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STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN


Day: 102 Subject: Geometry Grade Level: High School
Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 6A1; 7A5, 7C1, 2; 8D1; 9A3
TAP:
Perform arithmetic operations involving
integers, fractions, decimals, and percents,
explicitly stated or within context
Choose and apply appropriate operational
procedures and problem-solving strategies to
real-world situations
Understand number systems
Understand geometric properties and
relationships; apply geometric concepts and
formulas
Analyze and interpret data presented in charts,
graphs, tables, and other displays
Demonstrate understanding of measurement
concepts and apply measurement skills
ISAT:
Solve problems requiring computations
with whole numbers, fractions, decimals,
ratios, percents, and proportions
Understand and apply geometric concepts and
relationships
Use mathematical skills to estimate,
approximate, and predict outcomes and to
judge reasonableness of results
Identify, analyze, and solve problems using
equations, inequalities, functions, and their
graphs
Understand and use methods of data collection
and analysis, including tables, charts, and
comparisons
Demonstrate an understanding of measurement
concepts and skills
Unit Focus/Foci
Connecting Proportions and Similarity
Instructional Focus/Foci
Exploring Dilations
Materials
Graph Paper
Rulers
Colored Pencils
Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures
Define dilation for the students.
Dilation a similarity transformation with center c and scale factor n mapping every
point P so that
a) if P is the center, P = P

b) if P is not the center, then CP

= N(CP)
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If N > 1 the dilation is an enlargement
If N < 1 the dilation is a reduction
Center at A N(Scale Factor) 2
N(ScaleFactor)E
1
2
A C
1
2
(AC) A (2,6) A C 2(AC) A (2,6)
A B
1
2
(AB) B (5,3) A B 2(AB) B (6,1)
C B
1
2
(CB) C (6,4) C B 2(CB) C (12,6)
1 1 1 11 11 11
1 1 1 11 11 11
1 1 1 11 11 11
=
= =
= =
= =
Center at Origin
N(Scalefactor)
1
2
N(ScaleFactor)
A (1,3)
B (2,2)
C (3,3)
A
B
C
1
1
1
11
11
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
2
4 12
8 8
1212
11
( , )
( , )
( , )
Have the students work along with you on grid paper as you complete the following example
points for ABCD.
B
B
11
C
11
B
1
A=(2,6)
A
1
=A
11

C
1
C (6,6)
(4,4)
B(4,4)
B
1
A=(2,6)
A
1
C
1
C (6,6)
A
11
C
11
B
11
Enlargement
Reduction
51
Explain that with a function, the denominator cannot be 0.
A (-2, 2) C (2, -2)
B (2, 2) D (-2, -2)
Using a scale factor of 3 and the center of the origin, plot the points ABCD on the same axes.
Have students note that with the center at the origin, we multiply each coordinate.
Using the same coordinate axis, use B (2,2) as the center with scale factor N =
1
2
dilate
ABCD and label the points A
1
B
1
C
1
D
1
.
A
1
B
1
=
1
2
(AB)
AB = 4 units
= A B units
1 1
2
Since B is fixed, we locate B
1
at (2,2) and A
1
at (0,2). Ask the students where C
1
and D
1
are
located?
Answer: C
1
(2,0) D
1
(0,0)
Remind students that if the center is not the origin, we must measure distances.
Have the students complete Dilation Activity.
Discuss their observations.
Integration with Core Subject(s)
LA: Understand explicit, factual information
Understand the meaning of words in context
SC: Analyze and interpret data
Apply scientific method to solve problems
SS: Read and interpret maps, charts, and graphs
Distinguish fact from opinion and relevant from irrelevant information
A
1
(-6,6)
B
1
(6,6)
A (2,2) B (2,2)
(0,0)
D (-2,-2)
C (2,-2)
D
1
(-6,-6)
D
11
(6,-6)
52
Connection(s)
Enrichment: Have students explore dilations used in movies such as Ghostbusters, King Kong,
and Jurassic Park.
Fine Arts: Have students explore dilations used in illustrations in childrens books such as Jack
and the Beanstalk.
Home: Have students compare the cost of a childs meal and the amount of food it buys with
the cost of an adult meal and the amount of food it buys at their favorite restaurant.
Remediation: Work with students in small groups, taking measurements of similar figures.
Technology: Using a computer program such as Geometers Sketchpad or Cabri Geometry,
have the students explore dilations:
a) using coordinates
c) examining the ratios of the perimeters and areas of two similar figures
d) comparing the ratios of the corresponding sides
Assessment
Teacher observation
Homework
Assign appropriate problems from your text.
Give students two weeks to complete a book review on Gullivers Travels, noting similarities
and ratios. Include the attached worksheet on dilation activity.
Teacher Notes
Inform students that in Geometers Sketchpad and some other computer programs, the select tool
can be turned into a dilation tool.
Reserve a copy of Gullivers Travels on video to be shown after the unit assessment on day 117.
53
Dilation Activity
1. Draw pentagon ABCDE on graph paper using the following coordinates: A(6, 9), B(0, 3),
C(-12, 9), D(-9, 0), and E(3, -3).
2. Using the origin as the center and Scale Factor 2/3, find A
1
, B
1
, C
1
, D
1
, and E
1
.
3. Graph A
1
, B
1
, C
1
, D
1
, E
1
.
4. List the corresponding sides of ABCDE and A
1
B
1
C
1
D
1
E
1
.
5. Compare ABCDE to A
1
B
1
C
1
D
1
E
1
by:
a) measuring corresponding sides
b) finding slopes of corresponding sides
c) finding the measure of corresponding angles
6. Describe your observations.
54
STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN
Day: 103 Subject: Geometry Grade Level: High School
Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 6A1; 7A5, 7C1, 2; 8D1; 9A3
TAP:
Perform arithmetic operations involving
integers, fractions, decimals, and percents,
explicitly stated or within context
Understand geometric properties and
relationships; apply geometric concepts and
formulas
Use variables, number sentences, and
equations to represent solutions and solve
problems
Demonstrate understanding of measurement
concepts and apply measurement skills
ISAT:
Solve problems requiring computations
with whole numbers, fractions, decimals,
ratios, percents, and proportions
Understand and apply geometric concepts and
relationships
Identify, analyze, and solve problems using
equations, inequalities, functions, and their
graphs
Demonstrate an understanding of measurement
concepts and skills
Unit Focus/Foci
Connecting Proportions and Similarity
Instructional Focus/Foci
Recognizing and Using Ratios and Proportions
Materials
Copies of Similar Worksheet 1
Yardstick
Meterstick
Tape measure
Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures
Have students work in groups of four to complete the following explorations:
Exploration 1
Measure the distance from your wrist to the tip of your middle finger. Then measure your
height. Compare the length of your hand to your height.
55
Exploration 2
Using a tape measure, find the circumference of your hand and neck. Find the ratio of hand to
neck measurements. How do your ratios compare? How does your ratio compare to the other
members of your group? To the other members of your class?
Explain that with a function the denominator cannot be 0.
Define a proportion as an equation that states that two ratios are equal. Remind the students that
in a proportion, the product of the extremes equals the product of the means. This is called the
cross product.
extreme a c mean
mean b d extreme
ad = bc(cross product)

