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Preston university kohat (Lahore

Campus)
PROJECT
TOPIC:
POWER GENERATION(GAS ENGINES)
Prepared By: Ansar Mahmood
Group leader: Ansar Mahmood
Re !NO! "# P$ "%&%%'
Mem(ers : "! Muhammad Tayya( )ussa*n
REG !NO! "# P$ "%&%%+
$! Tan,eel-ur-Rehman
REG !NO! "# P$ "%&%%$
'! .hurram I/(al
REG!NO! "# P$ "%&%$%
1
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Con0en0s:
Types o1 po2er enera0*on
Types o1 en*nes
Gas en*ne
Ge 3ene(a4her
In0rodu40*on
Con0rol sys0em
Po2er sys0em
Au5*l*ar*es
Par0s o1 as en*nes
Ma*n0enan4e s4hedule o1 as
en*ne
Al0erna0or
2
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)

T6PES O7
T6PES O7
POWER
POWER
GENERATIO
GENERATIO
N
N


3
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
7O88OWING ARE MA3OR
T6PES O7 POWER
P8ANTS
)69E8 POWER P8ANT
NE:C8AR POWER P8ANT
T)ERMA8 POWER P8ANT
SO8AR ENERG6 POWER P8ANT
4
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
TYPES OF
TYPES OF
ENGINES
ENGINES
5
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
TYPES OF ENGINES
7ollo2*n are 0he 0ypes o1 en*nes
Types according to
function
" 02o s0ro;e en*nes
$ 1our s0ro;e en*ne
Types according to
shapes
I 0ype
< 0ype
Types according to
fuel
9*esel o*l
6
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
9ual 1uel
7urnas o*l
Gas
Types a44ord*n
0o 4ool*n med*um
A*r 4ooled
Wa0er 4ooled
7
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
GE 3ENBAC)ER
GE 3ENBAC)ER
GAS ENGINE
GAS ENGINE
CONTRO8 =
CONTRO8 =
POWER
POWER
S6STEM
S6STEM
8
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
In0rodu40*on GE 3ENBAC)ER
( GAS ENGINE)
9es4r*p0*on
"! General
$! En*ne pr*n4*ple
'! Cran;4ase
>! O*l pan
+! Cyl*nder l*ners
#! Cyl*nder heads
&! Cran;sha10
?! Conne40*n rod
@! <*(ra0*on damper
"%! Ma*n and (*-end
(ear*n shells
""! P*s0ons
"$! Gear 0ra*n
9
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
"'! T*m*n ear
">! E5haus0 as
0ur(o4harer
"+! En*ne o*l pump
"#! En*ne 4ool*n 2a0er
pump
"&! S0ar0er
"?! A*r-as m*5er
! General"
The GE 3en(a4her as en*ne 2or;s on 0he >-s0ro;e
pr*n4*ple and *s a 2a0er-4ooled $% 4yl*nder <-en*ne
(&%A) 2*0h an e5haus0 as 0ur(o4harer 1or pressure
4har*n o1 0he *n0a;e m*50ure!
#! Engine principle"
GE 3en(a4her as en*nes use 0he 8EANOB me0hodC
2h*4h *s a 1ur0her deDelopmen0 o1 0he lean-m*5
en*ne pr*n4*ple!
)ere 0he en*ne *s suppl*ed 2*0h a m*50ure o1 as and a
surplus o1 a*r 0o m*n*m*se em*ss*ons already a0 0he
4om(us0*on s0ae *n 0he en*ne!
$! Cran%case"
The 4ran;4ase *s a spe4*al 4as0*n and 1ea0ures s*de
4ran;4ase 4oDers 0ha0 proD*de easy a44ess dur*n
10
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
assem(lyEd*sassem(ly!
The Fy2heel-s*ded ear 0ra*n *s sealed oG (y 0he
ear(o5C and 0he D*(ra0*on damper-s*ded ear 0ra*n (y
0he 4ran;4ase 4oDer!
&! Oil pan"
The o*l pan *s made ou0 o1 2elded s0eel pla0e and 4loses
oG 0he (o00om o1 0he 4ran;4ase!
'! Cylinder liners"
The 4yl*nder l*ners are 2e0 and 4an (e e54haned *nd*D*dually!
They are spun 4as0 and are *nser0ed *n0o
0he 4yl*nder (lo4; 1rom a(oDe!
As 0hey hea0 up 0hey are 1ree 0o e5pand do2n2ards!
The 2a0er room and 0he 4ran;4ase are separa0ed (y O-r*ns on
0he ou0s*de o1 0he 4yl*nder l*ners!
S4raper r*n
Cyl*nder head as;e0
Wa0er room
Cran;4ase
O-r*n
Spa4er r*n
(! Cylinder heads"
The 2a0er-4ooled 4yl*nder heads 2h*4h 4an (e repla4ed
separa0ely are all e/u*pped 2*0h an *nle0 and
e5haus0 DalDe and 2*0h a spar; plu!
The *n0a;e and e5haus0 DalDes 1ea0ure a DalDe ro0a0*on
deD*4e (Ro0o4aps)! The pressed DalDe sea0 r*ns
4an (e rene2ed!
)! Cran%shaft"
The drop-1ored 4ran;sha10 runs on eleDen (ear*nsC *s
s0a0*4ally and dynam*4ally (alan4ed and has
(ol0ed-on 4oun0er2e*h0s! All (ear*n Hournals haDe
(een sur1a4e hardened and Ine pol*shed!
One o1 0he ma*n (ear*ns *s des*ned as a u*de (ear*n
and 0a;es 0he a5*al 1or4es e5er0ed (y 0he
4ran;sha10!
11
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
The 4ran;sha10 ma*n (ear*ns are lu(r*4a0ed D*a o*l
du40s *n 0he 4ran;4ase!
A (alan4ed Fy2heel 2*0h s0ar0er p*n*on *s moun0ed on
one end o1 0he 4ran;sha10C and a0 0he o0her end a
D*(ra0*on damper *s I00ed!
*! Connecting rod"
The 4onne40*n rods are drop-1ored and /uen4hed and
0empered! They are separa0ed d*aonally a4ross
0he (*-end and haDe serra0ed Ho*ns! The 4ross-se40*on *s
des*ned as an I-proIle 0o proD*de ma5*mum
s0a(*l*0y o1 0he 4onne40*n rods!
The (*-end (ear*n shells are repla4ea(le pla*n
(ear*ns! The small end (ush*ns are pressed *n!
The (*-end (ear*ns are lu(r*4a0ed D*a o*l du40s *n 0he
4ran;sha10!
The udeon p*ns are suppl*ed 2*0h o*l 1rom 0he p*s0on
4ool*n no,,les!
Coun0er2e*h0 9r*D*n ear 2heel
Conne40*n rod (ear*n O*l du40s Ma*n (ear*n
+! ,i-ration da.per"
A D*s4ous damper *s used 0o redu4e ro0a0*onal D*(ra0*ons
on 0he 4ran;sha10!
Th*s D*s4ous damper 4ons*s0s o1 a 4omple0ely sealed
hous*n *n0o 2h*4h a Fy2heel *s moun0ed! The
4aD*0*es (e02een hous*n and Fy2heel are Illed 2*0h
s*l*4one o*l!
/! 0ain and -ig1end -earing shells"
T2o-par0C repla4ea(le 4ran;sha10 ma*n (ear*ns and
(*-end (ear*ns!
Sputter -earing Groo2ed -earing
$1.aterial
-earing
B* end (ear*n: upper (ear*n shell
lo2er (ear*n shell
Ma*n (ear*n: upper (ear*n shell
12
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
lo2er (ear*n shell
! Pistons"
The l*h0 me0al alloy p*s0ons 1ea0ure a 4ool*n du40 and
are e/u*pped 2*0h a 2ede 4ompress*on r*nC a
0aper 1a4e 4ompress*on r*n and an o*l-4on0rol r*n 2*0h
e5pander!
Cool*n o*l *s suppl*ed D*a I5ed spray no,,les moun0ed
*n 0he 4ran;4ase!
#! Gear train"
The ear dr*D*n 0he en*ne o*l pumpC 0he en*ne 4ool*n 2a0er
pump and 0he 4amsha10 4an (e 1ound on
0he Fy2heel-s*de!
The 4ran;sha10 0oo0hed earC 0he *n0ermed*a0e ears and 0he
4amsha10 0*m*n ear all haDe 0*m*n mar;s
0o ensure 0ha0 0he 0*m*n *s 4orre40ly adHus0ed!
Gear train 34y5heel1sided6"
In0ermed*a0e ears
Camsha10 0*m*n ear
Cran;sha10 0oo0hed ear
In0ermed*a0e ear
9r*D*n ear o1 en*ne o*l pump
9r*D*n ear 2heel 1or en*ne
4ool*n 2a0er pump
In0ermed*a0e ear
$! Ti.ing gear"
The 4amsha10 runs on eleDen (ear*ns *n repla4ea(le (ush*nsC
and *s dr*Den (y 0he 4ran;sha10 D*a
*n0ermed*a0e ears! The ro4;er arms on 0he *n0a;e and e5haus0
DalDes are opera0ed (y 0he 4amsha10 (y
means o1 0appe0s and push rods! An adHus0men0 (ol0 on ea4h
ro4;er arm *s used 1or a44ura0e adHus0men0
o1 0he 0appe0 4learan4e! Pressur*sed o*l *s used 0o lu(r*4a0e 0he
0appe0s and 0he ro4;er arm moun0*nsC
2here(y 0he o*l *s suppl*ed 0o ea4h ro4;er arm 0hrouh a (ore
*n 0he push rod! The o0her moD*n par0s *n
0he 4yl*nder head are lu(r*4a0ed (y 0he spray o*l emer*n a0
0he ro4;er arm moun0*ns!
13
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
&! E7haust gas tur-ocharger"
The e5haus0 ases en0er*n 0he 0ur(*ne hous*n dr*De 0he
0ur(*ne 2heelC and 0here1ore also 0he
4ompressor *mpeller 2h*4h s*0s on 0he same sha10 as 0he 0ur(*ne
2heel! The 4ompressor *mpeller su4;s
a*r-as m*50ure 1rom 0he a*r-as m*5er and passes *0 on under
pressure D*a 0he m*50ure 4ooler
(m*50ureE2a0er hea0 e54haner) and 0he 0hro00le DalDe 0o 0he
*n0a;e 4ham(er o1 0he en*ne!
The e5haus0 as 0ur(o4harer *s lu(r*4a0ed (y 0he en*ne
lu(r*4a0*n sys0em!
'! Engine oil pu.p"
GE 3en(a4her en*nes are e/u*pped 2*0h a 1or4ed 1eed
lu(r*4a0*on sys0em!
A me4han*4al ear pump *s used as 0he en*ne o*l pump!
9r*D*n ear
O*l pump ear 2heel
(! Engine cooling 5ater pu.p"
The 4ool*n 2a0er *s pumped around 0he 4losed en*ne
4ool*n sys0em (y means o1 a me4han*4al pump!
)! Starter"
An ele40r*4al sl*d*n ear s0ar0*n mo0or!
*! 8ir1gas .i7er"
In 0he a*r-as m*5erC a propellan0 *s added 0o 0he *n0a;e
a*r D*a a Dar*a(le as aper0ure *n order 0o 4rea0e a
(urna(le a*r-as m*50ure!
The s*,e o1 0he as aper0ure *s *n4reasedEde4reased (y a
serDomo0orC as a resul0 o1 2h*4h 0he amoun0 o1
as and hen4e 0he a*r ra0*o 4an (e Dar*ed!
The a*r-as m*5er *s par0 o1 0he 8EANOB 4on0rol sys0em!
---------------------------------------------------------
14
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
control syste.
Technical speci9cation of the control
! Po5er Plant Short :escription
"!$ 7uel Gas
"!' Pr*n4*pal 9ra2*n Ele40r*4
#! 8u7iliaries
$!" S0ar0*n E/u*pmen0
$!$ Con0rol Sys0em Po2er Supply
$!' 3a4;e0 Wa0er Prehea0*n
$!> 3a4;e0 Wa0er C*r4ula0*n Pump
$!+ In0er4ool*n Wa0er Pump
$!# Pre-8u(e and Cool 9o2n O*l Pump
$!& Bypass <alDe:
$! Function of the Cogeneration Plant
'!" Pr*or*0y Ele40r*4*0y J Cus0omers re/ues0
'!$ En*ne Con0rol 7un40*ons
'!' S0and(y Po2er Supply
&! Conditions
>!" Re/u*remen0 1or parallel opera0*on 2*0h 0he
4us0omer en*nes:
>!' Sa1e0y 8oop o1 0he C)P
>!> Re/u*remen0 1or Ca(l*n Per1ormed (y 0he
Cus0omer
(! Operation 0odes of the C;P1plant
#!" Au0oma0*4 Opera0*on
#!$ Manual C)P-Opera0*on
#!' Au0oma0*4 Syn4hron*,*n
#!> Manually In*0*a0ed Au0oma0*4 Syn4hron*,*n
#!+ Po2er Supply E Bla4;ou0 opera0*on
)! Electrical ;ard5are
&!" Module Con0rol Ca(*ne0 per Module
&!$ Module In0er1a4e Ca(*ne0
&!' Syn4hron*,*n In4orpora0ed *n Module Con0rol
Ca(*ne0
15
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
&!> POWER PART
&!# Island mode 4on0rol 4a(*ne0
*! Re.ote :ata1Transfer 5ith :I8!NE <T 1
;ER0ES
?!" General
?!$ Conne40*ons me0hods
?!' Appl*4a0*ons
?!> Te4hn*4al prere/u*s*0es
16
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Technical speci9cation of the control
! Plant Short :escription
!# Fuel Gas
Na0ural as
Technical speci9cation of the control
#! 8u7iliaries
General: S2*04h oDer o1 au5*l*ar*es " and $
When 0he module *s no0 *n opera0*on (enera0or 4( *s
open) 0he au5*l*ar*es haDe 0o (e suppl*ed (y a sa1e
po2er supply 0o ensure
- Prehea0*n
- load*n o1 (a00er*es
A10er 0he enera0or 4( o1 0he module *s 4losedC 0he
supply o1 0he au5*l*ar*es may (e s2*04hed 0o 0he (us(ar!
The s2*04h oDer has do (e done (y 0he 4us0omer! 7or
s2*04h oDer *n*0*a0*on 0he s*nal enera0or 4( *s
4losedEopen 4an (e used!
#! Starting E=uip.ent
S0ar0er (a00er*es: leadEa4*d
$> <C $%% Ah per module!
Charer:
$> <C >% A
2*0h *n0era0ed 4on0rol sys0em po2er supply $> < KC "?
Ah! :sed 1or module 4on0roller!
Ba00ery 4har*n e/u*pmen0
7or 4har*n o1 0he s0ar0er (a00ery 2*0h IE:
4hara40er*s0*4 and 1or 0he supply o1 all 4onne40ed 9!C!
4onsumers!
Moun0ed *ns*de o1 0he module *n0er1a4e panel!
Po2er supply:
' 5 >%%<E$'"< L-"% MC +% ), LE- + M (ma5! po2er
4onsump0*on "%#%W)
General da0a
Nom*nal 9!C! Dol0ae $> <(LE-"M)
17
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
<ol0ae se00*n rane $>< 0o $?C?< ( adHus0a(le)
Nom*nal 4urren0 (ma5!) >% A
S*nall*n:
Green 8ed: Ou0pu0 Dol0ae N $%C+<
6ello2 8ed : ODerloadC Ou0pu0 <ol0ae O $%C+<
Red 8ed: shu0do2n
Add*0*onal par0s
" amme0er %-#% A (moun0ed *ns*de 0he *n0er1a4e panel)
" 4on0rol a44umula0or $><9CE"? Ah
Ba00ery Dol0ae mon*0or*n:
Mon*0or*n (y an under Dol0ae relay!
#!# Control Syste. Po5er Supply
$> <KC m*n! $$ - ma5! '% < (*n4lus*De o1 r*pple) a0
3en(a4her 0erm*nal! ma5 r*pple :ss K $C> <!
#!#! Control 2oltage for .odule control
ca-inet fro. starter -atteries
(d*ode en4oupled)!
#!#!# Control 2oltage for co..on cu-icles
proD*ded (y s0ar0*n (a00er*esC 4onne40ed D*a d*odes!
#!$ Jac%et >ater Preheating
'5 >%% <C +% ),C # ;W
Thermos0a0*4ally 4on0rolled (e02een ++ - #% C!
S0a0us 9*splay (P*40 +%) PPRE)EATING WATER CIRC!
P:MP ONEO77P
PPRE)EATING ONEO77P
The module 2*ll (e prehea0ed 4on0*nuously 2h*ls0 0he
serD*4e sele40or *s *n 0he manual or au0o pos*0*on!
When serD*4e sele40or s2*04h *s PO77PC prehea0*n *s
s2*04hed oG! (Ele40r*4 hea0*n elemen0sC 4*r4ula0*n
pumpC 0hermos0a0)!
#!& Jac%et >ater Circulating Pu.p
$'" <C +% ),C $>+ W:
Pump opera0es dur*n en*ne shu0do2n and au5*l*ary
4ool do2n phase!
18
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
When serD*4e sele40or s2*04h *s PO77PC 0he 4*r4ula0*n
Pump *s s2*04hed oG!
#!' Intercooling >ater Pu.p
'5 >%% <C +% ),C "++% W:
Pump opera0es dur*n module opera0*on and dur*n +
m*nu0es 4ool do2n run!
#!( Pre1?u-e and Cool :o5n Oil Pu.p
"5 $> <9CC "?%W:
Con0rolled (y module P8C!
Opera0*n 0*me N " m*nu0e (e1ore en*ne s0ar0! On4e
en*ne speed e54eeds ?%% rpmC 0he pumps *s
s2*04hed oG!
A10er module s0opC 0he pump 4on0*nues 0o opera0e 1or $%
m*nu0es *n order 0o 4ool do2n 0he 0ur(o4harer!
#!) @ypass ,al2e"
The DalDe *s open 2hen 0he en*ne *s *n proress and
0he
en*ne Ha4;e0 2a0er *s O?>ACC or a0 a10er 4ool*n!
$! Function of the Cogeneration Plant
The 0e4hn*4al *ns0ru40*on No! ""%%-%""% Qparame0er 1or
Hen(a4her as en*nesR has 0o (e 1ollo2ed!
Warn*n: In order 0o ;eep 2*0h*n spe4*Ied e5haus0
emm*ss*on leDelsC module load
should (e (e02een +% - "%%M o1 nom*nal load!
$! Priority Electricity A Custo.ers re=uest
The module *s re/ues0ed *n0o opera0*on D*a a 4us0omer
suppl*ed po0en0*al 1ree 4on0a40 Con0a40 4losed K Module
opera0*on
Con0a40 open K Module s0op
The s0ar0Es0op sele40*on o1 ea4h *nd*D*dual module *n
order 0o su*0 0he re/u*remen0s o1 0he plan0 should
(e per1ormed *n su4h a 2ay 0ha0 0here *s a m*n*mum o1
" 0o ' hrs (e02een ea4h s0ar0 an s0op o1 ea4h
module! The 4ho*4e o1 2h*4h module 0o opera0e should
also (e rela0ed 0o 0he opera0*n hours 4omple0ed
19
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
1or ea4h module!
$!# Engine Control Functions
$!#! Bnoc%ing Control" Some 4yl*nders o1 0he
en*ne are I00ed 2*0h analoue ;no4;*n sensors 2h*4h
produ4e >-$% mA s*nals propor0*onal 0o 0he ;no4;*n
*n0ens*0y!
These ;no4;*n s*nals are analysed and a ;no4;*n
4on0rol 0hus eGe40ed!
The module 2*ll (e shu0 do2n 1or reasons o1 sa1e0y!
7a*lure Messae P.NOC.ING TRO:B8EP
$!#!# 0i7ture Te.perature
I1 m*50ure 0empera0ure e54eeds ++AC 0he en*ne 2*ll (e
shu0 do2n!
7a*lure Messae P7:E8 MIBT:RE TEMPERAT:RE
)IG)P
$!#!$ 0is9ring
EDery de0e40ed m*sIre *s d*splayed!
I1C 2*0h*n "$ se4ondsC > m*sIres are de0e40ed 0hen a
m*sIre 4oun0er 2*ll (e *n4remen0ed!EDery "%
m*nu0esC 0h*s 4oun0er 2*ll (e au0oma0*4ally de4remen0ed
(y " un*0!
A module shu0do2n *s per1ormed due 0o sa1e0y reasons!
7a*lure Messae PMIS7IRING TRO:B8EP
$!$ Stand-y Po5er Supply
Technical speci9cation of the control
&! Conditions
The modules are des*ned 1or *sland opera0*on *n
parallel 2*0h ea4h o0her!
&! Re=uire.ent for parallel operation 5ith
the custo.er engines"
The C:STOMER en*nes haDe 0o 1ulIl some
pre4ond*0*ons:
20
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Genera0or 2*0h same p*04h s0a0or 2*nd*n *1 s0ar
po*n0s are 4onne40ed ( *1 Genera0or *s no0 I00ed 2*0h
same
p*04h ma*n s0a0or 2*nd*n - neu0ral 4ho;e has 0o (e
I00ed 0o 0h*s enera0or J (y 4us0omer)
Genera0or 2*0h RDol0ae droopR 1or rea40*De load
shar*n!(QadHus0a(le /uadra0ure droop ;*0R)
Poss*(*l*0y o1 a40*De load shar*n ( %-+< Dol0ae
s*nal 1rom Wood2ard $'%"A)
GE3en(a4her proD*des a load shar*n s*nal 2*0h >-
$%mA K %-"%%MC 0h*s s*nal *s 2*red on 0erm*nals
S*nals 1or *n0erlo4;*n (e02een 9GEGG-se0s 1rom
4us0omer and GG-se0s 1rom GE3en(a4her
(a44ord*n *n0er1a4e l*s0) haDe 0o (e e54haned (e02een
0he 4us0omer en*nes and 0he as en*ne 0o
ensure sa1e opera0*on 4ond*0*ons and sa1e Bla4; S0ar0
4ond!

&!$ Safety ?oop of the C;P
&!$! C;P Plant Safety ?oop
7or 0he 0o0al C)P plan0C a 4urren0 loop sa1e0y 4*r4u*0 1or
0he 1ollo2*n *s proD*ded!
- Emeren4y s0op (4on0a40 e50ernal S 3en(a4her)
Tr*pp*n o1 0he sa1e0y loop produ4es an *mmed*a0e shu0
do2n o1 0he 0o0al C)P plan0!
&!$!# Gas Engine Safety ?oop
7or ea4h en*ne S C)P moduleC a 4urren0 loop sa1e0y
4*r4u*0 1or 0he 1ollo2*n *s proD*ded!
- Emeren4y s0op
- ODer speed
- In*0*on mon*0or*n
- Con0rol o1 s2*04hear under Dol0ae 0r*p deD*4e 1orC
Al0erna0or reDerse po2er
Shu0do2n 1aul0
M*ss*n po2er s*nal
21
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Po2er s*nal oDerload
- Gas alarm (4on0a40 e50ernal)
- 7*re alarm (4on0a40 e50ernal)
Comms 1a*lure P8C (Module 4on0rol) - RPS (En*ne
4on0rol)
Tr*pp*n o1 0he sa1e0y loop shu0s do2n only 0he
appropr*a0e module S en*ne!
&!& Re=uire.ent for Ca-ling Perfor.ed -y
the Custo.er
&!&! Generator po5er ca-les"
The 4ross se40*onal areas 1or 0he po2er 4a(les suppl*ed
(y 0he *ns0aller mus0 (e *n
4ompl*an4e 2*0h <9E $@? par0 "-> (me0hod o1 4a(le
layou0C (undled 4a(les) and IEC '#>-+-+$'!
Genera0or 4urren0: In K "@%'AC a0 p!1! %C?!
See also 0e4hn*4al Ins0ru40*ons No!: ""%%-%""$
Ins0alla0*on o1 3en(a4her :n*0sT
&!&!# Only 4e7i-le control ca-les are
per.itted!
&!&!$ Cse only ca-les 5hich correspond to
recognised international standards!
They mus0 (e su*0a(le 0o mee0 0he lo4al enD*ronmen0al
and plan0 des*n 4ond*0*ons!
&!&!& Cse only .etallic ca-le trays 3also in
concrete channels6!
All 0he assem(ly ma0er*als (also s4re2s) mus0 (e
pro0e40ed aa*ns0 4orros*on! Ca(les ou0s*de
a 4a(*ne0 ((u0 *ns*de a (u*ld*n) mus0 (e run *n me0all*4
4a(le du40s! The Ho*n0s o1 0he 4a(le
4arr*ers are 0o (e alDan*4ally 4onne40ed 0o ea4h o0her
and 0hey mus0 (e 4onne40ed 0o lo4al
round (ear0h) eDery $% 0o '% m!
&!&!' The ca-le ha2e to -e .ar%ed according
to the ca-le list!
22
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
&!&!( Pay attention to the -end radius of the
ca-les!
&!&!) Ca-le entries and connection points
.ust -e resistant to tensile forces!
The use o1 s4re2ed lands *n4reases 0he 0ens*le 1or4es
and 0h*s mus0 also (e 0a;en *n0o a44oun0! :se
only one 4a(le per 4a(le land! The lands mus0 4omply
2*0h 0he appropr*a0e pro0e40*on 4lass o1 0he
deD*4e! Conne40*on 0o enera0or 0erm*nals mus0 (e
appropr*a0e 0o 0he enera0or po2er 4a(les!
&!&!* Ca-le 5ays
&!&!*! Ca-le groups
8G" 4a(le roup ": sh*elded analo 4a(les
unsh*elded 4a(les 1or 9C and AC OK #% <
sh*elded 4a(les 1or 9C and AC OK $'% <
8G$ 4a(le roup $: unsh*elded 4a(les 1or 9C and AC N
#% < and OK $'% <
8G' 4a(le roup ': unsh*elded 4a(les 1or 9C and AC N
$'% < and OK " ;<
enera0or 4a(lesC mo0ors e04!
&!&!*!# Ca-ling
- eDery 4a(le roup should haDe a separa0e 4a(le
0rayEp*pe
- 4a(les o1 d*Geren0 4a(le roupUs mus0 haDe a
separa0*on o1 a0 leas0 "% 4mC 8G" 4a(les
mus0 haDe a separa0*on o1 a0 leas0 +% 4m 0o 8G' e54ep0
*1 0hey are *n d*Geren0 me0all*4 p*pes
or *n 4a(le 0rays 2*0h a me0all*4 *sola0*n-2all!
- sens*0*De 4a(les mus0 haDe a separa0*on N " m 1rom
po2er-0rans1ormersC mo0orsC
2eld*n ma4h*nes e04!
- Ca(les o1 roups 8G" and 8G$ are no0 0o (e d*re40ly
alons*de 8G' 4a(les
23
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
- Ca(les sens*0*De 0o *n0er1eren4e mus0 (e *ns0alled a0
leas0 " me0re 1rom sour4es o1
*n0er1eren4e (0rans1ormersC mo0orsC ele40r*4 2eldersC
s0ar0ers e04!)
Sens*0*De 4a(les are: - da0a (us 4a(les
- D*deo 4a(les
- ;ey(oard 4a(les
- pr*n0er 4a(les
- analo s*nal 4a(les
- *1 02o 4on0rol 4omponen0s 4onne40ed 0oe0her 2*0h
more 0han " s*nal 4a(leC 0he
4a(les should (e la*n 4lose 0oe0her!
- s*nal 4a(le and releDan0 po0en0*al 4ompensa0*on 4a(le
should (e la*n 4lose 0oe0her!
8ay 0he 4a(les 2*0h 0he shor0es0 poss*(le pa0h!
- lay all s*nal-4a(les 4lose 0o round!
- aDo*d e50end*n 4a(les 2*0h e50ens*on p*e4es!
&!&!+ Contractor
The 4on0ra40or mus0 4onIrm *n 2r*0*n 0o 3en(a4her
0ha0 0hey haDe 4omple0ed 0he ele40r*4al
*ns0alla0*on and 4a(le *ns0alla0*on 4on0ra40 and 0es0ed
0he 4omple0ed 2or;s a44ord*n 0o 0he re/u*remen0s
o1 0he 4on0ra40C 3en(a4her spe4*I4a0*ons and 0he Ps0a0e
o1 0he ar0P
&!&!/ 8dditional conditions for ca-ling of data-us ca-les!
(The 4a(le 2*ll (e suppl*ed (y 3en(a4her! The
0erm*na0*on o44urs a0 3en(a4her):
&!&!/! Re.ote IDO Ca-le for dia!ne
a) Separa0ed 1rom all o0her 4a(les!
() M*n*mum separa0*on 1rom 8G$ and 8G' 4a(les *s "%
4m!
4) Ground*n as 4lose as poss*(le a0 0he panel en0ran4e
(round*n (ar)! The s4reen *s
0o (e 4onne40ed 0o 0he *n0er1a4e plu !(4! 2*ll (e 4arr*ed
ou0 (y 3en(a4herT)
&!&! 8dd! re=uire.ents for the ca-ling of 2ideo1 E %ey-oard1 and printer1ca-les!
24
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
(The 4a(les 2*ll (e suppl*ed (y 3en(a4her! The
0erm*na0*on o44urs a0 3en(a4her):
a) Separa0ed 1rom 0he o0her 4a(les!
() M*n*mum separa0*on 8G' 4a(les *s "% 4m!
4) The 4a(les haDe 0o (e pro0e40ed aa*ns0 0ens*le
1or4es! (4! 2*ll (e 4arr*ed ou0 (y 3en(a4herT)
&!&!# 8dditional conditions for the ca-ling of screened ca-les!
(The 4onne40*on o1 4a(le and s4reen 2*ll (e 4arr*ed ou0
(y 3en(a4her):
a) M*n*mum separa0*on 1rom 8G' 4a(les *s "% 4m
() pro0e40*on aa*ns0 0ens*le 1or4es a0 0he proD*ded
pla4e!
4) s4reen-round*n 4lose a0 0he panel - 4a(le - en0ry
2*0h 0he proD*ded s4reen 4lampUs
((L4 2*ll (e 4arr*ed ou0 (y 3en(a4her)!
&!&!$ Ca-les installed in ca-le trays .ust -e installed and 97ed against tensile
forces and
en4losed (y a pro0e40*De 4oDer pla0e!
S*nle 2*re po2er 4a(les (N66- E-66) mus0 (e *ns0alled
0o 0a;e *n0o a44oun0 shor0 4*r4u*0 1or4es!
8"

