpress renunclaLlon of clLlzenshlp (?u v. uefensor-
SanLlago)
! CaLh of alleglance Lo a forelgn counLry
! 8enderlng servlce ln Lhe armed forces of a forelgn
counLry
! ueserLer of Lhe armed forces
CA 473 applles Lo naLurallzed clLlzenshlp
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012


1S1
o SecLlon 18 Lhereof provldes LhaL a cerLlflcaLe of naLurallzaLlon
may be cancelled
! When found Lo have been fraudulenLly or lllegally
obLalned
! 8y permanenL resldence ln Lhe counLry of orlgln wlLhln 3
years from naLurallzaLlon
! When peLlLlon ls found Lo have been made on an lnvalld
declaraLlon of lnLenL
! upon fallure Lo comply wlLh Lhe requlremenLs of
educaLlon of mlnor chlldren
! lf Lhe person allows hlmself Lo be a dummy" for allens
kenunc|at|on
8enunclaLlon of hlllpplne clLlzenshlp musL be made express|y
o Mere possesslon of an allen cerLlflcaLe of reglsLraLlon does noL
amounL Lo renunclaLlon. (Mercado v. Manzano)
Lxpressly ls noL Lhe same as formally (?u v. uefensor SanLlago)
o 8enunclaLlon of clLlzenshlp need noL be made formally.
o Lxpress renunclaLlon may be deemed from one's acLs whlch show
repudlaLlon of one's clLlzenshlp.
Cance||at|on roceed|ng
8urden of proof ls shlfLed Lo Lhe governmenL
naLurallzed clLlzenshlp may only be cancelled upon evldence LhaL ls clear,
unequlvocal and convlnclng" and noL merely preponderanL
o naLurallzed clLlzens are noL second-class clLlzens, Lhey are also
afforded proLecLlon by law
keacqu|s|t|on of c|t|zensh|p
May be done ln Lhree ways (CA no. 63, Labo, !r. v. Comelec)
o ulrecL granL by law
o naLurallzaLlon
o 8epaLrlaLlon
kepatr|at|on
8eLroacLs Lo Lhe day where appllcaLlon was flled (lrlvaldo v. Comelec)
upon repaLrlaLlon, orlglnal clLlzenshlp ls reacqulred (8engson v. P8L1)
o Consldered as naLural-born clLlzens afLer repaLrlaLlon lf naLural-
born before loss of clLlzenshlp
8epaLrlaLlon under 8.A. 8171 (1abasa v. Comelec)
o Women who losL clLlzenshlp by marrlage
o 1hose who losL clLlzenshlp for pollLlcal or economlc reasons
8epaLrlaLlon under 8.A. 2630 (8engson v. P8L1)
o !"#$%&' )* Any person who had losL hls hlllpplne clLlzenshlp by
+"',"+%'- ."+/%#" Lo, or 0##"1$%'- #&22%..%&' ln, Lhe Armed
lorces of Lhe unlLed SLaLes, or afLer separaLlon from Lhe Armed
lorces of Lhe unlLed SLaLes, 0#34%+", 5'%$", !$0$". #%$%6"'.7%1,
may reacqu|re hlllpplne clLlzenshlp by tak|ng an oath of
a||eg|ance Lo Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe hlllpplnes and reg|ster|ng Lhe
same wlLh Lhe Local Clvll 8eglsLry ln Lhe place where he resldes or
lasL reslded ln Lhe hlllpplnes. 1he sald oaLh of alleglance shall
conLaln renunc|at|on of any other c|t|zensh|p.
Sect|on 4
CI1I2LNS CI 1nL nILIINLS WnC MAkk ALILNS SnALL kL1AIN 1nLIk CI1I2LNSnI,
UNLLSS 8 1nLIk AC1 Ck CMISSICN 1nL AkL DLLMLD, UNDLk 1nL LAW, 1C nAVL
kLNCUNCLD I1.
Marr|age to an a||en spouse
1he facL alone of marrlage cannoL sLrlp a llllplno woman of her hlllpplne
clLlzenshlp
Cnly acLs and omlsslons, whlch Congress may prescrlbe, consLlLuLe
expllclL or lmpllclL renunclaLlon of clLlzenshlp.
1hls provlslon ls 1+&.1"#$%/".
o lL does noL serve Lo resLore clLlzenshlp already losL by marrlage
under Lhe old law.

Sect|on S
DUAL ALLLGIANCL CI CI1I2LNS IS INIMICAL 1C 1nL NA1ICNAL IN1LkLS1 AND SnALL
8L DLAL1 WI1n 8 LAW.
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012


1S2
Dua| c|t|zensh|p
1he ConsLlLuLlon allows for Lhe posslblllLy of dual clLlzenshlp
o lL ls, afLer all, a condlLlon whlch arlses from Lhe facL LhaL
hlllpplne law cannoL conLrol lnLernaLlonal law and Lhe laws of
oLher counLrles on clLlzenshlp
1he 1987 ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslon preferred Lo leave Lhe maLLer of dual
clLlzenshlp Lo ordlnary leglslaLlon
o 8.A. 9223, Lhe uual ClLlzenshlp Law, deals wlLh Lwo classes of
persons
! llllplnos who losL Lhelr clLlzenshlp prlor Lo Lhe
enacLmenL of 8.A. 9223
! llllplnos who become clLlzens of anoLher counLry afLer
Lhe effecLlvlLy of Lhls law
kestorat|on of C|v|| and o||t|ca| r|ghts
Clvll and pollLlcal rlghLs are resLored
Powever, Lhere are resLrlcLlons under 8.A. 9223
Sect|on S. !"#"$ &'( )*$"+",&$ -"./+0 &'( 1"&2"$"+"30 " 1hose who reLaln or re-acqulre
hlllpplne clLlzenshlp under Lhls AcL shall en[oy full clvll and pollLlcal rlghLs and be
sub[ecL Lo all aLLendanL llablllLles and responslblllLles under exlsLlng laws of Lhe
hlllpplnes and Lhe followlng condlLlons:
(1) 1hose lnLendlng Lo exerclse Lhelr rlghL of surffrage musL MeeL Lhe
requlremenLs under SecLlon 1, ArLlcle v of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon, 8epubllc AcL
no. 9189, oLherwlse known as "1he Cverseas AbsenLee voLlng AcL of
2003" and oLher exlsLlng laws,
(2) 1hose seeklng elecLlve publlc ln Lhe hlllpplnes shall meeL Lhe
quallflcaLlon for holdlng such publlc offlce as requlred by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
and exlsLlng laws and, aL Lhe Llme of Lhe flllng of Lhe cerLlflcaLe of
candldacy, make a personal and sworn renunclaLlon of any and all forelgn
clLlzenshlp before any publlc offlcer auLhorlzed Lo admlnlsLer an oaLh,
(3) 1hose appolnLed Lo any publlc offlce shall subscrlbe and swear Lo an
oaLh of alleglance Lo Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe hlllpplnes and lLs duly
consLlLuLed auLhorlLles prlor Lo Lhelr assumpLlon of offlce: #$%&'()(, 1haL
Lhey renounce Lhelr oaLh of alleglance Lo Lhe counLry where Lhey Look LhaL
oaLh,
(4) 1hose lnLendlng Lo pracLlce Lhelr professlon ln Lhe hlllpplnes shall
apply wlLh Lhe proper auLhorlLy for a llcense or permlL Lo engage ln such
pracLlce, and
(3) 1haL rlghL Lo voLe or be elecLed or appolnLed Lo any publlc offlce ln Lhe
hlllpplnes cannoL be exerclsed by, or exLended Lo, Lhose who:
(a) are candldaLes for or are occupylng any publlc offlce ln Lhe
counLry of whlch Lhey are naLurallzed clLlzens, and/or
(b) are ln acLlve servlce as commlssloned or non-commlssloned
offlcers ln Lhe armed forces of Lhe counLry whlch Lhey are
naLurallzed clLlzens.
Dua| a||eg|ance
uual alleglance ls noL Lhe same as dual clLlzenshlp
ConsLlLuLlonal ConvenLlon Sesslons (Commlssloner Cple)
o ...larger and more LhreaLenlng Lhan LhaL of mere double
clLlzenshlp whlch ls seldom lnLenLlonal and, perhaps, never
lnsldlous."
o uual alleglance referred Lo LhaL unseLLled klnd of alleglance" of
persons who are already llllplnos buL who, by Lhelr acLs, may be
sald Lo be bound by a second alleglance.