=

Review the following examples using the property:
a c
b d
= if and only if ad=bc .
+3 4 9 3 4
Example1:
9 3 9 3
12 4
3( 3) 9 4
9 3
4 4
3 9 36
3 3
3 27
9
x
x
x
x
x
+
= =
+ = =
+ = =
=
=
4 2 22 4 22 2
Example 2:
6 8 6 8
18 24
8 32 6 12
6 8
2 44 3 3
22
+ +
= =
= + =
= =
=
x x
x x
x
x
Have the students complete Similar Worksheet 1.
Integration with Core Subject(s)
LA: Understand explicit, factual information
Understand the meaning of words in context
SC: Apply scientific method to solve problems
SS: Distinguish fact from opinion and relevant from irrelevant information
56
Connection(s)
Enrichment: Have the students write an essay on the Golden Ratio.
Fine Arts: See Enrichment.
Home: Have parent sign homework sheet weekly.
Remediation: Teachers Half Dozen
Technology: Have the students explore the Golden Ratio using a drawing program such as
Geometers Sketchpad or Cabri Geometry.
Assessment
Evaluate Similar Worksheet 1 using the Structured Curriculum Scoring Rubric.
Homework
Assign appropriate problems from your text.
Teacher Notes
Prepare copies of Similar Worksheet 2A.
Answers to Similar Worksheet 1:
1. 12
2. 32
1
3. 12 or12.5
2
4. 8
5. 23
6. 4 or 6
7. 4
E
8.
R
9. 50 and130
10.7.2days
Bonus: 2:48 pm
=
=
=
=
=
= =
=
=
+

x
x
x
x
x
x x
x
r
e
r
57
Similar Worksheet 1
Solve each proportion:
1.
12
6
2
3 x +
= 2.
x
x 8
4
5 +
= 3.
x
x
+

