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Uses Of Acids Bases And Salt

Acid

Fluoroboric acid

HBF
4
is used as a catalyst for alkylations and polymerizations.
Aqueous HBF
4
is used as an electrolyte in galvanic cell oxygen sensor systems, which consist of
an anode, cathode, and oxygen-permeable membrane.
A mixture of CrO
3
, HBF
4
, and sulfonic acids in conjunction with a cathode treatment give tin-
plated steel.
Phosphoric acid
As an external standard for phosphorus-31 Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).
Phosphoric acid reacts with halides to form the corresponding hydrogen halide gas (steamy fumes
are observed on warming the reaction mixture).
Phosphoric acid may be used as a "rust converter", by direct application to rusted iron, steel tools, or
surfaces. The phosphoric acid converts reddish-brown iron(III) oxide, Fe
2
O
3
(rust) to black ferric
phosphate, FePO
4
.
Food-grade phosphoric acid (additive E338) is used to acidify foods and beverages such as
various colas, but not without controversy regarding its health effects.
Phosphoric acid is used in dentistry and orthodontics as an etching solution, to clean and roughen
the surfaces of teeth where dental appliances or fillings will be placed.
Phosphoric acid is very commonly used as an aqueous solution of 85% phosphoric acid or H
3
PO
4
.
Because it is a concentrated acid, an 85% solution can be corrosive, although nontoxic when diluted
For high-performance liquid chromatography.
As a chemical oxidizing agent for activated carbon production, as used in the Wentworth Process.
[8]

As the electrolyte in phosphoric acid fuel cells.
With distilled water (23 drops per gallon) as an electrolyte in oxyhydrogen (HHO) generators.
As a catalyst in the hydration of alkenes to produce alcohols, predominantly ethanol.
As an electrolyte in copper electropolishing for burr removal and circuit board planarization.
As a flux by hobbyists (such as model railroaders) as an aid to soldering.
In compound semiconductor processing, phosphoric acid is a common wet etching agent: for
example, in combination with hydrogen peroxide and water it is used to etch InGaAs selective
to InP.
[9]

Heated in microfabrication to etch silicon nitride (Si
3
N
4
). It is highly selective in etching Si
3
N
4
instead
of SiO
2
, silicon dioxide.
[10]

As a cleaner by construction trades to remove mineral deposits, cementitious smears, and hard water
stains.
As a chelant in some household cleaners aimed at similar cleaning tasks.
In hydroponics pH solutions to lower the pH of nutrient solutions. While other types of acids can be
used, phosphorus is a nutrient used by plants, especially during flowering, making phosphoric acid
particularly desirable.
As a pH adjuster in cosmetics and skin-care products.
[11]

As a dispersing agent in detergents and leather treatment.
As an additive to stabilize acidic aqueous solutions within a wanted and specified pH range.
Phosphoric acid, used in many soft drinks (primarily cola), has been linked to lower bone density in
epidemiological studies.

Fluorosulfuric acid
HSO
3
F is useful for regenerating mixtures of HF and H
2
SO
4
for etching lead glass.
HSO
3
F isomerizes alkanes and the alkylation of hydrocarbons with alkenes,
[4]
although it is unclear if
such applications are of commercial importance. It can also be used as a laboratory fluorinating
agent.
[2]

Sulfuric acid
The major use for sulfuric acid is in the "wet method" for the production of phosphoric acid, used for
manufacture of phosphatefertilizers.
Sulfuric acid is used in large quantities by the iron and steelmaking industry to remove
oxidation, rust and scaling from rolled sheet and billets prior to sale to the automobile and major
appliances industry
Sulfuric acid is used for a variety of other purposes in the chemical industry. For example, it is the
usual acid catalyst for the conversion of cyclohexanone oxime to caprolactam, used for making nylon
Sulfuric acid acts as the electrolyte in lead-acid (car) batteries (lead-acid accumulator).
Concentrated sulfuric acid is frequently the major ingredient in acidic drain cleaners
[7]
which are used
to remove grease, hair, tissue paper, etc.
Sulfuric acid and sulfonated phenolics are the primary ingredients in Debacterol, a liquid topical agent
that is used in the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (canker sores) or for any procedures in
the oral cavity which require controlled, focal debridement of necrotic tissues.
[25]