8'

8$

PEN

8' 8$ 8$ 8" 8" 8' PEN


PEN
$ 4m $9 $9 $9 $9 $9 $9 $9 $ 4m
8" 8$ 8'

8$ 8' 8"

8' 8" 8$

PEN PEN
PEN

$ 4m '9 $9 '9 $9 '9 $9 '9 $ 4m


9 K Ca(le d*ame0er
25
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
&!&!& Ca-le trays
Ca(le 0rays (4hannels) *n (u*ld*ns mus0 (e pro0e40ed
2here appropr*a0eC aa*ns0 Ire
r*s;s!
The pro0e40*on o1 0he 4a(lesC pro0e40*on aa*ns0 spread
o1 Ire and 0he 0ype o1 4a(le usedC
mus0 mee0 all appropr*a0e (u*ld*n and sa1e0y 4odes and
reula0*ons!
&!&!' >hen the ca-ling is 9nishedE an
insulation test has to -e carried out!
Tes0 a44ord*n EN #%>'@-" (se40*on ?!'!>) IEC >'@-"!
&!&!( 8ll 5or% perfor.ed such that all
codes F regulations are .et!
&!&!) Testing
9ur*n 0es0*n and 4omm*ss*on*n o1 0he plan0C 0he
ele40r*4al *ns0alla0*on 4on0ra40or
mus0 (e aDa*la(le *n order 0o re40*1y any 1aul0s or
*mplemen0 any 4hanes!
&!&!* Ca-ling Co.pany
The 4a(l*n 4ompany *s respons*(le 1or all 4arr*ed ou0
2or;C *!e! *n 4ase o1 m*s0a;es 0hey
mus0 4orre40 *0 2*0hou0 e50ra 4hare!
&!&!+ Jen-acher :eli2ery
All 1rom 3en(a4her del*Dered ele40r*4 4omponen0s are 0o
(e moun0ed and I5ed a44ord*n 0he
plan0 lay-ou0 e!! pos*0*on*n o1 panelsC (a00er*es!
'! Operation 0odes of the C;P1plant
A10er release o1 0he sa1e0y loop!
'! 8uto.atic Operation
A44ord*n 0he C)P-1un40*ons 1or all aDa*la(le modules!
-2*0h 0he demand sele40or-s2*04h *n pos!RREMOTERD*a
*n0er1a4e no!"+ 1rom 0he 4us0omer!
-2*0h 0he demand sele40or-s2*04h *n pos! QONR
Cond*0*ons 1or Au0oma0*4-s0ar0:
26
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
SerD*4e sele40or s2*04h *n pos*0*on PAu0oma0*4P
Sa1e0y 4ha*n *s o!;!
No mal1un40*on o1 0he module ( module spe4*I4 )
3a4;e0 2a0er 0empera0ure N >%AC
En*ne *s no0 runn*n
Release fro. IS?8N: SE?ECTION S>ITC; is present for 9rst engineG
<*sual s*nal PREA96 7OR A:TOMATIC START -
ENGINE STOPPE9P
<ol0ae 1ree s*nal Pready 1or au0oma0*4 s0ar0P
P9emandP 1rom 0he 4us0omer!
- Con0a40 4losed: En*ne s0ar0s up
- Con0a40 open: En*ne s0opUs
The demand 4auses:
<*sual s*nal: PSTART PROGRAM R:NNINGP
Prelu(r*4a0*on pump on - Opera0*n 0*me N " m*nu0e
(e1ore en*ne s0ar0
# se4! a10er release 1or s0ar0:
<*sual s*nal: PA:TOMATIC START IS R:NNINGP
S0ar0er onC *n*0*on on
W*0h ans2er (a4; PIn*0*on opera0*nPC 0he as DalDes
are opened!
The en*ne *n*0es and po2ers up:
The s0ar0er 2*ll (e d*senaed 2hen 0he speed *s h*her
s0ar0 speed!
<*sual s*nal: PSTART PROGRAM ENGINE R:NNING
:P TO RATE9 SPEE9P
3a4;e0 2a0er prehea0*n oG!
Prelu(r*4a0*on pump oG 2*0h en*ne speed rea0er 0han
?%% rpm!
I1 0he en*ne doesnU0 *n*0e a $nd a00emp0 2*ll 1ollo2!
I1 0he 'rd a00emp0 *s also no0 su44ess1ullC a 1ur0her s0ar0
*s (lo4;ed!
<*sual s*nal PSTART :P TRO:B8EP and 1ur0her s0ar0
a00emp0s are
preDen0ed!
27
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Opera0*onal Messaes:
"% se4onds a10er en*ne s0ar0 and po2er upC 0he lu(e o*l
pressure mon*0or*n *s a40*Da0ed!
<*sual s*nal PENGINE I98E OPERATION - !!!!!!!!!!!!P
Po0en0*al 1ree 4on0a40 POpera0*onEEn*ne runn*nP
*ssued 0o mas0er 4on0rol and 1or 4us0omer!
<*sual s*nal P ENGINE I98E OPERATION
S6NC)RONIVE-E8OA9 RE8EASEP!
Syn4hron*,*n:
The syn4hron*,*n *s per1ormed au0oma0*4ally 2hen
syn4hron*s*n sele40or s2*04h *s *n
au0oma0*4 pos*0*on!
<*sual s*nal PIS8AN9 OPERATIONP!
The load*n has 0o (e done (y 0he 4us0omerT
A10er 0he 4losure o1 enera0or CBC 0he 4us0omer *s
allo2ed 0o load 0he en*ne *n s0eps!
Shutdo5n during 8uto.atic Operation
Reason: P9emand ModuleP s*nal 1rom 4us0omer *s
remoDed *n pos! QREMOTER o1 0he demand
sele40ors2*04h
or 2*0h 0he demand sele40or-s2*04h *n pos! QO77R
The load *s redu4ed! On4e load *s less 0han "%M PNC
0he enera0or C!B! 2*ll (e
opened (y 0he (rea;er 4on0rol!
<*sual s*nal P STOP PROGRAM: ENGINE COO8
9OWN R:NP
A10er one m*nu0e 4ool do2n runC 0he as DalDes are
4losed!
Con0a40 Popera0*onP *s remoDed!
<*sual s*nal PSTOP PROGRAM : ENGINE STOP
SEW:ENCEP!
In*0*on oG and on4e en*ne speed *s less 0han s0ar0
speed
<*sual s*nal PREA96 7OR A:TOMATIC START
ENGINE STOPPE9P
28
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Shu0 do2n 4he4; o1 as 0ra*n (lea;ae de0e40*on)
Pre-lu(e pump opera0es 1or $% m*nu0es 1or 4ool do2n o1
0ur(o4harer!
Au5*l*ar*es opera0e 1or + m*nu0es!
(!# 0anual C;P1Operation
The C)P module 4an (e opera0ed manually (y
se00*n 0he serD*4e sele40or s2*04h *n
pos0*on PManualP! The load upEdo2n o1 0he module *s
0hus manually opera0ed!
The syn4hron*,*n 1un40*on *s au0oma0*4 or manual
(manually s0ar0ed au0o syn4hro-n*,*n)
depend*n on syn4hron*,er sele40or s2*04h pos0*on!
Cond*0*ons 1or 0he Manual S0ar0:
SerD*4e sele40or s2*04h *n pos! manual!
Sa1e0y 4ha*n *s o!;!
No module mal1un40*on ( module spe4*I4 )
En*ne *s no0 runn*n
Release 1rom IS8AN9 SE8ECTION SWITC) *s presen0
1or Irs0 en*neT
<*sual s*nal: PREA96 7OR MAN:A8 START
ENGINE STOPPE9P
Press s0ar0 (u00on 1or Ps0ar0 prepara0*onP
The demand 4auses:
<*sual s*nal: PSTART PROGRAM R:NNINGP
9emand prelu(r*4a0*on pump --N Opera0*n 0*me N "
m*nu0e (e1ore en*ne s0ar0
I1 all 4ond*0*ons are o!;!:
<*sual s*nal PSTART ENGINE (P:S) START
B:TTON) P
Press s0ar0 (u00on
S0ar0er on
In*0*on on and asDalDes on
29
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
W*0h ans2er (a4; PIn*0*on opera0*nPC 0he as DalDes
are opened!
The en*ne *n*0es and s0ar0s up!
<*sual s*nal PSTART PROGRAM : ENGINE
R:NNING :P TO RATE9 SPEE9P!
Release s0ar0 (u00on
The s0ar0er 2*ll (e d*senaed 2hen 0he speed *s h*her
0han 0he s0ar0 speed!
The 4ool*n 2a0er prehea0*n *s s2*04hed oG!
Opera0*on s*nals:
"% se4! a10er s0ar0 and po2er upC lu(e o*l mon*0or*n *s
s2*04hed on
<*sual s*nal: PENGINE I98E
OPERATION !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!P
<ol0ae 1ree s*nal: POpera0*onErunP 0o 0he 4us0omer
Syn4hron*,*n:
The syn4hron*,*n *s poss*(le *n $ modes: manual
(manual *n*,*a0ed au0oma0*4
syn4hron*,a0*on) and 1ull au0oma0*4!
Shu0 do2n *n Manual Opera0*on:
Be1ore shu00*n do2n en*neC de4rease load!
Syn4hron*,*n sele40or s2*04h *n pos*0*on PManualP
or POGP
S2*04h oG enera0or CB 2*0h "% M en*ne po2er!
<*sual s*nal: PENGINE I98E OPERATION
S6NC)RONIVE-E8OA9 RE8EASEP
A10er " m*n! 4ool do2n run C s0op en*ne 2*0h PS0opP
(u00on!
PGenera0or CB ReleaseP *s remoDed and 0he en*ne *s
shu0 do2n!
Tur(o 4harer 4ool do2n pump runs 1or $% m*nu0es!
A10er2ards 0he as sa1e0y l*ne 2*ll (e 4he4;ed!
<*sual s*nal: PREA96 7OR MAN:A8 START -
ENGINE STOPPE9P
30
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
(!$ 8uto.atic SynchroniHing
Syn4hron*s*n 2*ll only (e per1ormed 2hen 0he (us(ar
*s under Dol0ae!O0her2*se 0he Irs0
Genera0or C!B! 2*ll (e s2*04hed on 0o 0he (la4; (us(ar
2*0hou0 syn4hron*s*n!
Syn4hron*ser sele40or s2*04h *n pos*0*on PAu0oma0*4P
Release 1rom 0he module 4on0rol ( Syn4hron*,erE8oad
Release )
- En*ne opera0*n
- 3a4;e0 2a0er 0empera0ure N ++AC ( 2hen serD*4e
sele40or s2*04h *s *nPAu0oma0*4P )
Genera0or C!B *s open
Au0oma0*4 syn4hron*,*n sele40*on
Illum*na0ed (u00on P S6NC)RONIVING SE8ECTION
P l*h0s up
- Sele40 (us(ar Dol0ae
- Sele40 enera0or Dol0ae
- Prepara0*on o1 0he syn4hron*,er
- Sele40 enera0or C!B
- Sele40 speed adHus0men0
Au0oma0*4 0un*n o1 0he enera0or 1re/uen4y 0o 0he (us
(ar 1re/uen4y (y 0he
syn4hron*,*n un*0!
Clos*n 4ommand 0o 0he enera0or C!B (y 0he
syn4hron*,er a0 0he momen0 o1
syn4hron*,*n!
Ans2er (a4; P GENERATOR C!B C8OSE9 P
(!& 0anually Initiated 8uto.atic
SynchroniHing
Syn4hron*s*n 2*ll only (e per1ormed 2hen 0he (us(ar *s under Dol0ae! O0her2*se 0he
Irs0 GG
C!B! 2*ll (e s2*04hed on 0o 0he (la4; (us(ar 2*0hou0
syn4hron*s*n!
Syn4hron*,er sele40or s2*04h *n pos*0*on PManualP
31
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
SerD*4e sele40or s2*04h *n pos*0*on PManualP
Release 1rom 0he module 4on0rol ( Syn4hron*,erE8oad
Release )
- En*ne opera0*n
Genera0or C!B *s open
Press syn4hron*,*n sele40*on (u00on
Illum*na0ed (u00on P S6NC)RONIVING SE8ECTION
P l*h0s up
- Sele40 (us(ar Dol0ae
- Sele40 enera0or Dol0ae
- Sele40 enera0or C!B
- Sele40 speed adHus0men0
Au0oma0*4 0un*n o1 0he enera0or 1re/uen4y 0o 0he (us
(ar 1re/uen4y (y 0he
syn4hron*,*n un*0!
Clos*n 4ommand 0o 0he enera0or C!B (y 0he
syn4hron*,er a0 0he momen0 o1
syn4hron*,*n!
S0a0us d*splay P GENERATOR C!B C8OSE9 P
(!' Po5er Supply D @lac%out operation
General:
I1 ne*0her C:STOMER en*ne nor one 3ENBAC)ER as
en*ne *s *n opera0*on one o1 0hem has 0o
do 0he Irs0 4los*n o1 0he enera0or CB 2*0hou0
syn4hron*,*n 0o 0he (la4; (us(ar! Sele40*on o1
en*ne o44urs 2*0h IS8AN9 SE8ECTION SWITC) 2*0h
Pos!: R%-"-$-'->-+-#X
Pos! %: - S0ar0release 1or Cus0omer SET
Pos! ": - S0ar0release o1 GG J Se0 "
Pos! $: - S0ar0release o1 GG J Se0 $
Pos! ': - S0ar0release o1 GG J Se0 '
Pos! >: - S0ar0release o1 GG J Se0 >
Pos! +: - S0ar0release o1 GG J Se0 +
Pos! #: - S0ar0release o1 GG J Se0 #
32
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
NOTE " PRECON:ITION FOR T;IS OPER8TION 0O:E 5ithout interloc%ing
signals is
I8TTEN:8:J CONTRO?ROO0G
- The 4us0omer *s respons*(le 1or load shedd*n
(pre1era(ly us*n relay 4on0rol 2*0h d*re40 4on0a40s
on 0he s0and(y loads) su4h 0ha0 0he s0and(y load does
no0 e54eed 0he s0and(y ra0*n o1 0he modules!
A10er 0he module *s 4onne40ed 0o 0he d*s0r*(u0*on
sys0emC 0he loads mus0 (e added *n s0eps!
(s0eps: a44ord*n 0he load s2*04h on 4urDe)
8oad add*n d*aram see TA $"%?-%%$+ 1or ser*es '
d*a!ne 2*ll ensure 4orre40 a40*De load shar*n o1 0he
opera0*n 3en(a4her modules
Rea40*De po2er (alan4e *s per1ormed 0hrouh s0a0*4
adHus0men0 o1 0he enera0ors!
In mul0*ple module *ns0alla0*onsC 0he Dol0ae adHus0men0
o1 ea4h enera0or mus0
(e *den0*4al!
- Po2er 1a40or 4orre40*on e/u*pmen0 mus0 (e
d*s4onne40ed dur*n s0and(y opera0*on
0o m*n*m*se 0he daner o1 oDerDol0ae and 4apa4*0*De
enera0or opera0*on! The
plan0 po2er 1a40or should no0 (e less 0han %!?
( *ndu40*De )! I1 p1-4orre40*on e/u*pmen0 *s *ns0alledC *0
has 0o (e ensuredC 0ha0 0he p1 *s al2ays *ndu40*De and
does no0 4hane *n0o 4apa4*0*De rane!
(!'! Po5er Supply in 8uto.atic 0ode"
Syn4hron*ser and serD*4e sele40or s2*04h *n pos*0*on
PAu0oma0*4P
AC The Cus0omers en*nes are no0 runn*n
- Island sele40*on s2*04h *n Pos!: RnX
- The Irs0 sele40ed en*ne 2*ll (e s0ar0ed -al0erna0or
(u*l0s up ra0ed Dol0ae and 4onne40ed 0o 0he
Dol0ae 1ree (dead) (us(ar!
- O0her en*nes 4an (e s0ar0ed and 0hen syn4hron*,ed 0o
(us(arC a10er 4los*n C!B! load shar*n
33
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
2*0h runn*n en*nes!
@K Custo.er engine is running
- The module has 0o (e demanded (I78 "+)!
- Modul s0ar0 C runn*n up 0o ra0ed speed!
- Au0oma0*4 a40*Da0*on o1 syn4hron*sa0*on 0o (us(ar
- A10er 4los*n C!B! load shar*n 2*0h runn*n en*nes!
(!'!# Operation in 0anual 0ode"
Syn4hron*,er and serD*4e sele40or s2*04h *n pos*0*on
PManualP
8E The Custo.ers engines are not running
-Island sele40*on s2*04h *n Pos!: RnX ( Irs0 sele40ed
en*ne 4an (e s0ar0edT)
W*0h push*n 0he (u00on QSTARTR on modul 4on0rol
panel s0ar0 en*ne
- En*ne s0ar0sC al0erna0or (u*l0s up ra0ed Dol0ae and
4onne40ed 0o 0he Dol0ae 1ree (dead)
(us(ar!
- O0her en*nes 4an (e s0ar0ed and 0hen syn4hron*,ed 0o
(us(arC a10er 4los*n C!B! load shar*n
2*0h runn*n en*nes!
@K Custo.er engine is running
W*0h push*n 0he (u00on QSTARTR on modul 4on0rol
panel s0ar0 en*ne
- Modul s0ar0s C runn*n up 0o ra0ed speed and ra0ed
Dol0ae !
W*0h push*n 0he (u00on QSele40*on syn4hron*sa0*onR
on syn4hron! panel a40*Da0es
syn4hron*sa0*on 0o (us(ar
- A10er 4los*n C!B! au0oma0*4 load shar*n 2*0h runn*n
en*nes!
)! Electrical ;ard5are
9es*n o1 0he en4losures:
All en4losedC s0eelC 1ree s0and*n 4a(*ne0 2*0h 1ron0
open*n doorC ru((er door sealsC
4omple0ed 0o 0erm*nal s0r*ps 1or *n0er4onne40*on (y
4us0omer D*a a 4a(le 4hannel
34
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
(dou(le Foor)! Ca(le e5*0 1rom undernea0h! Ca(*ne0
Den0*la0*on 1rom a(oDe!
des*n a44ord*n IEC #%>'@-" S EN #%>'@-" and ISO
?+$?->!
am(*en0 0empera0ure +->%AC
rela0*De hum*d*0y &% M
R*00al en4losuresC 0ype TS ?
4olour RA8 &%'$
deree o1 pro0e40*on IP>% e50er*or
IP"% *n0er*or (pro0e40*on aa*ns0 a44*den0al (od*ly
4on0a40 2*0h l*De 4omponen0s)
)! 0odule Control Ca-inet per 0odule
Cons*s0*n o1:
9IA!NE BT (9*alo Ne02or; ne2 enera0*on) mo0or
manaemen0 sys0em
Sys0em elemen0s D*sual*sa0*on 2*0h 4en0ral en*ne and
module 4on0rol
a) <*sual*sa0*on:
Indus0r*al 4on0rol 2*0h &R <GA T7T 4olour raph*4s
d*splay and ? 1un40*on ;eys!
"%-;ey numer*4 ;ey(oard 1or parame0er *npu0!
.eys 1or STARTC STOPC d*splay sele40*on ;eys and
spe4*al 1un40*ons!
In0er1a4es:
- E0herne0 (02*s0ed pa*r) 1or 4onne40*on 0o 9IA!NE WIN
serDer
- CAN-Bus: (us 4onne40*on 0o 0he *n0ell*en0 sensors
and a40ua0ors
- Po2er 8*n;: (us 4onne40*on 0o 0he 4on0rol *n- and
ou0pu0s
OPTION: In0er1a4*n 2*0h 0he 4us0omerYs plan0
manaemen0 a44ord*n 0o 3ENBAC)ER-AG l*s0 o1
op0*ons ('@#>RC 3en(a4her-R. "$?C MO9B:S-RT:C
PRO7IB:S-9P)
Pro0e40*on 4lass: IP #+ (1ron0)
35
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
9*mens*ons: W 5 ) 5 9 K appro5! $"$ 5 $++ 5 @+ (?C> 5
"% 5 'C&+ *n)
A 4lear and 1un40*onal raph*4 4omp*la0*on o1 measured
Dalues *s d*splayed on 0he s4reen! :ser promp0s
are (y means o1 d*re40-a40*n d*splay sele40*on ;eys and
1un40*on ;eys!
Ma*n d*splays:
Genera0or *n0er4onne40*onC 2*0h ele40r*4ally
measured Dar*a(les and d*splay o1 e54*0a0*on Dol0ae
O*l and en*ne 4ool*n 2a0er 4*r4u*0sC 2*0h d*splays
o1 o*l pressure and 0empera0ureC and 4ool*n
2a0er pressure and 0empera0ure!
E5haus0 as 0empera0ures *n a 4olumn raph 2h*4h
also d*splays 0he aDerae 0empera0ure!
Ma*n en*ne 4on0roller
Module au5*l*ary 4on0roller
Au5*l*ary sys0ems (s0a0us d*splay)
Opera0*onal da0aC *!e! opera0*n hoursC serD*4e hoursC
num(er o1 s0ar0sC a40*De po2er demand
(;Wh)C rea40*De po2er demand (;<Arh)C and measured
Dalues 1or opera0*onal lo(oo;!
Sys0em d*splayC *!e! 0*meC pass2ordC (r*h0nessC
4on0ras0C d*anos0*4s!
Graph*4 0rend*n d*splay o1 up 0o "# measured Dalues:
8on 0erm 0rend*n (" mon0h a0 a s0orae *n0erDal o1
'% se4!)
Shor0 0erm 0rend*n ($% m*n! a0 a s0orae *n0erDal o1
" se4!) - s0opped and s0ored *n 0he eDen0 o1 a
mal1un40*on!
Re4*pe handl*n:
Se00*nC d*splay and s0orae o1 all module parame0ers
Alarm manaemen0:
36
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
EG*4*en0 d*anos0*4 *ns0rumen0a0*on l*s0*n all a40*De
1aul0 messaes (o0h 0a(ular and
4hronolo*4allyC 2*0h 0he re4orded 0*me!
() Cen0ral en*ne and module 4on0rol:
A real-0*meC modular *ndus0r*al 4on0rol sys0em 2h*4h
handles all Ho(s 1or module and en*ne-s*de
se/uen4*n 4on0rol (s0ar0 prepara0*onC s0ar0C s0opC a10er-
4ool*nC 4on0rol o1 au5*l*ar*es)C as 2ell as all 4on0rol
1un40*ons!
In0er1a4es:
Con0rol 1un40*ons:
- Speed 4on0rol *n no-load and *sola0ed opera0*on
- 8EANOB 4on0rol sys0em 1or 4on0rol o1 (oos0 pressureZ
dependen0 upon 0he enera0or 0erm*nal po2er
and 0he m*50ure 0empera0ure D*a 0he en*ne-dr*Den a*r-
as m*5er
- .no4;*n 4on0rol: adHus0men0 o1 0he *n*0*on po*n0 and
(*nso1ar as *s lo4ally poss*(le) *n 0he eDen0 o1
de0e40*on o1 ;no4;*n!
- 8oad shar*n (e02een seDeral GE3 en*nes *n *sola0ed
opera0*on
- 8*near redu40*on o1 po2er ou0pu0 *n 0he eDen0 o1
e54ess*De m*50ure 0empera0ure and *n*0*on 1a*lures-*n
r*d parallel opera0*on