=
4
2 3
3
4
4.
4
16 x
x
= 5.
x x
=
+ 2
5
3
4
6.
2
3
16
2
x
x
=
+
7.
x
x
x
x

+
=

+
3
1
2
6
8. Solve for e
r
r
:
E
e
R
=
+
9. Find the measure of two supplementary angles if their measures are in a ratio of 5:13.
10. Carlos can install 5 car stereos in 2 days. How long does it take him to install 18 stereos?
Bonus: Carlos works from 9:00am to 5:00pm. He eats lunch from 12:00 to 1:00pm. At what
time will he complete installation of the 18th stereo?
58
STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN
Day: 104 Subject: Geometry Grade Level: High School
Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 6A1; 7A5, 7C1, 2; 8D1; 9A3
TAP:
Perform arithmetic operations involving
integers, fractions, decimals, and percents,
explicitly stated or within context
Understand geometric properties and
relationships; apply geometric concepts and
formulas
Use variables, number sentences, and
equations to represent solutions and solve
problems
Demonstrate understanding of measurement
concepts and apply measurement skills
ISAT:
Solve problems requiring computations
with whole numbers, fractions, decimals,
ratios, percents, and proportions
Understand and apply geometric concepts and
relationships
Identify, analyze, and solve problems using
equations, inequalities, functions, and their
graphs
Demonstrate an understanding of measurement
concepts and skills
Unit Focus/Foci
Connecting Proportions and Similarity
Instructional Focus/Foci
Identifying and Solving Problems Involving Similar Figures
Materials
Copies of Similar Worksheet 2A
Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures
Review last nights homework and answer any questions the students may have.
Discuss the phrase if and only if with the students. Have the students note that the conditional
statement and its converse must be true. (The hypothesis leads to the conclusion and the
conclusion leads to the hypothesis.)
Review the definition of similar polygons and discuss the following examples:
Similar polygons: two polygons are similar if and only if their corresponding angles are
congruent ( ) and the measure of their corresponding sides is proportional.
59
Ex. 1 Ex. 2
Inform students that the symbol for similar is ~.
Have the students complete Similar Worksheet 2A.
Integration with Core Subject(s)
LA: Understand explicit, factual information
Understand the meaning of words in context
Apply information presented in the text to a new or different situation
SC: Apply scientific method to solve problems
SS: Distinguish fact from opinion and relevant from irrelevant information
Connection(s)
Enrichment: Have students find pictures of household articles that are similar.
Fine Arts: See Enrichment.
Home: Have parent sign homework sheet weekly.
Remediation: Teachers Half Dozen
Technology: Have students explore Similar Polygons using a drawing program such as
Geometers Sketchpad or Cabri Geometry.
Assessment
Evaluate Similar Worksheet 2 using the Structured Curriculum Scoring Rubric.
Homework
Assign appropriate problems from your text.
8
6
10
4
3
5
5.0
5.0
2.5
7.5
2
2.0
1
3
60
Teacher Notes
Inform students that a quiz will be given on Day 110.
Prepare copies of Similar Worksheet 2B.
Answers to Similar Worksheet 2A:
1. Polygons are similar
2. Polygons are not similar
3. MN and QR, MP and QT, NO and RS, PO and TS
4. Mand Q Nand R Pand T Oand S ; ; ;
5. 33
6. 15
7. 8
8. 68
61
Similar Worksheet 2A
Determine whether each pair of polygons is similar.
1.
Trapezoid MNOP Trapezoid QRST
3. List all pairs of corresponding sides.
4. List all pairs of corresponding angles.
5. Find the length of TS .
6. Find the length of QT .
7. Find the length of NO.
8. Find mT
5cm
4cm
6cm
7.5cm
8cm
16cm
32cm
24cm
M N
O P
22cm
112
16cm
Q
R
T
S
X
Y 24cm
12cm
62
STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN
Day: 105 Subject: Geometry Grade Level: High School
Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 6A1; 7A5, 7C1, 2; 8D1; 9A3
TAP:
Perform arithmetic operations involving
integers, fractions, decimals, and percents,
explicitly stated or within context
Understand geometric properties and
relationships; apply geometric concepts and
formulas
Use variables, number sentences, and
equations to represent solutions and solve
problems
Demonstrate understanding of measurement
concepts and apply measurement skills
ISAT:
Solve problems requiring computations
with whole numbers, fractions, decimals,
ratios, percents, and proportions
Understand and apply geometric concepts and
relationships
Identify, analyze, and solve problems using
equations, inequalities, functions, and their
graphs
Demonstrate an understanding of measurement
concepts and skills
Unit Focus/Foci
Connecting Proportions and Similarity
Instructional Focus/Foci
Identifying and Using Similar Triangles to Solve Problems
Materials
Copies of Similar Worksheet 2B
Protractors
Rulers or straightedges
Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures
Review last nights homework with the students and answer any questions the students may
have.
Using a protractor and a straightedge, have the students draw two triangles so that each triangle
has angles of 45 and 65