Chromic acid

Chromic acid is an intermediate in chromium plating, and is also used in ceramic glazes, and colored
glass
Chromic acid was widely used in the instrument repair industry, due to its ability to "brighten"
raw brass.
Boric acid
Boric acid can be used as an antiseptic for minor burns or cuts and is sometimes used in dressings or
salves. Boric acid is applied in a very dilute solution as an eye wash.
The product is generally considered to be safe to use in household kitchens to control cockroaches
and ants.
In combination with its use as an insecticide, boric acid also prevents and destroys existing wet and
dry rot in timbers.
It can be used in combination with an ethylene glycol carrier to treat external wood against fungal and
insect attack.
Colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles of boric acid dissolved in petroleum or vegetable oil can form a
remarkable lubricant on ceramic or metal surfaces
[17]
with a coefficient of sliding friction that
decreases with increasing pressure to a value ranging from 0.10 to 0.02.
Boric acid is used in nuclear power plants as a neutron poison to slow down the rate at which fission
is occurring.
The primary industrial use of boric acid is in the manufacture of monofilament fiberglass usually
referred to as textile fiberglass.
Boron is used in pyrotechnics to prevent the amide-forming reaction between aluminium and nitrates.
Acetic acid
The major use of acetic acid is for the production of vinyl acetate monomer (VAM).
The major esters of acetic acid are commonly used solvents for inks, paints and coatings.
Vinegar is typically 4-18% acetic acid by mass. Vinegar is used directly as a condiment, and in
the pickling of vegetables and other foods.
Acetic acid is used as a solvent in the production of terephthalic acid (TPA)
Dilute solutions of acetic acids are also used as a stop bath during the development of photographic
films, and in descaling agents to remove limescale from taps and kettles.
Citric acid
The dominant use of citric acid is as a flavoring and preservative in food and beverages, especially
soft drinks.
Citric acid can be added to ice cream as an emulsifying agent to keep fats from separating, to
caramel to prevent sucrose crystallization, or to recipes in place of fresh lemon juice.
Citric acid is an excellent chelating agent, binding metals. It is used to remove limescale from boilers
and evaporators.
[6]
It can be used to soften water, which makes it useful in soaps and laundry
detergents.
Citric acid is widely used as a pH adjusting agent in creams and gels of all kinds.
Citric acid can be used in food coloring to balance the pH level of a normally basic dye. It is used as
an odorless alternative to white vinegar for home dyeing with acid dyes.
Citric acid can be used as a successful alternative to nitric acid in passivation of stainless steel.
Citric acid can be used as a lower-odor stop bath as part of the process for developing photographic
film.
Formic acid
A major use of formic acid is as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed.
Formic acid is a source for a formyl group for example in the formylation of methylaniline to N-
methylformanilide in toluene.
Formic acid shares most of the chemical properties of other carboxylic acids. Reflecting its high
acidity, its solutions in alcohols form esters spontaneously.
Heat and especially acids cause formic acid to decompose to carbon monoxide (CO) and water
(dehydration).
Formic acid is unique among the carboxylic acids in its ability to participate in addition reactions
with alkenes.
An unstable formic anhydride, H(C=O)-O-(C=O)H, can be obtained by dehydration of formic acid
with N,N'-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide in ether at low temperature.
Gluconic acid
Calcium gluconate, in the form of a gel, is used to treat burns from hydrofluoric acid.
Quinine gluconate is a salt between gluconic acid and quinine, which is used forintramuscular
injection in the treatment of malaria.
Iron gluconate injections have been proposed in the past to treat anemia.
Lactic acid
Lactic acid is found primarily in sour milk products, such as koumiss, laban, yogurt, kefir, and
some cottage cheeses.
Lactic acid has gained importance in the detergent industry the last decade. It is a good descaler,
soap-scum remover, and a registered anti-bacterial agent.
Oxalic acid