In0er1a4e relays as per 0he *n0er1a4e l*s0


Mul0*-0ransdu4erC 0o re4ord 0he 1ollo2*n ele40r*4ally
measured Dar*a(les o1 0he enera0or:
Phase 4urren0 (2*0h slaDe po*n0er)
Neu0ral 4ondu40or 4urren0
<ol0aes PhEPh and PhEN
A40*De po2er (2*0h slaDe po*n0er)
Rea40*De po2er
Apparen0 po2er
37
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Po2er 1a40or
7re/uen4y
An add*0*onal % - $% mA ou0pu0 *s produ4ed 1or a40*De
po2erC as 2ell as a pulse ou0pu0 1or a40*De po2er
demand!
The 1ollo2*n al0erna0or superD*s*ons are *n0era0ed
2*0h 0he mul0*-0ransdu4er (ma5! ? 1un40*ons
s*mul0aneous):
- ODerloadEshor0-4*r4u*0 [+"\C [+%\
- ODer Dol0ae [$&\
- :nderDol0ae [+@\
- Asymme0r*4 Dol0ae [#>\C [+@N\
- :n(alan4e 4urren0 [>#\
- 7a*lure E5*0a0*on [>%\
- ODer1re/uen4y [?"N\
- :nder1re/uen4y [?"O\
8o4;a(le serD*4e sele40or s2*04h 2*0h 0he 1ollo2*n
pos*0*ons:
PS0opP: No s0ar0 up poss*(le
I1 0he en*ne runs and 0he s2*04h *s 0urned 0o PSTOPP
0he en*ne s0ops *mmed*a0ely!
PManualP: 7ull manual opera0*on (s0ar0C s0op)
poss*(le!
The module *s no0 aDa*la(le 1or 1ull au0oma0*4 opera0*on!
PAu0oma0*4P: 7ull au0oma0*4 opera0*on *n 4ase o1
re/ues0 1rom 0he mas0er
4on0rol or po0en0*al 1ree 4on0a40!
- Au0oma0*4 s0ar0
- 7ully au0oma0*4 opera0*on
- Shu0 do2n o1 module *n4ludes " m*nu0e en*ne 4ool
do2n run and
+ m*nu0e 4ool do2n run 1or 0he au5*l*ar*es!
Module demand sele40or-s2*04h 2*0h 0he se00*ns:
e50ernal demand no0 aDa*la(le! (QO77R)
38
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
e50ernal demand! (QREMOTER)
e50ernal demand 4on0a40s shor0ed! (QONR)
STAT:S MESSAGES
In 0he s0a0us (ar o1 0he G:IC 0he 4urren0 opera0*onal
s0a0us o1 0he module 2*ll
(e d*splayed! e!
SER<ICE SE8ECTOR SWITC) O77
SER<ICE SE8ECTOR SWITC) MAN:A8 NOT REA96
TO START
SER<ICE SE8ECTOR SWITC) A:TOMATIC NOT
REA96 TO START
REA96 7OR MAN:A8 START ENGINE STOPPE9
REA96 7OR A:TOMATIC START ENGINE STOPPE9
START PROGRAM R:NNING
START ENGINE (P:S) START B:TTON) (IN MAN:A8
OPERATION)
WAITING TIME BE7ORE RE8EASE O7 NEBT MAN:A8
START (IN MAN:A8 OPERATION)
A:TOMATIC START IS R:NNING (IN A:TOMATIC
OPERATION)
START PROGRAM: ENGINE R:NNING :P TO RATE9
SPEE9
ENGINE I98E OPERATION NO S6NC)RONIVE-E8OA9
RE8EASE
ENGINE I98E OPERATION S6NC)RONIVE-E8OA9
RE8EASE
S6NC)RONIVING IS R:NNING
IS8AN9 OPERATION
STOP PROGRAM: ENGINE COO8 9OWN R:N
STOP PROGRAM: ENGINE STOP SEW:ENCE
7AI8:RE MESSAGES MO9:8E CONTRO8 (A8ARM
MANAGEMENT):
see Append*5 PA8ARM 8IST (ST]RME89E8ISTE)PT
Thermos0a0*4ally 4on0rolled >"W 4a(*ne0 Den0*la0or!
Panel hea0er
39
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
9*mens*ons:
he*h0 K $$%% mm (*n4l! $%% mm pedes0al)
2*d0h K ?%% mm
dep0h K #%% mm
)!# 0odule Interface Ca-inet
All en4losed shee0 s0eel 4a(*ne0 2*0h 1or2ard open*n
door (dou(le doors as op0*on)C I00ed 2*0h
ru((er proIle seals! 7*00ed 0o module s;*d and 2*red 0o
0he module au5*l*ar*es and en*ne!
Pa*n0ed *n RA8 &%'$
Pro0e40*on 4lass: IP+> e50ernalC IP"% *n0ernal
(pro0e40*on aa*ns0 a44*den0al (od*ly
4on0a40 2*0h l*De 4omponen0s)!
Po2er supply 1rom 0he s0ar0er (a00ery 4harer!
Po2er d*s0r*(u0*on 0o 0he module moun0ed au5*l*ar*es:
(Po2er *npu0 1rom 0he suppl*er
o1 0he au5*l*ar*es po2er supply) !
' 5 >%%E$'" <C +% ),C $% Amp
4ompr*s*n:
0erm*nal s0r*p 2*0h 4a(le en0ry 1rom (o00om
de4en0ral IEO sys0em 4onne40ed D*a an ser*al
*n0er1a4e 2*0h 0he 4en0ral en*ne 4on0rol
sys0em *n 0he module 4on0rol 4a(*ne0!
speed relays 2*0h 0r*p po*n0s 1or s0ar0 and oDer
speed (oDer speed relay also mon*0ored
(y 0he 4en0ral en*ne 4on0rol sys0em so102are)!
measuremen0 0ransdu4er 1or enera0or e54*0er
Dol0ae!
relaysC pro0e40*onC mo0or 4on0a40ors 1or au5*l*ary
and DalDe 4on0rol!
Cool*n deD*4e!
<ol0ae se0 po*n0 po0en0*ome0er
Emeren4y s0op (ush (u00on
Module *n0er1a4e 4a(*ne0 d*mens*ons:
2*d0h K ?%% mm
40
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
he*h0 K "%%% mm
dep0h K '%% mm
)!$ SynchroniHing Incorporated in 0odule
Control Ca-inet
Sele40*on o1 manual or au0oma0*4 syn4hron*,*n *s
per1ormed 2*0h 0he lo4;a(le sele40or s2*04h!
)!$!# 0anually Initiated 8uto.atic
SynchroniHing"
Press*n 0he syn4hron*,*n sele40*on (u00on a40*Da0es
0he au0oma0*4 syn4hron*,*n! See para #!>
)!$!$ 8uto.atic Synchronisation"
7ully au0oma0*4 syn4hron*,a0*on deD*4e 2*0h 1re/uen4y
4on0rol and 2*0h
au0oma0*4 syn4hron*sa0*on pro4ess 4on0rol! See para #!'
Syn4hron*,*n Mon*0or*n
)!$!& SynchroniHing 5ith :ia!ne
a6 Generator C!@! .onitoring
7aul0 messaes:
PGENERATOR C!B! O-SIGNA8 7AI8:REP Caused (y
P8C hard2are mon*0or*n
PGENERATOR C!B! "-SIGNA8 7AI8:RE Caused (y
P8C hard2are mon*0or*n
PGENERATOR C!B! C8OSING 7AI8:RE P Caused (y
+ 1a*led 4los*n a00emp0s
PGENERATOR C!B! OPENING 7AI8:RE P 7a*led C!B!
open*n a10er open*n 4ommand
PGENERATOR C!B! STAT:S SIGNA8 7alse C!B!
s0a0us ans2er(a4; s*nal
7AI8:REP
)!$!' The SynchroniHing Incorporates"
Syn4hron*,*n sele40*on s2*04h
Syn4hron*,*n sele40*on - *llum*na0ed (u00on per
module
41
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Syn4hron*,*n un*0 - 2*0h 1re/uen4y (alan4e and
1ollo2*n d*splays:
9ou(le Dol0me0er - 1or mon*0or*n o1 (us (ar and
enera0or Dol0ae
9ou(le 1re/uen4y me0er - 1or mon*0or*n o1 (us (ar
and enera0or 1re/uen4y
Syn4hros4ope - 1or mon*0or*n o1 0he syn4hron*,*n
1un40*on dur*n syn4hron*,a0*on
)!& PO>ER P8RT
General:
Po2er par0 un*0 4ons*s0 o1 $ al0erna0or po2er panels
and " 8oad Ta;e oG panels
)!&! Generator S5itchgear Ca-inet
Nom*nal 4urren0: "@%' A
4ompr*s*n:
" mo0or*sed a*r C!B!NW $% )$C IA K "%%;AC I5ed
4ons0ru40*on!
0hermal and mane0*4 oDer 4urren0 pro0e40*onC
2*0h $> <9C shun0 0r*p 4o*lC $><9C under Dol0ae 0r*p
4o*l and $><9C 4los*n 4o*l!
Su*0a(le 1or syn4hron*,*n!
' 4urren0 0rans1ormers $%%%E+ AC 1or measuremen0
"7S+C '%<A!
7uses 1or d*Geren0 ou0o*n 1eeders
+ 2*re 4opper sys0em (TN-S) J 8"C8$C8'CPECN 2*0h
4onne40*n 1a4*l*0*es 1or *n4om*n and ou0o*n
4a(les!
Bus(ar : ra0ed 1or '?%%A a0 >%AC
9*mens*ons 8"C8$C8': '5"'%5"% C:Cpa*n0ed
N:$5"%%5"% Cu
PE:"5"%%5"% Cu
PEN - BRI9GE: "5 "%%5"% C:
Ple5*las pro0e40*on 1or l*De par0s!
Term*nal (lo4; 1or 4on0rol 4a(les!
42
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Copper Ho*n0 pla0e-sys0ems 1or (us(ar 4onne40*on 1or
d*Geren0 del*Dery par0s!
Thermos0a0*4ally 4on0rolled 4a(*ne0 Den0*la0or and
ou0le0 Il0er on 0he roo1!
Ca(*ne0 d*mens*ons:
2*d0h K ?%% mm
he*h0 K $%%% mm L $%% mm pedes0al
dep0h K ?%% mm
)!&!# ?oad Ta%e OL Panel
4ompr*s*n:
+ 2*re 4opper sys0em (TN-S) J 8"C8$C8'CPECN 2*0h
4onne40*n 1a4*l*0*es 1or ou0o*n 4a(les!
Bus(ar : ra0ed 1or '?%%A a0 >%AC
9*mens*ons 8"C8$C8': '5"'%5"% C:Cpa*n0ed
N:$5"%%5"% Cu
PE:"5"%%5"% Cu
Ple5*las pro0e40*on 1or l*De par0s!
Thermos0a0*4ally 4on0rolled 4a(*ne0 Den0*la0or!
Ca(el ou0le0: Bo00om
Ca(*ne0 d*mens*ons:
2*d0h K ?%% mm
he*h0 K $%%% mm L $%% mm pedes0al
dep0h K ?%% mm
)!( Island .ode control ca-inet
Purpose: Spe4*I4 release 1or RB8AC. START
OPERATIONX
(Prepared 1or ma5! # 3en(a4her en*nesT)
All en4losed shee0 s0eel 4a(*ne0 2*0h 1or2ard open*n
door!
9es*n a44ord*n EN #% >'@-"E"@@% or IEC >'@-" ($
*ssue)
and 9IN <9E %##%C par0 +%% and 9IN #$?%C par0 &
Am(*en0 0empera0ure +->%AC
Rela0*De hum*d*0y &% M
Colour RA8 &%'$
43
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
9eree o1 pro0e40*on:IP>% e50er*or
IP"% *n0er*or (pro0e40*on aa*ns0 a44*den0al (od*ly
4on0a40 2*0h l*De 4omponen0s)
$> < 9C Po2er supply 1rom ea4h module 4on0rol panel!
Compr*s*n:
Term*nal s0r*p 2*0h 4a(le en0ry 1rom (o00om
In0er1a4e relaysE4on0a40s as per 0he *n0er1a4e l*s0
?oc%a-le selector s5itch 5ith the follo5ing positions"
PS0opP: No RB8AC. O:T STARTX poss*(le
P"-#P: Release 1or En*ne no! R"X-R#X 1or B8AC. S0ar0
J prepared 1or # en*nes
?oc%a-le po5er .ode selector1s5itch 5ith the settings"
QO77R Parallel *sland mode: - 2*0h load shar*n 0o
4us0omer en*ne J*1 e5*s0*n K Speed
Con0rol
- *1 no load shar*n l*ne 0o 4us0omer en*ne *1 e5*s0*n J
speed 4on0rol adHus0ed 2*0h 9ROOP
7:NCTIONTT
QONR Parallel *sland mode: 2*0h 1ull load o1 3AG
en*nes K POWER CONTRO8
(4os ph* 4on0roller *s 2or;*nT)
7un40*on: 3AG en*nes are 2or;*n 2*0h 1ull load (se0
po*n0 adHus0a(le)C and 4us0omer en*nes 4oDer
0he rema*n*n loadT Jposs*(le 1un40*on *1 po2er ra0*n o1
4us0omer en*nes are h*her 0han 0he 3AG
nom*nal po2erT
Emeren4y s0op push (u00on
In0er1a4es 1rom C:STOMER ENGINE CONTRO8 TO
3ENBAC)ER :
- 8oad *s shedd 1or B8AC. O:T S0ar0 o1 Irs0 en*ne!
- STAT:S: GENERATOR CB O7 C:STOMER ENGINE IS
C8OSE9
- STAT:S: GENERATOR CB O7 C:STOMER ENGINE IS
OPEN
44
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
- SIGNA8 7OR 8OA9 S)ARING e!: 2*0h a Wood2ard
$'%"A speed oDernor
( 3en(a4her proD*des a load shar*n s*nal 2*0h >-$%mA
K %-"%%M C 0h*s s*nal *s 2*red on 0erm*nals *n
0he 4a(*ne0)!
NOTE " PRECON:ITION FOR T;IS OPER8TION 0O:E 5ithout interloc%ing
signals
IS 8TTEN:8: CONTRO?ROO0G
M*m*4 d*aram 1or # en*nes
9*mens*ons: (NOTE : WA88 MO:NTING)
he*h0 K "%%% mm
2*d0h K ?%% mm
dep0h K '%% mm
*! Re.ote :ata1Transfer 5ith :I8!NE <T 1
;ER0ES
*! General
)ERMES *s 0he remo0e da0a 0rans1er solu0*on 1or
9IA!NE BT! )ERMES *s aDa*la(le D*a 02o 4onne40*on
me0hods and appl*4a0*ons!
*!# Connections .ethods
*!#! 0ode.
S*0e-Cus0omer 4onne40*on D*a an analoue Modem!
S4ope o1 supply
9IA!NE WIN J SerDer (Indus0r*al PC 2*0hou0 d*splayC
;ey(oard or mouseC (u*l0 *n0o 0he 4on0rol panelC
*n4lud*n opera0*n sys0em)
In0ernal analoue modem!
Cus0omer Re/u*remen0s
Analoue modem *n 0he 4us0omers PC
Pu(l*4 0elephone 4onne40*on 2*0h 4onne40*on por0 1or
0he 9IA!NE WIN J SerDer (*n 0he 4on0rol panel)
*n4lud*n oDer-Dol0ae pro0e40*on 4orrespond*n 0o 0he
lo4al 0ele4ommun*4a0*on reula0*ons!
45
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Pu(l*4 0elephone 4onne40*on 2*0h 4onne40*on por0 1or
0he 4us0omerYs PC 4orrespond*n 0o 0he lo4al
0ele4ommun*4a0*on reula0*ons!
*!#!# ?8N
S*0e-Cus0omer 4onne40*on D*a a lo4al ne02or;!
S4ope o1 supply
9IA!NE WIN J SerDer (Indus0r*al PC 2*0hou0 d*splayC
;ey(oard or mouseC (u*l0 *n0o 0he 4on0rol panelC
*n4lud*n opera0*n sys0em)
E0herne0 J Ne02or; 4ard ("%E"%% BASE T)
Cus0omer Re/u*remen0s
E0herne0 J Ne02or; 4ard ("%E"%% BASE T)
E0herne0 J Ca(l*n (e02een 0he 9IA!NE WIN J
SerDer 0he 4us0omers PC!
*!$ 8pplications
*!$! :I8!NE >IN 3OPTION6
9IA!NE WIN *s 0he W*ndo2s (ased Qman-ma4h*ne
*n0er1a4eR 1or 3en(a4her as en*nes! The sys0em
oGers e50ens*De 1a4*l*0*es 1or 4omm*ss*on*nC
mon*0or*nC serD*4*n and analys*s o1 0he s*0e! The
op0*on
9IA!NE WIN e50ends 0he D*sual*sa0*on o1 9IA!NE BT
2*0h respe40 0o user 1r*endl*nessC h*s0or*4al analys*s
and remo0e use! SeDeral serD*4e s0a0*ons 4an (e
*ndependen0ly opera0ed *n parallel! The sys0em 4ons*s0s
o1 a 4en0ral PC (9IA!NE WIN J SerDer) 2h*4h *s (u*l0 *n
0o 0he 4on0rol panel and one or more serD*4e
s0a0*ons (9IA!NE WIN J Cl*en0s)! The sys0em runs on a
M*4roso10 In0erne0 E5plorer pla01orm!
Technical speci9cation of the control
7un40*on
SerD*4e and mon*0or*nC 0rend analys*sC alarm
manaemen0C parame0er manaemen0C lon-0erm da0a
46
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
analys*sC mul0*-user sys0emC remo0e 4on0rolC OPC (O8E
1or pro4ess 4on0rol)C pr*n0 and e5por0 1un40*onsC
opera0*n da0a pro0o4olsC aDa*la(le *n seDeral
lanuaes!
S4ope o1 supply
So102are pa4;ae 9IA!NE WIN on 0he 9IA!NE WIN J
SerDer
9IA!NE WIN J Cl*en0 8*4en4e (R*h0 0o a44ess o1 0he
user 0o 0he serDer on s*0e)
Cus0omer re/u*remen0s
S0andard PC 2*0h ;ey(oardC mouse and mon*0or
(m*n! resolu0*on "%$>^&#?)
$'" < supply 1or 0he 4us0omersY PC
Opera0*n sys0em W*ndo2s @?C W*ndo2s NTC
W*ndo2s $%%% or W*ndo2s BP
M*4roso10 In0erne0 E5plorer (m*n! <ers*on #!%)
*n4lud*n 3aDa suppor0
*!$!# :I8!NE R0C 3OPTION6
9IA!NE RMC (Remo0e Messae Con0rol) *s 0he
au0oma0*4 alarm sys0em 1or 9IA!NE BT! 9IA!NE RMC
4an
1ully au0oma0*4ally 0ransm*0 essen0*al opera0*onal
*n1orma0*on 1rom 0he 9IA!NE BT Alarm Manaemen0 0o
a
remo0e s0a0*on! The messaes 4an (e 1or2arded 0o an e-
ma*l addressC 1a5 ma4h*ne or mo(*le phone
(SMS)! 7ur0hermore 0he s0ored messaes 4an (e
D*sual*sed a0 0he remo0e s0a0*on! The sys0em 4ons*s0s o1
a 4en0ral PC (9IA!NE WIN J SerDer) 2h*4h *s (u*l0 *n0o
0he 4on0rol panel and one or more 4us0omer
remo0e s0a0*ons!
7un40*on
Au0oma0*4 0rans1er o1 messaes 0o 0he 4us0omer D*a
ema*lC 1a5 or SMS! 9*splay and pr*n0*n o1 0he
47
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
messaes (also d*s0r*(u0ed D*a 8AN)! Au0oma0*4 and
manual 0rans1erral o1 messaesC 0rend da0a and
opera0*n da0a pro0o4ols!
S4ope o1 supply
So102are pa4;ae 9IA!NE messae on 0he 9IA!NE WIN
J SerDer
So102are pa4;ae 9IA!NE 4on0rol and 9IA!NE repor0 on
0he remo0e s0a0*on
Cus0omer re/u*remen0s
S0andard PC 2*0h ;ey(oardC mouse and mon*0or
(m*n! resolu0*on "%$>^&#?)
$'" < supply 1or 0he 4us0omersY 4ompu0er!
Opera0*n sys0em W*ndo2s NT or W*ndo2s BP
In0erne0 4onne40*on (proD*der a44oun0) 1or 0he 4ase
0ha0 messaes 1rom 0he RMC should (e
1or2arded 0o an ema*l re4e*Der (*n4l! SMS 1or mo(*les
and paers)! (Mo(*les and paers 0o (e
proD*ded (y 0he 4us0omer)!
Cus0omer 1a5 so102are 1or messae 1or2ard*n D*a
1a5
OPTION:
*!$!#! dia!ne .essage
d*a!ne messae *s *ns0alled on 0he modem serDers o1 0he
plan0s! I0 *s respons*(le 1or 0he 0ransm*ss*on o1
messaes and da0a 0o d*a!ne 4on0rol *n 0he R9T 4on0rol
4en0ers!
Messae 0ransm*ss*on:
The pro4ess*n o1 alarm messaes on 0he module
D*sual*,a0*on un*0s *s 4arr*ed ou0 (y AMM (Alarm
Manaemen0) 1rom In0era40! AMM re4ords opera0*onal
messaesC 2arn*ns and mal1un40*ons lead*n 0o
shu0do2ns (0he la00er 02o are also des*na0ed as alarm
messaes)!
48
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Pr*or 0o a 0ransm*ss*on 0he messaes enera0ed (y 0he
modules are e5am*ned a44ord*n 0o Dar*ous
4r*0er*a so 0ha0 0he messae 0ransm*ss*on 4an (e
*nFuen4ed *n a spe4*I4 2ay! The 1ollo2*n 4r*0er*a 4an
(e se0:
ModuleC Messae des*na0*onC Messae num(erC
Messae 0ypeC Wee;dayC T*me o1 0he o44urren4e
I1 a messae *s 4lass*Ied as R0o (e 0ransm*00edXC *0 *s
0hen aumen0ed 2*0h 0he plan0 4odeC plan0 num(erC
module des*na0*on and 0he module num(er and
0ransm*00ed 0o 0he 4onIured R9T 4on0rol 4en0ers!
9a0a 0ransm*ss*on:
The )TM ()*s0or*4al Trend Manaemen0) 1un40*on
re4ords measured Dalues 4y4l*4ally on 0he dia!ne
D*sual*,a0*on un*0s and s0ores 0hem *n so-4alled lo Iles!
OPTION:
W*0h 0he RPM (Repor0 Manaemen0) 1un40*on repor0s
(e!! opera0*onal lo(oo;) 4an (e au0oma0*4ally
enera0ed 2h*4h 0hen are aDa*la(le as repor0 Iles!
These IlesC 2h*4h are s0ored *n 0he modulesC 4an (e
0rans1erred manually or au0oma0*4ally 0o any des*red
R9T 4on0rol 4en0ers!
OPTION"
?!'!$!$ d*a!ne 4on0rol
In 0he R9T 4on0rol 4en0ers d*a!ne 4on0rol reula0es 0he
re4ep0*on and ar4h*D*n o1 all *n4om*n messaes
and da0a! Add*0*onallyC 0he relay*n o1 messaes and
repor0s D*a 7a5 and eMa*l (*n4l! SMS 1or 4ellular
phones and paers) *s oran*,ed 1or 4ommun*4a0*on
2*0h serD*4e personnel!
Messaes 2h*4h are re4e*Ded 1rom 0he plan0s are
e5am*ned a44ord*n 0o Dar*ous 4r*0er*a pr*or 0o (e*n
relayed so 0ha0 4ommun*4a0*on 4an (e purposely
*nFuen4ed! The 1ollo2*n 4r*0er*a 4an (e se0:
49
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Plan0 4odeC Plan0 num(erC ModuleC Messae
des*na0*onC Messae num(erC Messae 0ype
Wee;dayC T*me o1 0he o44urren4eC Commun*4a0*on 0ype
(7a5C eMa*lC SMS)
7or au0oma0*4 pro0o4oll*nC all re4orded messaes 4an
(e pr*n0ed ou0 da*ly! A 4onne40*on 4he4; 4an (e
a40*Da0ed 0o e5am*ne 0he R9T l*n; (e02een 0he modem
serDers and 0he R9T 4on0rol 4en0ers! Th*s
ensures 0ha0 a 4he4; 4all *s 4arr*ed ou0 on a da*ly (as*s!
OPTION"
?!'!$!' d*a!ne repor0
W*0h d*a!ne repor0 one 4an d*splay and pr*n0 ou0
messaes re4e*Ded *n an R9T 4on0rol 4en0er on any
num(er o1 2or;s0a0*ons (s0andard PCs)! To do 0h*sC 0he
PC mus0 (e l*n;ed D*a a 8AN 0o 0he R9T 4on0rol
4en0er! 7or 0he messae d*splay one 4an sele40 (o0h 0he
lanuae and 0he des*red plan0s!
7or au0oma0*4 pro0o4ol*n all re4e*Ded messaes 4an (e
pr*n0ed ou0 da*ly reard*n spe4*I4 plan0s!
Throuh d*a!ne repor0 *0 *s also poss*(le 0o pr*n0 ou0
manually 4omp*led pro0o4ols a0 any 0*me!
*!& Technical prere=uisites
The 4us0omer has 0he respons*(*l*0y 0o ensure 0ha0 a
0elephone l*ne 2*0h a separa0e num(er *s aDa*la(le
no la0er 0han 0he s0ar0-up o1 opera0*ons! The 4onne40*on
mus0 (e *ns0alled *n 0he module 4on0rol 4a(*ne0 *n
2h*4h 0he modem serDer *s *ns0alled! The 0elephone l*ne
mus0 (e opera0*De and 0he num(er ;no2n! No
4hare (K0ar*G) *mpulses may (e appl*ed 0o 0he l*ne
s*n4e 0hey 4ould *n0er1ere 2*0h da0a 0ransm*ss*on! 7or
0he 0elephone l*ne on 0he 4us0omers s*de an oDer
Dol0ae pro0e40*on has 0o (e proD*ded 2h*4h
4orresponds 2*0h lo4al rules and reula0*ons o1 0he
0elephone proD*der!
50
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
--------------------------------------------
51
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Spare
Parts
Of
Gas
engine

52
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
(GE JEN@8C;ER)
53
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Cran% case
54
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
piston and connecting
rod
55
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Cylinder ;ead
,al2e Control
syste.
56
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Cran%
shaft
57
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
+)
Pressure M
Te.perature
Tranducer
58
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)

S8FETY
,8?,E
59
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Gear Train
60
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
JECBET >8TER
PC0P
61
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Generator
62
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Gas Street
63
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
8ir Gas 0i7er
64
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Tur-o Charger
65
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Starter
66
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Ignition Syste.
67
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)


Inta%e air 9lter
68
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
E7haust Gas
Cylincer
69
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
E7pansion Tan%
M
Jac%et >ater
9lling ,al2e
70
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
;eat
E7changer
71
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Spar% Plug
72
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
0aintenan
0aintenan
ce
ce
schedule
schedule
73
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)

Ma*n0enan4e s4hedule
:aily inspection
round
daily Carry out daily 2isual inspection of
the
unit!
Operating data
log
daily ?og the operating data daily!
Inta%e air 9lter1
Engine
daily If the .ano.eter at the poc%et 9lter
sho5s negati2e pressure N/ .-ar
3/// Pa6E the 9lter needs to -e
cleaned!
O2er 2oltage
suppressor
daily
,isual inspection of the o2er 2oltage
de4ectors!
Chec% ignition
2oltageDspar%
plug
5ee%ly O #'/
operating
hours
The result of the ignition 2oltage
chec% to -e carried out 5ee%lyE ser2es
as theindicator for the actual ser2ice
life of the
spar% plug!
?u-ricating oil 9rst ti.e
after'/
operating
hours
The results fro. the engine
lu-ricating oil analyses are decisi2e
for the actual oil change periods!
@attery once in a
.onth
Chec% the acid le2el! Chec% if the
pole -inders are properly
secured!
8ir 9lter in
s5itch ca-inet
once in a
.onth
Chec% air 9lter for pollution!
If necessaryE clean or replace!
S5itch ca-inet
cooler
once in a year Chec% s5itch ca-inet cooler for
clogging and E if necessaryE clean
using co.pressed air!
Cooling 5ater once in a year Concentration inspection
Cooling 5ater e7change
@attery 1 :I8NE e2ery t5o years
Replace
@attery 1 @attery
charger
e2ery 92e years Replace
74
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
8lternator
:etail
$ phase star connection
B> /(&
,O?T &//D#&/
B,8 $*
P!F!
80P '$(
R!P!0 '//
E<T!,O?T (&
E<T!80P $!)
75
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)