. Now measure the third angle of each triangle; it should measure 70

.
Why? Measure the length of the sides of the triangles. Compute the ratios of the corresponding
sides. Are the triangles similar? Explain.
63
Review the postulate and theorems involving similarity:
Angle-Angle Similarity (AA)-If two angles of one triangle are congruent to two angles of
another triangle, then the triangles are similar.
Side-Side Similarity (SSS)-If the measures of the corresponding sides of two triangles are
proportional, then the triangles are similar.
Side-Angle Side Similarity (SAS)-If the measures of two sides of a triangle are proportional to
the measures of two corresponding sides of another triangle and the included angles are
congruent, then the triangles are similar.
Have students complete Similar Worksheet 2B.
Integration with Core Subject(s)
LA: Understand explicit, factual information
Understand the meaning of words in context
Apply information presented in the text to a new or different situation
SC: Apply scientific method to solve problems
SS Distinguish fact from opinion and relevant from irrelevant information
Connection(s)
Enrichment: Have students create a collage using pictures of similar household articles.
3
4
5
6 8
10
2 3
4
6
64
Fine Arts: See Enrichment.
Home: Have parent sign homework sheet weekly.
Remediation: Teachers Half Dozen
Technology: Search the Internet for uses of similarity.
Assessment
Evaluate the in-class assignment using the Structured Curriculum Scoring Rubric.
Homework
Assign appropriate problems from your text.
Teacher Notes
Prepare the Mid-Unit Assessment. Prepare copies of Similar Worksheet 3.
Answers to Similar Worksheet 2B:
1. AA
2. AA
3. Similar
4. Similar by SSS or AA
5. a) J
1
(-1, -1) b)
1 1 1
JKL J K L bydefinition :
K
1
(3, -1)
L
1
(3, 2) c) The rating of similitude is 2:1
6. See student work. A possible solution:
Statements Reasons
1. AB//ED 1. Given
2. ABE BED 2. Alt. Int. angles
3. ACB DCE 3. Vertical angles
4. ABC DEC : 4. AA
A B
C
E D
AB//ED
Prove ABCDEC
65
Similar Worksheet 2B
Explain why the triangles are similar.
1. 2.
Determine whether the figures in questions 3 and 4 are similar and give the reason why or why
not.
3. A rhombus with 4 cm sides containing a 50 angle and a rhombus with 8cm sides containing
a 130 angle
4. An equilateral triangle with 5cm sides and an equilateral triangle with 7cm sides.
5. Draw JKL with vertices J(-2, -2), K(6, -2), and L(6, 4). Draw its image J
1
K
1
L
1
under the
dilation with center (0, 0) and scale factor
1
2
.
a) What are the vertices of J
1
K
1
L
1
?
b) Is
1 1 1
JKL J K L : ?
c) What is the ratio of similitude?
6.
A
B
C
D E
A B
C
E D
Given: AB//ED
Prove: DABCDDEC
66
STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN
Day: 106 Subject: Geometry Grade Level: High School
Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 6A1; 7A5, 7C1, 2; 8D1; 9A3
TAP:
Perform arithmetic operations involving
integers, fractions, decimals, and percents,
explicitly stated or within context
Understand geometric properties and
relationships; apply geometric concepts and
formulas
Use variables, number sentences, and
equations to represent solutions and solve
problems
Demonstrate understanding of measurement
concepts and apply measurement skills
ISAT:
Solve problems requiring computations
with whole numbers, fractions, decimals,
ratios, percents, and proportions
Understand and apply geometric concepts and
relationships
Identify, analyze, and solve problems using
equations, inequalities, functions, and their
graphs
Demonstrate an understanding of measurement
concepts and skills
Unit Focus/Foci
Connecting Proportions and Similarity
Instructional Focus/Foci
Solving Problems Using Proportions and Similarity
Materials
Copies of Similar Worksheet 3
Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures
Quick Quiz: On a sheet of paper, write all the ways you know to test for similarity of triangles.
What are the requirements for each? Are there any short cuts? After the quiz, discuss the
answers with the students. Allow them to answer orally.
Review last nights homework with the students and answer any questions the students may
have.
Have students complete Similar Worksheet 3 and discuss the results.
67
Integration with Core Subject(s)
LA: Understand explicit, factual information
Understand the meaning of words in context
Apply information presented in the text to a new or different situation
SC: Apply scientific method to solve problems
SS: Distinguish fact from opinion and relevant from irrelevant information
Connection(s)
Enrichment:
Fine Arts:
Home: Have parent sign homework sheet weekly.
Remediation: Teachers Half Dozen
Technology:
Assessment
Evaluate Similar Worksheet 3 using the Structured Curriculum Scoring Rubric.
Homework
Study for Mid-Unit Assessment.
Teacher Notes
Remind students that the Mid-Unit Assessment will be given at the next class meeting.
Remind students that the book reviews are due in six days.
Prepare copies of the Mid-Unit Assessment.
Answers to Similar Worksheet 3:
1. a. DABC ~DEFG AA
b. DABC ~ DEFG
c. DABC ~ DEFG SSS
2. AB = 27 BC = 15
3. MT = 11.2
68
4.
Given: DBCE ~ DDEF
Prove: DBCE ~ DACF
Statements Reasons
1. DBCE ~DDEF
1. Given
2. E F 2. Definition of similar triangles
3. C C
3. Reflexive property
4. DBCE ~ DACF
4. AA
F
E
D
A
B C
69
Similar Worksheet 3
1. Use the given information to determine if ABC EFG and explain why they are similar.
a) A E C F ,
b) = B G
AC
EF
AB
EG
,
c)
AB
EG
CB
FG
CA
FE
= =
2.
3.
MAH BUG
FindMT
:
4.
A B
C
F
E
G
D
C B A
BD Bisects ADC
AD 45 CD 25
AC 42
Find AB and BC