!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,


689

!:;<
#=>?<@
!:;< #:>< 1:AB; -:BCD 0DAB@CE<
6 valles v. CCMLLLC Lopez ran for second Lerm for
Covernor of uavao CrlenLal.
eLlLloner valles challenged LhaL
candldacy clalmlng LhaL Lhe former
was noL a llllplno. valld?
no. 1he CCMLLLC dlsmlssed Lhe
complalnL clLlng lLs prevlous rullng on
a 1992 case lnvolvlng Lhe same
respondenL. Also, Lopez's faLher ls a
llllplno clLlzen when she was born.
lollowlng Lhe rule of !"# #%&'"(&(#)
she ls a llllplno as well. *+# !",(-%.%
%//0(+# because peLlLloner dld noL
glve facLs LhaL warranL Lhe reversal of
Lhe 1992 rullng.
1he hlllpplnes follows Lhe rule of !"#
#%&'"&(#1

Cenerally, 2+# !",(-%.% does apply ln
clLlzenshlp cases.
, Cng Chla v. 8epubllc Cng Chla, afLer spendlng almosL hls
whole llfe ln Lhe hlllpplnes, flled for a
peLlLlon LhaL he be admlLLed as a
llllplno clLlzen. 1hls was granLed by
Lhe Lrlal courL buL was challenged by
Lhe respondenL by showlng LhaL Lhe
peLlLloner dld noL follow Lhe proper
rules. Who ls correcL?
1he respondenL. lor Lhe
naLurallzaLlon Lo work, Lhe appllcanL
musL comply wlLh Lhe requlremenLs
of C.A. no. 473 (8evlsed
naLurallzaLlon Law). Pe musL have
submlLLed Lhe followlng lnformaLlon:
(1) all Lhe names he had been known,
(2) former places of resldence, (3) lf
he had conducLed hlmself ln a proper
and reproachable manner, and (4) lf
he as a lucraLlve occupaLlon.
lor naLurallzaLlon Lo work, Lhe appllcanL
musL ablde by Lhe necessary requlremenLs
provlded by C.A. no. 473 or Lhe 8evlsed
naLurallzaLlon Law.
9 CaLchallan v. 8oard of
Commlsloners
ueporLaLlon proceedlngs were
lnsLlLuLed agalnsL hereln peLlLloner
due Lo Lhe clalm of Lhe Clu LhaL he ls
noL a llllplno clLlzen. lL ls alleged LhaL
he ls an llleglLlmaLe chlld due Lo Lhe
absence of proof showlng LhaL hls
faLher (llllplno) valldly marrled hls
moLher (Chlnese). lf noL, lL ls argued
LhaL he musL follow Lhe clLlzenshlp of
Lhe moLher. 1enable?
no. lf Lhere ls no evldence Lo Lhe
conLrary, Lhe presumpLlon LhaL Lhe
marrlage laws ln forelgn counLrles are
Lhe same as ln Lhe hlllpplnes ls
conLrolllng. 1he affldavlLs Laken from
Lhe peLlLloner's faLher and
grandfaLher were Laken by Lhe courL
as compeLenL proof of flllaLlon.
1he hlllpplnes follows Lhe rule of !"#
#%&'"(&(#.
F 1ecson v. CCMLLLC l! ran for presldency. Pls clLlzenshlp
was quesLloned on Lhe ground LhaL he
ls an llleglLlmaLe chlld of a llllplno
faLher and a forelgn moLher. lL ls
argued LhaL slnce Lhls ls Lhe case, he
no. lf paLernlLy ls clearly proven, Lhe
chlld ls llllplno because Lhe rule of !"#
#%&'"(&(# does noL make any
dlsLlncLlon beLween leglLlmaLe and
llleglLlmaLe chlldren.
1he rule on !"# #%&'"(&(# does noL
dlsLlngulsh beLween leglLlmaLe and
llleglLlmaLe chlldren.

lf paLernlLy ls clearly proven, even an
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,


689
should follow Lhe clLlzenshlp of hls
moLher. ls Lhls rule wlLhouL
excepLlon?
llleglLlmaLe chlld may acqulre Lhe
clLlzenshlp of hls faLher.
8 Co v. LlecLoral 1rlbunal AfLer wlnnlng a congresslonal seaL,
Co's clLlzenshlp was quesLloned on Lhe
ground LhaL he has noL done anyLhlng
Lo acqulre llllplno clLlzenshlp.
1enable?
no. Co dld noL even need Lo do
anyLhlng Lo acqulre" clLlzenshlp
because he ls llllplno as hls
grandfaLher ls a llllplno (maklng hls
faLher llllplno whlch also makes hlm
llllplno). Assumlng arguendo LhaL he
had Lo elecL clLlzenshlp, he was
already able Lo do lL by poslLlve acLs
such as esLabllshlng hls enLlre llfe as a
llllplno.
LlecLlon may be done lmplledly Lhrough
performance of poslLlve acLs showlng one's
cholce Lo be a llllplno.
: ?u v. uefensor-SanLlago ?u, a orLugese man, applled for
naLurallzaLlon ln Lhe hlllpplnes. AfLer
naLurallzaLlon, he reapplled for a
orLugese passporL and declared ln
many buslness documenLs LhaL he ls
orLugese. uld he renounce hls
clLlzenshlp?
?es. All hls acLs, lf Laken LogeLher,
consLlLuLe an express renunclaLlon of
hls llllplno clLlzenshlp. Pe reacqulred
hls orLugese clLlzenshlp by
performlng all Lhe acLs he dld afLer
naLurallzaLlon whlch effecLlvely
renounced hls llllplno.
8enunclaLlon of clLlzenshlp need noL be
made formally. Lxpress renunclaLlon may
be deemed from one's acLs whlch show
repudlaLlon of one's clLlzenshlp.
; lrlvaldo v. CCMLLLC Lee was proclalmed governor even lf
lrlvaldo goL a hlgher number of voLes.
uue Lo Lhls, lrlvaldo, afLer belng
repaLrlaLed and afLer Laklng an oaLh of
alleglance Lo Lhe hlllpplnes on Lhe
day elecLed offlclals commence offlce,
peLlLloned Lo annul Lee's
proclamaLlon. 1enable?
?es. 8epaLrlaLlon reLroacLs Lo Lhe day
when Lhe requesL for such was flled.
Clven Lhls, lrlvaldo has been a clLlzen
for a long Llme already. Also, Lhe
courL held LhaL Lhe clLlzenshlp
requlremenL for Lhe poslLlon of
governor musL be complled wlLh aL
Lhe sLarL of Lhe Lerm of offlce. Clven
Lhls, lrlvaldo may valldly Lake hls
place as governor.
8epaLrlaLlon reLroacLs Lo Lhe day Lhe
requesL was flled.

1he clLlzenshlp requlremenL for local
offlclals under Lhe LCC musL be complled
wlLh on Lhe day elecLed offlclals commence
wlLh Lhelr Lerms of offlce.

1he flllng of a CerLlflcaLe of Candldacy for
an elecLlon ls deemed Lo conLaln an oaLh of
alleglance Lo Lhe hlllpplnes and lLs laws.
< Labo [r. v. CCMLLLC Labo dld noL reacqulre llllplno
clLlzenshlp yeL. When lL was alleged
LhaL he ls noL a llllplno, he dld noL
glve any evldence Lo refuLe Lhls and
clalmed clLlzenshlp pursuanL Lo a
rullng ln a uS case. 1enable?
no. Labo has noL shown LhaL he had
reacqulred hls clLlzenshlp elLher by
congresslonal acLlon, naLurallzaLlon,
or repaLrlaLlon.
1hree modes of reacqulrlng clLlzenshlp:
(1) congresslonal acLlon
(2) naLurallzaLlon
(3) repaLrlaLlon
= Mercado v. Manzano eLlLloner soughL Lo dlsquallfy
Manzano, Lhe wlnner for Lhe poslLlon
of MakaLl vlce mayor ln 1998. lL was
no. 8y flllng a cerLlflcaLe of candldacy,
Lhe respondenL effecLlvely Look an
oaLh of alleglance Lo Lhe hlllpplnes
1he flllng of a CerLlflcaLe of Candldacy for
an elecLlon ls deemed Lo conLaln an oaLh of
alleglance Lo Lhe hlllpplnes and lLs laws.
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,


688
alleged LhaL Lhe laLLer has dual-
clLlzenshlp, a ground for
dlsquallflcaLlon under hlllpplne laws.
1enable?
and Lhereby removlng any
dlsquallflcaLlon he may have as a
dual. Also, Lhe courL dlsLlngulshed
dual clLlzenshlp" from dual
alleglance." uual clLlzenshlp, !"# %", ls
noL a ground for dlsquallflcaLlon
under our laws.
uual clLlzenshlp ls noL equal Lo dual
alleglance.

Mere possesslon of an allen cerLlflcaLe of
reglsLraLlon does noL amounL Lo
renunclaLlon.
65 1abasa v. CA 1abasa losL hls llllplno clLlzenshlp
when he was 7 y.o. as hls faLher was
admlLLed as a naLurallzed uS clLlzen.
AfLer 36 years, he wenL back Lo Lhe
hlllpplnes and clalmed LhaL he
reacqulred hls clLlzenshlp. 1enable?
no. under 8.A. 8171, only (1) women
who losL clLlzenshlp by marrlage and
(2) Lhose who losL clLlzenshlp for
pollLlcal or economlc reasons may be
repaLrlaLed. eLlLloner falled Lo show
LhaL hls famlly lefL Lhe hlllpplnes for
pollLlcal or economlc reasons.
Who may repaLrlaLe? (under 8.A. 8171)
(1) women who losL clLlzenshlp by marrlage
(2) Lhose who losL clLlzenshlp for pollLlcal
or economlc reasons
66 8engson v. P8L1 Cruz applled for repaLrlaLlon and
subsequenLly ran for Lhe poslLlon of
Congressman. 1hls was quesLloned as
lL was alleged LhaL repaLrlaLlon does
noL make a person recover hls orlglnal
clLlzenshlp. 1enable?
no. Cne who ls repaLrlaLed regalns
Lhe level of hls former clLlzenshlp.
Slnce Cruz was a prevlous naLural-
born clLlzen, he shall regaln such Lype
of clLlzenshlp upon repaLrlaLlon.
Cne who ls repaLrlaLed regalns Lhe level of
hls former clLlzenshlp.