8C Generators
Safety Precautions
Electrical E=uip.ent
All ele40r*4al e/u*pmen0 4an (e danerous *1 no0
opera0ed 4orre40ly! Al2ays serD*4e and ma*n0a*n 0he
enera0or *n a44ordan4e 2*0h 0h*s manual! Al2ays use
enu*ne NEWAGE-A<.SEG repla4emen0 par0s!
Electrical shoc% can cause inPury or death!
Ensure that all personnel operatingE
ser2icingE .aintaining or 5or%ing near this
e=uip.ent are fully a5are of the
e.ergency procedures in case of accidents!
S%ill re=uire.ents of personnel
SerD*4e and ma*n0enan4e pro4edures should only (e
4arr*ed ou0 (y e5per*en4edC /ual*Ied en*neersC
1am*l*ar 2*0h 0he pro4edures and 0he e/u*pmen0! Be1ore
any *n0rus*De pro4edures are 4arr*ed ou0C ensure
0ha0 0he en*ne *s *nh*(*0ed and 0he enera0or *s
ele40r*4ally *sola0ed!
?ifting
8*10 0he enera0or us*n 0he po*n0s proD*ded 2*0h 0he a*d
o1 a spreader and 4ha*ns! The anle on 0he
4ha*ns mus0 (e Der0*4al dur*n 0he l*10! 9o no0 l*10 s*nle
(ear*n enera0ors 2*0hou0 0heC se4urely I00edC
0rans*0 (ar! When remoD*n 0he 0rans*0 (ar Hus0 pr*or 0o
oGer*n 0he enera0or up 0o 0he en*neC (e a2are
0ha0 0he ro0or *s no0 se4urely held *n 0he enera0or! .eep
0he enera0or *n 0he hor*,on0al plane 0o 2hen 0he
0rans*0 (ar *s no0 I00ed!
>arnings M Notices used in this .anual
76
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
The Dar*ous 2arn*ns are ou0 l*ned (elo2 and appear *n
0he 0e50 *n 0h*s 1orma0! Warn*ns and Cau0*ons
appear a0 0he appropr*a0e pos*0*on *n 0heC 0o 2h*4h 0hey
re1er!
>arning" Infor.ation that dra5s attention to
the ris% of inPury or death!
Caution" Infor.ation that dra5s attention to
the ris% of da.age to the productE
process or surroundings!
Note" Csed to con2eyE or dra5 attention toE
additional infor.ation or e7planations!
No0es appear a10er 0he 0e50 0o 2h*4h 0hey re1er!
9ue 0o our pol*4y o1 4on0*nuous *mproDemen0C de0a*ls *n
0h*s manual 2h*4h 2ere 4orre40 a0 0*me o1 o*n 0o
pr*n0 and may no2 (e due 1or amendmen0! In1orma0*on
*n4luded mus0 0here1ore no0 (e rearded as
(*nd*n!
The 7ron0 CoDer dra2*n *s represen0a0*De o1 0he rane
o1 enera0ors! SeDeral Dar*a0*ons are aDa*la(le
2*0h*n 0h*s rane!
Rating Plate
The enera0or has (een suppl*ed 2*0h a sel1-adhes*De
ra0*n pla0e la(el 0o ena(le I00*n a10er Inal
assem(ly and pa*n0*n! S0*4; 0he namepla0e 0o 0he
ou0s*de o1 0he non-dr*De end o1 0he 0erm*nal (o5! The
sur1a4e *n 0he area 2here a la(el *s 0o (e s0u4; mus0 (e
Fa0C 4leanC and any pa*n0 In*sh mus0 (e 1ully dry
(e1ore a00emp0*n 0o a00a4h la(el! Re4ommended
me0hod 1or a00a4h*n la(el *s peel and 1old (a4;
suG*4*en0 o1 0he (a4;*n paper 0o e5pose some $% mm
o1 la(el adhes*De alon 0he ede 2h*4h *s 0o (e
lo4a0ed aa*ns0 0he shee0 me0al pro0rus*ons! On4e 0h*s
Irs0 se40*on o1 la(el has (een 4are1ully lo4a0ed and
77
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
s0u4; *n0o pos*0*on proress*Dely peel oG 0he (a4;*n
paper and smoo0h do2n 2*0h a 4lean 4lo0h! The
adhes*De 2*ll a4h*eDe a permanen0 (ond *n $> hours!
A 1a40ory I00ed me0al namepla0e *s aDa*la(le 1or some
appl*4a0*ons!
Caution! :o not e7ceed the para.eters
.ar%ed on the rating plate!
Generator :esignation
P E & ' > C $ (e5ample)
P - Genera0or 0ype
E - Em(edded appl*4a0*ons
& - 7rame s*,e
' - Separa0e e54*0a0*onC PMG
> - Num(er o1 poles
C - Core S*,e
$ - Num(er o1 (ear*nsC " or $
The Product
The produ40 *s an A<R 4on0rolledC separa0ely e54*0ed ((y
a
sha10 dr*Den p*lo0 e54*0er) syn4hronous _a4 enera0orY!
9es*ned 1or *n4orpora0*on *n0o a enera0*n-se0! (A
enera0*n-se0 *s deIned as _ma4h*neryY *n European
d*re40*Des)!
Ser*al Num(er 8o4a0*on
Ea4h enera0or has a un*/ue ser*al num(er s0amped
*n0o 0he
upper se40*on o1 0he dr*De end o1 0he 1rame!
The ser*al num(er *s also sho2n on 0he namepla0e!
T2o o0her la(els are lo4a0ed *ns*de 0he 0erm*nal (o5C
(o0h
I5ed *ns*de o1 0he 0erm*nal (o5C one on 0he shee0 me0al-
2or;
and 0he o0her on 0he ma*n 1rame o1 0he enera0or!
Ne*0her o1
0hese 02o la(els *s 4ons*dered 0o (e permanen0ly I5ed!
78
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
INTRO:CCTION!
G9!
MB'>" A<R
MB'$" A<R
S!
E9Appl*4a0*ons 1or use 2*0h*n 0he E: :nsu*0a(le
Appl*4a0*ons
8PP?IC8TION OF T;E GENER8TOR
EP
A*r 7lo2
AC
A*r 7*l0ers
))
An0*-4ondensa0*on hea0ers
En4losures
<
E54ess*De <*(ra0*on leDels
B
Bear*n 8*1e
)eal0h Mon*0or*n o1 0he Bear*ns
Bear*n USerD*4e 8*1eU
8CTO08TIC ,O?T8GE REGC?8TOR TYPE
0<$&
IC
IS:
<ol0ae Se0 :p
S0a(*l*0y Se0 :p
A<R !
:7RO(:7RO)
EBC TRIP (E54*0a0*on Tr*p) Trans*en0 8oad S2*04h*n
9IP!
SCC MB'>"
79
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
8CTO08TIC ,O?T8GE REGC?8TOR TYPE
0<$#
IC
IS:
<ol0ae Se0 :p!
S0a(*l*0y Se0 :p
R:
A<R A!
:7RO(:7RO)
EBC TRIP (E54*0a0*on Tr*p)
O<ERE< (ODer <ol0ae)!!!
Trans*en0 8oad S2*04h*n !!
9IP!
9WE88!!
O9-ECB!
Rese00*n The E54*0a0*on Brea;er !
C8!
Se00*n Pro4edure !!
SCC MB'$" !
F8C?T FIN:INGE 0<$# M 0<$& 8,RS!
SETP!
Che4;*n 0he Permanen0 Mane0 Genera0or (PMG)! !
Che4;*n Genera0or W*nd*ns and Ro0a0*n 9*odes!
Che4; Re40*Ier 9*odes !!
Repla4emen0 o1 7aul0y 9*odes!!
Sure Suppressor`
Ma*n E54*0a0*on W*nd*ns`
:n(alan4ed Ma*n Term*nal <ol0aes!
ECT!
A<R 7un40*on Tes0!
8CCESSORIES
Remo0e <ol0ae AdHus0men0!
PO!
8oad Shar*n !
9roop !
80
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
9roop Se00*n Pro4edure !
M<R(M<R!
P7C(P7C'!
SER,ICE!
WC!
Ne2 Ma4h*nes !
A0 Genera0*n Se0 Assem(lerYs Wor;s !
Genera0ors *n SerD*4e !
W*nd*n Cond*0*on Assessmen0 !
PIT!!
M9OG!!
Cold Run !!
Blo2n A*r 9ry*n !
Shor0 C*r4u*0 Me0hod !
T9OC!
A7!
A*r 7*l0er Clean*n Pro4edure!
08INTEN8NCE!
A-C)!
Re-assem(ly !
RB!
RB! !
9EBR!
RMR!!
RB!
E/u*pmen0!
Prepara0*on !
Bear*n prepara0*on !
Bear*n Car0r*de`
Assem(le Bear*n *n0o Car0r*de !
Assem(le Bear*n on0o Sha10 !
BC= 7!
Re-lu(r*4a0*on p*pe !
Re0urn*n To SerD*4e !
BM!!
81
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Re-lu(r*4a0*on !
TEC;NIC8? :8T8!
A*r 7lo2 re/u*remen0s !
W*nd*n Res*s0an4es !
Coupl*n d*s4 Tor/ue se00*n !
8*10 Capa4*0y !
Cus0omer ou0pu0 4a(les !
Genera0or *n0ernal 4onne40*ons!
Re4ommended SerD*4e Par0s !
Re-lu(r*4a0*on 9e0a*ls 7or Rereasa(le Bear*ns !
Introduction
General :escription
The Permanen0 Mane0 Genera0or (PMG) proD*des
po2er 1or 0he e54*0a0*on o1 0he e54*0er Ield D*a 0he
Au0oma0*4 <ol0ae Reula0or (A<R) 2h*4h *s 0he
4on0roll*n deD*4e oDern*n 0he leDel o1 e54*0a0*on
proD*ded 0o 0he e54*0er Ield! The A<R responds 0o a
Dol0ae-sens*n s*nal der*DedC D*a an *sola0*n
0rans1ormerC 1rom 0he ma*n s0a0or 2*nd*n! By
4on0roll*n 0he lo2 po2er o1 0he e54*0er IeldC 4on0rol o1
0he
h*h po2er re/u*remen0 o1 0he ma*n Ield *s a4h*eDed
0hrouh 0he re40*Ied ou0pu0 o1 0he e54*0er arma0ure!
0<$& 8,R
The Au0oma0*4 <ol0ae Reula0or (A<R) *s o1 0he
0hyr*s0or 0ype and 1orms par0 o1 0he e54*0a0*on sys0em
1or a (rushless enera0or! In add*0*on 0o reula0*n 0he
enera0or Dol0aeC 0he A<R 4*r4u*0ry *n4ludes
pro0e40*De 1ea0ures 0o ensure sa1e rel*a(le 4on0rol o1
0he enera0or! E54*0a0*on po2er *s der*Ded 1rom a
permanen0 mane0 enera0or (PMG) 0o uaran0ee lo2
Rad*o 7re/uen4y In0er1eren4e (R7I) and *mmun*0y
1rom 0hyr*s0or 0ype loads! The A<R *s l*n;ed 2*0h 0he
ma*n s0a0or 2*nd*ns and 4on0rols 0he po2er 1ed 0o 0he
e54*0er s0a0or and hen4e 0he ma*n ro0or 0o ma*n0a*n 0he
82
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
ma4h*ne ou0pu0 Dol0ae 2*0h*n 0he spe4*Ied l*m*0sC
4ompensa0*n 1or loadC speedC 0empera0ure and po2er
1a40or o1 0he enera0or! So10 s0ar0 4*r4u*0ry *s *n4luded
0o proD*de a smoo0h 4on0rolled (u*ld up o1 enera0or
ou0pu0 Dol0ae!
A 1re/uen4y measur*n 4*r4u*0 4on0*nually mon*0ors 0he
enera0or ou0pu0 and proD*des underspeed
pro0e40*on o1 0he e54*0a0*on sys0em (y redu4*n 0he
enera0or ou0pu0 Dol0ae propor0*onally 2*0h speed
(elo2 an adHus0a(le pre-se0 0hreshold! A 1ur0her
enhan4emen0 o1 0h*s 1ea0ure *s an adHus0a(le Dol0sE),
slope 0o *mproDe 1re/uen4y re4oDery 0*me on 0ur(o
4hared en*nes!
:n4on0rolled oDer e54*0a0*on *s l*m*0ed 0o a sa1e per*od
(y *n0ernal shu0do2n o1 0he A<R ou0pu0 deD*4e!
Th*s 4ond*0*on rema*ns la04hed un0*l 0he enera0or has
(een s0opped! 7or 4omple0e pro0e40*onC a 4*r4u*0
(rea;er op0*on *s aDa*la(le proD*d*n 4*r4u*0 *sola0*on *n
eDen0 o1 a shor0 4*r4u*0 po2er deD*4e! In add*0*on *0
de0e40s en*ne speed and proD*des adHus0a(le Dol0ae
1all oG 2*0h speedC (elo2 a pre-sele40ed speed
(),) se00*nC preDen0*n oDer-e54*0a0*on a0 lo2 en*ne
speeds and so10en*n 0he eGe40 o1 load s2*04h*n 0o
rel*eDe 0he (urden on 0he en*ne! I0 also proD*des oDer-
e54*0a0*on pro0e40*on 0ha0 a40s 1ollo2*n a 0*me
delayC 0o de-e54*0e 0he enera0or *n 0he eDen0 o1
e54ess*De e54*0er Ield Dol0ae!
ProD*s*on *s made 1or 0he 4onne40*on o1 a remo0e Dol0ae
0r*mmer allo2*n 0he user Ine 4on0rol o1 0he
enera0orUs ou0pu0! A44essor*es are aDa*la(le 1or 0h*s
A<R! Please re1er 0o 1a40ory 1or 1ur0her de0a*ls!
0<$# 8,R
In add*0*on 0o 0he a(oDe 0he MB'$" A<R has ' phase
rms sens*n 1or *mproDed reula0*on plus:
ODer-Dol0ae pro0e40*on!
83
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
AdHus0a(le re4oDery on underspeed pro0e40*on
Curren0 l*m*0*n may (e *n4luded 0o allo2 4on0rol oDer
0he amoun0 o1 shor0 4*r4u*0 4urren0 Fo2*n
dur*n 0hree phase and s*nle phase shor0 4*r4u*0s on
0he enera0or ou0pu0! An add*0*onal 4urren0
0rans1ormer *s re/u*red!
Standards!
AC enera0ors (y Ne2ae In0erna0*onal mee0 0he
releDan0 par0s o1 na0*onal and *n0erna0*onal s0andards
per0a*n*n 0o enera0ors! The enera0or mus0 (e
opera0ed 2*0h*n 0he l*m*0s la*d do2n *n 0he releDan0
s0andards and 2*0h*n 0he parame0ers on 0he enera0or
ra0*n pla0e!
" Ma*n ro0or & A<R
$ Ro0a0*n d*odes
' E54*0er ro0or
? Isola0*n 0rans1ormer
(*1 I00ed)
> PMG ro0or @ Ma*n s0a0or
+ PMG s0a0or "% Ou0pu0
# E54*0er s0a0or "" Sha10
European :irecti2es!
AC enera0ors sold 1or use *n 0he European :n*on
mus0 mee0 0he releDan0 European d*re40*Des! An
a4 enera0or has no *n0r*ns*4 1un40*onZ *0 mus0 (e
haDe a me4han*4 *npu0 *n order 0o proD*de an
ele40r*4al ou0pu0! The enera0or *s suppl*ed as a
4omponen0 par0 o1 a Genera0*n-Se0! To reFe40
0h*s ea4h enera0or *s suppl*ed 2*0h an _EC
9e4lara0*on o1 In4orpora0*onY *n a44ordan4e 0he
Ma4h*nery 9*re40*De!
The a4 enera0or mee0s 0he o0her releDan0
d*re40*Des appl*4a(le 0o an a4 enera0or (e1ore *0
*s *n4orpora0ed *n0o _ma4h*neryY!
84
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
The d*re40*Des *den0*Ied as per0a*n*n 0o a4 enera0ors
are:
The Ma4h*nery (Sa1e0y) 9*re40*DeC @?E'&EEEC!
The 8o2 <ol0ae 9*re40*DeC &'E$'EEEC!
The EMC 9*re40*DeC ?@E''#EEEC
The enera0or *s CE mar;edZ CE la(els are suppl*ed
loose *n 4ase 0he enera0*n se0 manu1a40urer needs
0o pa*n0 0he se0 (e1ore del*Dery!
Note" Once the generator is -uild into a
generating1set 3.achinery6E it is the
responsi-ility of the generating1set
.anufacture to reassess the co.pliance 5ith
the
rele2ant EC :irecti2es to ensure co.pliance
of the product as a 5hole!
I0 *s 4on0rary 0o 0he EC 9*re40*Des 0o m*srepresen0
4ompl*an4e o1 0he EC d*re40*Des (y d*splay*n 0he CE
mar; suppl*ed 2*0h a 4omponen0 par0 o1 0he produ40!
The d*re40*De re/u*res 4ompl*an4e 0o (e assessed as
a 4omponen0 par0C as 0he 4omple0e produ40 and dur*n
*ns0alla0*on on s*0e!
8pplications for use 5ithin the EC
Ne2ae a4 enera0ors are suppl*ed on 0he (as*s 0ha0:
They are used 1or po2er enera0*on or rela0ed
1un40*ons!
They are 0o (e appl*ed *n one o1 0he 1ollo2*n
enD*ronmen0s:
Por0a(le (open 4ons0ru40*on J 0emporary s*0e supply)
Por0a(le (en4losed J 0emporary s*0e supply)
Con0a*ner*sed (0emporary or permanen0 s*0e supply)
Sh*p J (orneC (elo2 de4;s (mar*ne au5*l*ary po2er)
Commer4*al Deh*4le (road 0ranspor0 E re1r*era0*on e04!)
Road 0ranspor0 (au5*l*ary po2er)
Indus0r*al Deh*4le (ear0hmoD*nC 4ranes e04!)
85
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
7*5ed *ns0alla0*on (Indus0r*al J 1a40ory E pro4ess plan0)
7*5ed *ns0alla0*on (res*den0*alC 4ommer4*al and l*h0
*ndus0r*al J home E oG*4e E heal0h!)
Enery manaemen0 (4om(*ned hea0 = po2er andEor
pea; lopp*n!)
Al0erna0*De enery s4hemes!
The s0andard enera0ors are des*ned 0o mee0 0he
_*ndus0r*alY em*ss*ons and *mmun*0y s0andards!
Where 0he enera0or *s re/u*red 0o mee0 0he res*den0*alC
4ommer4*al and l*h0 *ndus0r*al em*ss*ons and
*mmun*0y s0andards re1eren4e mus0 (e made 0o Ne2ae
do4umen0 re1eren4e N>EBE%""! Th*s
pu(l*4a0*on ou0l*nes 0he add*0*onal e/u*pmen0 0ha0 may
(e re/u*red!
The *ns0alla0*on _ear0hEroundY arranemen0s re/u*re
0he 4onne40*on o1 0he enera0or 1rame 0o 0he s*0e
pro0e40*De ear0h 4ondu40or us*n a m*n*mum lead
len0h!
Ma*n0enan4e and serD*4*n 2*0h unau0hor*sed par0sC
no0 o1 Ne2ae supplyC 2*ll *nDal*da0e Ne2ae
1rom any l*a(*l*0y 1or EMC 4ompl*an4e!
Ins0alla0*onC ma*n0enan4e and serD*4*n are 4arr*ed ou0
(y ade/ua0ely 0ra*ned personnel 1ully a2are o1
0he re/u*remen0s o1 0he releDan0 EC d*re40*Des!
Cnsuita-le 8pplications
Syn4hronous enera0ors re/u*re a 4ons0an0 speed 1or
po2er enera0*on! Appl*4a0*ons 2here 0he
enera0or *s no0 run a0 a 4ons0an0 speed are no0 su*0a(le
1or 0he s0andard enera0or! Su4h appl*4a0*on may
(e poss*(le 2*0h*n 4er0a*n parame0ers! 7or su4h
appl*4a0*ons 4on0a40 0he 1a40ory 1or adD*4e! There *s
eDery
poss*(*l*0y 0ha0 2e 4an proD*de you 2*0h a sa0*s1a40ory
0e4hn*4al solu0*on 0o mee0 your re/u*remen0!
8dditional infor.ation for E0C co.pliance
86
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
S0andard enera0ors are des*ned 0o mee0 0he
_*ndus0r*alY em*ss*ons and *mmun*0y s0andards! Where
0he
enera0or *s re/u*red 0o mee0 0he res*den0*alC
4ommer4*al and l*h0 *ndus0r*al em*ss*ons and *mmun*0y
s0andards re1eren4e mus0 (e made 0o Ne2ae
do4umen0 re1eren4e N>EBE%""! Th*s pu(l*4a0*on ou0l*nes
0he add*0*onal e/u*pmen0 0ha0 may (e re/u*red!
Application of the generator
En2iron.ental Protection
S0am1ord enera0ors are pro0e40ed 0o IP$'! IP$' *s no0
ade/ua0e pro0e40*on 1or use ou0doors 2*0hou0
add*0*onal pro0e40*on!
Th*s 0a(le represen0s 0he normal opera0*n 4ond*0*ons
0ha0 0he
enera0or *s des*ned 1or! Opera0*on ou0s*de o1 0hese
parame0ers *s
poss*(le a10er due 4ons*dera0*on and 2*ll (e reFe40ed on
0he
enera0or namepla0e! I1 0he opera0*n enD*ronmen0 1or
0he enera0or
has 4hanedC 0he ra0*n o1 0he enera0or needs 0o (e
reD*sedC re1er 0o 0he 1a40ory 1or de0a*ls!
8ir Flo5
The a*r Fo2 re/u*remen0s 1or 0he enera0or 4an (e
1ound *n 0he 9a0a se40*on a0 0he (a4; o1 0h*s manual!
Ensure 0ha0 0he a*r *nle0s and ou0le0s are no0 o(s0ru40ed
2hen 0he enera0or *s runn*n!
8ir-orne Conta.inates
Con0am*na0es su4h as 4hem*4alC sandC dus0C sal0C o*l and
e5haus0 1umes e04!C 2*ll redu4e 0he eGe40*Deness
o1 0he *nsula0*on and lead 0o prema0ure 1a*lure o1 0he
2*nd*ns! Cons*der us*n a*r Il0ers or an en4losure 0o
pro0e40 0he enera0or!
8ir Filters
87
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
A*r Il0ers are aDa*la(le on re/ues0! 7*l0ers presen0 a
res0r*40*on 0o 0he a*rFo2 so 0he ra0*n o1 0he enera0or
mus0 (e redu4ed (y +M! I1 0he Il0ers are suppl*edC
1a40ory I00edC 0he ra0*n on 0he namepla0e 2*ll *n4lude
0he redu4ed ra0*n! The Il0ers 4an (e up-I00ed a10er
del*Dery *n 2h*4h 4ase 0he 4us0omer mus0 apply 0he
add*0*onal redu40*on *n po2er!
A*r Il0er remoDe a*r(orne par0*4ula0es a(oDe ' m*4rons!
The 1re/uen4y o1 4han*n and 4lean*n 0he Il0ers
depends on 0he s*0e 4ond*0*ons! We re4ommend 0ha0 0he
Il0ers are mon*0ored 1re/uen0ly un0*l an ade/ua0e
4y4le o1 4hane *s es0a(l*shed!
A*r Il0ers do no0 remoDe 2a0er! Add*0*onal pro0e40*on
mus0 (e employed 0o preDen0 0he Il0ers 1rom e00*n
2e0!
;igh ;u.idity en2iron.ents
The hum*d*0y o1 0he a*r 2*ll allo2 4ondensa0*on 0o 1orm
on 0he 2*nd*ns *1 0he 2*nd*ns 1all (elo2 0he de2
po*n0! The de2 po*n0 *s a rela0*onsh*p (e02een 0he
am(*en0 0empera0ure and hum*d*0y! In areas o1 h*h
hum*d*0y add*0*onal pro0e40*on may (e re/u*red eDen *1
0he enera0or *s I00ed *ns*de an en4losure!
8nti1condensation heaters
An0*-4ondensa0*on hea0ers are des*ned 0o ra*se 0he
0empera0ure o1 0he 2*nd*ns a(oDe 0he 0empera0ure
o1 0he surround*n ma0er*al so 0ha0 0he 4ondensa0*on
2*ll no0 1orm on 0he 2*nd*ns!
We re4ommend 0ha0 an0*-4ondensa0*on hea0ers are I00ed
0o all enera0ors 0ha0 are le10 s2*04hed o1 1or any
per*od! The (es0 pra40*4e *s 0o 2*re 0he hea0ers su4h
0ha0 0he hea0ers 4ome on 2hen 0he enera0or *s
s2*04hed oG!
Al2ays 4he4; 0he 4ond*0*ons o1 0he 2*nd*ns (e1ore
s2*04h*n on 0he enera0or *1 mo*s0ure *s o(serDed
88
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
4arry ou0 one o1 0he dry*n-ou0 me0hods *n 0he SerD*4e
se40*on o1 0h*s manual!
Enclosures
An en4losure should (e employed 0o pro0e40 0he
enera0or 1rom adDerse enD*ronmen0al 4ond*0*ons!
I1 0he enera0or *s 0o (e I00ed *ns*de an en4losureC
ensure 0ha0 0here *s ade/ua0e a*rFo2 0o suppor0 (o0h
0he en*ne and 0he enera0or! Ensure 0ha0 0he enera0or
has a supply o1 4lean a*r a0 0he am(*en0
0empera0ure s0a0ed on 0he ra0*n pla0e!
,i-ration
Ne2ae enera0ors are des*ned 0o 2*0hs0and 0he
D*(ra0*on leDels en4oun0ered on enera0*n se0s (u*l0 0o
mee0 0he re/u*remen0s o1 ISO ?+$?-@ and BS+%%%-'!
(Where ISO ?+$? *s 0a;en 0o (e (road (and
measuremen0s and BS+%%% re1ers 0o 0he predom*nan0
1re/uen4y o1 any D*(ra0*ons on 0he enera0*n se0)!
:e9nition Of @S'/// A $
Am(*en0 Tempera0ure O>%oC
)um*d*0y O#%M
Al0*0ude O"%%%m
11
Genera0ors shall (e 4apa(le o1 4on0*nuously
2*0hs0and*n l*near D*(ra0*on leDels 2*0h ampl*0udes o1
%!$+mm (e02een +), and ?), and Delo4*0*es o1
@!%mmEs rms (e02een ? ), and $%% ),C 2hen measured
a0 any po*n0 d*re40ly on 0he 4ar4ass or ma*n 1rame o1 0he
ma4h*ne! These l*m*0s re1er only 0o 0he
predom*nan0 1re/uen4y o1 D*(ra0*on o1 any 4omple5
2aDe1orm!
:e9nition Of ISO *'#* 1 +
ISO ?+$?-@ re1ers 0o a (road (and o1 1re/uen4*esZ 0he
(road (and *s 0a;en 0o (e (e02een $ )er0, and '%%
)er0,! The 0a(le (elo2 *s an e5ample 1rom ISO ?+$? - @
(Dalue ")! Th*s s*mpl*Ied 0a(le l*s0s 0he D*(ra0*on
89
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
l*m*0s (y ;<A rane and speed 1or a44ep0a(le ense0
opera0*on!
<*(ra0*on 8eDels As Measured On The Genera0or
En*ne Speed M*n -1
Se0 Ou0pu0 .Da <*(ra0*on
9*spla4emen0
<*(ra0*on
<elo4*0y
<*(ra0*on
A44elera0*on
"+%% J "?%% (rpm) N$+% ;<A %!'$ $% "'
N"$+% %!$@ "? ""
The _Broad (andY *s 0a;en as $ ), - '%% ),
Caution" E7ceeding either of the a-o2e
speci9cations 5ill ha2e a detri.ental eLect
on the life of the -earing! This 5ill in2alidate
the generator 5arranty! If you are in any
dou-tE contact Ne5age International
?i.ited!
,i-ration 0onitoring
Ne2ae re4ommends 0ha0 0he se0 (u*lder 4he4;s 0he
D*(ra0*on leDels us*n D*(ra0*on analys*n e/u*pmen0!
Ensure 0ha0 0he D*(ra0*on leDels o1 0he enera0*n se0
are 2*0h*n 0he leDels s0a0ed *n BS +%%%-' and ISO
?+$?-@! I1 0he D*(ra0*on leDels are no0 2*0h*n 0oleran4e
0he ense0 (u*lder should *nDes0*a0e 0he roo0 4ause
o1 0he D*(ra0*ons and el*m*na0e 0hem! The _(es0 pra40*4eY
*s 1or 0he ense0 (u*lder 0o 0a;e *n*0*al read*ns as
a (ase l*ne and 0he user 0o per*od*4ally mon*0or 0he
ense0 and (ear*ns 0o de0e40 any de0er*ora0*n 0rend!
I0 2*ll 0hen (e poss*(le 0o plan ahead (ear*n 4hanes
and el*m*na0e D*(ra0*on pro(lems (e1ore e54ess*De
damae 0o 0he enera0*n se0 o44urs!
Che4;s should (e made eDery ' mon0hs!
90
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
E7cessi2e ,i-ration le2els
I1 0he D*(ra0*on leDels o1 0he enera0*n se0 are no0
2*0h*n 0he parame0ers /uo0ed a(oDe:
Consul0 0he ense0 (u*lderZ 0he ense0 (u*lder should
address 0he ense0 des*n 0o redu4e 0he
D*(ra0*on leDels as mu4h as poss*(le!
9*s4ussC 2*0h Ne2aeC 0he *mpa40 o1 no0 mee0*n 0he
a(oDe leDels on (o0h (ear*n and enera0or l*1e
e5pe40an4y!
When re/ues0edC or *0 *s deemed ne4essaryC Ne2ae
2*ll 2or; 2*0h 0he ense0 (u*lder *n an a00emp0
0o Ind a sa0*s1a40ory solu0*on!
@earings
The (ear*ns are I00ed 2*0h*n ma4h*ned hous*nsC 0hese
hous*ns 1orm an assem(ly lo4a0ed and (ol0edC
2*0h*n 0he end (ra4;e0s! The (ear*n hous*ns
*n4orpora0e I00*ns 1or p*pe2or; 0o an e50ernal rease
n*pple! All enera0ors are suppl*ed 2*0h *n1orma0*on
la(els adD*s*n de0a*ls o1 rease 0ypeC re-lu(r*4a0*on
1re/uen4yC and 0he /ual*0y o1 rease 0o (e used! These
*ns0ru40*ons mus0 (e 1ollo2ed! The *n1orma0*on *s
repea0ed (elo2! The (ear*n hous*n has a rease
es4apemen0 slo0 a0 0he (o00om o1 0he ou0er area! A0
0he dr*De end 0he e5pelled rease 2*ll d*s4hare *n0o 0he
4oupl*n area! A0 0he non-dr*De end 0he
es4apemen0 slo0 has an anled shee0 me0al deFe40or 0o
ensure 0ha0 no rease 4an 1oul 0he Permanen0
Mane0 Genera0or (PMG)! The shee0 me0al 4oDer oDer
0he PMG has a slo0 a0 0he (o00om 0o ena(le 0he
e54ess rease 0o es4ape! All PE enera0ors haDe
(ear*ns 2*0h pressed s0eel 4aes and are 0ype C'!
The rease used *s a h*h spe4*I4a0*on 0ype 0ha0 mus0
no0 (e m*5ed!
@earing ?ife
7a40ors 0ha0 eGe40 (ear*n l*1e:
91
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
The l*1e o1 a (ear*n *n serD*4e *s su(He40 0o 0he 2or;*n
4ond*0*ons and 0he enD*ronmen0:
)*h leDels o1 D*(ra0*on 1rom 0he en*ne or
m*sal*nmen0 o1 0he se0 2*ll s0ress 0he (ear*n and
redu4e
*0s serD*4e l*1e! I1 0he D*(ra0*on l*m*0s se0 ou0 *n BS +%%%-
' and ISO ?+$?-@ are e54eeded (ear*n l*1e
2*ll (e redu4ed! Re1er 0o _<*(ra0*onY (elo2!
8on s0a0*onary per*ods *n an enD*ronmen0 2here 0he
enera0or *s su(He40 0o D*(ra0*on 4an 4ause 1alse
(r*nnell*nC 2h*4h pu0s Fa0s on 0he (alls and rooDes on
0he ra4esC lead*n 0o prema0ure 1a*lure!
<ery hum*d a0mospher*4 or 2e0 4ond*0*ons 4an emuls*1y
0he rease 4aus*n 4orros*on and
de0er*ora0*on o1 0he reaseC lead*n 0o prema0ure 1a*lure
o1 0he (ear*ns!
;ealth 0onitoring of the @earings
Ne2ae re4ommends 0ha0 0he user 4he4; 0he (ear*n
4ond*0*onC us*n mon*0or*n e/u*pmen0C 0o
de0erm*ne 0he s0a0e o1 0he (ear*ns! The _(es0 pra40*4eY
*s 0o 0a;e *n*0*al read*ns as a (ase l*ne and
per*od*4ally mon*0or 0he (ear*ns 0o de0e40 a
de0er*ora0*n 0rend! I0 2*ll 0hen (e poss*(le 0o plan a
(ear*n
4hane a0 an appropr*a0e enera0*n se0 or en*ne
serD*4e *n0erDal!
@earing QSer2ice ?ifeQ E7pectancy
Bear*n manu1a40urers re4on*se 0ha0 0he RserD*4e l*1eX
o1 0he*r (ear*ns *s dependen0 upon many 1a40ors
0ha0 are no0 *n 0he*r 4on0rolZ 0hey 4anno0 0here1ore
/uo0e a RserD*4e l*1eX!
Al0houh RserD*4e l*1eX 4anno0 (e uaran0eedC *0 4an (e
ma5*m*sed (y a00en0*on 0o 0he enera0*n se0
des*n! An unders0and*n o1 0he ense0 appl*4a0*on 2*ll
also help 0he user 0o ma5*m*se 0he serD*4e l*1e
92
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
e5pe40an4y o1 0he (ear*ns! Par0*4ular a00en0*on should
(e pa*d 0o 0he al*nmen0C redu40*on o1 D*(ra0*on
leDelsC enD*ronmen0al pro0e40*onC ma*n0enan4e and
mon*0or*n pro4edures!
Ne2ae does no0 /uo0e l*1e e5pe40an4y Iures 1or
(ear*nsC (u0 sues0s pra40*4a(le repla4emen0
*n0erDals (ased on 0he 8"% l*1e o1 0he (ear*nC 0he
rease and 0he re4ommenda0*ons o1 0he (ear*n and
rease manu1a40urers!
7or eneral-purpose appl*4a0*ons: proD*d*n 0he 4orre40
ma*n0enan4e *s 4arr*ed ou0C D*(ra0*on leDels do no0
e54eed 0he leDels s0a0ed *n ISO ?+$?-@^ and BS+%%%-'^C
and 0he am(*en0 0empera0ure does no0 e54eed
+%ACC plan 0o repla4e re-reasea(le (ear*n 2*0h*n
>%C%%% hours! (Th*s es0*ma0e *s (ased on 0he use o1
.lu(er Ason*4 G)6 &$ rease only) (In 0heory any
rease 2*0h an e/u*Dalen0 spe4*I4a0*on 2ould
a4h*eDed a s*m*lar spe4*I4a0*on)!
I0 *s *mpor0an0 0o no0e 0ha0 (ear*ns *n serD*4eC under
ood opera0*n 4ond*0*onsC 4an 4on0*nue 0o run
(eyond 0he re4ommended repla4emen0 per*od! I0 should
also (e remem(ered 0ha0 0he r*s; o1 (ear*n
1a*lure *n4reases 2*0h 0*me!
I1 *n dou(0 a(ou0 any aspe40 o1 0he _(ear*n l*1eY on
enera0ors suppl*ed (y Ne2ae In0erna0*onalC 4on0a40
your neares0 Ne2ae su(s*d*ary or 4on0a40 0he
S0am1ord 1a40ory d*re40!
13
Installation into the Generating Set
The enera0or *s suppl*ed as a 4omponen0 par0 1or
*ns0alla0*on *n0o a _enera0*n se0Y!
:eli2ery
:pon re4e*p0 o1 0he enera0orC 4he4; 0he enera0or 1or
damae 0ha0 may haDe o44urred dur*n 0ranspor0!
Also 4he4; 0ha0 0he ra0*n-pla0e de0a*ls are 4orre40 and
as ordered 1or 0he appl*4a0*on!
93
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
;andling the generator
When l*10*n 0he enera0or use a spreader (ar 0o ensure
0ha0 0he
anle on 0he l*10*n 4ha*ns are Der0*4al 0o 0he l*10*n
pos*0*on on 0he
enera0or!
S*nle (ear*n enera0ors haDe a 0rans*0 (ar I00ed a0
0he dr*De end!
Th*s (ar holds 0he ro0or *n pos*0*on dur*n 0rans*0! The
0rans*0 (ar
should (e le10 *n pos*0*on un0*l *0 *s ne4essary 0o remoDe
*0 0o allo2 0he
enera0or 0o (e 4oupled 0o 0he en*ne!
>arning" If the generator is .o2ed 5ithout
the
transit -ar -e a5are that the rotor could fall
out of the
fra.e! >hen .o2ing the generator al5ays
%eep it in
the horiHontal planeE this 5ill reduce the ris%
of the
rotor falling out!
Storage
I1 0he enera0or *s no0 0o (e used *mmed*a0elyC *0 mus0
(e s0ored *n a 4leanC dryC D*(ra0*on 1ree
enD*ronmen0! I1 an0*-4ondensa0*on hea0ers are I00edC
s2*04h 0hem on! I1 hea0ers are no0 I00ed use o0her
means 0o ensure 0ha0 4ondensa0*on 4anno0 1orm on 0he
2*nd*ns!
Sp*n 0he sha10 (y hand eDery mon0h 0o preDen0 Fa0 spo0s
*n 0he (ear*ns and 0o 1ree up 0he rease!
8fter Storage
A10er a per*od o1 s0oraeC 4arry ou0 _pre runn*n 4he4;sY
0o de0erm*ne 0he 4ond*0*on o1 0he 2*nd*ns! I1 0he
94
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
2*nd*n are damp or 0he *nsula0*on *s lo2C 1ollo2 one o1
0he _dry*n ou0 pro4eduresYC *n 0he SerD*4e se40*on
o1 0h*s manual! I1 0he enera0or has (een *n s0orae 1or
# mon0hs or moreC re-lu(r*4a0e 0he (ear*n! (see
0he Ma*n0enan4e se40*on)
Rotor -alancing
9ynam*4 (alan4*n o1 0he enera0or ro0or assem(ly has
(een 4arr*ed ou0 dur*n manu1a40ure *n
a44ordan4e 2*0h BS #?#" Par0 " Grade $!+ 0o ensure
D*(ra0*on l*m*0s o1 0he enera0or are *n a44ordan4e
2*0h BS >@@@ Par0 ">$!
Generator ,i-rational Fre=uency
The ma*n D*(ra0*on 1re/uen4*es produ4ed (y 0he
4omponen0 enera0or are as 1ollo2s:
"+%% rpm $+ ),
"?%% rpm '% ),
)o2eDerC D*(ra0*ons *ndu4ed (y 0he en*ne are 4omple5
and 4on0a*n 1re/uen4*es o1 "!+C 'C + or more
0*mes 0he 1undamen0al 1re/uen4y o1 D*(ra0*on! These
*ndu4ed D*(ra0*ons 4an resul0 *n enera0or D*(ra0*on
leDels h*her 0han 0hose der*Ded 1rom 0he enera0or
*0sel1! I0 *s 0he respons*(*l*0y o1 0he enera0*n se0
des*ner 0o ensure 0ha0 0he al*nmen0 and s0*Gness o1
0he (edpla0e and moun0*ns are su4h 0ha0 0he
D*(ra0*on l*m*0s o1 BS+%%% par0 ' and ISO ?+$? par0 @
are no0 e54eeded!
In s0and(y appl*4a0*ons 2here 0he runn*n 0*me *s
l*m*0ed and redu4ed l*1e e5pe40an4y *s a44ep0edC h*her
leDels 0han spe4*Ied *n BS+%%% par0 ' 4an (e 0olera0edC
up 0o a ma5*mum o1 "?mmEse4!
Coupling arrange.ents
14
S*nle and 02o (ear*n arranemen0s are aDa*la(le (o0h
arranemen0s 4an (e 4lose 4oupled! Bo0h
arranemen0s also need a Irm leDel 1ounda0*on!
95
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
T2o (ear*n enera0ors re/u*re a su(s0an0*al (edpla0e
2*0h en*neEenera0or moun0*n pads 0o ensure a
ood (ase 1or a44ura0e al*nmen0! Close 4oupl*n o1
en*ne 0o enera0or 4an *n4rease 0he oDerall r**d*0y
o1 0he se0! A Fe5*(le 4oupl*nC des*ned 0o su*0 0he
spe4*I4 en*neEenera0or 4om(*na0*onC *s
re4ommended 0o m*n*m*se 0ors*onal eGe40s!
Al*nmen0 o1 s*nle (ear*n enera0ors *s 4r*0*4al and
D*(ra0*on 4an o44ur due 0o 0he Fe5*n o1 0he Fanes
(e02een 0he en*ne and enera0or! A su(s0an0*al
(edpla0e 2*0h en*neEenera0or moun0*n pads *s
re/u*red!
7or 0he purposes o1 es0a(l*sh*n se0 des*n 0he (end*n
momen0 a0 0he en*ne Fy2heel hous*n 0o
enera0or adap0or *n0er1a4e should no0 e54eed $&+ ;m!
($%%%10!l(s!)
The ma5*mum (end*n momen0 o1 0he en*ne Fane
mus0 (e 4he4;ed 2*0h 0he en*ne manu1a40urer!
Tors*onal D*(ra0*ons o44ur *n all en*ne-dr*Den sha10
sys0ems and may (e o1 a man*0ude 0o 4ause
damae a0 4er0a*n 4r*0*4al speeds! I0 *s 0here1ore
ne4essary 0o 4ons*der 0he 0ors*onal D*(ra0*on eGe40 on
0he
enera0or sha10 and 4oupl*ns!
I0 *s 0he respons*(*l*0y o1 0he enera0or se0
manu1a40urer 0o ensure 4ompa0*(*l*0yC and 1or 0h*s
purpose
dra2*ns sho2*n 0he sha10 d*mens*ons and ro0or
*ner0*as are aDa*la(le 1or 4us0omers 0o 1or2ard 0o 0he
en*ne suppl*er! In 0he 4ase o1 s*nle (ear*n enera0ors
4oupl*n de0a*ls are *n4luded!
Caution" Torsional inco.pati-ility andDor
e7cessi2e 2i-ration le2els can cause
da.age or failure of the generator andDor
engine co.ponents!
96
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Coupling T5o @earing Generators
A Fe5*(le 4oupl*n should (e I00ed and al*ned *n
a44ordan4e 2*0h 0he 4oupl*n manu1a40urerUs
*ns0ru40*on!
I1 a 4lose 4oupl*n adap0or *s used 0he al*nmen0 o1
ma4h*ned 1a4es mus0 (e 4he4;ed (y oGer*n 0he
enera0or up 0o 0he en*ne! Sh*m 0he enera0or 1ee0 *1
ne4essary! Ensure adap0or uards are I00ed a10er
enera0orEen*ne assem(ly *s 4omple0e! Open 4oupled
se0s re/u*re a su*0a(le uardC 0o (e proD*ded (y
0he se0 (u*lder!
A5*al load*n o1 0he enera0or (ear*ns should (e
aDo*ded! Should *0 (e unaDo*da(le 4on0a40 0he 1a40ory
1or adD*4e!
>arning" Incorrect guarding andDor
generator align.ent can result in inPury
andDor
e=uip.ent da.age!
Coupling Single @earing Generators
Al*nmen0 o1 s*nle (ear*n enera0ors *s 4r*0*4al! I1
ne4essaryC sh*m 0he enera0or 1ee0 0o ensure
al*nmen0 o1 0he ma4h*ned sur1a4es!
7or 0rans*0 and s0orae purposes 0he enera0or 1rame
sp*o0 and ro0or 4oupl*n pla0es haDe (een 4oa0ed
2*0h a rus0 preDen0a0*De! Th*s M:ST BE remoDed (e1ore
assem(ly 0o en*ne!
A pra40*4al me0hod 1or remoDal o1 0h*s 4oa0*n *s 0o
4lean 0he ma0*n sur1a4e areas 2*0h a de-reas*n
aen0 (ased on a pe0roleum solDen0!
>arning" Care should -e ta%en not to allo5
any cleaning agent to co.e into prolonged
contact 5ith s%in!
Single @earing Coupling 8lign.ent
97
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
"! On 0he en*ne 4he4; 0he d*s0an4e 1rom 0he 4oupl*n
ma0*n 1a4e on 0he Fy2heel 0o 0he Fy2heel
hous*n ma0*n 1a4e! Th*s should (e 2*0h*n %!+mm o1
nom*nal d*mens*on! Th*s *s ne4essary 0o ensure
0ha0 a 0hrus0 *s no0 appl*ed 0o 0he a4 enera0or (ear*n
or en*ne (ear*n!
$! Che4; 0ha0 0he (ol0s se4ur*n 0he Fe5*(le pla0es 0o
0he 4oupl*n hu( are 0*h0 and lo4;ed *n0o pos*0*on!
Re1er 0o 0he 9a0a se40*on o1 0he manual 1or 0*h0en*n
0or/ues!
'! RemoDe 4oDers 1rom 0he dr*De end o1 0he enera0or 0o
a*n a44ess 0o 4oupl*n and adap0or (ol0s!
Che4; 0ha0 4oupl*n Ho*n0 *n0er1a4es are 4lean and
lu(r*4an0 1ree!
>! Che4; 0ha0 4oupl*n d*s4s are 4on4en0r*4 2*0h
adap0or sp*o0! Th*s 4an (e adHus0ed (y 0he use o1
0apered 2ooden 2edes (e02een 0he 1an and adap0or!
Al0erna0*Dely 0he ro0or 4an (e suspended (y
means o1 a rope sl*n 0hrouh 0he adap0or open*n!
+! OGer 0he enera0or 0o en*ne and enae (o0h
4oupl*n d*s4s and hous*n sp*o0s a0 0he same 0*meC
push*n enera0or 0o2ards en*ne un0*l 4oupl*n d*s4s
are aa*ns0 Fy2heel 1a4eC and hous*n sp*o0s
lo4a0ed!
#! 7*0 hous*n and 4oupl*n (ol0s 0a;*n 4are 0o use
heaDy aue 2ashers (e02een 4oupl*n (ol0 head
and 4oupl*n d*s4! T*h0en (ol0s eDenly around
assem(ly suG*4*en0ly 0o ensure 4orre40 al*nmen0!
&! T*h0en hous*n (ol0s!
?! T*h0en 4oupl*n d*s4 0o Fy2heel (ol0s! Re1er 0o
en*ne manu1a40urers manual 1or 4orre40 0*h0en*n
0or/ue!
@! RemoDe ro0or al*n*n a*dsC e*0her 2ooden 2edesC
or 0he 02o M"% se0 s4re2s and shee0 me0al 2ear
pla0es!
98
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Caution" Incorrect guarding andDor
generator align.ent can result in personal
inPury
andDor e=uip.ent da.age!
Earth arrange.ent
The enera0or 1rame should (e sol*dly (onded 0o 0he
enera0*n se0 (edpla0e! I1 an0*-D*(ra0*on moun0s are
I00ed (e02een 0he enera0or 1rame and *0s (edpla0e a
su*0a(ly ra0ed ear0h 4ondu40or (normally one hal1 o1
0he 4ross se40*onal area o1 0he ma*n l*ne 4a(les) should
(r*de a4ross 0he an0*-D*(ra0*on moun0s!
>arning" Refer to local regulations to ensure
that the correct earth re=uire.ents are
incorporated in the installation! Inade=uate
earth installations put li2es at ris%!
Paint Finish
:nless preD*ous arranemen0s haDe (een areed 0he
enera0or 2*ll (e suppl*edC pa*n0ed 2*0h a 2a0er
(ased pr*mer 4oa0! I0 *s e5pe40ed 0ha0 0he enera0*n se0
assem(ler 2*ll 2an0 0o pa*n0 0he enera0*n se0
2*0h a Inal 4oa0 *n 0here o2n l*Dery!
NoteK The pri.er coat is not ade=uate for
.ost applications 5ithout additional
protection!
>arning la-els
As 2e e5pe40 0he se0 (u*lder 0o proD*de some sor0 o1
add*0*onal pro0e40*on 2e haDe suppl*es 0he ne4essary
2arn*n la(els loose! The la(els 4an (e 1ound *n a
2alle0 a00a4hed 0o 0he enera0or 0oe0her 2*0h 0h*s
manual! :se 0he la(els as per 0he *ns0ru40*ons pr*n0ed
on 0he reDerse o1 0he la(els!
Pre1Running Chec%s
99
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Be1ore s0ar0*n 0he enera0*n se0C a10er 4omple0*n
assem(ly and a10er *ns0alla0*on o1 0he se0:
Tes0 0he *nsula0*on res*s0an4e o1 2*nd*ns!
Che4; all 4onne40*ons are *n 0he 4orre40 lo4a0*on and
0*h0
Che4; 0he enera0or a*r pa0h *s 4lear o1 o(s0ru40*ons
Repla4e all 4oDers!
Insulation Chec%
The A<R should (e d*s4onne40ed dur*n 0h*s 0es0!
A +%%< Meer or s*m*lar *ns0rumen0 should (e used!
9*s4onne40 any ear0h*n 4ondu40or 4onne40ed
(e02een neu0ral and ear0h and meer an ou0pu0 lead
0erm*nal :C < or W 0o ear0h! The *nsula0*on
res*s0an4e read*n should (e *n e54ess o1 +MO 0o ear0h!
Should 0he *nsula0*on res*s0an4e (e less 0han
+MO 0he 2*nd*n mus0 (e dr*ed ou0! See 0he SerD*4e
se40*on o1 0h*s Manual!
Caution" The 5indings ha2e -een ;!,! tested
during .anufacture and further ;!,!
testing .ay degrade the insulation 5ith
conse=uent reduction in operating life!
Should
it -e necessary to de.onstrate ;!,! testingE
for custo.er acceptanceE the tests .ust
-e carried out at reduced 2oltage le2els i!e!
Test ,oltageR /!* 3# < Rated ,oltage F ///6
:irection of Rotation
The d*re40*on o1 ro0a0*on o1 0he enera0or *s des*ned 0o
(e 4lo4;2*se as D*e2ed 1rom 0he dr*De end o1 0he
enera0or!
Phase Rotation
The ou0pu0 1rom 0he enera0or 2*ll haDe a phase
se/uen4e o1 : < W 2*0h 0he enera0or runn*n
4lo4;2*se
100
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
as D*e2ed 1rom 0he dr*De end! I1 0he phase ro0a0*on has
0o (e reDersed 0he 4us0omer mus0 rearrane 0he
ou0pu0 4a(les 0o a :<W 4onIura0*on! As; 1or a 4*r4u*0
d*aram 1or reDerse phase 4onne40*ons!
,oltage and Fre=uency
Che4; 0ha0 0he Dol0ae and 1re/uen4y leDels re/u*red
1or 0he enera0*n se0 appl*4a0*on are as *nd*4a0ed
on 0he enera0or namepla0e!
8,R adPust.ent
To ma;e A<R sele40*ons and adHus0men0s remoDe 0he
A<R 4oDer! :se 0he 0ool proD*ded 0o ma;e
adHus0men0s 0o 0he A<R se00*ns! The A<R *s 1a40ory se0
and 2*ll *De sa0*s1a40ory per1orman4e dur*n
*n*0*al runn*n 0es0s! Su(se/uen0 Dol0ae adHus0men0
(o0h on and oG load may (e re/u*red! Gu*dan4e 4an
(e 1ound *n 0he se40*on 1or 0he releDan0 A<R!
8ccessories
I1 0here are a44essor*es 1or 4on0rol panel moun0*n
suppl*ed 2*0h 0he enera0or re1er 0o 0he spe4*I4
a44essory I00*n pro4edures *nser0ed *ns*de 0he (a4;
4oDer o1 0h*s (oo;!
Installation, On Site
General
The e50en0 o1 s*0e *ns0alla0*on 2*ll depend upon 0he
enera0*n se0 (u*ldC e!! *1 0he enera0or *s *ns0alled *n
a 4anop*ed se0 2*0h *n0eral s2*04h(oards and 4*r4u*0
(rea;erC on s*0e *ns0alla0*on 2*ll (e l*m*0ed 0o
4onne40*n up 0he s*0e load 0o 0he enera0*n se0 ou0pu0
0erm*nals! In 0h*s 4ase re1eren4e should (e made
0o 0he enera0*n se0 manu1a40urerUs *ns0ru40*on (oo;
and any per0*nen0 lo4al reula0*ons!
I1 0he enera0or has (een *ns0alled on a se0 2*0hou0
s2*04h(oard or 4*r4u*0 (rea;er 0he 1ollo2*n po*n0s
rela0*n 0o 4onne40*n up 0he enera0or should (e
no0ed!
101
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Custo.er ca-le entry
The 0erm*nal (o5 4an a44ep0 4a(le en0ry 1rom e*0her
s*de! Bo0h panels are remoDa(le 1or dr*ll*nEpun4h*n
0o su*0 landsEor land (o5es! I1 s*nle 4ore 4a(les are
0a;en 0hrouh 0he 0erm*nal (o5 s*de panel an
*nsula0ed or non-mane0*4 land pla0e should (e I00ed!
Caution" To a2oid the possi-ility of de-ris
entering the generatorE re.o2e the panel
-efore drilling!
In4om*n 4a(les should (e suppor0ed 1rom e*0her (elo2
or a(oDe 0he (o5 leDel and a0 a suG*4*en0 d*s0an4e
1rom 0he 4en0re l*ne o1 0he enera0*n se0 so as 0o aDo*d
a 0*h0 rad*us a0 0he po*n0 o1 en0ry *n0o 0he 0erm*nal
(o5 panelC and allo2 moDemen0 o1 0he enera0or se0 on
*0s an0*-D*(ra0*on moun0*ns 2*0hou0 e54ess*De
s0ress on 0he 4a(le!
Be1ore ma;*n Inal 4onne40*onsC 0es0 0he *nsula0*on
res*s0an4e o1 0he 2*nd*ns!
A +%%< Meer or s*m*lar *ns0rumen0 should (e used!
Should 0he *nsula0*on res*s0an4e (e less 0han
+!%MO 0he 2*nd*ns mus0 (e dr*ed ou0 as de0a*led *n 0he
SerD*4e se40*on o1 0h*s manual!
Clean 0he ma0*n sur1a4es and l*h0ly a(rade 0he ma0*n
sur1a4esC do no0 s4ore 0he sur1a4e! The 4urren0
4arry*n sur1a4es mus0 4onne40 1a4e 0o 1a4e!
Earth Connections
The neu0ral o1 0he enera0or *s no0 (onded 0o 0he
enera0or 1rame as suppl*ed 1rom 0he 1a40ory! An ear0h
0erm*nal *s proD*ded *ns*de 0he 0erm*nal (o5 adHa4en0 0o
0he ma*n 0erm*nals! Should *0 (e re/u*red 0o
opera0e 2*0h 0he neu0ral ear0hed a su(s0an0*al ear0h
4ondu40or (normally e/u*Dalen0 0o one hal1 o1 0he
se40*on o1 0he l*ne 4ondu40ors) mus0 (e 4onne40ed
(e02een 0he neu0ral and 0he ear0h 0erm*nal proD*ded
102
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
*ns*de 0he 0erm*nal (o5! I0 *s 0he respons*(*l*0y o1 0he
enera0*n se0 (u*lder 0o ensure 0he enera0*n se0
(edpla0e and enera0or 1rame are all (onded 0o 0he
ma*n ear0h 0erm*nal *n 0he 0erm*nal (o5!
Caution" Reference to local rules and
regulations concerning earth re=uire.ents
and
ensure they are follo5ed!
Electrical Protection
I0 *s 0he respons*(*l*0y o1 0he end user and h*s
4on0ra40orsEsu(-4on0ra40ors 0o ensure 0ha0 0he oDerall
sys0em pro0e40*on mee0s 0he needs o1 any *nspe40ora0eC
lo4al ele40r*4*0y au0hor*0y or sa1e0y rulesC
per0a*n*n 0o 0he s*0e lo4a0*on!
To ena(le 0he sys0em des*ner 0o a4h*eDe 0he ne4essary
pro0e40*on andEor d*s4r*m*na0*onC 1aul0 4urren0
4urDes are aDa*la(le on re/ues0 1rom 0he 1a40oryC
0oe0her 2*0h enera0or rea40an4e Dalues 0o ena(le
1aul0
4urren0 4al4ula0*ons 0o (e made!
>arning" Incorrect installation andDor
protecti2e syste.s can result in inPury andDor
e=uip.ent da.age! Installers .ust -e
=uali9ed to perfor. electrical installation
5or%!
Ade/ua0e ele40r*4al pro0e40*on should (e proD*ded so
0ha0 0here 2*ll (e no daner 0o personnelC daner o1
Ire or damae 0o 0he enera0or under 1aul0 4ond*0*ons!
E.-edded 8pplications
These no0es 4oDer appl*4a0*ons 2*0h 0he enera0or
runn*n *n parallel 2*0h 0he ma*ns u0*l*0y su4h as C)P
(some0*mes 4alled 4o-enera0*on)!
A 0yp*4al Thermal Class 1or 0h*s du0y 2ould (e as
*den0*Ied (y ISO ?+$? as a R(as*4 4on0*nuous ra0*nX
103
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
(BR)C Class _7Y ra0*n - 4on0*nuous du0y! Th*s 2*ll oGer
0he (es0 opera0*n eG*4*en4yC alon 2*0h lo2 0hermal