= =
=
M
28
A
T
H
35
U
B
G
10
25
S
F
E
D
A
B C
Given : BCE DEF :
Prove: BCE ACF :
70
STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN
Day: 107 Subject: Geometry Grade Level: High School
Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 6A1; 7A5, 7C1, 2; 8D1; 9A3
TAP:
Perform arithmetic operations involving
integers, fractions, decimals, and percents,
explicitly stated or within context
Understand geometric properties and
relationships; apply geometric concepts and
formulas
Use variables, number sentences, and
equations to represent solutions and solve
problems
Demonstrate understanding of measurement
concepts and apply measurement skills
ISAT:
Solve problems requiring computations
with whole numbers, fractions, decimals,
ratios, percents, and proportions
Understand and apply geometric concepts and
relationships
Identify, analyze, and solve problems using
equations, inequalities, functions, and their
graphs
Demonstrate an understanding of measurement
concepts and skills
Unit Focus/Foci
Connecting Proportions and Similarity
Instructional Focus/Foci
Using Proportions and Similar Triangles to Solve Problems
Materials
Copies of Mid-Unit Assessment
Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures
Have students complete the Mid-Unit Assessment.
Integration with Core Subject(s)
LA: Understand explicit, factual information
Understand the meaning of words in context
Apply information presented in the text to a new or different situation
SC: Apply scientific method to solve problems
SS: Distinguish fact from opinion and relevant from irrelevant information
71
Connection(s)
Enrichment: Have students create a scale drawing of their favorite room, including furniture.
Fine Arts: See Enrichment.
Home: See Enrichment.
Remediation: Teachers Half Dozen
Technology: See Enrichment.
Assessment
Evaluate the Mid-Unit Assessment using the Structured Curriculum Scoring Rubric.
Homework
Have students work on their book reviews.
Teacher Notes
Answers to Mid-Unit Assessment:
1. False
2. True
3. True
4. True
5. IJ = 22.5m JK = 19.5m
6. GM = 114mm GO = 152mm
7. (-4, 24) or (16, 24)
8. Ratio of Similarity 2:1 J K L
1 1 1
1 1 3 1 3 2 ( , ) ( , ) ( , )
72
9.
Given:
NQ
NO
NP
NM
=
Prove:
NQ
NO
QP
OM
=
Statements Reasons
1.
NQ
NO
NP
NM
=
1. Given
2. N N 2. Reflexive
3. NPQ NMO 3. SAS
4.
NQ
NO
QP
OM
=
4. Definition of triangles
10.
Given: AB BC
BD AC
Prove:
Statement Reasons
1. AB BC and BD AC 1. Given
2. ABC and ADBareright angles 2. Definition of lines
3. ABC ADB 3. All right angles are
4. A A 4. Reflexive
5. ABC ADB 5. AA
B
C D A
M P N
Q
O
73
Mid-Unit Assessment
Answer questions 1-4 true or false. Explain your answer.
1. All isosceles right triangles are .
2. All isosceles right triangles are .
3. All equilateral triangles are .
4. If the vertex angles of two isosceles triangles are congruent, the triangles are .
Solve each of the following:
5. Polygon ABCDE Polygon HIJKL. If BC = 13m. CD = 15m. IJ = 5x + 2 and JK = 7x 2.
Find IJ and JK.
6.
7. ABC with vertices A(2, 3), B(2, 6), and C(4, 6) is similar to XYZ with the vertices
X(6, 9), Y(6, 24), and Z. Give two possible coordinates for the vertex.
8. Draw JKL with the vertices J(-2, -2) K(6, -2), and L(6, 4). Draw its image J K L
1 1 1
under
the dilation center (0, 0) with scale factor
1
2
.
E
G
D
M
T
GET GDM
GM = 4x + 2
GD = 5x + 12
GE = 32mm
GT = 24mm
Find the length of GM and GD.
2:1 Similarity Ratio
J ( 1, 1)
K (3, 1)
L (3, 2)
1
1
1

74
9.
Given:
NQ
NO
NP
NM
=
Prove:
NQ
NO
QD
OM
=
10.
M P N
Q
O
B
C D A
Given AB BC
BD AC
ove ABC ADB
:
Pr :