1hose who acqulre uS clLlzenshlp by
enllsLlng Lhemselves ln Lhe uS Armed
lorces consequenLlally lose Lhelr llllplno
clLlzenshlp. Powever, under 8.A. 2630, Lhey
may apply for repaLrlaLlon.
6, AAS!S v. uaLumanong 8A 9223 allows clLlzen Lo reLaln Lhelr
llllplno clLlzenshlp afLer belng
naLurallzed as a forelgn clLlzen (e.g. uS
ClLlzen). lL was challenged as
unconsLlLuLlonal because lL allows
dual alleglance. 1enable?
no. SC cannoL Lackle Lhe lssue of dual
alleglance slnce ArL. lv Sec. 3 of Lhe
ConsLlLuLlon as lL ls [usL a declaraLlon
of prlnclple and noL a self-execuLory
provlslon. 1he dellberaLlons of
Congress reveal LhaL ln enacLlng 8.A.
9223, Lhe Congress has shlfLed Lhe
burden of Lhe problem of dual
alleglance Lo Lhe concerned forelgn
counLry.
1he provlslon on dual alleglance ls [usL a
declaraLlon of a prlnclple and noL a self-
execuLory provlslon. lL shall be dealL wlLh
by law.



!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,


689
(-%&!). /: $'11-(;.
$<=>?@A 6
$'11-(;. 3(2 4. .B.-!&$.0 42 ()) !&%&C.#$ "1 %D. ED&)&EE&#.$ #"% "%D.-+&$.
0&$F'()&1&.0 42 )(+G +D" (-. (% ).($% .&;D%..# 2.(-$ "1 (;.G (#0 +D"
$D()) D(/. -.$&0.0 &# %D. ED&)&EE&#.$ 1"- (% ).($% "#. 2.(- (#0 &# %D. E)(!.
+D.-.&# %D.2 E-"E"$. %" /"%. 1"- (% ).($% $&B 3"#%D$ &33.0&(%.)2
E-.!.0&#; %D. .).!%&"#H #" )&%.-(!2G E-"E.-%2G "- "%D.- $'4$%(#%&/.
-.F'&-.3.#% $D()) 4. &3E"$.0 "# %D. .B.-!&$. "1 $'11-(;.H

$<=>?@A ,
%D. !"#;-.$$ $D()) E-"/&0. ( $2$%.3 1"- $.!'-&#; %D. $.!-.!2 (#0
$(#!%&%2 "1 %D. 4())"% ($ +.)) ($ ( $2$%.3 1"- (4$.#%.. /"%&#; 42
F'()&1&.0 1&)&E&#"$ (4-"(0H
%D. !"#;-.$$ $D()) ()$" 0.$&;# ( E-"!.0'-. 1"- %D. 0&$(4).0 (#0 %D.
&))&%.-(%.$ %" /"%. +&%D"'% %D. ($$&$%(#!. "1 "%D.- E.-$"#$H '#%&) %D.#G
%D.2 $D()) 4. ())"+.0 %" /"%. '#0.- .B&$%&#; )(+$ (#0 $'!D -').$ ($ %D.
!"33&$$&"# "# .).!%&"#$ 3(2 E-"3');(%. %" E-"%.!% %D. $.!-.!2 "1 %D.
4())"%H

Suffrage
lL ls Lhe rlghL Lo voLe (631)
CuallflcaLlon of age
o Cne ls elghLeen on one's elghLeenLh blrLhday (636)
8esldence (Callego v verra, clLed ln bernas 638)
1he Lerm resldence as used ln Lhe elecLlon law ls synonymous wlLh domlclle,
whlch lmporLs noL only lnLenLlon Lo reslde ln a flxed place buL also personal
presence ln LhaL place, coupled wlLh conducL lndlcaLlve of such lnLenLlon
AcLs of Lhe person musL conform wlLh hls purpose
1he change of resldence musL be volunLary
8equlslLe: anlmus non reverLendl and anlmus manendl IE-(J
1. 8esldence or bodlly presence ln Lhe new locallLy
2. An lnLenLlon Lo remaln Lhere
3. An lnLenLlon Lo abandon Lhe old domlclle
Cne could reglsLer as a voLer away from hls munlclpal domlclle of orlgln as he
has Lhe quallflcaLlon Lo be one and ls noL wllllng Lo glve up or lose Lhe
opporLunlLy Lo choose Lhe offlclals who are Lo run Lhe governmenL especlally ln
naLlonal elecLlon (laypon v Culrlno 1934, clLed ln 8ernas 660)
!"#$%&'() +, !-.

1(!%$: 8omualdez, a relaLlve of lmelda Marcos, fled Lo Lhe unlLed SLaLes afLer
LuSA 1. rlor Lo LuSA 1, he was a resldenL and a voLer ln 1olosa, LeyLe. When he
reLurned ln 1991, he reglsLered agaln as a voLer ln LeyLe. 1hls was challenged by
prlvaLe respondenL saylng LhaL Lhe peLlLloner has already re-esLabllshed hlmself ln
Lhe unlLed-SLaLes, Lhus noL a resldenL anymore of 1olosa, LeyLe.

-(%&": CourL sald LhaL one can acqulre only a new domlclle/resldence when Lhe
followlng concur: 1) resldence or bodlly presence ln Lhe new locallLy, 2) an
lnLenLlon Lo remaln Lhere, and3) an lnLenLlon Lo abandon Lhe old domlclle. lrom
Lhe facLs, Lhe pollLlcal slLuaLlon aL LhaL Llme creaLed a serlous concern for
peLlLloner over hls safeLy and welfare. 8elng so lL cannoL be sald LhaL Lhelr
deparLure was volunLary or an abandonmenL of Lhelr resldence.

AbsenLee voLlng (663-664)
Accordlng Lo Lhe dellberaLlons of Lhe consLlLuLlonal commlsslon, absenLee
voLlng applles Lo person who have all Lhe quallflcaLlon of a voLe buL
o Who happen Lo be Lemporarlly abroad
o Who are ln Lhe hlllpplnes buL are Lemporarlly absenL from Lhelr
voLlng places
AbsenLee voLlng applles Lo naLlonal elecLlons only (velasco v Comelec)
/%0%&123%& +, .4/565.

1K=>L: 8A 9189 or Lhe overseas AbsenLee voLlng AcL of 2003 was passed. 1he acL,
more parLlcularly lLs SecLlon 3(d), was challenged as vlolaLlve of Lhe ArLlcle 3
secLlon 1 of Lhe consLlLuLlon as lL do away wlLh Lhe consLlLuLlonal requlremenL of
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,


689
resldency. Sald provlslon provldes LhaL an lmmlgranL or permanenL resldenL ln a
forelgn counLry may be allowed Lo voLe ln LhaL sald counLry as long as he execuLe
an affldavlL sLaLlng LhaL he shall resume acLual physlcal permanenL resldence ln Lhe
hlllpplnes wlLhln Lhree years afLer approval of hls reglsLraLlon.

-:;<=> SC upheld Lhe sald provlslon of 8A 9189 by saylng LhaL Lhe resldence of a
clLlzen ls synonymous wlLh hls domlclle. WlLh Lhe affldavlL requlremenL, he
provldes LhaL he sLlll has lnLenLlon Lo reLurn Lo Lhe counLry - whlch ls whaL
pracLlcally Lhe deflnlLlon of domlclle ls. lurLhermore, lL ls Lhe lnLerpreLaLlon of Lhe
courL LhaL secLlon 2 or ArLlcle 3 provldes Lhe excepLlon Lo Lhe resldency
requlremenL for absenLee voLers. And Lo add, lf Lhere ls no excepLlon for absenLee
voLers, Lhen lL would be legally and consLlLuLlonally lmposslble Lo enfranchlse and
empower Lhem - whlch ls Lhe whole polnL of Lhls exerclse.

!"#$%&'()*+"' -. /012)2/

1(!%$> eLlLloners are uS clLlzens. 1hey were able Lo reacqulre Lhelr llllplno
ClLlzenshlp by vlrLue of 8A 9223. AfLer whlch Lhey wanLed Lo reglsLer as absenLee
voLers buL Comelec denled Lhelr appllcaLlon clLlng Lhe facL LhaL Lhey losL and [usL
reacqulred Lhelr llllplno ClLlzenshlp Lhus Lhe resldency requlremenL under secLlon
1 of ArLlcle 3 of Lhe consLlLuLlon ls lacklng.

-(%&"> SC reversed Lhe declslon of Lhe Comelec clLlng 8A 9223 whlch does noL say
abouL any requlremenLs of esLabllshlng Lhelr resldence and hyslcal sLay ln Lhe
hlllpplnes flrsL before Lhey can exerclse Lhelr rlghL Lo voLe. Cn Lhe conLrary 8A
9223 acLually granLs Lhe same rlghL of suffrage as absenLee voLers under 8A 9189.
Slnce lL was already have been ruled LhaL absenLee voLers does noL have Lo meeL
Lhe resldency requlremenL, Lhe same would apply Lo uual clLlzens under 8A 9223.
Powever, followlng 8A 9189, such dual clLlzens llvlng abroad has Lo make such
affldavlL as requlred under Lhe sald law.

