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Teaching Grammar in

Context

Presented by:
Hassan Sulaiman
Abdelaziz Adnani
In the past, a traditional classroom,
with its emphasis on grammatical
competence and explicit knowledge of
language rules, did not provide
occasions for learners to
communicate
-Adair-Hauck &
Donato, 2002

Unfortunately, many students who
spent years learning only the formal
properties of the language (sound
system, verb conjugations, rules of
syntax, vocabulary lists) could not,
in the end, exchange information,
express ideas or feelings, construct
and control problem solving, or
develop and nurture a social
relationship in a second language.
-Adair-Hauck & Donato,
2002

Importance of Communicative
Competence

It is through communication that we are
able to improve our world, to prosper,
and to enjoy it.
-Cooper (1993)
Communicative competence stresses the
need to know how, when, and why to
say what to whom.
-Standards of FL Learning,
1996

Learning/teaching
grammar in context.
O is a piano I play by ear. All I Grammar
is its power. grammar know about
O Joan Didion

Second and Foreign language learners want
to learn language as it is really used in both
formal and informal settings, and in speech
and writing by native speakers of English.
- Coelho
Why is it important to know
grammar?
O but one grammar I never made a mistake in
in my life and as soon as I done it I seen it.
O Carl Sandburg



O errors and error ) to assess and remediate the 1
language learners. - of second patterns
O 2) the points of grammar can be used as the
basis for teaching sentence structure and
. vocabulary
What is grammar?
O is grammar It is well to remember that
common speech formulated
O Somerset Maugham


O Grammar refers to the language patterns that
indicate relationships among words in sentences.
Grammar includes.
O is not a time of waste Grammar
O Nancy Cartwright


O Morphology the study of word structure
O Syntax the study of word combinations or
sentence structure
What do the two major ways to teach grammar
techniques Deductive and Inductive known as
mean?

: Induction

....

: Deduction
......................................................................................
......................................................................................
......................................................................................
Task 1
Deductive vs. Inductive
Deductive:
O Students learn grammar rule

Use Rule
Inductive:
O Use grammar rule

Learn Rule

Deductive
Approach:

General rule

Specific examples

Practice
( Top-down Approach )
Inductive
Approach:

Specific examples

Practice

General rule

( Bottom- up Approach )
, deductively When grammar is taught
the teacher
O Explains the rule to the learners.
O Provides NO CONTEXT or
COMMUNICATIVE PURPOSE for the
grammar.
O Focuses on form first and then meaning.
O Drills students to learn the rule
mechanically.
O Assumes all responsibility for student
learning.

, inductively When grammar is taught
the teacher
O Allows the learner to formulate and
discover the rule (to induct).
O Provides a CONTEXT and PURPOSE for
use.
O Focuses on meaning first and form
second.
O Helps learners discover the rule through
meaningful communication.
O Empowers the students to problem
solve and learn how to learn a language.
Source: Donato, 2002

George w. bush
Speaking:
O Rarely is the
question asked: Is
our children
learning?
January 11, 2000 From a speech delivered in
Florence, South Carolina, and reported in the
Los Angeles Times on January 14, 2000.


O You teach a child
to read, and he or
her will be able to
pass a literacy test
February 21, 2001 From a speech
delivered in Townsend, Tennessee.
Reported by The New Republic
(March 5, 2001 issue).
George w. bush
Speaking:
George w. bush
Speaking:
O The education
issue ought to be
discussed about
December 15, 2000 Speaking to press during a
meeting with Louisiana senator J ohn Breaux in
Austin, Texas.
Main Problems Facing
Teachers:
O Explaining Grammar rules.
O Organizing meaningful
grammar practice.
O Integrating new grammar
with the existing grammar
knowledge.
O Dealing with grammar errors
O Integrating grammar
knowledge with teaching
communicative skills
Grammatical errors:
O Transposition. E.g. I'll go to the chicken
to fry the kitchen.
O Omission. E.g. He a teacher at school.
O Redundancy. E.g. Did he went to school
last year?
O Overgeneralization. E.g. Mom goed to
work.
O Ellipsis. Went where?
O Tag. E.g. Nice fellow. That one.
O Anaphoric start. E.g. This guy, he is
cool.
Stages of teaching grammar
logically:

O Noticing. (How?)
O Deductive /
inductive.
O Awareness raising.

Logic of teaching grammar:


O the art of arranging a
sequence of teaching
actions to take the learners
from the state of
grammatical ignorance to
the state of grammatical
knowledge.
Grammar Drills
1. Teaching Interrogative Sentences
through Writing interviews and
dialogues:

O Forming questions.
O Replying with
appropriate answers;
grammatically correct
sentences.
2. Substitution Drill
Target Sentence Word Initial Sentence
Having Are you enjoying
yourself?
called Whats the name of
this animal?
Nobody Ali is the fastest
Target Sentence Word Initial Sentence
Are you having
a good time?
Having Are you
enjoying
yourself?
What is this
animal called?
called Whats the
name of this
animal?
Nobody is
faster than Ali.
Nobody Ali is the
fastest
3. Teaching tenses (Past
Progressive Tense):

What
were
you
doing
when.
?
4. Headless sentences (Passive
Voice):
O 1. is played by two
players.
O 2. are written by
poets.
O 3. were built in
Egypt.
O 4. was being
cooked.
What way do we use to teach
grammar in Over To You ?

Why ?


How ?




Task 2
The book adopts an inductive rather
than deductive approach to presenting
grammatical items. It is a rule discovery
path: the learners study examples and
from these examples derive an
understanding of the rule until applying
it becomes automatic.
Students are actively involved in the learning
process rather than being simply passive
recipients; they are likely to be more attentive
and motivated.Rules that students discover
for themselves are more likely to fit their
existing natural structures . the rules more
meaningful and memorable .
Students are encouraged to listen or
read several times to complete different
tasks. These tasks encourage them to
discover grammar rules themselves and
to move from controlled practice to
freer, more personalized use of the
target language .
How can we teach
grammar?
O Research indicates teaching grammar in
isolation does not transfer into real
communication
O Grammar is best taught/practiced in
communicative contexts
O Supportive feedback is more helpful than
overt correction
O Students may need many opportunities to
hear, read, practice a new structure before
they internalize or produce it months,
years
Specific strategies to use
O Use materials and plan activities that
feature repeated language patterns
O Use the content of lessons to introduce
grammar concepts
O Provide learners with the tools they need
to talk about language


Conclusion &
Recommendations:
When Teaching Grammar
there always should be:
Motivational context.
Learner interaction with
others.
Learner activity.
A well-structured
knowledge base.
Gradual introduction with
careful steps and plenty of
modelling.
Personalise the
lesson/grammar point.
Create a meaningful
context for language use.


The End