s0ress leDels 1or 0he 2*nd*n *nsula0*on sys0em!
The opera0*n Dol0ae rane o1 0he lo4al ma*ns supply
mus0 (e es0a(l*shedC and 0hen 4ons*dered *n
4onHun40*on 2*0h 0he spe4*Ied ;<AC ;<ArC and ;We!
The 1ull rane o1 0he re/u*red opera0*n du0y should
0hen (e 4ons*dered aa*ns0 0he enera0orYs opera0*n
4har0 (4apa(*l*0y d*aram)!
A 4o-enera0*on appl*4a0*on *s a 4on0*nuous I5ed du0yC
al2ays 2*0h*n 0he _BRY 4a0eoryC and no oDerload
4apa(*l*0y *s e5pe40ed!
The re4ommended leDel o1 pro0e40*on 1or an em(edded
appl*4a0*on *s de0a*led (elo2!
Protection M*n Op0*on
ODer4urren0 B
Shor0 C*r4u*0 B
:nder <ol0s B
ODer <ol0s B
:nder ), B
ODer ), B
9*Geren0*al B
Ear0h 7aul0 B
S0a0or RT9s B
<*(ra0*on Mon*0or*n B
Bear*n Cond*0*on Mon*0or B
ReDerse Po2er B
E54*0a0*on 8oss B
Po2er 7a40or Con0rol B
<ol0ae Ma04h*n B
Ma*ns In0errup0*on (<e40or
Sh*10C 7re/uen4y 9eD*a0*on)
B
I1 0he oDerload and shor0 4*r4u*0 pro0e40*on *s proD*ded
(y a
104
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
4*r4u*0 (rea;erC 4are mus0 (e 0a;en 2*0h 0he pro0e40*on
se00*ns! C*r4u*0 (rea;ers are normally des*ned 1or
opera0*on
2*0h 0he u0*l*0y supplyC 2h*4h sus0a*ns h*her and loner
dura0*ons o1 1aul0 leDel 0han 0he enera0or 4an 0olera0e!
The
4*r4u*0 (rea;erYs oDer4urren0 and shor0 4*r4u*0 se00*ns
should
0here1ore (e se0 a44ord*n 0o 0he enera0ors opera0*n
4urDes
and no0 0he oDer4urren0Eshor0 4*r4u*0 de0a*ls on 0he
4*r4u*0
(rea;er!
The enera0or oDerload and shor0 4*r4u*0 se00*ns on 0he
pro0e40*on should (e se0 so 0ha0 0hey are (elo2 0he
0hermal
damae 4urDe 1or 0he enera0or!
Genera0or da0a shee0s are aDa*la(le 0o help 4al4ula0e
0hese
se00*ns!
Synchronisation notes
The syn4hron*s*n s2*04hE(rea;er should (e o1 a 0ype
0ha0 2*ll no0 4ause R4on0a40 (oun4eX 2hen *0
opera0es!
The syn4hron*s*n s2*04hE(rea;er should (e
ade/ua0ely ra0ed 0o 2*0hs0and 0he 4on0*nuous 1ull load
4urren0 o1 0he enera0or!
The s2*04hE(rea;er should (e a(le 0o 2*0hs0and*n 0he
r*orous 4los*n 4y4les dur*n syn4hron*s*n
and 0he 4urren0s produ4ed *1 0here *s a m*s-
syn4hron*sa0*on!
The 4los*n 0*me o1 0he syn4hron*s*n s2*04hE(rea;er
should (e under 0he 4on0rol o1 0he syn4hron*ser
se00*ns!
105
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
The s2*04hE(rea;er should (e 4apa(le o1 opera0*on
under 1aul0 4ond*0*ons su4h as shor0 4*r4u*0s!
Note" The fault le2el .ay include the
contri-ution fro. other generators as 5ell
as
fro. the grid!
Genera0or da0a shee0s are aDa*la(le 0o help 4al4ula0e
0h*s leDel!
The me0hod o1 syn4hron*s*n should (e e*0her
au0oma0*4C or (y 4he4; syn4hron*s*n! The use o1
manual syn4hron*s*n *s no0 re4ommended!
The se00*ns on 0he syn4hron*s*n e/u*pmen0 should (e
su4h 0ha0 0he enera0or 2*ll 4lose smoo0hly
on0o 0he ma*ns!
The se00*ns 1or 0he syn4hron*s*n e/u*pmen0 0o a4h*eDe
0h*s mus0
(e 2*0h*n 0hese parame0ers!
Co..issioning
Ensure 0ha0 all e50ernal 4a(l*n *s 4orre40 and 0ha0 all
0he enera0*n se0 manu1a40urerUs pre-runn*n
4he4;s and 0he enera0or pre-runn*n 4he4;s haDe (een
4arr*ed ou0 (e1ore s0ar0*n 0he se0!
The enera0or A<R 4on0rols 2*ll haDe (een adHus0ed
dur*n 0he enera0*n se0 manu1a40urerUs 0es0s and
should normally no0 re/u*re 1ur0her adHus0men0!
<ol0ae d*Geren4e LE- $M
7re/uen4y d*Geren4e %!" ),Ese4
Phase anle LE- "%o
CEB 4los*n 0*me +% ms
Automatic Voltage Regulator Type !341
The MB'>" A<R *s po2ered (y a _sha10 moun0ed
Permanen0 Mane0 Genera0or (PMG)C P*lo0 E54*0er! The
PMG 1orms par0 o1 0he separa0e e54*0a0*on sys0em 1or
0he STAM7OR9 syn4hronousC (rushlessC
enera0or!
106
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Initial Chec%s
The 1ollo2*n UHumperU 4onne40*ons mus0 (e *n 0he
4orre40 pos*0*on 1or 0he 4orre40 num(er o1 poles and
0he opera0*n 1re/uen4y o1 0he enera0or!
7re/uen4y sele40*on 0erm*nals
> pole +%), 8IN. $-'
> pole #%), 8IN. "-'
S0a(*l*0y sele40*on 0erm*nals 8IN. A-B
E54*0a0*on In0errup0*on 8*n; ."-.$
" <ol0s ? S0a(*l*0y se40*on
$ Ind*4a0or led @ 9roop
' :7RO "% Tr*m
> 7re/uen4y "" 8*n; (oDer ++%;W)
+ 9*p "$ Isola0*on l*n;
# S0a(*l*0y "' $ 5 p*n $ use e*0her
& E54*0a0*on 0r*p "> S0d! sens*n l*n;s
Initial Start Cp
On 4omple0*on o1 enera0*n se0 assem(ly and (e1ore
s0ar0*n 0he enera0*n se0C ensure 0ha0 all o1 0he
en*ne manu1a40urerUs pre-runn*n pro4edures haDe
(een 4omple0edC and 0ha0 adHus0men0 o1 0he en*ne
oDernor *s su4h 0ha0 0he enera0or 2*ll no0 (e
su(He40ed 0o speeds *n e54ess o1 "$+M o1 0he ra0ed
speed!
Caution" O2erspeeding the generator during
initial setting of the speed go2ernor can
result in da.age to the generator rotating
co.ponents!
,oltage Set Cp
In add*0*on remoDe 0he A<R a44ess 4oDer and 0urn
<O8TS 4on0rol 1ully an0*-4lo4;2*se! S0ar0 0he
enera0*n se0 and run on no-load a0 nom*nal 1re/uen4y!
Slo2ly 0urn <O8TS 4on0rol po0en0*ome0er
4lo4;2*se un0*l ra0ed Dol0ae *s rea4hed!
107
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Caution" :o not increase the 2oltage a-o2e
the rated generator 2oltage sho5n on the
generator na.eplate!
Sta-ility Set Cp
The STABI8IT6 4on0rol po0en0*ome0er *s pre-se0 and
should no0 normally re/u*re adHus0men0! I1
adHus0men0 *s ne4essary pro4eed as 1ollo2s:
Run 0he enera0*n se0 on no-load and 4he4; 0ha0
speed *s 4orre40 and s0a(le!
Turn 0he STABI8IT6 4on0rol po0en0*ome0er 4lo4;2*seC
and 0hen 0urn slo2ly an0*-4lo4;2*se un0*l 0he
enera0or Dol0ae s0ar0s 0o (e4ome uns0a(le! The
4orre40 se00*n *s sl*h0ly 4lo4;2*se 1rom 0h*s
pos*0*on (*!e! 2here 0he ma4h*ne Dol0s are s0a(le (u0
4lose 0o 0he uns0a(le re*on)!
8,R adPust.ents
)aD*n adHus0ed <O8TS and STABI8IT6 dur*n 0he
*n*0*al s0ar0-up pro4edure 0he o0her A<R 4on0rol
1un40*ons should no0 re/u*re adHus0men0! I1 *ns0a(*l*0y on
load *s e5per*en4edC re4he4; STABI8IT6 se00*n!
I1 poor per1orman4e *s e5per*en4ed re1er 0o 0he
1ollo2*n pararaphs on ea4h 1un40*on:
Che4; 0ha0 0he symp0oms *nd*4a0e 0ha0 adHus0men0 *s
ne4essary!
Ma;e 0he ne4essary adHus0men0s!
Cnder Fre=uency Roll OL 3CFRO6
The A<R *n4orpora0es an underspeed pro0e40*on
4*r4u*0 2h*4h *Des a Dol0aeEspeed (),) 4hara40er*s0*4
as sho2n:
The :7RO 4on0rol po0en0*ome0er se0s 0he R;nee po*n0X
["\! Symp0oms o1 *n4orre40 se00*n are
a) The l*h0 em*00*n d*ode (8E9) *nd*4a0or
permanen0ly l*0 2hen 0he enera0or *s on load
() Poor Dol0ae reula0*on on loadC *!e! opera0*on on
0he slop*n par0 o1 0he 4hara40er*s0*4 [$\!
108
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Clo4;2*se adHus0men0 lo2ers 0he 1re/uen4y (speed)
se00*n o1 0he P;nee po*n0P and e50*nu*shes 0he 8E9!
7or Op0*mum se00*n 0he 8E9 should *llum*na0e as 0he
1re/uen4y 1alls Hus0 (elo2 nom*nal 1re/uen4yC *!e! >&),
on a +%), enera0or or +&), on a #%), enera0or!
" .nee po*n0! $ Typ*4al slope!
Caution" If the ?E: is illu.inated and no
output 2oltage is presentE refer to E<C TRIP
andDor O,ERD, sections -elo5!
E<C TRIP 3E7citation Trip6
An A<R suppl*ed 1rom a permanen0 mane0 enera0or
*nheren0ly del*Ders ma5*mum e54*0a0*on po2er on a
l*ne 0o l*ne or l*ne 0o neu0ral shor0 4*r4u*0! In order 0o
pro0e40 0he enera0or 2*nd*ns 0he A<R *n4orpora0es
an oDer e54*0a0*on 4*r4u*0 2h*4h de0e40s h*h e54*0a0*on
and remoDes *0 a10er a pre-de0erm*ned 0*meC *!e! ?-
"% se4onds!
Symp0oms o1 *n4orre40 se00*n are 0he enera0or ou0pu0
4ollapses on load or small oDerloadC and 0he 8E9
*s permanen0ly *llum*na0ed!
The 4orre40 se00*n *s &% Dol0s LE- +M (e02een 0erm*nals
B and BB!
Transient ?oad S5itching
The add*0*onal 1un40*on 4on0rols o1 9IP and 9WE88 are
proD*ded 0o ena(le 0he load a44ep0an4e 4apa(*l*0y
o1 0he enera0*n se0 0o (e op0*m*sed! The oDerall
enera0*n se0 per1orman4e depends upon 0he en*ne
4apa(*l*0y and oDernor responseC *n 4onHun40*on 2*0h
0he enera0or 4hara40er*s0*4s!
I0 *s no0 poss*(le 0o adHus0 0he leDel o1 Dol0ae d*p or
re4oDery *ndependen0ly 1rom 0he en*ne per1orman4eC
and 0here 2*ll al2ays (e a U0rade oGU (e02een 1re/uen4y
d*p and Dol0ae d*p!
:IP!
The d*p 1un40*on 4on0rol po0en0*ome0er adHus0s 0he slope
109
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
o1 0he Dol0aeEspeed (),) 4hara40er*s0*4 (elo2 0he ;nee
po*n0 as sho2n (elo2:
") .nee po*n0
$) AdHus0a(le slope
Su..ary of ControlsE 0<$&
Con0rol 7un40*on 9*re40*on
<ol0s To adHus0 enera0or ou0pu0 Dol0ae Clo4;2*se
*n4reases ou0pu0 Dol0ae
S0a(*l*0y To preDen0 Dol0ae hun0*n Clo4;2*se
*n4reases s0a(*l*0y or damp*n eGe40
:7RO To se0 under 1re/uen4y roll oG ;nee po*n0
Clo4;2*se redu4es ;nee po*n0 1re/uen4y
9roop To se0 enera0or droop 0o +M a0 1ull load % P7
Clo4;2*se *n4reases 0he droop
<ETr*m To ma04h A<R *npu0 0o a44essory ou0pu0
Clo4;2*se allo2s 0he a44essory more 4on0rol oDer
E54 Tr*p To se0 0he oDer e54*0a0*on 4u0 oG leDel
Clo4;2*se *n4reases 0he 4u0 oG leDel
9*p To se0 0he *n*0*al 1re/uen4y rela0ed Dol0ae d*p
Clo4;2*se *n4reases 0he Dol0ae d*p
Automatic Voltage Regulator Type !3"1
The MB'$" *s 0he mos0 soph*s0*4a0ed A<R *n 0he
STAM7OR9 rane! Po2ered (y a _sha10 moun0ed
Permanen0 Mane0 Genera0or (PMG)C P*lo0 E54*0erY *0
1orms par0 o1 0he separa0e e54*0a0*on sys0em 1or 0he
(rushless enera0or!
Initial Chec%s
The 1ollo2*n UHumperU 4onne40*ons mus0 (e *n
0he 4orre40 pos*0*on 1or 0he 4orre40 num(er o1
poles and 0he opera0*n 1re/uen4y o1 0he
enera0or!
7re/uen4y sele40*on 0erm*nals
> pole +%), opera0*on 8IN. $-'
> pole #%), opera0*on 8IN. "-'
S0a(*l*0y sele40*on 0erm*nals 8IN. A-B
110
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
E54*0a0*on In0errup0*on 8*n; ."-.$
" <ol0s @ S0a(*l*0y
$ Ind*4a0or led "% ODerED
' IEl*m*0 "" E54 0r*p
> :7RO "$ S0a(*l*0y sele40or
+ 7re/uen4y sele40or "' 9roop
# 9*p "> Tr*m
& rms
? 92ell
"+ 8*n; (oDer ++%;W)
Initial Start Cp
On 4omple0*on o1 enera0*n se0 assem(ly and (e1ore
s0ar0*n 0he enera0*n se0C ensure 0ha0 all o1 0he
en*ne manu1a40urerUs pre-runn*n pro4edures haDe
(een 4omple0edC and 0ha0 adHus0men0 o1 0he en*ne
oDernor *s su4h 0ha0 0he enera0or 2*ll no0 (e
su(He40ed 0o speeds *n e54ess o1 "$+M o1 0he ra0ed
speed!
Caution" O2erspeeding the generator during
initial setting of the speed go2ernor can
result in da.age to the generator rotating
co.ponents!
,oltage Set Cp
In add*0*on remoDe 0he A<R a44ess 4oDer and 0urn
<O8TS 4on0rol 1ully an0*-4lo4;2*se! S0ar0 0he
enera0*n se0 and run on no-load a0 nom*nal 1re/uen4y!
Slo2ly 0urn <O8TS 4on0rol po0en0*ome0er
4lo4;2*se un0*l ra0ed Dol0ae *s rea4hed!
Caution" :o not increase the 2oltage a-o2e
the rated generator 2oltage sho5n on the
generator na.eplate!
Sta-ility Set Cp
The STABI8IT6 4on0rol po0en0*ome0er *s pre-se0 and
should no0 normally re/u*re adHus0men0! I1
111
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
adHus0men0 *s ne4essary pro4eed as 1ollo2s:
Run 0he enera0*n se0 on no-load and 4he4; 0ha0
speed *s 4orre40 and s0a(le!
Turn 0he STABI8IT6 4on0rol po0en0*ome0er 4lo4;2*seC
0hen 0urn slo2ly an0*-4lo4;2*se un0*l 0he
enera0or Dol0ae s0ar0s 0o (e4ome uns0a(le!
Note" The correct setting is slightly
cloc%5ise fro. this position 3i!e! 5here the
.achine 2olts are sta-le -ut close to the
unsta-le region6!
Ra.p adPust.ent"
The AVR includes a soft start circuit to control the rate of
voltage build-up when the generator runs up to speed.
This is normally pre-set to give a voltage ramp-up time of
approximately three seconds. If reuired! this can be
ad"usted between the limits defined in the specification.
#ith the $RA%&' control fully counter-cloc(wise the AVR
ramp time is approximately ).*s. #ith the $RA%&' control
fully cloc(wise the value is extended to approximately
+.)s.
1, Ad"ustable slope -, Instant of load application
8,R 8dPust.ents
)aD*n adHus0ed <O8TS and STABI8IT6 dur*n 0he
*n*0*al s0ar0-up pro4edureC o0her A<R 4on0rol 1un40*ons
should no0 normally need adHus0men0! I1 *ns0a(*l*0y on
load *s e5per*en4edC re4he4; s0a(*l*0y se00*n! I1
ho2eDerC poor per1orman4e *s e5per*en4edC re1er 0o 0he
1ollo2*n pararaphs on ea4h 1un40*on 0o:
a) Che4; 0ha0 0he symp0oms o(serDed do *nd*4a0e
adHus0men0 *s ne4essary!
() Ma;e 0he ne4essary adHus0men0s!
Cnder Fre=uency Roll OL 3CFRO6
The A<R *n4orpora0es an underspeed pro0e40*on
4*r4u*0 2h*4h *Des a Dol0aeEspeed (),) 4hara40er*s0*4
as sho2n:
The :7RO 4on0rol po0en0*ome0er se0s 0he R;nee po*n0X
["\! Symp0oms o1 *n4orre40 se00*n are
a) The l*h0 em*00*n d*ode (8E9) *nd*4a0or
permanen0ly l*0 2hen 0he enera0or *s on load
112
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
() Poor Dol0ae reula0*on on loadC *!e! opera0*on on
0he slop*n par0 o1 0he 4hara40er*s0*4 [$\!
Clo4;2*se adHus0men0 lo2ers 0he 1re/uen4y (speed)
se00*n o1 0he P;nee po*n0P and e50*nu*shes 0he 8E9!
7or Op0*mum se00*n 0he 8E9 should *llum*na0e as 0he
1re/uen4y 1alls Hus0 (elo2 nom*nal 1re/uen4yC *!e! >&),
on a +%), enera0or or +&), on a #%), enera0or!
" .nee po*n0! $ Typ*4al slope!
Caution" If the ?E: is illu.inated and no
output 2oltage is presentE refer to E<C TRIP
andDor O,ERD, sections -elo5!
E<C TRIP 3E7citation Trip6
An A<R suppl*ed 1rom a permanen0 mane0 enera0or
*nheren0ly del*Ders ma5*mum e54*0a0*on po2er on a
l*ne 0o l*ne or l*ne 0o neu0ral shor0 4*r4u*0! In order 0o
pro0e40 0he enera0or 2*nd*ns 0he A<R *n4orpora0es
an oDer e54*0a0*on 4*r4u*0 2h*4h de0e40s h*h e54*0a0*on
and remoDes *0 a10er a pre-de0erm*ned 0*meC *!e! ?-
"% se4onds!
Symp0oms o1 *n4orre40 se00*n are 0he enera0or ou0pu0
4ollapses on load or small oDerloadC and 0he 8E9
*s permanen0ly *llum*na0ed!
The 4orre40 se00*n *s &% Dol0s LE- +M (e02een 0erm*nals
B and BB!
O,ERD, 3O2er ,oltage6
ODer Dol0ae pro0e40*on 4*r4u*0ry *s *n4luded *n 0he A<R
0o remoDe enera0or e54*0a0*on *n 0he eDen0 o1 loss
o1 A<R sens*n *npu0! The A<R has (o0h *n0ernal
ele40ron*4 de-e54*0a0*on and proD*s*on o1 a s*nal 0o
opera0e an e50ernal 4*r4u*0 (rea;er!
The 4orre40 se00*n *s '%% Dol0s LE-+M a4ross 0erm*nals
E"C E%!Clo4;2*se adHus0men0 o1 0he O<ERE< 4on0rol
po0en0*ome0er 2*ll *n4rease 0he Dol0ae a0 2h*4h 0he
4*r4u*0
opera0es!
113
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Transient ?oad S5itching
The add*0*onal 1un40*on 4on0rols o1 9IP and 9WE88 are
proD*ded 0o ena(le 0he load a44ep0an4e 4apa(*l*0y
o1 0he enera0*n se0 0o (e op0*m*sed! The oDerall
enera0*n se0 per1orman4e depends upon 0he en*ne
4apa(*l*0y and oDernor responseC *n 4onHun40*on 2*0h
0he enera0or 4hara40er*s0*4s!
I0 *s no0 poss*(le 0o adHus0 0he leDel o1 Dol0ae d*p or
re4oDery *ndependen0ly 1rom 0he en*ne per1orman4eC
and 0here 2*ll al2ays (e a U0rade oGU (e02een 1re/uen4y
d*p and Dol0ae d*p!
:IP!
The d*p 1un40*on 4on0rol po0en0*ome0er adHus0s 0he slope
o1 0he Dol0aeEspeed (),) 4hara40er*s0*4 (elo2 0he ;nee
po*n0 as sho2n (elo2:
") .nee po*n0
$) AdHus0a(le slope
:>E??
The d2ell 1un40*on *n0rodu4es a 0*me delay (e02een 0he
re4oDery o1 Dol0ae and re4oDery o1 speed!
The purpose o1 0he 0*me delay *s 0o redu4e 0he
enera0or
;W (elo2 0he aDa*la(le en*ne ;W dur*n 0he re4oDery
per*odC 0hus allo2*n an *mproDed speed re4oDery!
Aa*n 0h*s 4on0rol *s only 1un40*onal (elo2 0he P;nee
po*n0PC *!e! *1 0he speed s0ays a(oDe 0he ;nee po*n0
dur*n
load s2*04h*n 0here *s no eGe40 1rom 0he 9WE88
1un40*on se00*n!
") AdHus0a(le slope
$) Ins0an0 o1 load appl*4a0*on
O2er2oltage :e1E7citation Circuit @rea%er
Th*s a44essory proD*des pos*0*De *n0errup0*on o1 0he
e54*0a0*on po2er *n 0he eDen0 o1 oDerDol0ae due 0o
114
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
loss o1 sens*n or *n0ernal A<R 1aul0s *n4lud*n 0he
ou0pu0 po2er deD*4e!
W*0h 0he MB'$" A<R 0h*s a44essory *s suppl*ed loose 1or
I00*n *n 0he 4on0rol panel!
Caution" >hen the Circuit @rea%er is
supplied looseE ter.inals BMB# at the
au7iliary
ter.inal -loc% are 9tted 5ith a lin% to
ena-le operation of the 8,R! >hen
connecting
the circuit -rea%er this lin% .ust -e
re.o2ed!
Resetting The E7citation @rea%er
In 0he eDen0 o1 opera0*on o1 0he 4*r4u*0 (rea;erC
*nd*4a0ed (y loss o1 enera0or ou0pu0 Dol0aeC manual
rese00*n *s re/u*red! When *n 0he P0r*ppedP s0a0e 0he
4*r4u*0 (rea;er s2*04h leDer sho2s PO77P! To rese0
moDe 0he s2*04h leDer 0o 0he pos*0*on sho2*n PONP!
>arning" Ter.inalsE 5hich are ?I,E 5ith the
generating set runningE are e7posed
5hen the 8,R access co2er is re.o2ed!
Resetting of the circuit -rea%er .ust -e
carried out 5ith the generating set
stationaryE and engine starting circuits
disa-led!
When I00ed *n 0he enera0orC a44ess 0o 0he (rea;er *s
a*ned (y remoDal o1 0he A<R a44ess 4oDer! The
4*r4u*0 (rea;er *s moun0ed on 0he A<R moun0*n
(ra4;e0 e*0her 0o 0he le10 or 0o 0he r*h0 o1 0he A<R
depend*n upon A<R pos*0*on! A10er rese00*n 0he 4*r4u*0
(rea;er repla4e 0he A<R a44ess 4oDer (e1ore
res0ar0*n 0he enera0*n se0!
Current ?i.iting
115
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Th*s a44essory 2or;s *n 4onHun40*on 2*0h 0he
MB'$"A<R 4*r4u*0s 0o proD*de an adHus0men0 0o 0he
leDel o1
4urren0 del*Dered *n0o a 1aul0! One 4urren0 0rans1ormer
(CT) per phase *s I00ed 0o proD*de 4urren0 l*m*0*n
on any l*ne 0o l*ne or l*ne 0o neu0ral 1aul0! No0e: The W
phase CT 4an also proD*de P9ROOPP! Re1er 0o
U9roopUC 1or se00*n droop *ndependen0 o1 4urren0 l*m*0!
AdHus0men0 means *s proD*ded 2*0h 0he PIE8IMITP
4on0rol po0en0*ome0er on 0he A<R! I1 4urren0 l*m*0
0rans1ormers are suppl*ed 2*0h 0he enera0or 0he l*m*0
2*ll
(e se0 *n a44ordan4e 2*0h 0he leDel spe4*Ied a0 0he 0*me
o1 orderC and no 1ur0her adHus0men0 2*ll (e
ne4essary! )o2eDerC should 0he leDel need 0o (e
adHus0edC re1er 0o 0he se00*n pro4edure!
Setting Procedure
Run 0he enera0*n se0 on no-load and 4he4; 0ha0
en*ne oDernor *s se0 0o 4on0rol nom*nal speed!
S0op 0he enera0*n se0! RemoDe 0he l*n; (e02een
0erm*nals ."-.$ a0 0he au5*l*ary 0erm*nal (lo4; and
4onne40 a +A s2*04h a4ross 0he 0erm*nals ."-.$!
Turn 0he PIE8IMITP 4on0rol po0en0*ome0er 1ully
an0*4lo4;2*se! Shor0-4*r4u*0 0he s0a0or 2*nd*n 2*0h a
(ol0ed '
phase shor0 a0 0he ma*n 0erm*nals! An AC 4urren0 4l*p-
on amme0er *s re/u*red 0o measure 0he 2*nd*n
lead 4urren0!
W*0h 0he s2*04h a4ross ."-.$ open s0ar0 0he enera0*n
se0!
Close 0he s2*04h a4ross ."= .$ and 0urn 0he PIE8IMITP
4on0rol po0en0*ome0er 4lo4;2*se un0*l re/u*red
4urren0 leDel *s o(serDed on 0he 4l*p-on amme0er! As
soon as 4orre40 se00*n *s a4h*eDed open 0he ."= .$
s2*04h!
116
Preston university kohat (Lahore
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Should 0he 4urren0 4ollapse dur*n 0he se00*n
pro4edureC 0he *n0ernal pro0e40*De 4*r4u*0s o1 0he A<R
2*ll
haDe opera0ed! In 0h*s eDen0 shu0 do2n 0he se0 and open
0he ."=.$ s2*04h! Res0ar0 0he se0 and run 1or "%
m*nu0es 2*0h ."=.$ s2*04h openC 0o 4ool 0he enera0or
2*nd*nsC (e1ore a00emp0*n 0o resume 0he se00*n
pro4edure!
Caution" Failure to carry out the correct
COO?ING procedure .ay cause o2erheating
and conse=uent da.age to the generator
5indings
Su..ary of ControlsE 0<$#
Con0rol 7un40*on 9*re40*on
<ol0s To adHus0 enera0or ou0pu0 Dol0ae Clo4;2*se
*n4reases ou0pu0 Dol0ae
S0a(*l*0y To preDen0 Dol0ae hun0*n
Clo4;2*se *n4reases s0a(*l*0y
or damp*n eGe40
:7RO To se0 under 1re/uen4y roll oG ;nee po*n0
Clo4;2*se redu4es ;nee po*n0 1re/uen4y
9roop To se0 enera0or droop 0o +M a0 1ull
load % P7
Clo4;2*se *n4reases 0he droop
<ETr*m To ma04h A<R *npu0 0o a44essory ou0pu0
Clo4;2*se allo2s 0he a44essory more
4on0rol oDer A<R
E54 Tr*p To se0 0he oDer e54*0a0*on 4u0 oG leDel
Clo4;2*se *n4reases 0he 4u0 oG leDel
9*p To se0 0he *n*0*al 1re/uen4y rela0ed
Dol0ae d*p
