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CP World History (Unit 3, #3) Name

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The Teachings of Islam
The Teachings of Islam
1. Judaism, Christianity and Islam all trae their ori!ins to "hih
#erson$
%. Ho" did &uslims 'ie" the (#eo#le o) the *oo+,$
3. What do &uslim *elie'e the -ur.an re'eals$
/. In the star, illustrate this
setion.
The First Pillar: Shahadah (Profession of Faith)
1. What #hrase do &uslims re#eat as an e0#ression o) shahadah$
%. 1ordin! to &uslims, "ho is 1llah$
3. Ho" does 1llah relate to the 2od o) Christians and Je"s$
/. In the star, illustrate this
setion.
The Second Pillar: Salat (Daily Worship)
1. Where and ho" o)ten do &uslims #ray$
%. 3o"ard "hat ity do &uslims #ray$
3. What are &uslims re4uired to do *e)ore they #ray$
/. In the star, illustrate this
setion.
The Third Pillar: Zakat (Almsgiing)
1. Why is harita*le !i'in! im#ortant to &uslims$
%. Ho" muh o) their "ealth do &uslims !i'e$
3. 1re &uslims the only reli!ious !rou# that em#hasi5es !i'in!$
60#lain
/. In the star, illustrate this
setion.
The Fo!rth Pillar: Siyam (Fasting)
1. What is siyam$ When is it #er)ormed$
%. What rule a*out )ood do &uslims o*ser'e durin! 7amadan$
3. Ho" is the end o) 7amadan ele*rated$
/. In the star, illustrate this
setion.
The Fifth Pillar: "a## (Pilgrimage)
1. What 'alues does the ha88 #romote$
%. Ho" do &uslims dress )or the ha88$
3. What is the 9a.a*a$
/. In the star, illustrate this
setion.
$ihad (Str!ggle)
1. Ho" does 8ihad relate to &uslims and their #ersonal stru!!les$
%. What is the (lesser 8ihad,$
3. What is the (!reater 8ihad,$
/. In the star, illustrate this
setion.
Shari%ah: Islamic &a'
1. What is shari.ah, and ho" did it de'elo#$
%. What 'alues does shari.ah #romote$
3. What are three e0am#les o) *eha'iors that shari.ah re!ulates$
/. In the star, illustrate this
setion.
The Teachings of Islam
In this readin!, you "ill e0#lore the *asi *elie)s and
#raties o) Islam. :ou "ill learn more a*out the holy *oo+
alled the (!r)an* 3o!ether "ith the S!nnah (the
e0am#le o) &uhammad), this *oo+ !uides &uslims in the
Fie Pillars of Faith* 3he ;i'e Pillars are )aith, #rayer,
harity, )astin!, and ma+in! a #il!rima!e to &ea. :ou
"ill also study the idea o) #ihad* Jihad re#resents &uslims<
stru!!le "ith internal and e0ternal hallen!es as they
stri'e to #lease 2od. ;inally, you "ill e0amine shari)ah+
or Islami la".
=ine the time o) &uhammad, Islam has had a hu!e
im#at on "orld history. ;rom 1ra*ia, Islam s#read ra#idly
throu!hout the &iddle 6ast, aross North 1)ria to =#ain,
and aross entral 1sia nearly to China. In addition to
sharin! a ommon )aith, &uslims also *elon!ed to a
sin!le Islami ommunity, alled the ummah. 3he Islami
ommunity *lended many #eo#les and ultures.
Islam no" has more )ollo"ers than any reli!ion e0e#t
Christianity. >ne out o) ?'e #eo#le in the "orld are
&uslims. &ost #eo#le in the &iddle 6ast and North 1)ria
are &uslim, *ut &uslims li'e in nearly e'ery ountry o)
the "orld. In )at, the ma8ority o) &uslims are 1sian. 1nd
Islam is the )astest@!ro"in! reli!ion in the United =tates.
Islam, Judaism, and Christianity ha'e muh in ommon. &em*ers o) all three )aiths are monotheists
(they *elie'e in one 2od). 1ll three reli!ions trae their ori!ins to the #ro#het 1*raham. 3heir
sri#tures, or sared "ritin!s, all inlude suh ?!ures as 1dam, Noah, and &oses. &uslims *elie'e
that all three reli!ions "orshi# the same 2od.
