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A thermohydrodynamic method of

bearing analysis
A I . N i c a *
The coupled Reynolds and energy equations are considered f or both t hrust and journal
bearings. T h e one-dimensional solutions are provided wi t h correction coefficients
depending on t he actual bearing wi dt h, resulting in ready-for-use relations. Diagrams
obtai ned by numerical t r eat ment are presented f or f i ni t e bearings, besides t he analytical
relations, so t hat actual design requirements can be easily coped wi t h. Comparisons wi t h
experi mental results prove t o be satisfactory, bot h f or thrust and journal bearings; a
numerical exampl e of calculation is also included.
The mathematical difficulties inherent in the simultaneous
t reat ment of the Reynolds and energy equations has led t o
simplified solutions, either by considering a constant value
for the viscosity, or by admitting a very simple law for its
variation (Nort on ~ , for instance, considered a linear
variation).
More recently, numerical met hods have been developed
for coupled Reynolds, energy and heat conduction equations
for one-dimensional journal bearings 2 . In the same
conditions the problem of Reynolds, elasticity and energy
equations for the pressure, temperature and film thickness
between t wo heavily loaded rolling and sliding cylinders
was treated considering a mean viscosity across the film 3.
Journal bearings of various arcs have also been considered
on the assumption of constant lubricant viscosity, to obtain
the hydrodynami c characteristics and a mean temperature
rise in the film, by employing computer techniques 4.
Valuable results were obtained in the same way for plane
and sector thrust bearings s'a.
The analytical t reat ment was limited t o the one-
dimensional case, bot h for slider 9 and journal bearings
(adiabatic flow, no side leakage) t o determine the maximum
temperature profile 1' ~ ~ ; the adiabatic temperature
distribution was also obtained for bot h infinately long and
short bearings 12.
The author' s aim has been to establish an analytical
solution for the coupled Reynolds and energy equations for
sliding bearings, the onl y way of providing a general view on
the problem. A solution for finite journal bearings was
obtained by using the results regarding the pressure
distribution in the film, and by integrating the energy
* Visiting Scientist, Abteilung Reibungsforsehung, Max-Planck-
Institut f'fir Str&nungsforschung, GSttingen, West Germany
equation I a,l 4 . After integration, the energy equation for
the general case, i.e. considering the heat to be dissipated
bot h by the lubricant flow and by the surfaces in contact,
i sl a:
J P Vh ~ ' ~ x l ! axl 121/ax3 .axa ]
hk - - - hk + Kh ( T - T h)
ax, ax3
(1)
where:
P
T
is the pressure at any point in the lubricating film
is the temperature at any point in the lubricating
film
h is the thickness of the oil film at any point
To is the temperature of the solid surface for x2 = 0
(Fig 1)
T h is the temperature of the solid surface for x= = h
(Fig 1)
V is the relative velocity of the surfaces
J is the mechanical equivalent of heat
k is the coefficient of thermal conductivity of the
lubricant
Ko, h is the coefficient of thermal conductivity between
the lubricant and the solid surfaces
xl is the co-ordinate in the direction of motion
218 TRI BOLOGY November 1971
x~ is t he co-ordi nat e perpendi cul ar t o t he di rect i on o f
mot i on in t he di rect i on of t he oil film t hi ckness
(Fig 1)
xa is t he co-ordi nat e in t he direction of t he bearing
wi dt h (Fig 1)
p is t he densi t y of t he l ubri cant
7/ is t he absol ut e vi scosi t y o f t he l ubri cant
Cv is t he specific heat of the l ubri cant f or const ant
vol ume
Since Equat i on 1 is generally valid, t he t emper at ur es can
be cal cul at ed for any poi nt of t he lubricating film wi t h
hel p o f t he pressure di st ri but i on obt ai ned for finite j our nal
bearings f r om t he compl et e Reynol ds equat i on 14.