75
STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN
Day: 108 Subject: Geometry Grade Level: High School
Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 6A1; 7A5, 7C1, 2; 8D1; 9A3
TAP:
Perform arithmetic operations involving
integers, fractions, decimals, and percents,
explicitly stated or within context
Understand geometric properties and
relationships; apply geometric concepts and
formulas
Use variables, number sentences, and
equations to represent solutions and solve
problems
Demonstrate understanding of measurement
concepts and apply measurement skills
ISAT:
Solve problems requiring computations
with whole numbers, fractions, decimals,
ratios, percents, and proportions
Understand and apply geometric concepts and
relationships
Identify, analyze, and solve problems using
equations, inequalities, functions, and their
graphs
Demonstrate an understanding of measurement
concepts and skills
Unit Focus/Foci
Connecting Proportions and Similarity
Instructional Focus/Foci
Using Proportional Parts of Triangles to Solve Problems
Materials
Copies of Similar Worksheet 4
Compasses
Rulers
Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures
Review with the students theorems and corollaries involving parallel lines and proportional parts.
Example 1: If a line is parallel to one side of a triangle and intersects the other two sides in two
distinct points, then it separates these sides into segments of proportional lengths.
76
In figure at the left,
BD AE . Given that BA= 4,
BC= 2, and DE= 6. What is the length of CD?
(Answer: CD= 3)
Example 2: A segment whose endpoints are the midpoints of two sides of a triangle is parallel to
the third side of the triangle, and its length is one-half the length of the third side.
Example 3: If three or more parallel lines intersect two transversals, then they cut off the
transversals proportionally.
Given: 1 2 3
AB= 9, BC= 15 and DE= 11
What is the length of EF?
(Answer: 18
1
3
18 33 or . )
Have the students work in pairs to complete the following:
1.
A
RSBC with R the midpoint of AB and
S the midpoint of AC
R S AB= 16, BC= 30, AC= 34
Find AR , RS, and AS .
B C (Answer: AR = 8, RS=15, AS =17)
A
B
C
D
E
6
2
4
D
E
B
C
4
A
3
10
A
B
C
D
E
F
1
2
3
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2. UV TS
RU=4
UT= 7
VS= 16 Find RV (Answer 9
1
7
)
3.
lmn
AB = 3 BC = 5
DE x = 4 EF x =
Find DE and EF (Answer: DE = 6 and EF = 10)
Discuss the solutions with the students.
Have student complete Similar Worksheet 4.
Integration with Core Subject(s)
LA: Understand explicit, factual information
Understand the meaning of words in context
Apply information presented in the text to a new or different situation
SC: Apply scientific method to solve problems
SS: Distinguish fact from opinion and relevant from irrelevant information
Connection(s)
Enrichment: Have students read a Paul Bunyon tale and compare the larger-then-life figures to
average figures.
Fine Arts: Have students write a story similar to a Paul Bunyon tale and include illustrations.
Home: Have parent sign homework sheet weekly.
Remediation: Teachers Half Dozen
Technology: Have students research the tallest human on the Internet.
R
S T
U V
7
4
16
l m n
A B C
D E F
78
Assessment
Teacher observation
Homework
Assign appropriate problems from your text.
Teacher Notes
79
Similar Worksheet 4
1. Use the following steps to separate into four congruent parts.
A. Given AB and point C not on AB , draw AC .
B. Place the compass point at A; construct an arc intersecting AC
uuur
at D. Using the same
compass setting, construct DE , EF , FG, and GCso that AD DE EF FG .
C. Draw GB. Construct lines through E, F, and G that are parallel to GB.
2. Explain why AD=DE=EF=FG .
A
B
C
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
80
STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN
Day: 109 Subject: Geometry Grade Level: High School
Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 6A1; 7A5, 7C1, 2; 8D1; 9A3
TAP:
Perform arithmetic operations involving
integers, fractions, decimals, and percents,
explicitly stated or within context
Understand geometric properties and
relationships; apply geometric concepts and
formulas
Use variables, number sentences, and
equations to represent solutions and solve
problems
Demonstrate understanding of measurement
concepts and apply measurement skills
ISAT:
Solve problems requiring computations
with whole numbers, fractions, decimals,
ratios, percents, and proportions
Understand and apply geometric concepts and
relationships
Identify, analyze, and solve problems using
equations, inequalities, functions, and their
graphs
Demonstrate an understanding of measurement
concepts and skills
Unit Focus/Foci
Connecting Proportions and Similarity
Instructional Focus/Foci
Recognizing and Using Similar Triangles
Materials
Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures
Have the students sit in groups of four.
On the chalkboard or overhead, draw two similar triangles whose sides have a common ratio of 3
to 4. Have the students make conjectures about the relationship of the perimeters and areas of
the two triangles.
Have the students calculate the perimeter and area of each triangle and make a conjecture about
the corresponding sides to the perimeter and area.
Draw two similar triangles whose sides have a common ratio of 2 to 3 and calculate the
perimeter and area of each triangle; make a conjecture about the corresponding sides to the
perimeter and area.
Have the members of the group discuss their results and prepare a report.
81
Randomly select a group to report their conjectures to the class and discuss the results.