Oxalic acid's main applications include cleaning or bleaching, especially for the removal of rust (iron
complexing agent)
Vaporized oxalic acid, or a 3.2% solution of oxalic acid in sugar syrup, is used by
some beekeepers as a miticide against the parasitic varroa mite.
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA))
Forensic scientists can use DNA in blood, semen, skin, saliva or hair found at a crime scene to
identify a matching DNA of an individual, such as a perpetrator.
DNA nanotechnology uses the unique molecular recognitionproperties of DNA and other nucleic
acids to create self-assembling branched DNA complexes with useful properties.
a paper published in Nature in January, 2013, scientists from the European Bioinformatics
Institute and Agilent Technologiesproposed a mechanism to use DNA's ability to code information as
a means of digital data storage.
Nitric acid
The main use of nitric acid is for the production of fertilizers.
Nitric acid has been used in various forms as the oxidizer in liquid-fueled rockets.
In a low concentration (approximately 10%), nitric acid is often used to artificially age pine and maple.
The corrosive effects of nitric acid are exploited for a number of specialty applications, such
as pickling stainless steel.
Carbonic acid
Carbonic acid is an intermediate step in the transport of CO
2
out of the body via respiratory gas
exchange.
It is used to make carbonated drinks
Base

Potassium hydroxide

KOH and NaOH can be used interchangeably for a number of applications, although in industry,
NaOH is preferred because of its lower cost.
KOH works well in the manufacture of biodiesel by transesterification of the triglycerides in vegetable
oil.
The saponification of fats with KOH is used to prepare the corresponding "potassium soaps", which
are softer than the more commonsodium hydroxide-derived soaps.
Aqueous potassium hydroxide is employed as the electrolyte in alkaline batteries based on nickel-
cadmium and manganese dioxide-zinc.
Like sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide attracts numerous specialized applications, virtually all
of which rely on its properties as a strong chemical base with its consequent ability to degrade many
materials.
Potassium hydroxide is also used in petroleum and natural gas refining for removal of organic acids
and sulfur compounds.
Barium hydroxide
Barium hydroxide is used in analytical chemistry for the titration of weak acids, particularlyorganic
acids.
Barium hydroxide is used in a demonstration of endothermic reactions since, when mixed with
an ammonium salt.
It is also used to clean up acid spills.
It is also used in the preparation of cyclopentanone,
[8]
diacetone alcohol
[9]
and D-Gulonic -lactone.
[10]

It has been used to hydrolyse one of the two equivalent ester groups in dimethyl hendecanedioate.
Sodium hydroxide
Sodium hydroxide is frequently used as an industrial cleaning agent where it is often called "caustic".
Food uses of sodium hydroxide include washing or chemical peeling
of fruits and vegetables, chocolate and cocoa processing, caramel
coloring production, poultry scalding, soft drink processing, and thickening ice cream.
Sodium hydroxide is used in the home as a type of drain opener to unblock clogged drains, usually in
the form of a dry crystal or as a thick liquid gel.
Sodium hydroxide is traditionally used in soap making (cold process soap, saponification).
Strontium hydroxide
Strontium hydroxide is used chiefly in the refining of beet sugar and as a stabilizer in plastic.
It may be used as a source of strontium ions when the chlorine from strontium chloride is undesirable.
Calcium hydroxide
An ingredient in whitewash, mortar, and plaster
In road construction, to improve the quality of excessively plastic subgrade soils
As an additive to sea water to reduce atmospheric CO2 and mitigate the greenhouse effect
[5]

In the petrochemical industry for manufacturing solid oil of various marks
n the manufacture of brake pads
Lithium hydroxide
It is used as a heat transfer medium and as a storage-battery electrolyte.
It is also used inceramics and some Portland cement formulations.
Lithium hydroxide is used in breathing gas purification systems for spacecraft, submarines,
and rebreathers to remove carbon dioxide from exhaled gas by producing lithium carbonate and water
Rubidium hydroxide
Rubidium hydroxide is rarely used in industrial processes because potassium hydroxideand sodium
hydroxide can perform nearly all the industrial functions of rubidium hydroxide in a less violent and hence safer
way.
Rubidium hydroxide is used in scientific research. It is often used sparingly to prevent waste of the expensive
element rubidium.
Salt