To si mpl i fy t he calculations, t he heat can be consi dered
t o be dissipated onl y t hrough t he l ubri cant , an assumpt i on
accept abl e f or pressure-fed bearings 1 s as well as for slider
bearings ~ 6
I n f i n i t e l y l o n g bear i ngs
Slider bearings
For slider bearings (Fi g 2) Equat i on 1 takes t he f or m:
( ~ h a d p ) dT V z ha ( d p t 2
J p Vh Cv - - = r / - - + - -
12n dxl dx, h 12n \~-~12 ]
X 0 ~- L [ ]
while t he pressure equat i on is 14:
dpoo [" 1 ho
dxl = 6r / V[ (3)
[ ( h i - h 2 ) 2 ( h i - h 2 ) 3
- - x , h ~ - - x ~
hi 1 1
ho being t he thickness of t he lubricating film where dp - - ~ - 0 ,
dxl
and 1 t he bearing length (Fi g 2). For values of q (t he
paramet er characterizing the vi scosi t y variation in t he film)
equal t o 0 and 1 :
h~ h2
ho = 2 - -
hi + h2
hi
hi In
h2
h o - - -
hi
- - - 1
h2
for q = 0
for q = 1
(4)
Equat i on 3 t akes t he form:
~ 2
I
X!
F i g 1 A x e s o f co-ordinates
( 2)
h2
t
x,
F i g 2 Dimensions f o r an i n f i n i t e l y long plane bearing
The viscosity was consi dered t o vary wi t h h as shown by:
This is j ust i fi ed bot h t heoret i cal l y and exper i ment al l y 1 a ,1 4 ;
q was f ound t o vary bet ween 0 and 1, for mos t cases. The
vi scosi t y and the film thickness are denot ed b y rh and h~ at
t he beginning of t he load carrying film, and by rh and h2 at
its end.
By combi ni ng Rel at i ons 5 and 2 and by integrating wi t h
respect t o x=, t he t emper at ur e di st ri but i on in t he lubricating
film along t he plane slider is obt ai ned I 7:
2 r h V [ 4 h _ _ ~ 1 h 1 6hox~ 3 h o 2 x ~ ( h ~ + h ) ]
T = T I + In +
JPcvho h2 h h i h 2h~h 2
f or q = 0 (7)
a n d
dp
- 6 r h V
dxl
dp
dxl
[(. ' ) (
hi - h2 2 hi - h2
- - x ( h i + h 2 ) hi
1 1
hi In hI
6~/1V I 1 _ ( h~
hi h~ - h2 hi - h2 hi - h2
- - x l - - hi
hi 1 h2 1
2hi h2
_ _ x , ) ]
for q = O
f or q = 1 ( 5)
TRI BOL OGY November 1971 219
x 3
x 2
65
E
Fi g 3 Di me ns i ons f o r a f i n i t e p l a n e b e a r i n g 55
T = T I 4
2~1V ( 61ho h 3 h ~x l ]
JPCvhohi 4xl + I n- - + for q = 1
hi - h2 hi hi h
(8)
where ho is given by Relation 4, while:
hi - h2
h = h l - - - xl (9)
1
From numerical computations of Raimondi, Boyd and
Kaufman 16, for values of the slenderness ratio ~ = b/1 (see
Fig 3) > 1 (most usual cases) the temperature distribution
does not differ very much from that corresponding to h = 0%
and this is reflected by Equations 7 and 8. Moreover, a
correction coefficient can be established for these relations,
resulting in a simple and efficient met hod of calculating the
temperature distribution in the lubricating film of slider
bearings.
The errors are always on the safe side since, as will be
seen when deducing the correction coefficient, the heat
dissipation conditions correspond to ~. = 0% but in reality
they improve with diminishing h (larger oil flow rates, etc).
The correction coefficient can be established by
observing t hat the temperature in the bearing is a
consequence of the frictional heat developed in the
lubricating film, so that the thermal level is proportional to
the friction. Thus, if the dimensionless friction coefficient,
kf, in the bearing is considered ~ 4,1 s.