Have students note that the perimeters have the same ratios as their corresponding sides, and the
areas have the square of the ratio.
Have each group explore four quadrilaterals and discuss their observations. Does the conjecture
still hold? Ask the class to make a conjecture about the volume of similar figures. The volumes
have the cube of the ratio of the corresponding sides.
Draw two similar polygons on the chalkboard and have the students name the corresponding
parts. (Students sometimes have a difficult time naming the corresponding parts.)
Integration with Core Subject(s)
LA: Understand explicit, factual information
Understand the meaning of words in context
Apply information presented in the text to a new or different situation
SC: Apply scientific method to solve problems
SS: Distinguish fact from opinion and relevant from irrelevant information
Connection(s)
Enrichment: See Fine Arts.
Fine Arts: Have students write a paragraph describing any larger than life character they have
read about, excluding Paul Bunyon and Gulliver.
Home: Have parent sign homework record weekly.
Remediation: Teachers Half Dozen
Technology: Have students research larger than life characters on the Internet.
Assessment
Teacher observation
Homework
Assign appropriate problems from your text.
Teacher Notes
Select a review format to be used at the next class meeting.
82
STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN
Day: 110 Subject: Geometry Grade Level: High School
Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 6A1; 7A5, 7C1, 2; 8D1; 9A3
TAP:
Perform arithmetic operations involving
integers, fractions, decimals, and percents,
explicitly stated or within context
Understand geometric properties and
relationships; apply geometric concepts and
formulas
Use variables, number sentences, and
equations to represent solutions and solve
problems
Demonstrate understanding of measurement
concepts and apply measurement skills
ISAT:
Solve problems requiring computations
with whole numbers, fractions, decimals,
ratios, percents, and proportions
Understand and apply geometric concepts and
relationships
Identify, analyze, and solve problems using
equations, inequalities, functions, and their
graphs
Demonstrate an understanding of measurement
concepts and skills
Unit Focus/Foci
Connecting Proportions and Similarity
Instructional Focus/Foci
Reviewing Proportions and Similarity
Materials
Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures
Review Unit Seven using a format from Appendix D.
Integration with Core Subject(s)
LA: Apply information presented in the text to a new or different situation
SC: Apply scientific method to solve problems
SS: Distinguish fact from opinion and relevant from irrelevant information
83
Connection(s)
Enrichment:
Fine Arts:
Home: Have a family member quiz you on the materials in Unit Seven.
Remediation: Teachers Half Dozen
Technology:
Assessment
Teacher observation
Homework
Have students study for the Unit Seven Assessment.
Teacher Notes
Prepare copies of the Unit Seven Assessment.
84
STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN
Day: 111 Subject: Geometry Grade Level: High School
Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 6A1; 7A5, 7C1, 2; 8D1; 9A3
TAP:
Perform arithmetic operations involving
integers, fractions, decimals, and percents,
explicitly stated or within context
Understand geometric properties and
relationships; apply geometric concepts and
formulas
Use variables, number sentences, and
equations to represent solutions and solve
problems
Demonstrate understanding of measurement
concepts and apply measurement skills
ISAT:
Solve problems requiring computations
with whole numbers, fractions, decimals,
ratios, percents, and proportions
Understand and apply geometric concepts and
relationships
Identify, analyze, and solve problems using
equations, inequalities, functions, and their
graphs
Demonstrate an understanding of measurement
concepts and skills
Unit Focus/Foci
Connecting Proportions and Similarity
Instructional Focus/Foci
Assessing Proportions and Similarity
Materials
Copies of Unit Seven Assessment
Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures
Administer the Unit Seven Assessment.
Integration with Core Subject(s)
LA: Apply information presented in the text to a new or different situation
SC: Apply scientific method to solve problems
SS: Distinguish fact from opinion and relevant from irrelevant information
Connection(s)
Enrichment: Have students write a childrens story using proportions.
Fine Arts: See Enrichment.
85
Home: See Enrichment.
Remediation: Teachers Half Dozen
Technology:
Assessment
Evaluate the Unit Seven Assessment using the Structured Curriculum Scoring Rubric.
Homework
Have students complete the Gullivers Travels Book Review.
Remind students that the Gullivers Travels Book Review is due at the next class meeting.
Teacher Notes
Answers to Unit Seven Assessment:
1. T
2. F
3. F
4. T
5. T
6. 6 2
7. 2 10
8. x = 1.5
9. 2 7
10. x =
18
7
11. x = 8, y = 4 3
12. AA or SSS
13. AA
14. AA
15. 350 miles
16. 27.5 ft
17. 36, 48, and 96
18. K(10, 0)
19. K(12.5, 0)
20. See student work.
86
Unit Seven Assessment
Answer 1-5 True or False.
1. If two angles of one triangle are congruent to two angles of another, the triangles are
similar.
2. An equation stating two proportions are equal is a ratio.
3. Two or more parallel lines divide transversals into equal parts.
4. A ratio is the comparison of two quantities.
5. Polygons are similar if their corresponding sides are in proportion.
Find the geometric mean of:
6. 4 and 18
7. 2 and 20
Solve for x
8.
3
1 5
x
x
=
+
9.
2 4
6 2
x
x