&uslims onsider Je"s and Christians to *e APeo#le o) the Boo+.A 3he Je"ish Bi*le, alled the Torah+
is +no"n as the >ld 3estament in the Christian Bi*le. 3he Ne" 3estament o) Christianity inludes,
amon! other "ritin!s, the !os#els that tell o) the li)e and teahin!s o) Jesus. &uslims *elie'e that
these holy *oo+s, li+e the -ur<an, ame )rom 2od. 3he -ur<an states that 2od Aearlier re'ealed the
3orah and the 2os#el as a soure o) !uidane )or #eo#le.A ;or &uslims, ho"e'er, the -ur<an ontains
2od<s ?nal re'elations to the "orld. 3hey *elie'e that its messa!es re'eal ho" 2od "ants his
)ollo"ers to at and "orshi#. In the rest o) this readin!, you<ll learn more a*out the ideas that ha'e
sha#ed the &uslim )aith.
The First Pillar: Shahadah
3he ?rst Pillar o) ;aith is shahadah, the #ro)ession (delaration) o)
)aith. 3o sho" *elie) in one 2od and in &uhammad<s #ro#hethood, a
&uslim says, A3here is no !od *ut 2od, and &uhammad is the
messen!er o) 2od.A
3he ?rst #art o) the shahadah aCrms monotheism. Di+e Christians
and Je"s, &uslims *elie'e that one all@#o"er)ul 2od, "hom they
all 1llah, reated the uni'erse. 3hey *elie'e that the truth o) one
2od "as re'ealed to human+ind throu!h many #ro#hets. 3hese
#ro#hets inlude 1dam, Noah, &oses, and Jesus, "ho a##ear in
Je"ish and Christian sri#tures. 3he -ur<an honors all these
#ro#hets.
3he seond #art o) the shahadah identi?es &uhammad as 2od<s
messen!er. 1ordin! to this statement, &uhammad announed
the messa!e o) Islam, "hih "as 2od<s ?nal "ord to human+ind.
3he meanin! o) shahadah is that #eo#le not only *elie'e in 2od,
*ut also #led!e their su*mission to Him. ;or &uslims, 2od is the enter o) li)e. 3he shahadah )ollo"s
&uslims throu!h e'eryday li)e, not 8ust #rayers. Parents "his#er it into their *a*ies< ears. &uslims
stri'e to utter the shahadah as their last "ords *e)ore death. =tudents ta+in! a diCult test say the
shahadah to hel# them throu!h the ordeal.
&uslims also *elie'e that all souls "ill )ae a day o) 8ud!ment. >n that day, 2od "ill "ei!h eah
#erson<s ations. 3hose "ho ha'e li'ed aordin! to 2od<s rules "ill *e re"arded and allo"ed to
enter #aradise. 3hose "ho ha'e dis*elie'ed or done e'il "ill *e #unished *y )allin! into hell.
The Second Pillar: Salat
3he seond Pillar o) ;aith is salat, daily ritual #rayer.
&uhammad said that A#rayer is the #roo)< o) Islam. =alat
em#hasi5es reli!ious disi#line, s#irituality, and loseness
to 2od. 3hrou!hout &uslim ommunities, #eo#le are alled
to #rayer ?'e times a dayE at da"n, noon, midday, sunset,
and a)ter ni!ht)all. 1 rier, alled a muezzin (or mu'addin),
hants the all to #rayer )rom the tall minaret (to"er) o) the
mos4ue.
Be)ore #rayin!, &uslims must #er)orm ritual "ashin!s. 1ll
mos4ues ha'e )ountains "here "orshi#ers "ash their
hands, )ae, arms, and )eet. With a sense o) *ein! #uri?ed,
&uslims enter the #rayer area. 3here they )orm lines
*ehind a #rayer leader alled an imam* 3he "orshi#ers
)ae the diretion o) &ea. 3he imam *e!ins the #rayer
yle *y #rolaimin! A1llah 1+*arFA (A2od is most !reatFA).
3he "orshi#ers then reite 'erses )rom the -ur<an and
+neel *e)ore 2od.
While #rayin! at a mos4ue is #re)era*le, &uslims may
"orshi# any"here. In !rou#s or *y themsel'es, they may
#er)orm their #rayers at home, at "or+, in air#orts, in
#ar+s, or on side"al+s. 1 diretion om#ass may hel# them
loate the diretion o) &ea. =ome &uslims arry a #rayer
ru! to ha'e a lean s#ot to #ray. =ome ma+e additional
#rayers *y usin! #rayer *eads and reitin! "ords
desri*in! 2od<s many harateristis.
The Third Pillar: Zakat
3he third Pillar o) ;aith is zakat or almsgiing (!i'in! to
those in need). &uhammad told "ealthy #eo#le to share
their rihes "ith the less )ortunate. 3his #ratie remains a
*asi #art o) Islam. 3he "ord zakat means A#uri?ation.A
&uslims *elie'e that "ealth *eomes #ure *y !i'in! some
o) it a"ay and that sharin! "ealth hel#s ontrol !reed.