hi
l n - -
r/m Vlb Fh2 hi h2 l ( h l ) k f - - + - 1 ? (1o)
1 - - -
h2
where:
F
r/m
V
is the friction force of the moving surface
is the mean viscosity
is a dimensionless load-carrying coefficient
E x p e r i me n t a I~ Ku hn - C o o p e r
T h e o r c t i c a I , T i pei - N i c a - B i n e r
I
% 0'.2 0'.4 or6 ,.o
Fi g 4 T e mp e r a t u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n in a pi v ot e d- pa d t h r u s t
beari ng
The correction coefficient, 3, will result as the ratio of kf for
any real slenderness ratio of the slider to the value of kf
corresponding to ~ = co:
kf ()k = real)
- ( 1 2 )
kf (X = oo)
The temperatures obtained by Equations 7 and 8 will be
consequently affected by 3 (which is always < l ) so that:
Treal = fir (13)
The added value of q results from Equation 14:
7"/2
l n - -
q = - - (14)
h i
I n- -
h2
and the corresponding temperature is obtained from an
interpolation formula:
Tq = Tq=0 + ( T q = l - T q = 0 ) q (15)
A numerical application of these relations 7, 8 and 12 to
15 to the geometrical and operating data of a large pivoted-
pad thrust bearing investigated experimentally by Kuhn and
Cooper 19, showed good agreement with the measured
temperatures (Fig 4). The difference is mainly the pattern
h,
- - - 1
~_ 6 h t h2
- I n - - - 2
(hi 1) 2 h2 hi
- - - + 1
~ h~
3.7
+
0.1 +~
l i
+ 1 6 ( h2 /
k h 2 /
1-o.ls~ s/4
_ t h ~ - - ~
(11)
2 2 0 T R I B O L O G Y N o v e m b e r 1 9 7 1
k f k=2/kf ~.=oo
of the temperature distribution, but the maximum
temperature in the film only had a small error on the safe
side 0.9
From Equations 7 to 15 a practical scheme for thermal
calculations of slider bearings results: a final maximum ~ O 8
temperature, T2, is selected so that with the help of the
inlet temperature, T~, the values of the viscosity are known
O-7
at the beginning of the load-carrying film (rh corresponding g
to T1) and at the end of the film (rh corresponding to T2 ). r, 6
q is deducted with the help of Equation 14 and/3, from Fig 5,
so that the temperature distribution can be calculated from ~ 0-5
Equations 7, 8, 14 and 15. The calculations are pursued
until the difference between two successive values T~ is 0. 4
sufficiently small, e.g. less than 5%. The dimensions of the
bearing (width b and length 1) as well as the film thickness
(hi and h2) are known from previous hydrodynamic
considerations (Equations 10, 11 and 14). If unacceptable
temperature results, i.e. giving viscosity values less than ~2,
hi
new values - - and bearing dimensions must be considered.
h2
Journal bearings
The analyses of journal bearings, for the thermohydrodynamic
situation have been performed for both infinitely long and
finite bearings. In the first case relatively simple relations
are available for pressure distribution, useful for bearings
with light loads and moderate speeds; if a correction
coefficient is established, as for slider bearings, realistic
results are obtained for the temperature distribution.
The energy equation is yielded by Equation 2, while after
integration the Reynolds equation becomes 14:
dp= 6 ~ l Vr , [ 1 ho ]
dO (1 +e) 2 c 2 (1 +ecos O) 2-q - c(1 +ecosO) 3"q (16)
ho = ( 1 - e 2 ) c ( 1 7 )
where
and
0 is the angular co-ordinate of the lubricating film
c is the radial clearance
e is the bearing eccentricity (Fig 6)
e = e/c is the eccentricity ratio
If the values q = 0 and q = 1 are considered successively in
dp
Equation 16 and the resulting values of - - are introduced
dO
into Equation 2 put into the form
JPcv 12r~rl dO dx h 12r ~r ~\ dx]
after integration with respect to the position angle O, the
temperature distribution for the convergent zone is obtained:
T= TI +
2rh Vr 1
Jpc v c 2 (1 +e)
2r/, Vr, I 2 + 3e___2_ 2
Jpc vc 2 ( l - e 2 ) [ lx/i-L-~-e 2 arc tan
tan O
8 2
arc tan
x / c ( I - e ( I - e )
#
--x/l - e 2 t a n -
2
-t
l + e
and:
T = T i +
I.O
I I I I I I I I
2 3 ,4 5 6 7 8 9 I 0
h, / h 2
Fi g 5 Co r r e c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , / 3 , f o r j o u r n a l bearings
F i g 6 Characteristic angles and parameters o f a j o u r n a l
bearing
In these relations TI is the temperature at the beginning of
the pressure zone (0 = 0, h = hi ). For practical purposes it
is possible to consider T~ = T i that is, the temperature at
the bearing inlet.