=
+
10. ABC ADE :
7 9
2 x
A
B C
D
E
87
11. Solve for x and y.
Explain why each pair of triangles is similar.
12.
13. 14.
15. On a map, l inch represents 250 miles. Chicago is 1.4inches from St. Louis. How many
miles are there between Chicago and St. Louis?
16. Susan is 5ft 6in tall and casts a shadow of 3ft. Susan is standing next to a tree that cast a
shadow of 15ft. How tall is the tree?
x y
4
12
B
C A
D
F
E
M A
K
C H
M N
C
R
A
MN CR
Explainwhy.
MAN CAR
P
:
88
17. The measures of the angles of a triangle are in the ratio 3: 4: 8. Find the measure of each
angle.
Find coordinates for K so that HIJ HKL : .
18. H(0, 0), I(0, 3), J(6, 0), L(0, 5)
19. H(0, 0), I(0, 8), J(10, 0), L(0, 10)
20. Given: B is the midpoint of AD.
C is the midpoint of AE .
Prove ABC ADE : .
D
B
A
C
E
89
STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN
Day: 112 Subject: Geometry Grade Level: High School
Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 6A1; 7A5, 7C1, 2; 8D1; 9A3
TAP:
Perform arithmetic operations involving
integers, fractions, decimals, and percents,
explicitly stated or within context
Understand geometric properties and
relationships; apply geometric concepts and
formulas
Use variables, number sentences, and
equations to represent solutions and solve
problems
Demonstrate understanding of measurement
concepts and apply measurement skills
ISAT:
Solve problems requiring computations
with whole numbers, fractions, decimals,
ratios, percents, and proportions
Understand and apply geometric concepts and
relationships
Identify, analyze, and solve problems using
equations, inequalities, functions, and their
graphs
Demonstrate an understanding of measurement
concepts and skills
Unit Focus/Foci
Connecting Proportions and Similarity
Instructional Focus/Foci
Viewing Proportional Parts and Similarity
Materials
Video of Gullivers Travels
Television
VCR
Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures
Collect Gullivers Travels book reviews.
Have students view the video of Gullivers Travels. Discuss Gulliver in relation to the
Brobdingnagians and Lilliputians.
90
Integration with Core Subject(s)
LA: Understand explicit, factual information
Understand the meaning of words in context
Apply information presented in the text to a new or different situation
SC: Apply scientific method to solve problems
SS: Distinguish fact from opinion and relevant from irrelevant information
Connection(s)
Enrichment: Have students prepare a brief report describing fractals including illustrations.
Fine Arts: Find pictures in newspapers and magazines of fractals in nature.
Home: Have parent sign homework sheet weekly.
Remediation: Teachers Half Dozen
Technology: Have students research fractals on the Internet.
Assessment
Evaluate Gullivers Travels book review using the Structured Curriculum Scoring Rubric.
Homework
Have students select three pieces of their work for their portfolios and explain why each piece
was selected.
Teacher Notes
91
Unit Seven Additional Activity 1
Pentagrams
Instructional Focus/Foci
Exploring Pentagrams
Materials
Plain paper
Rulers
Protractors
Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures
Have students work in pairs.
1. Rotate one point around another 5 times, 72 each time.
2. Draw the sides and diagonals of this regular pentagon. Label all points of intersection.
3. Measure several lengths and find as many ratios as possible, always taking the ratio of the
larger to the smaller.
4. List your observations and discuss them with your partner.
Teacher Notes
See Mathematics Teacher, November 1996, Segments in a Pentagram.
92
Unit Seven Additional Activity 2
Fractals
Instructional Focus/Foci
Exploring Fractals
Materials
Plain paper
Rulers
Colored pencils
Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures
Remind students that fractals are patterns that are self-similar. Small parts of the figure are
similar to the whole figure. A fractal must be described by steps that can be repeated.
Have students work in cooperative groups of three. Have each group create the Sierpinski
triangle or Koch snowflakes.
93
94
Sierpinski Triangle
1. Draw an equilateral triangle.
2. Find the midpoint of each side.
3. Connect the midpoints, dividing the original triangle into 4 congruent triangles.
4. Shade the middle triangle.
5. Repeat the process in each unshaded triangle.
95
96
Koch Snowflake
1. Draw an equilateral triangle.
2. Divide each side into 3 congruent segments.
3. Draw an equilateral triangle on each side, using the middle segment as the base.
4. Erase the middle segment on each side.
5. Repeat the process on each equilateral triangle.
Have each group design their own fractal.
Have students create a graphing calculator or computer program to create their fractals. Have
students explore fractals on the Internet.
97
Unit Seven Additional Activity 3
Exploring Spirals of Squares with Geometers Sketchpad
We want to learn to write Sketchpad script to make spirals composed of squares, with an arbitrary ratio
between the lengths of successive squares. The main difficulty is in figuring out exactly what rotations
we want to do and in getting the order of the givens right for the script. (It goes the opposite way from
what you might think.)
Begin by making a square, using either ruler and compass constructions or 90 rotations (the latter is
quicker and doesnt leave any hiddens). Label the vertices A,B,C,D as shown (the Relabel option on
the Display menu is useful). Make two line segments p and q, and mark both (under Transform) and
measure (under Measure) their ratio, which we will use as the expansion ratio.
We want to make the spiral go counterclockwise as it winds outward from its center. To do this, we will
rotate the square 90 clockwise about its corner A, expand it by the ratio p/q, and clean up the hiddens.
Then, if we are making a script for this, we have to figure out how to select appropriate pieces of the
square in the right order so that we can repeat the process to make a spiral with a lot of pieces.
Therefore, open a New script and hit Record. Select point A as the center of rotation. Now select
points B,C,D, which we will rotate and dilate into the new square. We dont need to select A because it is
the center of rotation. We dont select any segments because it is easier to redraw them after we have the
new vertex points.
Choose Rotation from the Transform menu. The angle is 90 about A because we are rotating
clockwise. You should see two new points below your first square. Both are selected; in addition, B
appears to be selected, though that is really the rotated image of D. Now do Dilation by marked ratio;
you get three more points down and to the right. Hide the first two points. If you are clever, you may
figure out how also to hide the image of D, which is underneath B, but it is not necessary. In my figure I
have labeled the three new points B, C, and D, though you dont need to label them in your sketch.
Take the Segment tool and draw segments AB, BC, CD, and DA, so now you have a square. The
tricky thing is to figure out how to end the script by selecting the new points in the right order so that you
can call the script again. So look in your Script window, and read what the Givens are. They seem to
come out in different orders; you may see:
Object D
Point A
Object C
Object B
Segment p
Segment q
The next step is going to be a 90 rotation about point C instead of A. So whatever order A, B, C, D
appear in the givens, we now want to select the new points by the mapping:
A C B D C A D B