Clo4;2*se *n4reases 0he Dol0ae d*p
ODer <ol0s To se0 0he oDer Dol0ae pro0e40*on
4u0 oG leDel
Clo4;2*se *n4reases 0he oDer Dol0ae
117
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
4u0 oG leDel
I 8*m*0 To se0 0he ma5*mum shor0 4*r4u*0 4urren0
Clo4;2*se *n4reases 0he shor0 4*r4u*0
4urren0
92ell To se0 under 1re/uen4y re4oDery
Clo4;2*se *n4reases 0he re4oDery 0*me
#ault #inding, !3"1 $ !341 AVRs
>arning" Fault 9nding procedures present
haHardsE 5hich can result in inPury or
death! Only personnel =uali9ed to perfor.
electrical and .echanical ser2ice should
carry out these procedures! Ensure engine1
starting circuits are disa-led -efore
co..encing ser2ice or .aintenance
procedures! Isolate any anti1condensation
heater
supply!
Note" @efore co..encing any fault 9nding
procedures e7a.ine all 5iring for -ro%en
or loose connections!
No Dol0ae (u*ld-up 2hen
s0ar0*n se0
") Che4; l*n; ."=.$ on au5*l*ary 0erm*nals! 7ollo2
Separa0e E54*0a0*on
$) Tes0 Pro4edure 0o 4he4; ma4h*ne and A<R!
<ol0ae Dery slo2 0o (u*ld
up Che4; se00*n o1 ramp po0en0*ome0er! MB'$" only
8oss o1 Dol0ae
2hen se0 runn*n
7*rs0 s0op and res0ar0 se0! I1 no Dol0ae or Dol0ae
4ollapses a10er shor0 0*meC
1ollo2 Separa0e E54*0a0*on Tes0 Pro4edure!
Genera0or <ol0ae h*h
1ollo2ed (y 4ollapse
118
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
") Che4; sens*n leads 0o A<R!
$) Carry ou0 Separa0e E54*0a0*on Tes0 Pro4edure!
<ol0ae uns0a(leC e*0her on
no-load or 2*0h load
") Che4; speed s0a(*l*0y!
$) Che4; RSTABX se00*n! Re1er 0o 8oad Tes0*n se40*on
1or pro4edure!
8o2 Dol0ae
On-load
") Che4; speed!
$) I1 4orre40 4he4; R:7ROX se00*n!
E54ess*De Dol0ae E speed
9*p on load S2*04h*n
") Che4; oDernor response! Re1er 0o enera0*n se0
manual!
$) Che4; R9IPX se00*n!
Slu*sh re4oDery on load
s2*04h*n Che4; oDernor response! Re1er 0o
enera0*n se0 manual!
Separate E7citation Test Procedure
I.portant" The resistances =uoted apply to a
standard 5inding! For generators ha2ing
5indings or 2oltages other than those
speci9ed refer to factory for details! Ensure
all
disconnected leads are isolated and free
fro. earth!
I.portant" Incorrect speed setting 5ill gi2e
proportional error in 2oltage output!
Chec%ing the Per.anent 0agnet Generator
3P0G6!
S0ar0 0he se0 and run a0 ra0ed speed!
Measure 0he Dol0aes a0 0he A<R 0erm*nals P$C P' and
P>! These should (e (alan4ed and 2*0h*n 0he
119
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
1ollo2*n ranes: +%), enera0ors - "&%-"?% Dol0s!
#%), enera0ors - $%%-$"# Dol0s!
Should 0he Dol0aes (e un(alan4ed s0op 0he se0C remoDe
0he PMG shee0 me0al 4oDer 1rom 0he non-dr*De
end (ra4;e0 and d*s4onne40 0he mul0*-p*n plu *n 0he
PMG ou0pu0 leads! Che4; leads P$C P'C and P> 1or
4on0*nu*0y! Che4; 0he PMG s0a0or res*s0an4es (e02een
ou0pu0 leads! These should (e (alan4ed and
2*0h*n LE-"%M o1 $!# ohms 1or 0he > pole enera0ors and
+!# ohms on # pole enera0ors! I1 res*s0an4es are
un(alan4ed andEor *n4orre40 0he PMG s0a0or mus0 (e
repla4ed! I1 0he Dol0aes are (alan4ed (u0 lo2 and
0he PMG s0a0or 2*nd*n res*s0an4es are 4orre40 - 0he
PMG ro0or mus0 (e repla4ed!
Chec%ing Generator >indings and Rotating
:iodes
Th*s pro4edure *s 4arr*ed ou0 2*0h leads 7" = 7$ (B and
BB) d*s4onne40ed a0 0he A<R or 0rans1ormer
4on0rol re40*Ier (r*de and us*n a "$ < d!4! supply
4onne40ed 0o leads 7" = 7$ (B and BB)!
S0ar0 0he se0 and run a0 ra0ed speed!
Measure 0he Dol0aes a0 0he ma*n ou0pu0 0erm*nals :C <
and W! I1 Dol0aes are (alan4ed and 2*0h*n LE-"M
o1 0he enera0or nom*nal Dol0aeC o 0o se40*on on
_Balan4ed Ma*n Term*nal <ol0aesY!
Che4; Dol0aes a0 A<R 0erm*nals #C & and ?! These
should (e (alan4ed and (e02een "&%-$+% Dol0s!
I1 Dol0aes a0 ma*n 0erm*nals are (alan4ed (u0 Dol0ae
a0 #C & and ? are un(alan4edC 4he4; 4on0*nu*0y o1
leads #C & and ?! Where an *sola0*n 0rans1ormer *s
I00ed (MB'$" A<R) 4he4; 0rans1ormer 2*nd*ns! I1
1aul0y 0he 0rans1ormer un*0 mus0 (e repla4ed!
I1 Dol0aes are un(alan4edC re1er 0o 0he se40*on on
_:n(alan4ed Ma*n Term*nal <ol0aesY!
Balan4ed Ma*n Term*nal <ol0aes
120
Preston university kohat (Lahore
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I1 all Dol0aes are (alan4ed 2*0h*n "M a0 0he ma*n
0erm*nalsC *0 4an (e assumed 0ha0 all e54*0er 2*nd*nsC
ma*n 2*nd*ns and ma*n ro0a0*n d*odes are *n ood
orderC and 0he 1aul0 *s *n 0he A<R or 0rans1ormer
4on0rol! Re1er 0he se40*on 1or 0he _A<R 7un40*on Tes0Y!
I1 Dol0aes are (alan4ed (u0 lo2C 0here *s a 1aul0 *n 0he
ma*n e54*0a0*on 2*nd*ns or ro0a0*n d*ode
assem(ly!
Chec% Recti9er :iodes
The d*odes on 0he ma*n re40*Ier assem(ly 4an (e
4he4;ed 2*0h a mul0*me0er! The Fe5*(le leads
4onne40ed 0o ea4h d*ode should (e d*s4onne40ed a0 0he
0erm*nal endC and 0he 1or2ard and reDerse
res*s0an4e 4he4;ed! A heal0hy d*ode 2*ll *nd*4a0e a Dery
h*h res*s0an4e (*nIn*0y) *n 0he reDerse d*re40*onC
and a lo2 res*s0an4e *n 0he 1or2ard d*re40*on! A 1aul0y
d*ode 2*ll *De a 1ull deFe40*on read*n *n (o0h
d*re40*ons 2*0h 0he 0es0 me0er on 0he "%C%%% ohms s4aleC
or an *nIn*0y read*n *n (o0h d*re40*ons! On an
ele40ron*4 d**0al me0er a heal0hy d*ode 2*ll *De a lo2
read*n *n one d*re40*onC and a h*h read*n *n 0he
o0her!
Replace.ent of Faulty :iodes
The re40*Ier assem(ly *s spl*0 *n0o 02o pla0esC 0he
pos*0*De and nea0*DeC and 0he ma*n ro0or *s 4onne40ed
a4ross 0hese pla0es! Ea4h pla0e 4arr*es ' d*odesC 0he
nea0*De pla0e 4arry*n nea0*De (*ased d*odes and
0he pos*0*De pla0e 4arry*n pos*0*De (*ased d*odes! Care
mus0 (e 0a;en 0o ensure 0ha0 0he 4orre40 polar*0y
d*odes are I00ed 0o ea4h respe40*De pla0e! When I00*n
0he d*odes 0o 0he pla0es 0hey mus0 (e 0*h0 enouh
0o ensure a ood me4han*4al and ele40r*4al 4on0a40C (u0
should no0 (e oDer 0*h0ened! The re4ommended
0or/ue 0*h0en*n *s >!%# - >!&>Nm ('#->$ l( *n)!
Surge Suppressor
121
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
The sure suppressor *s a me0al-o5*de Dar*s0or
4onne40ed a4ross 0he 02o re40*Ier pla0es 0o preDen0
h*h
0rans*en0 reDerse Dol0aes *n 0he Ield 2*nd*n 1rom
dama*n 0he d*odes! Th*s deD*4e *s no0 polar*sed and
2*ll sho2 a D*r0ually *nIn*0e read*n *n (o0h d*re40*ons
2*0h an ord*nary res*s0an4e me0er! I1 de1e40*De 0h*s
2*ll (e D*s*(le (y *nspe40*onC s*n4e *0 2*ll normally 1a*l 0o
shor0 4*r4u*0 and sho2 s*ns o1 d*s*n0era0*on!
Repla4e *1 1aul0y!
0ain E7citation >indings
I1 a10er es0a(l*sh*n and 4orre40*n any 1aul0 on 0he
re40*Ier assem(ly 0he ou0pu0 *s s0*ll lo2 2hen
separa0ely e54*0edC 0hen 0he ma*n ro0orC e54*0er s0a0or
and e54*0er ro0or 2*nd*n res*s0an4es should (e
4he4;ed (see Res*s0an4e Char0s)C as 0he 1aul0 mus0 (e *n
one o1 0hese 2*nd*ns! The e54*0er s0a0or
res*s0an4e *s measured a4ross leads 7" = 7$ (B and
BB)! The e54*0er ro0or *s 4onne40ed 0o s*5 s0udsC
2h*4h also 4arry 0he d*ode lead 0erm*nals! The ma*n
ro0or 2*nd*n *s 4onne40ed a4ross 0he 02o re40*Ier
pla0es! The respe40*De leads mus0 (e d*s4onne40ed
(e1ore 0a;*n 0he read*ns!
Res*s0an4e Dalues should (e 2*0h*n LE-"%M o1 0he Dalues
*Den *n 0he 0a(les a0 0he (a4; o1 0h*s manual!
Cn-alanced 0ain Ter.inal ,oltages
I1 Dol0aes are un(alan4edC 0h*s *nd*4a0es a 1aul0 on 0he
ma*n s0a0or 2*nd*n or ma*n 4a(les 0o 0he 4*r4u*0
(rea;er!
Note" Faults on the stator 5inding or ca-les
.ay also cause noticea-le load increase
on the engine 5hen e7citation is applied!
9*s4onne40 0he ma*n 4a(les and separa0e 0he 2*nd*n
leads :"-:$C (:+-:#)C <"-<$C (<+-<#)C W"-W$C
(W+-W#) 0o *sola0e ea4h 2*nd*n se40*on!
122
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Note" ?eads suLi7ed ' and ( apply to # 5ire
5indings only!
Measure ea4h se40*on res*s0an4e - Dalues should (e
(alan4ed and 2*0h*n LE-"%M o1 0he Dalue *Den a0 0he
(a4; o1 0h*s manual
Measure *nsula0*on res*s0an4e (e02een se40*ons and
ea4h se40*on 0o ear0h!
:n(alan4ed or *n4orre40 2*nd*n res*s0an4es andEor lo2
*nsula0*on res*s0an4es 0o ear0h *nd*4a0e re2*nd*n
o1 0he s0a0or 2*ll (e ne4essary! Re1er 0o remoDal and
repla4emen0 o1 4omponen0 assem(l*es su(se40*on
E7citation Control Test
8,R Function Test
RemoDe e54*0er Ield leads B = BB (7" = 7$) 1rom 0he
A<R 0erm*nals B = BB (7" = 7$)!
Conne40 a #%W $>%< household lamp 0o A<R 0erm*nals
B = BB (7" = 7$)!
Se0 0he A<R <O8TS 4on0rol po0en0*ome0er 1ully
4lo4;2*se!
Conne40 a "$<C "!%A 9C supply 0o 0he e54*0er Ield leads
B = BB (7" = 7$) 2*0h B (7") 0o 0he pos*0*De!
S0ar0 0he enera0*n se0 and run a0 ra0ed speed!
Che4; 0ha0 0he enera0or ou0pu0 Dol0ae *s 2*0h*n LE-
"%M o1 ra0ed Dol0ae!
<ol0aes a0 P$C P'C P> 0erm*nals should (e as *Den *n
&!+!"!
I1 0he enera0or ou0pu0 Dol0ae *s 4orre40 (u0 0he
Dol0ae on &-? (or P$- P') *s lo2C 4he4; au5*l*ary leads
and 4onne40*ons 0o ma*n 0erm*nals!
The lamp 4onne40ed a4ross B = BB should lo2 1or
appro5*ma0ely ? se4onds and 0hen 0urn oG! 7a*lure 0o
0urn oG *nd*4a0es 1aul0y pro0e40*on 4*r4u*0 and 0he A<R
should (e repla4ed! Turn*n 0he P<O8TSP 4on0rol
po0en0*ome0er 1ully an0*-4lo4;2*se should 0urn oG 0he
lamp!
123
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Should 0he lamp 1a*l 0o l*h0 0he A<R *s 1aul0y and
should (e repla4ed!
I.portant 8fter this test turn ,O?TS control
potentio.eter fully anti1cloc%5ise!
Parallel*n
9roop
;*0
Manual
<ol0ae
Reula0or
Po2er
7a40or
Con0rol
Curren0
8*m*0*n
Accessories
The 1ollo2*n a44essor*es are aDa*la(le 2*0h 0he MB'$"
= MB'>" A<R as I00ed op0*ons! These 4on0rol
a44essor*es may (e I00ed *n 0he enera0or 0erm*nal (o5!
I1 I00ed a0 0he 0*me o1 supplyC 0he 2*r*n
d*aram(s) *n 0he (a4; o1 0h*s (oo; sho2s 0he
4onne40*ons! When 0he op0*ons are suppl*ed
separa0elyC I00*n *ns0ru40*ons are proD*ded
2*0h 0he a44essory!
Re.ote ,oltage 8dPust.ent!
A remo0e Dol0ae adHus0men0 0r*mmer (hand 0r*mmer)
4an (e I00ed! I1 I00ed *0 4onne40s a4ross A<R
0erm*nals "=$! I1 a remo0e 0r*mmer *s no0 usedC
0erm*nals "=$ 2*ll (e l*n;ed! When 0he remo0e 0r*mmer
*s
used 0he l*n; a4ross 0erm*nals "=$ mus0 (e remoDed!
Parallel Operation
:nders0and*n o1 0he 1ollo2*n no0es on parallel
opera0*on *s use1ul (e1ore a00emp0*n 0he I00*n or
se00*n
124
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
o1 0he droop ;*0 a44essory!
When opera0*n *n parallel 2*0h o0her enera0ors or 0he
ma*nsC *0 *s essen0*al 0ha0 0he *n4om*n enera0or
ma04hes 0he 4ond*0*on o1 0he (us(ar!
The 1ollo2*n 4ond*0*ons mus0 also (e me0 (e1ore 0he
enera0ors are 4onne40ed 0oe0her!
Phase se/uen4e mus0 ma04h
Phase anle o1 Dol0aes mus0 ma04h
7re/uen4y mus0 ma04h
<ol0aes mus0 ma04h
Caution" Failure to .eet these conditions
-efore closing the interconnecting circuit
-rea%er -et5een t5o or .ore running
generators 5ill generate e7cessi2e
.echanical
and electrical stressesE resulting in serious
da.age to the generators and associated
e=uip.ent!
A Dar*e0y o1 0e4hn*/uesC Dary*n 1rom s*mple
syn4hron*s*n lamps 0o 1ully au0oma0*4 syn4hron*sersC
4an (e
used 0o ensure 0hese 4ond*0*ons are me0!
On4e 4onne40ed *n parallel a m*n*mum *ns0rumen0a0*on
leDel per enera0or o1 Dol0me0erC amme0erC
2a00me0er (measur*n 0o0al po2er per enera0or)C and
1re/uen4y me0er *s re/u*red *n order 0o adHus0 0he
en*ne and enera0or 4on0rols 0o share ;W *n rela0*on 0o
en*ne ra0*ns and ;<Ar *n rela0*on 0o enera0or
ra0*ns!
?oad Sharing
I0 *s *mpor0an0 0o re4on*se 0ha0:
;W load *s der*Ded 1rom 0he en*neC 0he speed oDernor
4hara40er*s0*4s de0erm*ne 0he ;W shar*n
125
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
(e02een se0s! Re1eren4e should (e made 0o 0he
enera0*n se0 manu1a40urerUs *ns0ru40*ons 1or se00*n
0he
oDernor 4on0rols
;<A load *s der*Ded 1rom 0he enera0orC and 0he
e54*0a0*on 4on0rol 4hara40er*s0*4s de0erm*ne 0he ;<A
shar*n!
:roop
Wuadra0ure droop *s 0he mos0 4ommonly used me0hod o1
;<Ar shar*n! The droop 4*r4u*0 4rea0es a
enera0or Dol0ae 4hara40er*s0*4 0ha0 1alls 2*0h
de4reas*n po2er 1a40or (*n4reas*n ;<Ar)! Th*s *s
a4h*eDed
2*0h an add*0*onal 4urren0 0rans1ormer (C!T!) and a
(urden res*s0or on 0he A<R (oard! The C!T! proD*des a
s*nal dependen0 on 0he 4urren0 phase anle (*!e! 0he
po2er 1a40or)! Th*s and a per4en0ae o1 0he (urden
res*s0or Dol0ae are summed *n0o 0he A<R 4*r4u*0!
In4reas*n droop *s o(0a*ned (y 0urn*n 0he 9ROOP
4on0rol po0en0*ome0er 4lo4;2*se!
Generally +M droop a0 1ull load 4urren0 ,ero p!1! *s
suG*4*en0 0o ensure ;<Ar shar*n!
I1 0he droop a44essory C!T! has (een suppl*ed 2*0h 0he
enera0or *0 2*ll haDe (een 0es0ed 0o ensure
4orre40 polar*0y and se0 0o a nom*nal leDel o1 droop! The
Inal leDel o1 droop 2*ll (e se0 dur*n enera0*n
se0 4omm*ss*on*n!
Al0houh nom*nal droop se00*n may (e 1a40ory se0 *0 *s
adD*sa(le 0o o 0hrouh 0he se00*n pro4edure
(elo2!
Al0houh nom*nal droop se00*n may (e 1a40ory se0 *0 *s
adD*sa(le 0o o 0hrouh 0he se00*n pro4edure
(elo2!
:roop Setting Procedure
126
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
9epend*n upon aDa*la(le load 0he 1ollo2*n se00*ns
should (e used - all are (ased on ra0ed 4urren0
leDel!
/!* p!f! load 3at full load current6 set droop
to $S
Hero p!f! load 3at full load current6 set droop
to 'S
Se00*n 0he droop 2*0h lo2 po2er 1a40or load *s 0he mos0
a44ura0e!
Run ea4h enera0or as a s*nle un*0 a0 ra0ed 1re/uen4y
or ra0ed 1re/uen4y L >M depend*n upon 0ype o1
oDernor and nom*nal Dol0ae! Apply aDa*la(le load 0o
ra0e 4urren0 o1 0he enera0or! AdHus0 U9ROOPU
4on0rol po0en0*ome0er 0o *De droop *n l*ne 2*0h a(oDe
0a(le! Clo4;2*se ro0a0*on *n4reases amoun0 o1
droop! Re1er 0he se40*on 1or 0he appropr*a0e A<R 0o
es0a(l*sh 0he lo4a0*on o1 0he droop po0en0*ome0er!
No0e ") ReDerse polar*0y o1 0he C!T! 2*ll ra*se 0he
enera0or Dol0ae 2*0h load! The polar*0*es S"=S$
sho2n on 0he 2*r*n d*arams are 4orre40 1or 4lo4;2*se
ro0a0*on o1 0he enera0or loo;*n a0 0he dr*De end!
ReDersed ro0a0*on re/u*res S"=S$ 0o (e reDersed!
No0e $) 0he mos0 *mpor0an0 aspe40 *s 0o se0 all
enera0ors e/ual! The pre4*se leDel o1 droop *s less
4r*0*4al!
No0e ') A enera0or opera0ed as a s*nle un*0 2*0h a
droop 4*r4u*0 se0 a0 ra0ed load %!? po2er 1a40or *s
una(le 0o ma*n0a*n 0he usual %!+M reula0*on! A
shor0*n s2*04h 4an (e 4onne40ed a4ross S"=S$ 0o
res0ore reula0*on 1or s*nle runn*n!
Caution" ?OSS OF FCE? to an engine can
cause its generator to .otor 5ith
127
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
conse=uent da.age to the generator
5indings! Re2erse po5er relays should -e
9tted
to trip .ain circuit -rea%er!
Caution" ?OSS OF E<CIT8TION to the
generator can result in large current
oscillations
5ith conse=uent da.age to generator
5indings! E7citation loss detection
e=uip.ent
should -e 9tted to trip .ain circuit -rea%er!
0anual ,oltage Regulator 30,R6
Th*s a44essory *s proD*ded as an Uemeren4yU e54*0a0*on
sys0emC *n 0he eDen0 o1 an A<R 1a*lure!
Po2ered 1rom a PMG ou0pu0 0he un*0 *s manually se0C
(u0 au0oma0*4ally 4on0rols 0he e54*0a0*on 4urren0C
*ndependen0 o1 enera0or Dol0ae or 1re/uen4y!
The un*0 *s proD*ded 2*0h UMAN:A8UC UO77UC UA:TOU
s2*04h*n 1a4*l*0y!
Q08NC8?Q"
Pos*0*on 4onne40s 0he e54*0er Ield 0o 0he M<R ou0pu0!
The enera0or ou0pu0 *s 0hen 4on0rolled (y 0he
opera0or adHus0*n 0he e54*0a0*on 4urren0!
QOFFQ
9*s4onne40s 0he e54*0er Ield 1rom (o0h M<R and 0he
normal A<R!
Q8CTOQ
Conne40s 0he e54*0er Ield 0o 0he normal A<R and 0he
enera0or ou0pu0 *s 4on0rolled a0 0he pre-se0 Dol0ae
under A<R 4on0rol!
Po5er Factor Controller 3PFC$6
Th*s a44essory *s pr*mar*ly des*ned 1or 0hose enera0or
appl*4a0*ons 2here opera0*on *n parallel 2*0h 0he
128
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
ma*ns supply *s re/u*red!
Pro0e40*on aa*ns0 loss o1 ma*ns Dol0ae or enera0or
e54*0a0*on *s no0 *n4luded *n 0he un*0 and 0he sys0em
des*ner mus0 *n4orpora0e su*0a(le pro0e40*on!
The ele40ron*4 4on0rol un*0 re/u*res (o0h droop and
;<Ar 4urren0 0rans1ormers! When suppl*ed 2*0h 0he
enera0orC 2*r*n d*arams *ns*de 0he (a4; 4oDer o1 0h*s
manual sho2 0he 4onne40*ons and 0he add*0*onal
*ns0ru40*on leaFe0 proD*ded *Des de0a*ls o1 se00*n
pro4edures 1or 0he Po2er 7a40or Con0roller!
The un*0 mon*0ors 0he po2er 1a40or o1 0he enera0or
4urren0 and adHus0s e54*0a0*on 0o ma*n0a*n 0he po2er
1a40or 4ons0an0!
Th*s mode 4an also (e used 0o 4on0rol 0he po2er 1a40or
o1 0he ma*ns *1 0he po*n0 o1 4urren0 mon*0or*n *s
moDed 0o 0he ma*ns 4a(les! Re1er 0o 0he 1a40ory 1or
appropr*a0e de0a*ls!
I0 *s also poss*(le 0o opera0e 0he un*0 0o 4on0rol ;<Ar o1
0he enera0or *1 re/u*red! Re1er 0o 0he 1a40ory 1or
appropr*a0e de0a*ls!
Ser%ice
>arning" Ser2ice and fault 9nding
procedures present haHards 5hich can result
in
se2ere personal inPury or death! Only
personnel =uali9ed to perfor. electrical and
.echanical ser2ice should carry out these
procedures! Ensure engine1starting circuits
are disa-led -efore co..encing ser2ice or
.aintenance procedures! Isolate any
anticondensation
heater supply!
>inding Condition
Gu*dan4e o1 Typ*4al Insula0*on Res*s0an4e [IR\ <alues
129
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
The 1ollo2*n *s oGered as eneral *n1orma0*on a(ou0 IR
Dalues and *s a*med a0 proD*d*n u*dan4e a(ou0
0he 0yp*4al IR Dalues 1or enera0ors 1rom ne2C 0hrouh
0o 0he po*n0 o1 re1ur(*shmen0!
Ne5 0achines
The enera0orYs Insula0*on Res*s0an4eC alon 2*0h many
o0her 4r*0*4al 1a40orsC 2*ll haDe (een measured
dur*n 0he enera0or manu1a40ur*n pro4ess! The
enera0or 2*ll haDe (een 0ranspor0ed 2*0h an
appropr*a0e pa4;a*n su*0a(le 1or 0he me0hod o1
del*Dery 0o 0he Genera0*n Se0 assem(lerYs 2or;s! The
assem(ler *s e5pe40ed 0o s0ore 0he enera0or *n a
su*0a(le lo4a0*onC pro0e40ed 1rom adDerse enD*ronmen0al
(and o0her) 4ond*0*ons!
)o2eDerC a(solu0e assuran4e 0ha0 0he enera0or 2*ll
arr*De a0 0he Gense0 produ40*on l*ne 2*0h IR Dalues
s0*ll a0 0he 1a40ory 0es0 leDels o1 a(oDe "%% MO 0o (e
uaran0eed!
8t Generating Set 8sse.-lerTs >or%s
The enera0or should haDe (een 0ranspor0ed and s0ored
su4h 0ha0 *0 2*ll (e del*Dered 0o 0he assem(ly
area *n a 4lean dry 4ond*0*on! I1 held *n appropr*a0e
s0orae 4ond*0*ons 0he enera0or IR Dalue should
0yp*4ally (e $+ MO
I1 0he unusedEne2 enera0orYs IR Dalues 1all (elo2 + MO
a0hen a dry*n ou0 pro4edure should (e
*mplemen0ed (y one o1 0he pro4esses ou0l*ned (elo2C
(e1ore (e*n despa04hed 0o 0he end 4us0omerYs
s*0e! Some *nDes0*a0*on should (e under0a;en *n0o 0he
s0orae 4ond*0*ons o1 0he enera0or 2h*le on s*0e!
Generators in Ser2ice
I0 *s ;no2n 0ha0 a enera0or 2*ll *De rel*a(le serD*4e
2*0h an IR Dalue o1 Hus0 "!% MO! 7or a rela0*Dely ne2
enera0or 0o (e so lo2 *0 mus0 haDe (een su(He40ed 0o
*nappropr*a0e opera0*n or s0orae 4ond*0*ons!
130
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Any 0emporary redu40*on *n IR Dalues 4an (e res0ored 0o
e5pe40ed Dalues (y 1ollo2*n one o1 0he dry*n
ou0 pro4edures!
>inding Condition 8ssess.ent
Caution" The 8,R should -e disconnected
and the Resistance Te.perature :etector
3R!T!:!6 leads grounded during this test!
Caution" The 5indings ha2e -een ;!,! tested
during .anufacture and further ;!,!
testing .ay degrade the insulation 5ith
conse=uent reduction in operating life!
Should
it -e necessary to de.onstrate ;!,! testingE
for custo.er acceptanceE the tests .ust
-e carried out at reduced 2oltage le2els i!e!
Test ,oltageR /!* 3# < Rated ,oltage F ///6
The 4ond*0*on o1 0he 2*nd*ns 4an (e assessed (y
measuremen0 o1 *nsula0*on res*s0an4e [IR\ (e02een
phase 0o phaseC and phase 0o ear0h!
Measuremen0 o1 2*nd*n *nsula0*on should (e 4arr*ed