It was deduced theoretically and confirmed
experimentallyl 3,2 o,21 that in the divergent (unloaded)
zone of the bearing, the temperature distribution is
symmetrical to that established in the convergent (loaded)
zone, with respect to the line of centres. In this case the
0 ] (19)
tan -
i ~ _ e 2 ( c 2 ) 2 3 es i n0 f o r q = 1
+ - arc t a n ~ 2 ) c 1 +e c o s 0
3 e s i n0 3 (1 - e2) e si nO] (20)
2 ( l + e c o s 0 ) 2 ( l + e c o s 0 ) 2 f o r q = 0
T R I B O L O G Y N o v e m b e r 1971 221
t emperat ure distribution can be readily deduced, since:
T d ( - 0) = T c (0) (21)
i f T c is the t emperat ure in the convergent zone and T d is
t emperat ure in the divergent zone.
Obviously, the direct met hod for calculating the tempera-
dp
ture distribution in the divergent zone is to consider - - = 0
dx~
in Equation 18 and t o integrate it by using the boundary
conditions characteristic t o this zone.
It is natural t o find some difference bet ween the results
obt ai ned in the above ment i oned way and those given by
Equations 19 to 21, since the integrating hypot heses differ
f r om one zone t o the other.
The maxi mum value of T2 corresponds to 0 = 180 e
(h = h2 ) as found by my experi ment al investigations 22 and
by other workers in the field 2 z and can be calculated from
Equations 19 and 20. In this way it is possible to verify the
maxi mum t emperat ure rise in the bearing, so t hat a
t endency to overheat can be eliminated. At the same time
T2 is useful in calculating the modifications of the bearing
clearance during operation 23
To obtain a realistic t emperat ure distribution, a
correction coefficient must be applied by considering the
influence of the actual slenderness ratio of the bearing.
This can be performed in a similar manner to t hat discussed
for slider bearings. Thus, if the dimensionless friction
coefficient Cmt for the bearing journal is considered 14:
- 1 { o o
Cm~ (l +e) q 2-e+n=ll~ [q l + ( l - e ) ( q - l - 2 n ) ]
(q - 2) (q - 3__))_... (q - 2n) + 3__eeCn (22)
2n! ' 7r
where C n is the normal component of the load-carrying
coefficient:
~ 2 ( 1 + e ) ~ W
C~ = (23)
6rh Vb
and ~ = c / q , the clearance ratio. The correction coefficient
/3 will result from:
Crn I (;k = real)
/3 = (24)
Cml ( X = =)
It s values as a function of e are presented in Fig 6; it was
assumed t hat the divergent zone is compl et el y filled with
lubricant, giving the highest friction values.
Bot h t emperat ure, T, and/3 are deducted by interpolation
for the real value of q from:
in nl
r/2
q = ~ (25)
l + e
l n ~
l - e
while e can be det ermi ned f r om the graph ~ = ~ (e) in Fig 8;
the load-carrying coefficient ~" is given by the geometric and
operating characteristics of the bearing:
qj2W
~" = - - ( 2 6 )
2r/l Vrl
The real t emperat ure corresponding to a definite
slenderness ratio is obtained from:
Treal =/3T (27)
1 . 0
0 . 9
~ _ 0 - 8
g
"~0- 7
~ 0. 6
k)
0. 5
I
- X-CO
X- l . 5 ~
- ~ q-1
0 4 0 0 ' . 2 0 ' . 4 o ' . 6 o ' . e ; . o
E c c e n t r i c i t y n 3 t i o ,
F i g 7 C o r r e c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , / 3 , f o r p l a n e b e a r i n g s
-
U
u
Gn
t -
( J
g
I
" O
O
d
0 0 " 2 0 " 4 0 6 O . B
E c c e n t r i c i t y r a t i o ,
F i g 8 L o a d p a r a m e t e r , ~ , a g a i n s t e c c e n t r i c i t y r a t i o , e
I . O
2 2 2 T R I B O L O G Y N o v e m b e r 1 9 7 1
In conclusion, the met hod of thermal calculation for 50
infinitely long journal bearings consists of determining ~"