SubsLanLlve requlremenLs
LeglslaLure ls forever banned from lmposlng any subsLanLlve quallflcaLlon
slmllar ln naLure Lo llLeracy or ownershlp of properLy (670)
WhaL ls prohlblLed ls subsLanLlve requlremenL noL procedural (670)
o 1hus lL has be recognlzed LhaL cerLaln procedural requlremenLs musL
be complled wlLh before Lhe rlghL can be exerclsed (674)
o arL of Lhe exerclse of pollce power Lo safeguard and regulaLe Lhe acL
of voLer's reglsLraLlon (674)
ulsquallflcaLlon
LeglslaLure ls glven Lhe power Lo prescrlbe dlsquallflcaLlon (671)
ulsquallflcaLlons musL noL be ln Lhe form of addlLlonal quallflcaLlon (671)
Lxamples: (see bernas, 671-672)
o ConvlcLlon for a crlme (e.g. accessory penalLles ln 8C)
o erson who vlolaLed hls alleglance Lo Lhe republlc
o lnsane/lncompeLenL/feeble mlnded persons
1he presldenL Lhrough hls pardonlng power may erase Lhe dlsquallflcaLlon
(673)


CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012


1S8
Ak1ICLL kIII: SCCIAL IUS1ICL AND nUMAN kIGn1S

Sect|on 1.
1nL CCNGkLSS SnALL GIVL !"#!$%& ()"*)"&+ 1C 1nL LNAC1MLN1 CI MLASUkLS
1nA1 kC1LC1 AND LNnANCL 1nL kIGn1 CI ALL 1nL LCLL 1C nUMAN DIGNI1,
kLDUCL SCCIAL, LCCNCMIC, AND CLI1ICAL INLUALI1ILS, AND kLMCVL CUL1UkAL
INLUI1ILS 8 LUI1A8L DIIIUSING WLAL1n AND CLI1ICAL CWLk ICk 1nL
CCMMCN GCCD.
1C 1nIS LND, 1nL S1A1L SnALL )$#,-.&$ &!$ ./0,"%"&"*12 *31$)%!"(2 ,%$2 .14
4"%(*%"&"*1 *5 ()*($)&+ .14 "&% "1/)$6$1&%7
Sect|on 2.
1nL kCMC1ICN CI SCCIAL IUS1ICL SnALL INCLUDL 1nL CCMMI1MLN1 1C /)$.&$
$/*1*6"/ *((*)&,1"&"$% 8ASLD CN IkLLDCM CI INI1IA1IVL AND SLLI-kLLIANCL.
2 prlnclpal acLlvlLles Lhe SLaLe ls commanded Lo aLLend Lo Lo achleve Lhe goals of
soclal [usLlce:
1. creaLlon of more economlc opporLunlLles and more wealLh
2. closer regulaLlon of Lhe acqulslLlon, ownershlp, use, and dlsposlLlon of
properLy ln order Lo achleve a more equlLable dlsLrlbuLlon of wealLh and
pollLlcal power.

"h|ghest pr|ort|t|y"denoLes urgency because lL ls essenLlal Lo Lhe survlval
of Lhe 8epubllc and aLLalnmenL of lLs goals
|mport of soc|a| [ust|ce-when Lhe law ls clear, lL musL be applled, buL
when lL can be lnLerpreLed ln more ways Lhan one, an lnLerpreLaLlon LhaL
favors Lhe underprlvlleged musL be favored.
ArL. xlll ls an accompanlmenL of ArL. ll, Sec. 10-many of Lhe rlghLs
expressed hereln are collecLlve rlghLs (Candelarla, 2012)


Labor
Sect|on 3.
1nL S1A1L SnALL AIICkD 5,-- ()*&$/&"*1 &* -.8*), LCCAL AND CVLkSLAS, CkGANI2LD AND
UNCkGANI2LD, AND kCMC1L IULL LMLCMLN1 AND LUALI1 CI LMLCMLN1
CCk1UNI1ILS ICk ALL.
I1 SnALL GUAkAN1LL 1nL kIGn1S CI ALL WCkkLkS 1C %$-59*)#.1":.&"*1, CCLLLC1IVL
8AkGAINING AND NLGC1IA1ICNS,AND LACLIUL CCNCLk1LD AC1IVI1ILS, INCLUDING 1nL )"#!& &*
%&)";$ IN .//*)4.1/$ 3"&! -.3. 1nL SnALL 8L LN1I1LLD 1C SLCUkI1 CI 1LNUkL, nUMANL
CCNDI1ICNS CI WCkk, AND A LIVING WAGL. 1nL SnALL ALSC Ak1ICIA1L IN (*-"/+ .14
4$/"%"*196.;"1# ()*/$%%$% AIILC1ING 1nLIk kIGn1S AND 8LNLII1S AS MA 8L kCVIDLD 8
LAW.
1nL S1A1L SnALL kCMC1L 1nL kINCILL CI SnAkLD kLSCNSI8ILI1 8L1WLLN WCkkLkS AND
LMLCLkS AND 1nL kLILkLN1IAL USL CI VCLUN1Ak MCDLS IN SL11LING DISU1LS, INCLUDING
CCNCILIA1ICN, AND SnALL LNICkCL 1nLIk MU1UAL CCMLIANCL 1nLkLWI1n 1C ICS1Lk
INDUS1kIAL LACL.
1nL S1A1L SnALL )$#,-.&$ &!$ )$-.&"*1% 8$&3$$1 3*);$)% .14 $6(-*+$)%, kLCCGNI2ING
1nL kIGn1 CI LA8Ck 1C I1S IUS1 SnAkL IN 1nL IkUI1S CI kCDUC1ICN AND 1nL kIGn1 CI
LN1LkkISLS 1C kLASCNA8LL kL1UkNS 1C INVLS1MLN1S, AND 1C LkANSICN AND GkCW1n.1nL
CCNGkLSS SnALL GIVL nIGnLS1 kICkI1 1C 1nL LNAC1MLN1 CI MLASUkLS 1nA1 kC1LC1 AND
LNnANCL 1nL kIGn1 CI ALL 1nL LCLL 1C nUMAN DIGNI1, kLDUCL SCCIAL, LCCNCMIC, AND
CLI1ICAL INLUALI1ILS, AND kLMCVL CUL1UkAL INLUI1ILS 8 LUI1A8L DIIIUSING WLAL1n
AND CLI1ICAL CWLk ICk 1nL CCMMCN GCCD.
1C 1nIS LND, 1nL S1A1L SnALL kLGULA1L 1nL ACUISI1ICN, CWNLkSnI, USL, AND DISCSI1ICN
CI kCLk1 AND I1S INCkLMLN1S.
lull proLecLlon Lo labor"
un|on-no secLors may be prohlblLed from formlng unlons
str|ke-selecLed secLors may be prohlblLed from resorLlng Lo sLrlke, Lhe
rlghL Lo sLrlke" ls llmLed by ln accordance wlLh law"
r|ght to part|c|pate the dec|s|on mak|ng process-Lhey have a rlghL on
maLLers affecLlng Lhelr rlghLs and beneflLs as may be provlded by law".
1hese may be done Lhrough:
1. collecLlve bargalnlng agreemenLs
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012


1S9
2. gruevance machlnerles
3. volunLary modes of seLLllng dlspuLes
conclllaLon proceedlngs medlaLed by Lhe governmenL
*compulsory arblLraLlon-ls noL ruled ouL buL downlplayed
lacLors welghed ln regulaLlng Lhe relaLlons beLween workers and employers
1. rlghL of labor Lo lLs [usL share ln Lhe frulLs of producLlon
2. rlghL of enLerprlses Lo reasonable reLurns on lnvesLmenLs, and Lo
expanslon and growLh
Lqual pay for equal work" (1)
Sa|ary - A reward or recompense for servlces performed. lL ls Lhe
conslderaLlon pald aL regular lnLervals for Lhe renderlng of servlces.
ersons who work wlLh subsLanLlally equal quallflcaLlons, sklll, efforL and
responslblllLy, under slmllar condlLlons, should be pald slmllar salarles.
lf Lhe employer pays one employee less Lhan Lhe resL, lL ls noL for LhaL
employee Lo explaln why he recelves less or why Lhe oLhers recelve more.
lL ls for Lhe employer Lo explaln why Lhe employee ls LreaLed unfalrly.

CollecLlve bargalnlng (1)
8arga|n|ng un|t-a group of employees of a glven employer, comprlsed of
all or less Lhan all of Lhe enLlre body of employees, conslsLenL wlLh equlLy
Lo Lhe employer lndlcaLe Lo be Lhe besL sulLed Lo serve Lhe reclprocal rlghLs
and duLles of Lhe parLles under Lhe collecLlve bargalnlng provlslons of Lhe
law.
1he baslc LesL of an asserLed bargalnlng unlL's accepLablllLy ls wheLher or
noL lL ls fundamenLally Lhe comblnaLlon whlch wlll besL assure Lo all
employees Lhe exerclse of Lhelr collecLlve bargalnlng rlghLs.
Iactors |n determ|n|ng the appropr|ate C8U: (WASn)
1. Wlll of Lhe employees (Clobe uocLrlne)
2. AfflnlLy and unlLy of Lhe employees' lnLeresL (SubsLanLlal MuLual
lnLeresLs 8ule)
3. rlor collecLlve bargalnlng hlsLory
4. SlmllarlLy of employmenL sLaLus.
Agrar|an keform and Natura| kesources keform
Sect|on 4.
1nL S1A1L SnALL, 8 LAW, UNDLk1AkLN AN AGkAkIAN kLICkM kCGkAM ICUNDLD CN 1nL
!"#$% '( ()!*+!, )-. !+#/0)! ()!*1'!2+!,, WnC AkL LANDLLSS, 1C CWN DIkLC1L Ck
CCLLLC1IVLL 1nL LANDS 1nL 1ILL Ck IN 1nL CASL CI C1nLk IAkMWCkkLkS, %' !+3+"4+ ) 5/,%
,$)!+ '( %$+ (!/"%, 1nLkLCI. 1C 1nIS LND, 1nL S1A1L SnALL LNCCUkAGL AND UNDLk1AkL 1nL
5/,% .",%!"6/%"'- '( )00 )#!"3/0%/!)0 0)-.,7 SU8ILC1 1C SUCn kICkI1ILS AND kLASCNA8LL
!+%+-%"'- 0"*"%, AS 1nL CCNGkLSS MA kLSCkI8L, 1AkING IN1C ACCCUN1 LCCLCGICAL,
DLVLLCMLN1AL, Ck LUI1 CCNSIDLkA1ICNS, AND SU8ILC1 1C 1nL AMLN1 CI 5/,%
3'*8+-,)%"'-. IN DL1LkMINING kL1LN1ICN LIMI1S, 1nL S1A1L SnALL kLSLC1 1nL kIGn1 CI
SMALL LANDCWNLkS. 1nL S1A1L SnALL IUk1nLk kCVIDL INCLN1IVLS ICk VCLUN1Ak LAND-
SnAkING.
Coals of agrarlan reform
1. efflclenL producLlon
2. more equlLable dlsLrlbuLlon of land whlch recognlzes Lhe rlghL of farmers
and regular farm workers who are landless Lo own Lhe land Lhey Llll
3. [usL share of oLher or seasonal farm workers ln Lhe frulLs of Lhe land
Agrarlan reform
Lands that come under the scope of agrar|an reform
o ALL klnds of land devoLed Lo agrlculLure
o AgrlculLural lands-arable and sulLable agrlculLural lands and do
noL lnclude commerclal, lndusLrlal and resldenLlal lands
o Lven lands for whlch one holds a naked LlLle
Lands that are exempt
o non-agrlculLural lands
o AgrlculLural lands converLed Lo non-agrlculLural uses prlor Lo Lhe
effecLlvlLy of CA8L
Issuance of a cert|f|cate of |and transfer-Lo a beneflclary does noL
auLomaLlcally vesL ownershlp, lL ls [usL a recognlLlon LhaL Lhe beneflclarles
may avall of Lhe ownershlp sub[ecL Lo compllance wlLh obllgaLlons, lL ls sLll
revocable
ketent|on ||m|ts
o SLaLe musL proLecL !"#$%% %$'()*'+,"- or orlndary people who
may have lnherlLed small pleces of land or who Lhrough sheer
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012