Ammonium chloride
Ammonium chloride is an ingredient infireworks, safety matches and contact explosives.
Ammonium chloride is used as a flux in preparing metals to be tin coated, galvanized or soldered.
Ammonium chloride is used as an expectorant in cough medicine.
In several countries, ammonium chloride, known as sal ammoniac, is used as food additiveunder the E
number E510, commonly as a yeast nutrient in breadmaking.
Ammonium chloride is used to produce low temperatures in cooling baths. Ammonium chloride solutions
with ammonia are used as buffer solutions.
Ammonium chloride is used in a ~5% aqueous solution to work on oil wells with clay swelling problems.
Magnesium sulfate
Magnesium sulfate is used in bath salts, particularly in flotation therapy where high concentrations raise the bath
water's specific gravity, effectively making the body more buoyant.
It may also be used as a coagulant for making tofu.
Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate is also used to maintain the magnesium concentration in marine aquaria which
contain large amounts of stony corals as it is slowly depleted in their calcification process.
Magnesium sulfate is used as the electrolyte to prepare copper sulfate.
In gardening and other agriculture, magnesium sulfate is used to correct a magnesium or sulfur deficiency in soil;
magnesium is an essential element in the chlorophyll molecule, and sulfur is another important micronutrient.
Magnesium sulfate is a common pharmaceutical preparation of magnesium, commonly known as Epsom salts,
used both externally and internally.
Calcium chloride
Drying tubes are frequently packed with calcium chloride.
By depressing the freezing point, calcium chloride is used to usually prevent ice formation and to deice.
Calcium chloride is used to increase the water hardness in swimming pools. This reduces the erosion of the
concrete in the pool.
As a firming agent, calcium chloride is used in canned vegetables, in firming soybeancurds into tofu and in
producing a caviar substitute from vegetable or fruit juices.
Calcium chloride can be injected as intravenous therapy for the treatment ofhypocalcaemia. It can be used for
magnesium intoxication.
Calcium chloride dihydrate (20% by weight) dissolved in ethanol (95% ABV) has been used as a sterilant for
male animals.
Calcium chloride is used in concrete mixes to help speed up the initial setting, but chloride ions lead to corrosion
of steel rebar, so it should not be used in reinforced concrete.
Calcium chloride is used in swimming pool water as a pH buffer and to adjust the calcium hardness of the water.
The exothermic dissolution of calcium chloride is used in self-heating cans and heating pads.
Potassium chloride
The majority of the potassium chloride produced is used for making fertilizer, since the growth of many plants is
limited by their potassium intake.
It is sometimes used in water as a completion fluid inpetroleum and natural gas operations, as well as being an
alternative to sodium chloride in household water softener units.
Along with sodium chloride and lithium chloride, potassium chloride is used as a flux for the gas
welding of aluminium.
Potassium is vital in the human body, and oral potassium chloride is the common means to replenish it, although
it can also be diluted and given intravenously.
It can be used as a salt substitute for food, but due to its weak, bitter, unsalty flavour, it is usually mixed with
ordinary table salt (sodium chloride) for this purpose to improve the taste.
Potassium dichromate
Potassium dichromate may be used to prepare "chromic acid", which can be used for cleaning glassware and
etching materials.
It is used as an ingredient in cement in which it retards the setting of the mixture and improves its density and
texture.
The concentration of ethanol in a sample can be determined by back titration with acidified potassium
dichromate.
It is used to tan leather which is used for footwear.
Potassium dichromate has important uses in photography and in photographic screen printing, where it is used
as an oxidizing agent together with a strong mineral acid.
Potassium dichromate is used to stain certain types of wood by darkening the tannins in the wood.
Sodium chromate
Sodium chromate (Na
2
CrO
4
) is a yellow solid chemical compound used as a corrosion inhibitor in the petroleum
industry,
[1]
a dyeing auxiliary in the textile industry,
[1]
as a wood preservative,
[2]
and as a diagnostic
pharmaceutical in determining red blood cell volume.
[

Copper(II) sulfate
Copper sulfate pentahydrate is a fungicide.
[7]
However, some fungi are capable of adapting to elevated levels of
copper ions.
Being a relatively benign and cheap reagent, copper(II) sulfate has attracted many niche applications over the
centuries.
Several chemical tests utilize copper sulfate. It is used in Fehling's solution and Benedict's solution to test
for reducing sugars, which reduce the soluble blue copper(II) sulfate to insoluble red copper(I) oxide.
Copper sulfate is employed in organic synthesis
Copper sulfate is a commonly included chemical in children's chemistry sets and is often used to grow crystals
in schools and incopper plating experiments.
Copper sulfate was also used in the past as an emetic.
Copper sulfate is also used to etch zinc plates for intaglio printmaking.
Copper sulfate can also be used as a mordant in vegetable dyeing.