from Equation 26, with the help of the actual geometric 48
and operating characteristics of the bearing already known 46
from hydrodynami c considerations. Then e and q are
deduced from Fig 8 and Equation 25 by admitting an ~ 4 4
tJ
arbitary value of T2 which allows the determination of o
42
r12. Next, the temperature distribution is obtained from
Equations 19 to 21 and/3 from Fig 7. Equation 27 finally ~ 40
gives the real temperatures for the actual value of ~, = b/ 2q o
for the bearing. When the difference between two calculated E 38
values of T 2 is sufficiently small, the calculation is finished ~- 36
and a check on the viscosity variation and on ot her operating
characteristics is easily performed. 34
Fig 9 presents a comparison between some actual 32
temperature measurements and the calculated values by the
met hod above (Equations 19 to 21 and 24 to 27), for a
bearing having the following characteristics: rl = 18 mm;
b = 18 mm; ~, = 0.5; ff = 1.5%; V = 1.8 m/s; c v = 0.5 kcal/kg
deg C; oil viscosity 120 cSt, SAE 20W; supply pressure, Pi =
9. 81N/ er a' ; e = 0.8; The differences between the theoretical
and the experimental values are small (under 4 deg C) and
the error for the maximum temperature is on the safe side.
F i n i t e b e a r i n g s
Slider bearings
As already mentioned, the results obtained for the infinitely-
long slider bearings, when corrected for real geometric
parameters, prove to be reliable for practical calculations.
The general expression of the integrated energy equation
(Equation 1) yields directly the temperature distribution
for the finite bearings by help of the pressure distrubition.
For finite slider bearings, the pressure distribution in the
median plane of the sector was, necessary to calculate the
temperature distribution, found as~ 4 :
120
Experimentol
~ . B Theoretical
(con~cted two-dimensional)
, f ' \
I ! I
180 240 300 ~60
O+e i
Fig 9 Temperature distribution in journal bearings
while 131 and/32 assume the values 14 1/8 and 1/2 respectively
(see also Fig 3).
The profile of the temperature distribution allows the
determination of the real viscosity variation in the film,
and the calculations are repreated until the differences
between t wo successive values of T2 are sufficiently small.
Journal bearings
The temperature distribution in the lubricating film of
f'mite bearings has been analysed 1 a by integrating the
energy equation and by using the results obtained for the
pressure distribution ~ 4. To provide data for design purposes,
dimensionless diagrams of the temperature distribution are
presented, by a numerical t reat ment of the analytical
relations.
P=Po +
1 - c h - - i
Al o +kA20 +( Al l + k A2 1 ) x 1 +(A12 +k A2 2 ) x 2
1 hi - h2 2
lh~ xl )
(28)
where Po is the atmospheric pressure and:
a =
Al o = - a l ; A2 o = a l
At1 =0 . 8 3 3 a ; A2t =0. 167a
a a
Al2 =0 . 0 4 1 7 5 - ; A22 =1 . 0 4 1 7 5 -
1 1
h~ 1
- - - 1 1
6~lV h2 ch ~ ~,
; k -
h~ hi 1
- - + 1 1
h2 ch X
(29)
TRIBOLOGY November 1971 223
For the convergent , l oad-carryi ng zone ( 0 ~< 0 < n) t he
t emper at ur e di st ri but i on has t he f or m 13.
0
2.71Vr I ! 1
Jpc v c 2 (1 +e ) q (1 +e c o s 0 ) 2-q
T = T I +
1 + -
/
COS 0 + 2 aq cos 20 +
K 2
( q, X)
\
12
2e sin 0 (sin 0 aq sin 20) \ :
) 1 +e cosO
(1 +e COS0) 2q
cos 0 + 2 aq cos 20 +
K ( q , X)
6 (1 + e cos O) q
2e sin 0 (sin 0 + aq sin 20)
1 + e c o s 0
=T1 +
2.71Vrl
J p c v c 2 (1 +6) q I ( 0 ' q ' e ' ~ )
dO
(30)
where
k (q, h) -
6e
(1 - e2) vq "
- - - - - 1 -
l + ~ e 2 ( 1 q) 1
A1 2q
7.