160
hard work and frugallLy have managed Lo save enough Lo be able
Lo purchase land for Lhe securlLy of Lhelr fuLure
o Cholce of land Lo be reLalned-belongs wlLh Lhe owner, as long as
lL does noL exceed 3 hecLares and ls compacL or conLlguous,
oLherwlse, Lhe SaLe may lnLervene
ower of em|nent doma|n v. po||ce power
o ln so far as Lhe provlslon of reLenLlon llmlLs, pollce power
o Any land Laken ln excess of Lhe reLenLlon llmlLs, emlnenL domaln,
Lhe CovernmenL wlll have Lo pay [usL compensaLlon
Iust compensat|on
o Lhe farmer beneflclary wlll only pay Lhe porLlon of Lhe
compensaLlon LhaL he can afford, Lhe resL wlll be subsldlzed by
Lhe SLaLe
o may be flxed by admlnlsLraLlve bodles, buL sub[ecL Lo [udlclal
revlew (2)
o 1he CA8 Law condlLlons Lhe Lransfer of possesslon and
ownershlp Lo Lhe governmenL on recelpL by Lhe landowner of Lhe
correspondlng paymenL or Lhe deposlL by Lhe uA8 of Lhe
compensaLlon ln cash or bonds (2)
Compensat|on
o !urlsprudence hold LhaL compensaLlon musL be ln money
o 8u1, Lhls ls a revoluLlonary klnd of exproprlaLlon, so lL ls
undersLandable LhaL Lhe governmenL does noL have all Lhe money
needed now so oLher flnanclal lnsLrumenLs are allowed (2)
o !"#$%&'($)*+,-affecLs all prlvaLe agrlculLural lands, for Lhe
beneflL of Lhe enLlre llllplno naLlon, affecLlng Lhe whole LerrlLory,
boLh now and for Lhe foreseeable fuLure (2)
noL lncluded ln agrarlan reform (3)
1987 Const|tut|ona| De||berat|ons-clearly show LhaL lL was never Lhe
lnLenLlon of Lhe framers of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon Lo lnclude llvesLock and
poulLry lndusLry ln Lhe coverage of Lhe consLlLuLlonally-mandaLed agrarlan
reform program of Lhe CovernmenL.

Sect|on S.
1nL S1A1L SnALL kLCCGNI2L 1nL kIGn1 CI IAkMLkS, IAkMWCkkLkS, AND LANDCWNLkS, AS
WLLL AS CCCLkA1IVLS, AND C1nLk INDLLNDLN1 IAkMLkS' CkGANI2A1ICNS 1C Ak1ICIA1L IN
1nL LANNING, CkGANI2A1ICN, AND MANAGLMLN1 CI 1nL kCGkAM, AND SnALL kCVIDL
SUCk1 1C AGkICUL1UkL 1nkCUGn AkCkIA1L 1LCnNCLCG AND kLSLAkCn, AND ADLUA1L
IINANCIAL, kCDUC1ICN, MAkkL1ING, AND C1nLk SUCk1 SLkVICLS.
Sect|on 6.
1nL S1A1L SnALL AL 1nL kINCILLS CI AGkAkIAN kLICkM Ck S1LWAkDSnI, WnLNLVLk
ALICA8LL IN ACCCkDANCL WI1n LAW, IN 1nL DISCSI1ICN Ck U1ILI2A1ICN CI C1nLk NA1UkAL
kLSCUkCLS, INCLUDING LANDS CI 1nL U8LIC DCMAIN UNDLk LLASL Ck CCNCLSSICN SUI1A8LL 1C
AGkICUL1UkL, SU8ILC1 1C kICk kIGn1S, nCMLS1LAD kIGn1S CI SMALL SL11LLkS, AND 1nL
kIGn1S CI INDIGLNCUS CCMMUNI1ILS 1C 1nLIk ANCLS1kAL LANDS.
1nL S1A1L MA kLSL11LL LANDLLSS IAkMLkS AND IAkMWCkkLkS IN I1S CWN AGkICUL1UkAL
LS1A1LS, WnICn SnALL 8L DIS1kI8U1LD 1C 1nLM IN 1nL MANNLk kCVIDLD 8 LAW.
Sect|on 7.
1nL S1A1L SnALL kC1LC1 1nL kIGn1S CI SU8SIS1LNCL IISnLkMLN, LSLCIALL CI LCCAL
CCMMUNI1ILS, 1C 1nL kLILkLN1IAL USL CI 1nL CCMMUNAL MAkINL AND IISnING kLSCUkCLS,
8C1n INLAND AND CIISnCkL. I1 SnALL kCVIDL SUCk1 1C SUCn IISnLkMLN 1nkCUGn
AkCkIA1L 1LCnNCLCG AND kLSLAkCn, ADLUA1L IINANCIAL, kCDUC1ICN, AND MAkkL1ING
ASSIS1ANCL, AND C1nLk SLkVICLS. 1nL S1A1L SnALL ALSC kC1LC1, DLVLLC, AND CCNSLkVL
SUCn kLSCUkCLS. 1nL kC1LC1ICN SnALL Lk1LND 1C CIISnCkL IISnING GkCUNDS CI
SU8SIS1LNCL IISnLkMLN AGAINS1 ICkLIGN IN1kUSICN. IISnWCkkLkS SnALL kLCLIVL A IUS1 SnAkL
IkCM 1nLIk LA8Ck IN 1nL U1ILI2A1ICN CI MAkINL AND IISnING kLSCUkCLS.
Sect|on 8.
1nL S1A1L SnALL kCVIDL INCLN1IVLS 1C LANDCWNLkS 1C INVLS1 1nL kCCLLDS CI 1nL
AGkAkIAN kLICkM kCGkAM 1C kCMC1L INDUS1kIALI2A1ICN, LMLCMLN1 CkLA1ICN, AND
kIVA1I2A1ICN CI U8LIC SLC1Ck LN1LkkISLS. IINANCIAL INS1kUMLN1S USLD AS AMLN1 ICk
1nLIk LANDS SnALL 8L nCNCkLD AS LUI1 IN LN1LkkISLS CI 1nLIk CnCICL.
Cther natura| resources are covered by agrar|an reform-even lncludlng
Lhe en[oymenL of communal marlne and flshlng resources" and off shore
flshlng grounds"
ke|at|on beteween |ndustr|a||zat|on and agrar|an reform-muLually
beneflclal, Agrarlan reform should unlock ldle welaLh hldden ln land for
lnvesLmenL ln lndusLrlallzaLlon, and lndusLrlallzaLlon lLself, among oLher
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012


