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Digestive Cycle Lipids

Very little digestive action occurs in the mouth. This is due to lingual lipase, an
enzyme that uses the catalytic triad of aspartate, histidine, and serine to hydrolyze
long chain triglycerides into partial glycrides and thus free fatty acids.

Salivary lipase is secreted.
The pancreas gland is found beneath the stomach
The crucial digestive enzyme in the stomach is called gastric lipase and is secreted in
small units. This enzyme is secreted by Chief Cells.
Gastric lipase also digests triglycerides.
Enterogastrone restricts gastric motility and delays the discharge of the bolus of
food. This results in fats having a high satiety value.
The following enzymes are released: acid, pepsin, mucus and lipase.
Lipid digestion occur in the stomach-albeit, a small amount.
The digestion of triacylglycerole occurs in lipid-water interfaces.
Bile is synthesized by the liver, which helps in digesting fats. Bile also helps in having
a sterol ring structure. This structure consists of a side chain where a molecule of
glycine or taurine is covalently attached by an amide linkage.

Bile salts are extremely important because of the interaction they have with dietary
lipid particles and the aqueous duodenal contents. These interactions help in
stabilizing the lipid particles as they become relatively smaller, which prevents them
from coalescing.

The creation of lipoproteins is created to help transport lipids.
Fat enters the mucosal cell in the form of a spherical micelle (fatty acids,
monoglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols.


Meanwhilein the
Digestive Cycle Lipids

Fat digestion and absorption mainly occurs in the small intestine. This is due to the
presence of pancreatic lipase and bile salts.
The bile salts are essential emulsifying agents for fat. Bile breaks the fat particles into
smaller particles. Thus, the smaller particles have the capacity to be absorbed by the
lining of the small intestine.
Monoglycerides and fatty acids occur thanks to the breakdown of triglycerides.
Factors come to play when fatty acids chains are going to be absorbed. For instance, if
a fatty acid has a chain of 12 or less carbon acids, it will go through the route of using
the portal vein to the liver. However, if a fatty acid chain has 14 or more carbon acids,
it will turn back into a triglyceride and it will then enter circulation through the
lymphatic system. Thus, these lipid particles receive the help from lipoproteins called
chylomicrons, which are made by enterocytes to reach their destination.
The enzyme lipoprotein lipase once again breaks down triglycerides as they are
being carried by the chylomicrons. This occurs as the chylomicrons enter the blood
stream. The remaining fatty acids are absorbed into the place where they need to
be; such as, a muscle.

Chylomicron aids with transporting lipids and cholesterol to or from the liver, that is
if needed and it is referred to as Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL).

On the way to their destination, the lipids that are being transported by VLDL are
broken down in the bloodstream.
Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) transports the relatively smaller lipid particles that
were left over or they werent quickly absorbed.
The remaining lipids or cholesterol are gathered by High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)
where they are then transported wherever lipids are needed.
Finally, the remains of the protein based foods are to be made into feces.

The End
Small Intestine
Large Intestine