a , = . -
Al l q I
1
1
ch 2X 2 q _
l q
ch X ~X/~q
' [ t t l
1 - 2 ( 1 - q ) 1 + e 2 1 -
l - - e 2 ( l - q ) -
2
m12
q = 0. 05386q - 0. 03816 + ( 0. 6524 - 0. 0254q) e
Al l
q
3 l q = 0. 83292 + 0. 09828q + ( 0. 7412 - 0. 4992q) e
/
(31)
while t he divergent zone Or ~< 0 ~< 2n) t he t emper at ur e
di st ri but i on takes the f or m:
0
2.71 Vrl t" dO
T = T 1 + c2
JP c v (1 + e) q ( l + e cos 0) 2"q
(32)
I n these rel at i ons ( Equat i ons 30 and 32) t he t emper at ur e
di st ri but i on is consi dered in t he medi an plane of the bearing
since t he axial vari at i on of t he t emper at ur e (al ong x3) is
negligible and t he error is on t he safe side. At t he same
time, the heat is consi dered as dissipated onl y t hr ough the
l ubri cant and t he vi scosi t y as varyi ng accor di ng t o Equat i on
3. Compari sons of t he t emper at ur e di st ri but i on obt ai ned
f r om Equat i ons 30 and 32, have shown good agr eement 13
wi t h act ual t emper at ur e measurement s.
To avoi d t he l abori ous cal cul at i ons i nher ent in t he di rect
ut i l i zat i on o f Equat i ons 30 t o 32, the t emper at ur e rise
AT = T - T1 is put in a dimensionless f or m as:
Jp c v c 2 1
- - A T = I ( 0 , q , e , ~ ) ( 3 3 )
' 71Vrl (1 + e) q
With t he usual values, J = 427 kgf m/ kcal , c v = 0.5 kcal / kg
deg C, and P = 93. 78 kg/ m 3 , Equat i on 33 t akes t he f or m:
104 c 2 1
- - AT = 1 0 4 KT AT = ~ I ( 0 , q , e , ) Q (34)
rh Vrl (1 +e ) q
By i nt ermedi at e of a For t r an 1V language and an IBM 360/ 30
Digital Comput er , the t emper at ur e di st ri but i on (in t he f or m
of t he pr oduct K T AT) was obt ai ned for various values of
), and e, f or t he characteristic cases q = 0 and q = 1. The
results are present ed in Figs 10 t o 13. When a value K T AT
= y is read on one of these diagrams f or some act ual bearing
operat i ng paramet ers, in a given poi nt , O, of t he load-
carryi ng fi l m, the t emper at ur e rise AT f or this poi nt will
result as:
y r hVq
AT = - - = y (35)
K T c 2
Where .71, V, rl and c are the oper at i ng paramet ers of t he
bearing.
Thus, t he t hermal cal cul at i on of finite j our nal bearings
can be per f or med in t he fol l owi ng way. Fr om t he geomet ri cal
( r l , b, and c) and operat i ng (V and W) characteristics of t he
bearing and t he l ubri cant propert i es (*7, p and Cv) t he load-
carryi ng capaci t y, ~', can be cal cul at ed f r om Equat i on 26,
Then e and q are deduct ed f r om Fig 8 and Equat i on 25, by
assuming a probabl e value f or T2 t o give *72- These dat a are
suffi ci ent t o obt ai n f r om one of t he Figs 10 t o 13
(correspondi ng t o the actual value of ~ for t he bearing) t he
t emper at ur e rise, by i nt erpol at i on for t he cal cul at ed value
q:
ATreaJ = ATq = 0 + (ATq = 1 - ATq = 0) q (36)
224 TRIBOLOGY November 1971
I--
t -
0
" E
u
Q .
E
10-3
i o - 4
iO-S
i d 6
$
/ /
0"2
I i I I I
30 6 0 9 0 1 2 0 1 5 0 180
0 [o]
Fig 1 0 K t A T against 8 f o r k = 0 . 5
iO-3
I -
t -
O
. . O
E
ICY 4
iO-S
X - I ~'*/ / I
., q=l / / / " "
. . . . q = 0 0' 8 s////i,, /
o - 2 . / , - ~
0 ' 8 s / / / / i , , /
d . 6
i ( ~ ' , , , ,
30 60 90 120 150
e [o]
180
Fig 11 K t A T against 8 f o r X = 1
iO-2
iO-~
I-
X
c
O
. I O
e~
E
~ io-S
),-I-5
q - l
q=O 9 ~
e-O.