Ga+at also reminds #eo#le o) 2od<s !reat !i)ts to them.
1ordin! to the teahin!s o) Islam, &uslims must share
a*out one )ortieth
(%.H #erent) o) their inome and #ossessions "ith their
#oorer nei!h*ors. 3hey are enoura!ed to !i'e e'en more.
Indi'iduals deide the #ro#er amount to #ay. 3hen they
either !i'e this sum to a reli!ious oIiial or distri*ute it
themsel'es. Ga+at is similar to harita*le !i'in! in other
)aiths. ;or instane, Je"s and Christians also as+ )or
donations to su##ort their houses o) "orshi# and harita*le
ati'ities.
The Fourth Pillar: Siyam
3he )ourth Pillar o) ;aith is siyam, or )astin! (!oin! "ithout )ood). &uslims "ere not the ?rst #eo#le to
)ast as a "ay o) "orshi#in! 2od. Both the >ld and Ne" 3estaments #raise the at. But the -ur<an
instruts &uslims to )ast )or an entire month durin! ,amadan+ the ninth month o) the Islami
alendar.
1ordin! to Islami teahin!s, 7amadan "as the
month that 2od ?rst re'ealed His messa!e to
&uhammad. &uslims use a lunar alendar (one
*ased on the #hases o) the moon). 1 year on this
alendar is shorter than a 3JH@day year. >'er
time, as a result, 7amadan yles throu!h all the
seasons o) the year.
Kurin! 7amadan, &uslims )ast )rom the *rea+ o)
da"n to the settin! o) the sun. Pre!nant "omen,
tra'elers, the si+, the elderly, and youn!
hildren do not ha'e to )ast. Kurin! the dayli!ht
hours on eah day o) 7amadan, &uslims do not
eat any )ood or drin+ any li4uid, inludin! "ater.
&uslims then *rea+ their )ast, o)ten "ith dates
and other )ood and *e'era!es@as &uhammad did@
and #er)orm the sunset #rayer. 1)ter a meal
shared "ith )amily or )riends, &uslims attend
s#eial #rayer sessions. 6ah ni!ht a #ortion o)
the -ur<an is read aloud. By the end o) 7amadan,
&uslims ha'e heard the entire holy *oo+.
3he holy month o) 7amadan enoura!es
!enerosity, e4uality, and harity "ithin the &uslim
ommunity. ;astin! teahes &uslims sel)@ontrol
and ma+es them reali5e "hat it "ould *e li+e to *e
#oor and hun!ry. Kurin! 7amadan, &uslims also
stri'e to )or!i'e #eo#le, !i'e than+s, and a'oid
ar!uments and *ad deeds.
1 ele*ration alled 6id al@;itr ta+es #lae "hen
7amadan ends. Peo#le attend #rayers. 3hey "ear
ne" lothes, deorate their homes, and #re#are
s#eial )oods. 3hey e0han!e !i)ts and !i'e to the
#oor.
The Fifth Pillar: Hajj
3he ?)th Pillar o) ;aith is hajj, the #il!rima!e to the
holy ity o) &ea. In the Islami year<s 1%th month,
millions o) *elie'ers )rom all o'er the "orld ome
to!ether at &ea. 1ll adult &uslims "ho an do so
are e0#eted to ma+e the ha88 one durin! their
li)etime. By *rin!in! &uslims )rom many #laes and
ultures to!ether, the ha88 #romotes )ello"shi# and
e4uality.
In &ea, #il!rims )ollo" "hat &uslims *elie'e are
the )ootste#s o) 1*raham and &uhammad, and so
dra" loser to 2od. ;or ?'e days, they dress in
sim#le "hite lothin! and #er)orm a series o) rituals,
mo'in! )rom one sared site to another. U#on
arri'al they !o strai!ht to the 2reat &os4ue, "hih
houses the 9a.a*a. &uslims *elie'e that 1*raham *uilt the 9a.a*a as a shrine to honor 2od. 3he
#il!rims irle the 9a.a*a se'en times, "hih is a ritual mentioned in the -ur<an. 1)ter this, they
om#lete se'eral other 'isits and rituals.
1)ter"ard, #il!rims may ele*rate "ith a )our@day )east. In honor o) 1*raham<s anient sari?e, as
reounted in reli!ious =ri#tures, they sari?e animals, usually shee# or !oats, and share the meat
"ith )amily, )riends, and the #oor. 3hen, ha'in! om#leted the ha88, they don their o"n lothes a!ain.