161
"#$#%&'() (*+,-. "# /"-# '+ /"(+0" %/01 2+03#0( 0#-#/(#. %0+1 %/01(
"#4/,(# +% 1#4*/$&5/'&+$
Urban Land keform
Sect|on 9.
1nL S1A1L SnALL, 8 LAW, AND ICk 1nL CCMMCN GCCD, UNDLk1AkL, IN CCCLkA1ICN WI1n 1nL
kIVA1L SLC1Ck, A CCN1INUING kCGkAM CI Uk8AN LAND kLICkM AND nCUSING WnICn WILL
MAkL AVAILA8LL A1 AIICkDA8LL CCS1 DLCLN1 nCUSING AND 8ASIC SLkVICLS 1C
UNDLkkIVILLGLD AND nCMLLLSS CI1I2LNS IN Uk8AN CLN1LkS AND kLSL11LLMLN1 AkLAS. I1
SnALL ALSC kCMC1L ADLUA1L LMLCMLN1 CCk1UNI1ILS 1C SUCn CI1I2LNS. IN 1nL
IMLLMLN1A1ICN CI SUCn kCGkAM 1nL S1A1L SnALL kLSLC1 1nL kIGn1S CI SMALL kCLk1
CWNLkS.
Sect|on 10.
Uk8AN Ck kUkAL CCk DWLLLLkS SnALL NC1 8L LVIC1LD NCk 1nLIk DWLLLING DLMCLISnLD,
LkCL1 !" $%%&'($"%) *!+, -$* $"( !" $ ./0+ $"( ,/1$") 1$"")'2
NC kLSL11LLMLN1 CI Uk8AN Ck kUkAL DWLLLLkS SnALL 8L UNDLk1AkLN WI1nCU1 ADLUA1L
CCNSUL1A1ICN WI1n 1nLM AND 1nL CCMMUNI1ILS WnLkL 1nL AkL 1C 8L kLLCCA1LD.
6#%+01
7+' 8,(' '*# 90+9#0 ,0"/$ -/$. ,(# +0 5+$&$: ",' /-(+ '*# 0&:*'&$: +%
&$#;,&'/"-# -/$. .&('0&",'&+$< =' '*,( &$4-,.#( '*# /,'*+0&5/'&+$ '+ ,(#
#>90+90&/'&+$ %+0 0#.&('0&",'&+$ +% ,0"/$ -/$.
?&$ /44+0./$4# 2&'* -/2 /$. &$ / 8,(' /$. *,1/$# 1/$$#0@ ABC
D*/' &( 1#/$' "E '*&( &( '*/' '*# /44,(#. "# /%%+0.#. due processF
/44+0.#. /$ +99+0',$&'E '+ 4+$'0+G#0' '*# /--#:/'&+$ '*/' *&( +0 *#0
+44,9/'&+$ &( ,$-/2%,- +0 /:/&$(' '*# 2&-- +% '*# -/$.+2$#0H '*#
+44,9/$' "# (,%%&4&#$'-E $+'&%&#. "#%+0# /4',/- #G&4'&+$ +0
.#1+-&'&+$ &( .+$#H /$. '*/' '*#0# "# $+ -+(( +% -&G#() 9*E(&4/-
&$8,0&#( +0 ,$$#4#((/0E -+(( +% +0 ./1/:# '+ 90+9#0'&#(<
=' &( $+' $#4#((/0E '*/' 0#(#''-#1#$' /0#/( "# #('/"-&(*#. %&0(' +0
'*/' '*#0# "# 90&+0 4+$(,-'/'&+$ 2&'* '*# 9#0(+$( '+ "# #G&4'#.<
nea|th
Sect|on 11.
1nL S1A1L SnALL ADC1 AN IN1LGkA1LD AND CCMkLnLNSIVL AkCACn 1C nLAL1n
DLVLLCMLN1 WnICn SnALL LNDLAVCk 1C MAkL LSSLN1IAL GCCDS, nLAL1n AND C1nLk SCCIAL
SLkVICLS AVAILA8LL 1C ALL 1nL LCLL A1 AIICkDA8LL CCS1. 1nLkL SnALL 8L kICkI1 ICk 1nL
NLLDS CI 1nL UNDLk-kIVILLGLD SICk, LLDLkL, DISA8LLD, WCMLN, AND CnILDkLN. 1nL S1A1L
SnALL LNDLAVCk 1C kCVIDL IkLL MLDICAL CAkL 1C AULkS.
Sect|on 12.
1nL S1A1L SnALL LS1A8LISn AND MAIN1AIN AN LIILC1IVL ICCD AND DkUG kLGULA1Ck SS1LM
AND UNDLk1AkL AkCkIA1L nLAL1n MANCWLk DLVLLCMLN1 AND kLSLAkCn, kLSCNSIVL
1C 1nL CCUN1k'S nLAL1n NLLDS AND kC8LLMS.
Sect|on 13.
1nL S1A1L SnALL LS1A8LISn A SLCIAL AGLNC ICk DISA8LLD LkSCN ICk 1nLIk kLnA8ILI1A1ICN,
SLLI- DLVLLCMLN1 AND SLLI-kLLIANCL, AND 1nLIk IN1LGkA1ICN IN1C 1nL MAINS1kLAM CI
SCCIL1.
Women
Sect|on 14.
1nL S1A1L SnALL kC1LC1 WCkkING WCMLN 8 kCVIDING SAIL AND nLAL1nIUL WCkkING
CCNDI1ICNS, 1AkING IN1C ACCCUN1 1nLIk MA1LkNAL IUNC1ICNS, AND SUCn IACILI1ILS AND
CCk1UNI1ILS 1nA1 WILL LNnANCL 1nLIk WLLIAkL AND LNA8LL 1nLM 1C kLALI2L 1nLIk IULL
C1LN1IAL IN 1nL SLkVICL CI 1nL NA1ICN.
ko|e and k|ghts of eop|e's Crgan|zat|on
Sect|on 1S.
1nL S1A1L SnALL kLSLC1 1nL kCLL CI INDLLNDLN1 LCLL'S CkGANI2A1ICNS 1C LNA8LL 1nL
LCLL 1C UkSUL AND kC1LC1, WI1nIN 1nL DLMCCkA1IC IkAMLWCkk, 1nLIk LLGI1IMA1L AND
CCLLLC1IVL IN1LkLS1S AND ASIkA1ICNS 1nkCUGn LACLIUL AND LAWIUL MLANS.
CCNS1I1U1ICNAL LAW 2 kLVILWLk DLAN SLDIkL CANDLLAkIA CkCM8CNDS 2011-2012


162
LCLL'S CkGANI2A1ICNS AkL 8CNA IIDL ASSCCIA1ICNS CI CI1I2LNS WI1n DLMCNS1kA1LD
CAACI1 1C kCMC1L 1nL U8LIC IN1LkLS1 AND WI1n IDLN1IIIA8LL LLADLkSnI, MLM8LkSnI,
AND S1kUC1UkL.
Sect|on 16.
1nL kIGn1 CI 1nL LCLL AND 1nLIk CkGANI2A1ICNS 1C LIILC1IVL AND kLASCNA8LL
Ak1ICIA1ICN A1 ALL LLVLLS CI SCCIAL, CLI1ICAL, AND LCCNCMIC DLCISICN-MAkING SnALL NC1
8L A8kIDGLD. 1nL S1A1L SnALL, 8 LAW, IACILI1A1L 1nL LS1A8LISnMLN1 CI ADLUA1L
CCNSUL1A1ICN MLCnANISMS.
"#$%&'$() %*+,-./,0.%-)1
23$4 56)0 -% 7$ 86*.9.:,'; 03$ *.+30 &*%0$:0$9 .) 03,0 %< |nd|v|dua|
5$57$*)= 7$:,6)$ %-'4 &$*)%-) :,- 7$ 03$ )678$::0 %< *.+30)>
Indepdendent?-%0 :%-0*%''$9 74 5,-.&6',0.@$ <%*:$) .- %* %60 %< 03$
+%@$*-5$-0
numan k|ghts
Sect|on 17.
(1) 1nLkL IS nLkL8 CkLA1LD AN INDLLNDLN1 CIIICL CALLLD 1nL CCMMISSICN CN nUMAN
kIGn1S.
(2) 1nL CCMMISSICN SnALL 8L CCMCSLD CI A CnAIkMAN AND ICUk MLM8LkS WnC MUS1 8L
NA1UkAL-8CkN CI1I2LNS CI 1nL nILIINLS AND A MAICkI1 CI WnCM SnALL 8L MLM8LkS CI
1nL 8Ak. 1nL 1LkM CI CIIICL AND C1nLk UALIIICA1ICNS AND DISA8ILI1ILS CI 1nL MLM8LkS CI
1nL CCMMISSICN SnALL kCVIDLD 8 LAW.
(3) UN1IL 1nIS CCMMISSICN IS CCNS1I1U1LD, 1nL LkIS1ING kLSIDLN1IAL CCMMI11LL CN
nUMAN kIGn1S SnALL CCN1INUL 1C LkLkCISL I1S kLSLN1 IUNC1ICNS AND CWLkS.
(4) 1nL AkCVLD ANNUAL AkCkIA1ICNS CI 1nL CCMMISSICN SnALL 8L AU1CMA1ICALL AND
kLGULAkL kLLLASLD.
Sect|on 18.
1nL CCMMISSICN CN nUMAN kIGn1S SnALL nAVL 1nL ICLLCWING CWLkS AND IUNC1ICNS:
(1! #$%&'(#)*(&, CN I1S CWN Ck CN CCMLAIN1 8 AN Ak1, ALL ICkMS CI +,-*$ .#)+('
%#/0*(#/$' INVCLVING CIVIL AND CLI1ICAL kIGn1S,
(2) ADC1 I1S CLkA1ICNAL GUIDLLINLS AND kULLS CI kCCLDUkL, AND 1#(& 2/. 1/$(&-3( ICk
VICLA1ICNS 1nLkLCI IN ACCCkDANCL WI1n 1nL kULLS CI CCUk1,
(3) kCVIDL AkCkIA1L LLGAL MLASUkLS ICk 1nL kC1LC1ICN CI nUMAN kIGn1S CI ALL
LkSCNS WI1nIN 1nL nILIINLS, AS WLLL AS IILIINCS kLSIDING A8kCAD, AND kCVIDL ICk
3.&%&$(#%& -&*',.&' *$4 0&)*0 *#4 '&.%#1&' 1C 1nL UNDLkkIVILLGLD WnCSL nUMAN kIGn1S
nAVL 8LLN VICLA1LD Ck NLLD kC1LC1ICN,
(4) LkLkCISL VISI1A1CkIAL CWLkS CVLk IAILS, kISCNS, Ck DL1LN1ICN IACILI1ILS,
(S) LS1A8LISn A CCN1INUING kCGkAM CI kLSLAkCn, LDUCA1ICN, AND INICkMA1ICN 1C
LNnANCL kLSLC1 ICk 1nL kIMAC CI nUMAN kIGn1S,
(6) kLCCMMLND 1C 1nL CCNGkLSS LIILC1IVL MLASUkLS 1C kCMC1L nUMAN kIGn1S AND 1C
kCVIDL ICk CCMLNSA1ICN 1C VIC1IMS CI VICLA1ICNS CI nUMAN kIGn1S, Ck 1nLIk IAMILILS,
(7) MCNI1Ck 1nL nILIINL GCVLkNMLN1'S CCMLIANCL WI1n IN1LkNA1ICNAL 1kLA1
C8LIGA1ICNS CN nUMAN kIGn1S,
(8) GkAN1 IMMUNI1 IkCM kCSLCU1ICN 1C AN LkSCN WnCSL 1LS1IMCN Ck WnCSL
CSSLSSICN CI DCCUMLN1S Ck C1nLk LVIDLNCL IS NLCLSSAk Ck CCNVLNILN1 1C DL1LkMINL
1nL 1kU1n IN AN INVLS1IGA1ICN CNDUC1LD 8 I1 Ck UNDLk I1S AU1nCkI1,
(9) kLULS1 1nL ASSIS1ANCL CI AN DLAk1MLN1, 8UkLAU, CIIICL, Ck AGLNC IN 1nL
LkICkMANCL CI I1S IUNC1ICNS,
(10) ACIN1 I1S CIIICLkS AND LMLCLLS IN ACCCkDANCL WI1n LAW, AND
(11) LkICkM SUCn C1nLk DU1ILS AND IUNC1ICNS AS MA 8L kCVIDLD 8 LAW.
Sect|on 19.
1nL CCNGkLSS MA kCVIDL ICk C1nLk CASLS CI VICLA1ICNS CI nUMAN kIGn1S 1nA1 SnCULD
IALL WI1nIN 1nL AU1nCkI1 CI 1nL CCMMISSICN, 1AkING IN1C ACCCUN1 I1S
kLCCMMLNDA1ICNS.
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,