I I / , , , "
0"8. / ' / , , "
. . . ~. 6 o'.4
j , -
IC)6 3 0 ' i , ,
60 90 120 150
e [o]
Fig 1 2 K t A T against 8 f o r X = 1. 5
10-21 q=l)"2
I . . . . q=O
I--
E
. O
. O
e
( ~ .
E
iO-4
ICr s
f
~ j S
# t
' Z
0 . 8 / / / "
~-0"2
180
i d 6
0. 4
0.6
30 60 90 120 150 180
e [o]
Fig 1 3 K t A T against 8 f o r ;k = 2
so t hat t he t e mpe r a t ur e of any poi nt of t he l oad- car r yi ng
f i l m ( 0 <~ 0 ~< 180 ) is r eadi l y f ound f r om T = T1 + AT.
The ma x i mu m t e mpe r a t ur e cor r es ponds t o "
0 = 180 (T2 = Tma x) and t he cal cul at i ons are r e pe a t e d
unt i l t he di f f er ence bet ween t wo successive val ues o f T2
is suf f i ci ent l y smal l . When t he t her mal per f or mance appear s
TRIBOLOGY November 1971 2 2 5
as unacceptable, the whole hydrodynami c calculation must
be reconsidered.
Example
An electric mot or bearing with the following characteristics:
Shaft radius, r~ = 0.04 m
Bearing width, b = 0.08 m
Slenderness ratio, k = 1
Radial clearance, c = 0.06 X 10 -3 (~k = 1.5%)
Velocity, V = 6.7 m/s
Load, W = 650 kgf
Temperature, T] = 40C
Oil viscosity SAE 10W; rh = 20 cSt
Assumed value T2 = 70Cgiving
7/2 = 9.5 cSt
Equation 26 yields ~"= 1.23, so from Fig 8, e = 0.64 for
q = 0 and e = 0.8 for q = 1. For these values of e, Equation
25 gives q = 0.588 and q = 0.405 respectively. Fig 11 will
lead to a value K T AT = 1.3 X l 0 -4 for the mean values
e = 0.72 and q = 0.5. Since c v = 0.5 kcal/kg deg C and
p = 93.78 kg/m 3 , the temperature rise is easily deduced from
Equat i on 35: AT = 7hVrl 1.3 X 10-4/c 2 , that is AT = 21.5vC
and T2 = T] + AT = 40 + 21.5 = 61.5C. For this new T2,
Equat i on 25 yields q = 0.322 for the mean value e = 0.72.
From Fig 11 and the new value e = 0. 69(deduct edfrom
Fig 7 for ~"= 1.23 and the new value q = 0.322) AT = 20.5C,
so that T2 = 60;5C. Since the difference between these last
two values T2 is sufficiently small it can be considered that
T2 = 61C. Actual measurements gave T2 ~ 58C.
Conclusions
The importance of the cal cul ati on of thermal levels i n
bearings is obvious. I t is no use determi ni ng a ' mean'
temperature value since the extreme values can lead to
unacceptable operating situations.
An analysis is given for finite bearings. However,
especially for slider bearings, the infinitely long assumption
leads to realistic results when conveni ent l y corrected, giving
the advantage of simplicity.
Analytical relations have been numerically treated for
finite j ournal bearings, so that every i mport ant geometrical
configuration is provided with ready-for-use diagrams and
calculation methods. The various simplifying hypotheses
regarding the boundary condi t i ons and heat dissipation
have been checked by experimental investigations.
Det ermi nat i on of the temperature distribution verifies
all geometrical and operating bearing parameters and, at the
same time, allows the real clearance of the runni ng bearing
to be calculated as a result of the thermal regime and load 2 a
Furt her work is necessary in order to provide ready-to-
handle relations for all possible transitory situations of heat
dissipation, from starved bearings where the heat is
dissipated onl y through the solid surfaces in contact, to
pressure-fed bearings where the heat can be considered to
be dissipated through the l ubri cant flow I s ,l 6,24.
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