Be)ore lea'in! &ea, eah #il!rim irles the 9a.a*a se'en more times. &uslims around the "orld
ele*rate this A)are"ellA day as 6id al@1dha.
Jihad
3he "ord jihad means Ato stri'e.A 3he -ur<an tells &uslims
to )i!ht to #rotet themsel'es )rom those "ho "ould do
them harm or to ri!ht a terri*le "ron!. 6arly &uslims
onsidered their eIorts to #rotet their territory and e0tend
their rule o'er other re!ions to *e a )orm o) 8ihad. Ho"e'er,
the -uran )or*ade &uslims to )ore others to on'ert to
Islam. =o, non@&uslims "ho ame under &uslim rule "ere
usually allo"ed to ontinue #ratiin! their )aiths.
1lthou!h the -ur<an allo"s "ar, it sets s#ei? terms )or
?!htin!. &uhammad told his )ollo"ers to honor a!reements
made "ith )oes. &uslim ?!hters must not mutilate (remo'e
or destroy) the dead *odies o) enemies or harm "omen,
hildren, old #eo#le, and i'ilians. Nor should they destroy
#ro#erty, ro#s, sared o*8ets, or houses o) "orshi#.
Jihad re#resents the human stru!!le to o'erome
diCulties and do thin!s that "ould *e #leasin! to 2od.
&uslims stri'e to res#ond #ositi'ely to #ersonal diCulties
as "ell as "orldly hallen!es. ;or instane, they mi!ht "or+
to *eome *etter #eo#le, re)orm soiety, or orret
in8ustie.
Jihad has al"ays *een an im#ortant Islami one#t. >ne
aount o) &uhammad tells a*out the #ro#het<s return )rom a *attle. He delared that he and his
men had arried out the Alesser 8ihad,A the e0ternal stru!!le a!ainst o##ression. 3he A!reater 8ihad,A
he said, "as the ?!ht a!ainst e'il "ithin onesel). 60am#les o) the !reater 8ihad inlude "or+in! hard
)or a !oal, !i'in! u# a *ad ha*it, !ettin! an eduation, or o*eyin! your #arents "hen you may not
"ant to.
1nother #assa!e )rom the -uran says that &uslims should )ul?ll 8ihad "ith the heart, ton!ue, and
hand. &uslims use the heart in their stru!!le to resist e'il. 3he ton!ue may on'ine others to ta+e
u# "orthy auses, suh as )undin! medial researh. Hands may #er)orm !ood "or+s and orret
"ron!s.
Shari'ah: Islamic La
Islami la" is alled shari'ah, the A#ath to *e )ollo"ed.A It is
*ased on the -ur<an and the =unnah. =hari<ah o'ers
&uslims< duties to"ard 2od. It !uides them in their
#ersonal *eha'ior and relationshi#s "ith others. =hari<ah
#romotes o*ediene to the -ur<an and res#et )or others.
In &edina.s &uslim ommunity, &uhammad e0#lained the
-ur<an and ser'ed as a 8ud!e. 1)ter his death, the ali#hs
used the -ur<an and the =unnah to sol'e #ro*lems as they
arose. 1s the &uslim em#ire e0#anded, leaders )aed ne"
situations. 2radually, sholars de'elo#ed a *ody o) Islami
la".
Islami la" !uides &uslim li)e *y #lain! ations into one o)
?'e ate!oriesE )or*idden, disoura!ed, allo"ed,
reommended, and o*li!atory (re4uired). =ometimes the
la" is 4uite s#ei?. &uslims, )or instane, are )or*idden to
eat #or+, drin+ alohol, or !am*le. But other matters are
mentioned in !eneral terms. ;or e0am#le, the -ur<an tells
"omen to Anot dis#lay their *eauty.A ;or this reason, &uslim "omen usually "ear diIerent )orms o)
modest dress. &ost "omen o'er their arms and le!s. &any also "ear sar'es o'er the hair. 3he
shari<ah also a##lies to ourt. In a shari<ah ourt, a qadi (8ud!e) hears a ase and ma+es a rulin!.
=ometimes the 4adi onsults a mufti, or sholar o) la", )or an o#inion.
Islami la" hel#ed &uslims li'e *y the rules o) the -uran. By the 1Lth entury, ho"e'er, many
&uslim re!ions had ome under 6uro#ean rule. Western odes o) la" soon re#laed the shari<ah
e0e#t in matters o) )amily la". 3oday, most &uslim ountries a##ly only some #arts o) Islami la".
But shari<ah ontinues to de'elo# in res#onse to modern "ays o) li)e and its hallen!es.