689
ConsLlLuLlonal sLaLus
lL ls a ConsLlLuLlonal creaLlon, buL noL on Lhe same level as Lhe
ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslons
lull operaLlonallzaLlon requlres leglslaLlon
Sec. 19 provldes for Lhe posslblllLy of expanslon of lLs powers by leglslaLlon
Servlce Lo Lhose abroad
1hrough represenLaLlon wlLh consular and oLher dlplomaLlc personnel
abroad
Puman rlghLs vlolaLlons (7)
%:; &<=;><?=@A<?B !AC;<?<= A< .DA<AE@DF $AD@?B ?<G !HB=H>?B -@I:=J
K&!.$!-L ?<G &<=;><?=@A<?B !AC;<?<= A< !@C@B ?<G MAB@=@D?B -@I:=J
K&!!M-L-scope of human rlghLs can be undersLood Lo lnclude Lhose LhaL
relaLe Lo an lndlvldual's soclal, economlc, culLural, pollLlcal and clvll
relaLlons.
%:; N>?E;>J AN =:; !A<J@==H=@A<-envlsloned a CP8 LhaL would focus lLs
aLLenLlon Lo Lhe more severe cases of human rlghLs vlolaLlons such as
proLecLlon of rlghLs of pollLlcal deLalnees, LreaLmenL of prlsoners and Lhe
prevenLlon of LorLures, falr and publlc Lrlals, dlsappearances, salvaglngs
and hamleLLlng, and oLher crlmes commlLLed agalnsL Lhe rellglous.
Congress may provlde for oLher cases of vlolaLlons of human rlghLs LhaL
should fall wlLhln Lhe auLhorlLy of CP8

owers
ower ls LhaL lL may @<C;J=@I?=; KOL
! 8ecelve evldence
! Make flndlngs of facLs regardlng human rlghLs vlolaLlons
! &<C;J=@I?=;
Lxamlne and lnqulre
An lnqulry
1aklng of evldence
! (GPHG@D?=;
SeLLle wlLh exerclse of [udlclal auLhorlLy
1o declde, seLLle, decree, senLence, or condemn
1?D=7N@<G@<I @J <A= ?GPHG@D?=@A<QlL may recelve evldence and make facLual
flndlngs 8u1 MA? nC1 make an appllcaLlon of law on Lhe facLual
concluslons Lo Lhe end LhaL Lhe conLroversy may be declded or deLermlned
auLhorlLaLlvely, flnally and deflnlLely, sub[ecL Lo such appeals or modes of
revlew as may be provlded by law. (6)
R!"#$%&' )#" !"'$'*+%$' ,'-./"'. -*& 0'1-0 -%& .'"$%2'. +# +3'
/*&'"!"%$%0'1'& 43#.' 3/,-* "%13+. 3-$' 5''* $%#0-+'& #" *''&
!"#+'2+%#*6 -may noL be consLrued Lo confer [urlsdlcLlon on Lhe CP8 Lo
lssue resLralnlng order or ln[uncLlon (6)
o !urlsdlcLlon ls never lmplled, lL musL be expressly glven by Lhe
consLlLuLlon
o 1hls provlslon !"#"!$ &' "(&!)*+,-.-)/ )0, *+,-.-)/ !"1",-"$ whlch
Lhe CP8 may seek ln behalf of Lhe vlcLlms
! CP8 may flle, ln behalf of vlcLlms, a peLlLlon for
prohlblLlon, ln[uncLlon or resLralnlng order ln Lhe proper
courLs
SAT;> =A D@=; NA> DA<=;ES=Qshould be undersLood Lo apply only Lo
vlolaLlons of lLs adopLed operaLlonal guldellnes and rules of procedure
essenLlal Lo carry ouL lLs lnvesLlgaLorlal powers. (7)
o 1he 2'!,"! &' ,"$-$&2 ls noL lnvesLlgaLorlal ln characLer buL
presclnds from an ad[udlcaLlve power LhaL lL does noL
possess. 1he Commlsslon does noL have legal sLandlng Lo lndorse,
for approprlaLe acLlon, lLs flndlngs and recommendaLlons Lo any
approprlaLe agency of governmenL.




!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,


689
!"#$ &"'
: !;<= 1;>?< (>?< >@=;?ABC A<<D= E=FG 0H>?@AB=
1 lSA v.
Culsumblng (C8
no. 128843,
2000)
lnLernaLlonal School, lnc. had forelgn and
local hlres. lL granLs beneflLs Lo forelgn hlres
noL en[oyed by local hlres-such as 23
hlgher salary raLe, houslng, LransporLaLlon,
eLc. lor longesL Llme, local and forelgn hlres
have noL been merged ln Lhe same
collecLlve bargalnlng unlL. 1he school
explalns Lhe salary dlfference ls due Lo Lhe
dlslocaLlon and llmlLed Lenure LhaL forelgn
hlres experlence.
lSA conLends Lhe salary dlfference as
well as WCn forelgn-hlres should be ln
Lhe same bargalnlng unlL as local hlres
1he salary dlfference ls
lmproper. 1he oLher beneflLs
make up for Lhe dlslocaLlon
and llmlLed Lenure.
1hey should be kepL ln
dlfferenL bargalnlng unlLs,
because Lhey do noL have Lhe
same lnLeresLs.
Lqual pay for equal work.
1he baslc LesL for
deLermlnaLlon of bargalnlng
unlLs ls Lhe assurance LhaL
each group wlll be able Lo
exerclse Lhelr bargalnlng
rlghLs.
2 AssoclaLlon of
Small Land
Cwners v. Sec. of
Agrarlan 8eform
(C8 no. 78742,
1989)
varlous laws have been passed reegarldng
land reform lmplemenLlng Lhe agrarlan
reform mandaLed by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon (noL
[usL 1987, buL also 1933 and 1973). Some of
Lhese are u 27, CA8 Law, LC 228 and
229, roc. no. 131.
Ma[or lssues wlLh Lhe laws:
a. undue leglslaLlon by Lhe
resldenL
b. 1 sub[ecL-1 blll
c. LC vlolaLlon
d. lallure Lo uphold reLenLlon
llmlLs
e. [usL compensaLlon
f. CA8 awards LlLle before full
paymenL ls made
g. compensaLlon
Mlnor lssues:
a. res. Marcos and
Cory promulgaLed
Lhese and Lhey
became law, Lhe
LermlnaLlon of Lhelr
exLraordlnary rule dld
noL LermlnaLe Lhe
effecLlvlLy of Lhe laws
b. 1he LlLle does noL
have Lo be an lndex
of lLs conLenLs
c. LC-Lhere ls a
subsLanLlal
dlsLlncLlon beLween
land landowners and
owners of oLher
Lypes of properLy,
havlng Lhem carry
Lhls burden ls noL
vlolaLlon of LC
8eLenLlon llmlLs are now
provlded for ln 8A 6637, so no
more problems.

!usL compensaLlon
deLermlned admlnlsLraLlvely
ls sLlll sub[ecL Lo [udlclal
revlew, no Lransfer of LlLle
unLll a proper deposlL ls made
and full compensaLlon
awarded

CompensaLlon need noL only
be money ln a case of
revoluLlonary exproprlaLlon
3 Luz larms v.
SecreLary of uA8
(C8 no. 86889,
1990)
8.A. no. 6637 (Comprehenslve Agrarlan
8eform Law of 1988I - coverlng Lhe !"#$#%&
() *#+,$-(./0 1(2*-!3 "%4 $5#%, and
promulgaLlng Lhe Culdellnes and rocedure
eLlLloners conLend Lhe lncluslon of
llvesLock, poulLry and swlne under
CA8
SecLlons of CA8 lncludlng
Lhese are null and vold.
lL was Lhe lnLenL of Lhe
ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslon
dellberaLlons Lo exclude Lhese
from Lhe coverage of agrarlan
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,


689
lmplemenLlng roducLlon and roflL Sharlng

reform
4 eople v.
Leachon (C8 no.
108723-26,
1998)
Pablo, Maplndam and Lscala vlolaLed u
772. 1hls law punlshes squaLLers wlLh
lmprlsonmenL and evlcLs Lhem. 1he
prosecuLor flled lnformaLlons agalnsL Lhem.
When Lhe case wenL Lo Lrlal, !udge Leachon
dlsmlssed lL.
Pe ruled LhaL u 772 ls unconslLLuLlonal
and has been repealed by Lhe 1987
ConsLlLuLlon, because Lhe laLLer
provldes LhaL evlcLlon cannoL be made
unLll reseLLlemenL areas have been
esLabllshed.
lL ls consLlLuLlonal. 1he [udge's
lnLepreLaLlon of Lhe ConsLl
provlslon ls false.
!usL and humane" and ln
accordance wlLh law" ln Lhe
ConsLl means due process,
noL necessarlly LhaL
reseLLlemenL areas and
consulLaLlon are provlded
flrsL.
3 Carlno v. CP8
(C8 no. 96681,
1991)
800 publlc school Leachers conducLed mass
acLlons because of fallure of publlc
auLhorlLles Lo adress Lhelr grlevances. uLCS
secreLary lssued reLurn Lo work orders.
LvenLually, many were suspended and
dlsmlssed. 1hey flled a complalnL wlLh Lhe
CP8, who Lhen ordered Lhe secreLary Lo
produce documenLs so Lhey can resolve Lhe
maLLer.
uLCS secreLary quesLlons Lhe
[urlsdlcLlon and powers of Lhe CP8
CP8 does noL have Lhe power
Lo hear and declde cases.
1hey have only power Lo
lnvesLlgaLe, noL ad[udlcaLe
6 LZA v. CP8 (C8
no. 101476,
1992)
LZA acqulred land from llloll. Powever,
prlor Lo Lhelr Laklng possesslon of Lhe land,
several lndlvlduals had enLered Lhe
premlses and sLarLed planLlng agrlculuLral
producLs, wlLhouL LZA's permlsslon. 1hey
broughL bulldozers and a crane Lo geL Lhem
ouL and medla were beaLen up. 1hey flled a
complalnL wlLh Lhe CP8
CP8 ordered ln[unLlon Lwlce, buL LZA
sLlll proceeded wlLh Lhelr demollLlon
and harrasssmenL. 1hey quesLlon Lhe
auLhorlLy of CP8
CP8 does noL have Lhe power
Lo lssue ln[uncLlon.
1he prevenLlve measures
and legal ald servlces", whlch
Lhey may provlde are exLra-
[udlclal and [udlclal
rememdles, whlch Lhey may
seek ln behalf of vlcLlms, Lhey
have no power Lo lssue a wrlL
of ln[uncLlon
7 Slmon, !r. v. CP8
(C8 no. 100130,
1994)
Culmpo senL demollLlon noLlce Lo prlvaLe
respondenLs, Lo vacaLe Lhe premlses ln
norLh Ldsa. 1he group flled a complalnL
wlLh CP8 Lo sLop Culmpo from demollshlng
Lhelr sLalls and carlnderlas. CP8 senL
Culmpo an order Lo deslsL demollLlon
pendlng resoluLlon of Lhe case flled by
prlvaLe respodenLs. Culmpo wenL ahead
wlLh lL anyway.
CP8 clLed hlm for conLempL. Pe
quesLlons Lhe powers of Lhe CP8.
CP8 cannoL clLe for conLempL.
lurLhermore, Lhe desLrucLlon
of Lhelr sarl-sarl sLores and
carlnderlas are noL human
rlghLs vlolaLlons
1he power Lo clLe for
conLempL applles only Lo
vlolaLlons of Lhelr adopLed
operaLlonal guldellnes and
rules of procedure
A deslsL order emanaLed from
ad[udlcaLlve, noL lnvesLlgaLlve
power, Lhus, Lhey have no
power Lo lssue such order



!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,


688
(-%&!). 9&/: .0'!(%&"#; $!&.#!. (#0 %.!<#")"=2;
(-%$; !')%'-.; (#0 $>"-%$
!"#$%&'()
$?@ABCD 6
%<. $%(%. $<()) >-"%.!% (#0 >-"3"%. %<. -&=<% "1 ()) !&%&E.#$ %" F'()&%2
.0'!(%&"# (% ()) )./.)$ "1 .0'!(%&"# (#0 $<()) %(G. (>>-">-&(%. $%.>$ %"
3(G. $'!< .0'!(%&"# (!!.$$&4). %" ())H
!"#$ &' $() !*+,-
o lacLs: San ulego falled Lhe nMA1 Lhree Llmes. Pe assalls Lhe
valldlLy of Lhe Lhree-flunk rule whlch prohlblLed Lhose who flunk
Lhe nMA1 for 3 consecuLlve Llmes from Laklng lL agaln.
o 8aLlo: 1he SC upheld Lhe consLlLuLlonallLy of Lhe Lhree-flunk rule
as a measure lnLended Lo llmlL Lhe admlsslon Lo medlcal schools
only Lo Lhose who have lnlLlally proved Lhelr compeLence and
preparaLlon for a medlcal educaLlon. 1he rlghL Lo quallLy
educaLlon ls noL absoluLe. 1he SLaLe has Lhe rlghL Lo regulaLe
enLrance Lo medlcal schools ln order Lo safeguard Lhe publlc from
lncompeLenL docLors.
$?@ABCD ,
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$?@ABCD L
I6J ()) .0'!(%&"#() &#$%&%'%&"#$ $<()) &#!)'0. %<. $%'02 "1 %<.
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>-"3"%. /"!(%&"#() .11&!&.#!2H
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>'4)&! .).3.#%(-2 (#0 <&=< $!<"")$ +&%<&# %<. -.=')(- !)($$ <"'-$ 42
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%" %<. ="/.-#3.#%H
.*/*(0 #-11+,+ &' #2
o lacLs: 1he school paper of MC publlshed arLlcles whlch were
eroLlc ln naLure. 1he school evenLually expelled Lhe edlLorlal
board afLer an lnvesLlgaLlon.
o Peld: 1he SC ruled LhaL due Lo Lhe Campus !ournallsm AcL of
1991, expelllng sLudenLs based solely on whaL Lhey publlsh ln Lhe
school paper ls noL allowed. Powever, Lhe power Lo dlsclpllne
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ , -./&.+.- 0.(# $.01-.2 !(#0.)(-&( !-"34"#0$ ,5667,56,


689
Lhelr sLudenLs ls lncluded ln Lhe academlc freedom of Lhe
lnsLlLuLlon.
CommenL on subparagraph (3)
1hls ls noL an lnconslsLency wlLh Lhe non-esLabllshmenL clause (ArL. lll, Sec.
3). noLe LhaL Lhe rellglous lnsLrucLlon, when allowed, ls Lo be done by a
person deslgnaLed by LhaL rellglous secL, and wlLhouL cosL Lo Lhe
governmenL. 1hus, governmenL does noL have any parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe
rellglous lnsLrucLlon.
$:;<=>? @
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689
%:. 4.$% (/(&)(4). %().#%$ %:-"';: (0.<'(%. -.3'#.-(%&"# (#0 "%:.-
3.(#$ "1 ="4 $(%&$1(!%&"# (#0 1'))1&))3.#%>
!"#$%" '( )"$*+,- ./0%1
o lacLs: Carcla, a female, was denled admlsslon Lo Lhe Loyola
School of 1heology, a semlnary for prlesL. She flled for mandamus
Lo be admlLLed Lo Lhe LS1.
o 8aLlo: 1he SC upheld Lhe academlc freedom of LS1, especlally lLs
rlghL Lo choose who may be admlLLed Lo be LaughL. 1he rlghL of
Lhe lndlvldual Lo quallLy educaLlon musL be balanced wlLh Lhe
academlc freedom of Lhe lnsLlLuLlon of hlgher learnlng.

21%'3#4%,- 56 7"1 8"#+54 '( 8.
o lacLs: !ennlfer Lee was lnlLlally an archlLecLure sLudenL ln Lhe
unlverslLy. She goL falllng marks. She shlfLed Lo Commerce and dld
well. She asked Lhe school reglsLrar Lo change her falllng grades Lo
passlng marks Lo make her ellglble Lo graduaLe wlLh honors,
pursuanL Lo unlverslLy pollcy. Powever, Lhe school dld noL honor
her grades, Lhus she graduaLed wlLhouL honors. 1he lower courL
granLed a mandamus peLlLlon Lo award Lee Lhe honors, hence Lhls
peLlLlon.
o 8aLlo: Lower courLs reversed. 8ecause of academlc freedom,
schools are glven ample dlscreLlon Lo formulaLe rules and
guldellnes regardlng awardlng of honors. 1hls dlscreLlon may noL
be dlsLurbed, unless Lhere ls grave abuse of dlscreLlon. SLudenLs
are presumed Lo know Lhese rules.
Academlc lreedom of lnsLlLuLlons means LhaL Lhe school may choose:
1. WhaL may be LaughL
2. Pow lL may be LaughL
3. Who may Leach lL
4. Who may be admlLLed Lo be LaughL
Cnly posslble reasons for expelllng or dlsmlsslng a sLudenL:
1. lallure Lo reach academlc sLandards
2. vlolaLlon of dlsclpllnary rules
!"#$%"$&
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!oaquln C. 8ernas, S.!., 1he 1987 ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe hlllpplnes: A CommenLary, 1313
(2009 LdlLlon)
ln annulmenL cases, any doubL should be resolved ln favor of Lhe valldlLy of
Lhe marrlage
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8.A. 7610 was passed Lowards Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of a naLlonal program
for Lhe survlval of llllplno chlldren, ln keeplng wlLh Lhe mandaLe of ArLlcle
xv 3
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