ou0: -
As par0 o1 a per*od*4 ma*n0enan4e plan!
A10er proloned per*ods o1 shu0do2n!
When lo2 *nsula0*on *s suspe40edC e!! damp or 2e0
2*nd*ns!
Care should (e 0a;en 2hen deal*n 2*0h 2*nd*ns 0ha0
are suspe40ed o1 (e*n e54ess*Dely damp or d*r0y!
The *n*0*al measuremen0 o1 0he [IR\ Insula0*on
Res*s0an4e should (e es0a(l*shed us*n a lo2 Dol0ae
(+%%<) meer 0ype *ns0rumen0! I1 manually po2eredC
0he handle should *n*0*ally (e 0urned slo2ly so 0ha0
0he 1ull 0es0 Dol0ae 2*ll no0 (e appl*ed! I1 lo2 Dalues are
suspe40ed or *mmed*a0ely *nd*4a0ed 0he 0es0
131
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
should only 4on0*nue 1or lon enouh 0o Dery /u*4;ly
assess 0he s*0ua0*on!
7ull meer 0es0s (or any o0her 1orm o1 h*h Dol0ae
0es0) should no0 (e appl*ed un0*l 0he 2*nd*ns haDe
(een dr*ed ou0C and *1 ne4essary 4leaned!
Procedure for Insulation Testing
"%! 9*s4onne40 all ele40ron*4 4omponen0sC A<RC
ele40ron*4 pro0e40*on e/u*pmen0 e04! Ground 0he RT9Us
(Res*s0an4e Tempera0ure 9e0e40*on deD*4es) *1 I00ed!
""! Shor0 ou0 0he d*odes on 0he ro0a0*n d*ode assem(ly!
Be a2are o1 all 4omponen0s 4onne40ed 0o 0he
sys0em under 0es0 0ha0 4ould 4ause 1alse read*nsC or (e
damaed (y 0he 0es0 Dol0ae!
"$! Carry ou0 0he *nsula0*on 0es0 *n a44ordan4e 2*0h 0he
_opera0*n *ns0ru40*onsY 1or 0he 0es0 e/u*pmen0!
"'! The measured Dalue o1 *nsula0*on res*s0an4e 1or all
2*nd*ns 0o ear0h and phase 0o phase should (e
4ompared 2*0h 0he u*dan4e *Den a(oDe 1or 0he Dar*ous
Ul*1e s0aesU o1 a enera0or! The m*n*mum
a44ep0a(le Dalue *s "!% MO on a +%%< meer!
I1 lo2 2*nd*n *nsula0*on *s 4onIrmedC one or more o1
0he me0hodsC *Den (elo2C 1or dry*n 0he 2*nd*n
should (e 4arr*ed ou0!
0ethods of :rying Out Generators
Cold Run
In 0he 4ase o1 a enera0or *n o0her2*se ood 4ond*0*on
0ha0 has no0 (een run 1or some 0*meC and has (een
s0and*n *n dampC hum*d 4ond*0*ons a s*mple pro4edure
may suG*4e! I0 *s poss*(le 0ha0 s*mply runn*n 0he
enera0or se0 une54*0ed J A<R 0erm*nals R."X R.$X
open 4*r4u*0 - 1or a per*od o1 say "% m*nu0es 2*ll
suG*4*en0ly dry 0he sur1a4e o1 0he 2*nd*ns and ra*se 0he
IR 0o rea0er 0han "!% MOC and so allo2 0he un*0
0o (e pu0 *n0o serD*4e!
@lo5n 8ir :rying
132
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
RemoDe 0he 4oDers 1rom all aper0ures 0o allo2 0he
es4ape o1 0he 2a0er-laden a*r! 9ur*n dry*nC a*r mus0
(e a(le 0o Fo2 1reely 0hrouh 0he enera0or *n order 0o
4arry oG 0he mo*s0ure!
9*re40 ho0 a*r 1rom 02o ele40r*4al 1an hea0ers o1 around
" J ' ;W *n0o 0he enera0or a*r *nle0 aper0ures!
Ensure 0he hea0 sour4e *s a0 leas0 '%%mm a2ay 1rom
0he 2*nd*ns 0o aDo*d oDer hea0*n and damae 0o
0he *nsula0*on!
Apply 0he hea0 and plo0 0he *nsula0*on Dalue a0 hal1
hourly *n0erDals! The pro4ess *s 4omple0e 2hen 0he
parame0ers 4oDered *n 0he se40*on en0*0ledC _Typ*4al
9ry*n Ou0 CurDeYC are me0!
RemoDe 0he hea0ersC repla4e all 4oDers and re-
4omm*ss*on as appropr*a0e!
I1 0he se0 *s no0 0o (e run *mmed*a0ely ensure 0ha0 0he
an0*-4ondensa0*on hea0ers are ener*sedC and re0es0
pr*or 0o runn*n!
Short Circuit 0ethod
>arning" This process should only -e
perfor.ed -y a co.petent engineer fa.iliar
5ith safe operating practices 5ithin and
around generator sets of the type in
=uestion!
Ensure the generator is safe to 5or% onE
initiate all .echanical and electrical safety
procedures pertaining to the genset and the
site!
Caution" The short circuit .ust not -e
applied 5ith the 8,R connected in circuit!
Current in e7cess of the rated generator
current 5ill cause da.age to the 5indings!
133
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
"! Bol0 a shor0 4*r4u*0 o1 ade/ua0e 4urren0 4arry*n
4apa4*0yC a4ross 0he ma*n 0erm*nals o1 0he enera0or!
The shor0*n l*n; should (e 4apa(le o1 0a;*n 1ull load
4urren0!
$! 9*s4onne40 0he 4a(les 1rom 0erm*nals RBX and RBBX o1
0he A<R!
'! Conne40 a Dar*a(le d4 supply 0o 0he RBX (pos*0*De) and
RBBX (nea0*De) Ield 4a(les! The d4 supply
mus0 (e a(le 0o proD*de a 4urren0 up 0o $!% Amp a0 % -
$> <ol0s!
>! Pos*0*on a su*0a(le a4 amme0er 0o measure 0he
shor0*n l*n; 4urren0!
+! Se0 0he d4 supply Dol0ae 0o ,ero and s0ar0 0he
enera0*n se0! Slo2ly *n4rease 0he d4 Dol0ae 0o pass
4urren0 0hrouh 0he e54*0er Ield 2*nd*n! As 0he
e54*0a0*on 4urren0 *n4reasesC so 0he s0a0or 4urren0 *n
0he shor0*n l*n; 2*ll *n4rease! Th*s s0a0or ou0pu0
4urren0 leDel mus0 (e mon*0oredC and no0 allo2ed 0o
e54eed ?%M o1 0he enera0orYs ra0ed ou0pu0 4urren0!
#! A10er eDery '% m*nu0es o1 0h*s e5er4*se:
S0op 0he enera0or and s2*04h oG 0he separa0e
e54*0a0*on supplyC measure and re4ord 0he s0a0or
2*nd*n IR DaluesC and plo0 0he resul0s! The resul0*n
raph should (e 4ompared 2*0h 0he 4lass*4
shaped raph! Th*s dry*n ou0 pro4edure *s 4omple0e
2hen 0he parame0ers 4oDered *n 0he se40*on
en0*0led UTyp*4al 9ry*n Ou0 CurDeU are me0!
&! On4e 0he Insula0*on Res*s0an4e *s ra*sed 0o an
a44ep0a(le leDel - m*n*mum Dalue "!% MO a0he d4
supply may (e remoDed and 0he e54*0er Ield leads RBX
and RBBX re-4onne40ed 0o 0he*r 0erm*nals on 0he
A<R!
?! Re(u*ld 0he ense0C repla4e all 4oDers and re-
4omm*ss*on as appropr*a0e!
134
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
@! I1 0he se0 *s no0 0o (e run *mmed*a0ely ensure 0ha0 0he
an0*-4ondensa0*on hea0ers are ener*sedC and
re0es0 0he enera0or pr*or 0o runn*n!
Typical :rying Out Cur2e
Wh*4heDer me0hod *s used 0o dry ou0 0he enera0or 0he
res*s0an4e should (e measured eDery hal1-hour
and a 4urDe plo00ed as sho2n
") 6 a5*s K Res*s0an4e
$) B a5*s K T*me
') One Meohm l*m*0
The *llus0ra0*on sho2s a 0yp*4al 4urDe 1or a ma4h*ne 0ha0
has a(sor(ed a 4ons*dera(le amoun0 o1
mo*s0ure! The 4urDe *nd*4a0es a 0emporary *n4rease *n
res*s0an4eC a 1all and 0hen a radual r*se 0o a
s0eady s0a0e! Po*n0 _AYC 0he s0eady s0a0eC mus0 (e rea0er
0han "!% MO (I1 0he 2*nd*ns are only sl*h0ly
damp 0he do00ed por0*on o1 0he 4urDe may no0 appear)!
7or eneral u*dan4eC e5pe40 0ha0 0he 0yp*4al 0*me 0o
rea4h po*n0 _AY 2*ll (e around ' hours!
9ry*n should (e 4on0*nued a10er po*n0 RAX has (een
rea4hed 1or a0 leas0 one hour!
I0 should (e no0ed 0ha0 as 2*nd*n 0empera0ure
*n4reasesC Dalues o1 *nsula0*on res*s0an4e may
s*n*I4an0ly
redu4e! There1oreC 0he re1eren4e Dalues 1or *nsula0*on
res*s0an4e 4an only (e es0a(l*shed 2*0h 2*nd*ns a0
a 0empera0ure o1 appro5*ma0ely $%AC!
I1 0he IR Dalue rema*ns (elo2 "!% MOC eDen a10er 0he
a(oDe dry*n me0hods haDe (een 4arr*ed ou0
4orre40lyC 0hen a Polar*sa0*on Inde5 0es0 [PI\ should (e
4arr*ed ou0!
I1 0he m*n*mum Dalue o1 "!% MO a1or all 4omponen0s
4anno0 (e a4h*eDedC re2*nd*n or re1ur(*shmen0 o1 0he
enera0or 2*ll (e ne4essary!
135
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Caution" The generator .ust not -e put into
ser2ice until the .ini.u. 2alues are
achie2ed!
A10er dry*n ou0C 0he *nsula0*on res*s0an4es should (e
re4he4;ed 0o Der*1y 0he m*n*mum res*s0an4es /uo0ed
a(oDe are a4h*eDed! On re-0es0*n *0 *s re4ommended
0ha0 0he ma*n s0a0or *nsula0*on res*s0an4e *s 4he4;ed
as 1ollo2s:
Separa0e 0he neu0ral leads
Ground < and W phase and Meer : phase 0o round
Ground : and W phase and Meer < phase 0o round
Ground : and < phase and Meer W phase 0o round
Caution" The generator .ust not -e run if
the .ini.u. insulation 2alue of !/0O is
not o-tained!
8ir Filters
A*r Il0ers 1or 0he remoDal o1 a*r(orne par0*4ula0e ma00er
(dus0) are oGered as an add*0*on 0o 0he s0andard
(u*ld op0*on! The Il0er elemen0s do no0 remoDe and
mus0 no0 (e allo2ed 0o e0 2e0!
The 1re/uen4y o1 Il0er ma*n0enan4e 2*ll depend upon
0he seDer*0y o1 0he s*0e 4ond*0*ons! Reular
*nspe40*on o1 0he elemen0s 2*ll (e re/u*red 0o es0a(l*sh
2hen 4lean*n *s ne4essary!
Caution" :o not charge 9lters 5ith oil!
>arning" Re.o2al of 9lter ele.ents ena-les
access to ?I,E parts! Only re.o2e
ele.ents 5ith the generator out of ser2ice!
8ir Filter Cleaning Procedure
"! RemoDe 0he Il0er elemen0s 1rom 0he Il0er 1ramesC
0a;*n 4are no0 0o damae 0hem!
$! InDer0 0he Il0ers d*r0y s*de do2n and a*0a0e 0o
remoDe par0*4les o1 d*r0!
136
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
To remoDe s0u((orn par0*4les lo2-pressure a*r 4an (e
usedC *n 0he reDerse d*re40*on o1 Fo2C 0o 1or4e
ou0 s0u((orn par0*4les!
I1 ne4essary use a so10 (rush 0o en0ly (rush oG any
rema*n*n d*r0 par0*4les!
'! Clean 0he seal*n as;e0s and surround*n area!
>! <*sually 4he4; 0he 4ond*0*on o1 0he Il0er elemen0s and
seal*n as;e0sC repla4e as ne4essary!
+! Ensure 0ha0 0he Il0er elemen0s are dry (e1ore pu00*n
0hem (a4; *n0o serD*4e!
#! Care1ully repla4e 0he Il0er elemen0s
aintenance
>arning" @efore disse.-ling or asse.-ling
procedures are carried out ensure that
the generating set is inhi-ited .echanically
and isolated electrically!
8nti1Condensation ;eaters
>arning" The electrical supply to the heaters
.ust -e isolated -efore atte.pting any
5or% adPacent to the heater!
I1 an0* 4ondensa0*ons hea0ers are de1e40 repa*r (y
repla4emen0! A44ess *s aDa*la(le D*a 0he a*r *nle0s a0 0he
non-dr*De end!
"! RemoDal o1 Permanen0 Mane0 Genera0or (PMG)
$! RemoDe a44ess 4oDer (+)!
'! 9*s4onne40 0he mul0*-p*n ele40r*4al 4onne40or
>! RemoDe 0he > (ol0s re0a*n*n 0he s0a0or suppor0s!
+! Tap 0he s0a0or (') ou0 o1 *0s sp*o0 and remoDe!
#! No0e: As 0he h*hly mane0*4 ro0or 2*ll a00ra40 0he
s0a0or 4oreC 4are mus0 (e 0a;en 0o aDo*d a 4on0a40
2h*4h may damae 0he 2*nd*n!
&! RemoDe 0he e54*0er ro0or se4ur*n (ol0 (#) and s0o2
sa1ely! 7*rmly pull 0he 4omple0e ro0or assem(ly
(>) 1rom *0s lo4a0*on!
137
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Note" Beep the rotor clean and a2oid contact
5ith .etal dust or particles!
Note" The rotor asse.-ly .ust not -e
dis.antled!
Re1asse.-ly
Re-assem(ly *s a reDersal o1 0he a(oDeC
Ensure ro0or mane0 assem(ly *s 1ree o1 me0al p*e4es
or par0*4les!
Care *s needed 0o aDo*d 2*nd*n damae 2hen re-
assem(l*n 0he s0a0or pa4;C due 0o s0ron mane0*4
a00ra40*on!
Re.o2al of @earings
Caution" >hen lifting single -earing
generatorsE care is needed to ensure the
generator fra.e is %ept in the horiHontal
plane! The rotor is free to .o2e in the fra.e
and can slide out if not correctly lifted!
Incorrect lifting can cause serious inPury to
personnel!
Caution" 8l5ays position the .ain rotor so
that a full pole face of the .ain rotor core
is at the -otto.!
Note" Re.o2al of the -earings .ay -e
eLected either after the rotor asse.-ly has
-een re.o2ed or .ore si.ply -y re.o2al of
end-rac%et3s6!
Note" @e sure to note the location of all
co.ponents during re.o2al to assist during
the asse.-ly process
Re.o2al of the non dri2e end @earing!
Note" This procedure assu.es that there is
suLicient space to carry out the 5or%E if
138
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
not it 5ill -e necessary to re.o2e the
generator fro. the generating set! 8ll
generators
co2ered -y this .anual are 9tted 5ith re1
greasea-le -earings!
"! RemoDe 0he PMG
$! 9*ssem(le remoDe 0he (ear*n rease p*pes!
'! RemoDe > (ol0s 1rom 0he (ear*n 4ap ($)! 9*s4ard 0he
2aDe-2asher ("")!
>! RemoDe 0he (ear*n 4ap and remoDe > (ol0s 1rom 0he
end (ra4;e0C hold*n 0he (ear*n 4ar0r*de ("')!
+! RemoDe ? (ol0s 1rom 0he end(ra4;e0 (")!
#! Suppor0 0he end(ra4;e0 2*0h a ho*s0C *nser0 02o M"%
Ha4;*n (ol0s (on 0he end (ra4;e0 hor*,on0al
4en0re l*ne) 0o dr*De 0he end(ra4;e0 1rom 0he sp*o0!
S4re2 *n 0he (ol0s un0*l 0he end (ra4;e0 sp*o0 *s
4lear o1 0he lo4a0*n re4essC lo2er 0he 2hole assem(ly
un0*l 0he ma*n ro0or *s res0*n *n 0he s0a0or (ore!
S0*ll suppor0*n 0he non dr*De end (ra4;e0C 0ap 0he
(ra4;e0 oG 0he non dr*De end (ear*n 4ar0r*de
(0a;*n 4are 0ha0 0he e54*0er s0a0or does no0 1oul e54*0er
ro0or 2*nd*ns) and remoDe!
&! 8*10 0he end(ra4;e0 (") and pla4e as*de!
?! :se (ear*n pullers 0o remoDe and d*s4ard 0he F*ner
("$)
@! :se 4*r4l*p pl*ers 0o remoDe and d*s4ard 0he 4*r4l*p
("%)!
"%! :se (ear*n pullers 0o remoDe 0he (ear*n (&) (y
pull*n on 0he (ear*n 4ar0r*de ("')!
:ri2e End @earing Re.o2al
Note" To access the dri2e end -earing it is
necessary to re.o2e the generator fro. the
generating set and re.o2e the coupling
arrange.ents!
139
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Carry ou0 0he same pro4edure as used 1or 0he s*nle
(ear*n arranemen0!
Re.o2al of the 0ain Rotor
This procedure is si.ilar for -oth single and
t5o -earing arrange.ents and assu.es
that the generator has -een re.o2ed fro.
the generating set!
Note" Position the rotor so that a full pole
face is at -otto. dead centre!
"! RemoDe 0he PMG
$! RemoDe 0he (ear*n(s)! NeDer reI0 0he ro0or 2*0h 0he
old (ear*ns!
'! RemoDe all a44ess 4oDers and 0erm*nal (o5 l*d!
>! 8o4a0e 0he e54*0er Ield leads B = BB and d*s4onne40
0hem!
+! To 2*0hdra2 0he ro0or 1rom 0he s0a0or 0he ro0or mus0
(e suppor0ed (y a rope a0 0he dr*De end and
eased ou0 o1 0he s0a0or 4ore un0*l hal1 0he ma*n ro0or *s
pro0rud*n ou0 o1 0he s0a0or! A0 0h*s po*n0 *0 *s
sa1e 0o release 0he 2e*h0 1rom 0he rope sl*n!
#! T*h0ly (*nd a rope sl*n around 0he ro0or 4oreC and
suppor0*n 0he non-dr*De end o1 0he ro0orC u*de *0
4lear o1 0he s0a0or!
Caution" The rope sling .ay not -e at the
centre of gra2ity of the rotor and guidance
at the ends of the rotor is essential! The full
5eight of the rotor gi2en in the ta-le -elo5
.ust -e supported -y the crane and sling! If
the rotor core is allo5ed to drop .ore
than a fe5 .illi.etres at this pointE it 5ill
.a%e contact 5ith the stator 5indings and
.ay da.age the.!
Re-assem(ly *s a reDersal o1 0he a(oDe pro4edure!
140
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
Note" @efore asse.-ly of a single -earing
rotor into stator housing chec% that the
dri2e discs are not da.aged or crac%ed or
sho5ing any other signs of fatigue! 8lso
chec% that holes in the discs for dri2e 97ing
scre5s are not elongated!
9amaed 4omponen0s mus0 (e repla4ed!
Re1er 0o 0or/ue se00*n a0 0he (a4; or 0h*s (oo; 2hen
reI00*n 0he dr*De d*s4s!
Re1er 0o en*ne manual 1or 0or/ue se00*n o1 d*s4 0o
Fy2heel (ol0s!
Re9tting @earings
Caution" E2ery eLort .ust -e .ade to
esta-lish a clean area around the generator
5hen re.o2ing and replacing -earings!
Conta.ination is a .aPor cause of -earing
failures!
E=uip.ent
Su*0a(le 4lean*n solDen0
Th*n pro0e40*De loDes
8*n0 1ree 4lean*n 4lo0h
Indu40*on hea0er!
Preparation
Caution" Ensure that the -earing contact
surfaces sho5 no sign of 5ear or corrosion
prior to 9tting the -earing!
Caution" Ne2er re9t used -earingsE grease
4ingersE 5a2e 5asher or QOQ rings!
Caution" Only the outer race should -e used
to trans.it load during asse.-ly 3NE,ER
use the inner race6!
141
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
"! The (ear*n 4ap(s) and 4ar0r*de(s) mus0 (e
0horouhly Fushed ou0 2*0h 4lean solDen0 and 4he4;ed
1or 2ear or damaeC (e1ore re-assem(ly! 9amaed
4omponen0s should (e repla4ed (e1ore reI00*n
0he (ear*n!
$! No0e: GloDes mus0 (e 2orn a0 all 0*mes 2hen
handl*n 0he (ear*nsC rease and solDen0!
'! W*pe 4lean 0he assem(ly sur1a4eC us*n 4lean*n
solDen0 on l*n0 1ree 4lo0h!
>! W*pe 4lean: Bear*n Car0r*deC WaDe WasherC Bear*n
CapC rease F*nerC all re-lu(r*4a0*on p*pes
and I00*ns (*n0ernal and e50ernal)! <*sually *nspe40 all
4omponen0s a10er 4lean*nC 1or 4on0am*na0*on!
+! Pla4e all 4omponen0s on 0he 4lean assem(ly sur1a4e!
#! Cau0*on: 9o no0 use an a*r l*ne 0o (lo2 oG e54ess
Fu*d!
&! Thorouhly 4lean 0he e50ernal sur1a4e o1 0he rease
un no,,le us*n l*n0 1ree 4lo0h!
@earing preparation
?! RemoDe 0he (ear*n 1rom *0s pa4;a*n!
@! W*pe oG 0he preserDa0*De o*l 1rom 0he sur1a4e o1 0he
*nner and ou0er r*ns - us*n l*n0 1ree 4lo0h only!
"%! Pla4e 0he (ear*n on 0he 4lean assem(ly sur1a4eC
2*0h 0he (ear*n des*na0*on mar;*n 1a4*n do2n!
""! Apply hal1 0he spe4*Ied (ear*n rease Ill /uan0*0y
0o 0he upper 1a4e o1 0he (ear*n (oppos*0e s*de 0o
0he (ear*n des*na0*on mar;*ns)!
"$! Thum( 0he appl*ed rease *n0o 0he (ear*nC
ensur*n ood pene0ra0*on *n0o 0he ra4e2aysE(alls (use
4lean pro0e40*De loDes)!
@earing Cartridge
Note" grease =uantities can -e found in the
-ac% of this -oo%
"'! Apply 0he spe4*Ied 4ar0r*de rease Ill /uan0*0y 0o
0he (a4; 1a4e o1 0he (ear*n hous*n!
142
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
">! Apply a small amoun0 o1 rease 0o 0he rooDed
seal*n sur1a4e *n 0he 4ar0r*de!
"+! Apply an0*-1re00*n lu(r*4an0 (MP">%%$ - .lb(er
Al0emp W NB +%) 0o 0he (ear*n hous*n
4*r4um1eren4e! Apply pas0e *n a 0h*n 4oheren0 layer (y
use o1 a l*n0 1ree 4lo0h (9O NOT ru( *n) (use
4lean pro0e40*De loDes)!
"#! Non-dr*De end - I0 ne2 _O_ R*ns *n0o 0he _O_ R*n
rooDes *n 0he (ear*n hous*n 4*r4um1eren4e!
8sse.-le @earing into Cartridge
"&! )ea0 0he (ear*n 4ar0r*de 0o $+A C a(oDe am(*en0
2*0h an *ndu40*on hea0er (9o no0 e54eed "%%AC)!
"?! W*0h reased 1a4e o1 0he (ear*n 1a4*n 0he
4ar0r*de (oreC I0 0he (ear*n *n0o 0he (ear*n hous*n!
Ensure 0he (ear*n ou0er ra4e 4on0a40s 0he lo4a0*on
shoulder!
8sse.-le @earing onto Shaft
"@! )ea0 0he Bear*n and Car0r*de assem(ly 0o ?%cC
a(oDe am(*en0 2*0h an *ndu40*on hea0er (use
*ndu40*on hea0erC no o0her hea0 sour4e *s su*0a(le)
$%! Sl*de 0he Bear*n and Car0r*de assem(ly oDer 0he
sha10C push*n *0 Irmly aa*ns0 0he (ear*n sea0*n
shoulder!
$"! Ro0a0e 0he assem(ly (*n4lud*n *nner ra4e) >+c *n
e*0her d*re40*onC 0o proD*de 4orre40 al*nmen0! The
(ear*n mus0 (e held Irmly *n pla4e un0*l *0 *s 4ool
enouh 0o pos*0*Dely sel1 lo4a0e!
No0e: Ensure 4ar0r*de *s a0 am(*en0 0emp! (e1ore
assem(l*n (ra4;e0!
@earing Cap M Flinger
$$! Apply 0he spe4*Ied 4ap rease Ill /uan0*0y 0o 0he
*ns*de 1a4e o1 0he 4ap!
$'! 7*ll 0he rease e5haus0 slo0 2*0h rease!
$>! Apply a small amoun0 o1 rease 0o 0he rooDed
seal*n sur1a4e *n 0he 4ap!
143
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
$+! 7*0 4*r4l*p! (s*nle (ear*n only)!
$#! )ea0 F*ner 0o "$%)C and pla4e on sha10 up 0o 0he
(ear*n *nner ra4e! )old Irmly un0*l pos*0*Dely
lo4a0ed!
$&! Pla4e 2aDe 2asher *n 4apC I0 4ap 0o (ear*n
4ar0r*de!
Re1lu-rication pipe
$?! 7*ll p*pe and rease n*pple 2*0h rease!
$@! 7*0 p*pe 2or; 0o ma4h*ne!
Returning To Ser2ice
A10er re40*I4a0*on o1 any 1aul0s 1oundC remoDe all 0es0
4onne40*ons and re4onne40 all 4on0rol sys0em leads!
'%! ReI0 all 0erm*nal (o5 4oDersEa44ess 4oDers and
re4onne40 hea0er supply!
'"! Carry ou0 pre-runn*n 4he4;s
'$! Res0ar0 0he se0 and adHus0 <O8TS 4on0rol
po0en0*ome0er on A<R (y slo2ly 0urn*n 4lo4;2*se un0*l
ra0ed Dol0ae *s o(0a*ned!
>arning" Failure to re9t all guardsE access
co2ers and ter.inal -o7 co2ers can result
in inPury or death!
@earing 0aintenance
Re1lu-rication
Ensure 0ha0 0he reaseC rease unC rease un no,,le
and re-lu(r*4a0*on n*pple are 1ree 1rom a(ras*De
ma0er*als and o0her 4on0am*nan0s!
I1 0he enera0or *s runn*nC apply 0he spe4*Ied /uan0*0y
o1 rease D*a 0he rease n*pple (see 0a(le (elo2)!
.eep 0he enera0or runn*n 1or a0 leas0 "% m*nu0es a10er
apply*n 0he rease!
I1 0he enera0or *s no0 runn*nC apply 0he rease as
a(oDe 0hen s0ar0 0he enera0or and run 1or a0 leas0 "%
m*nu0es 0o allo2 e54ess rease 0o e5haus0 1rom 0he
(ear*n assem(ly!
144
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
E5haus0 rease 4an (u*ld up *ns*de o1 0he PMG 4oDer! A0
0he Irs0 oppor0un*0yC 2hen 0he enera0or *n
s0oppedC remoDe 0he PMG 4oDer and 4lean ou0 any (u*ld
up o1 e5haus0 rease!
>arning" :o not re.o2e the P0G co2er 5ith
the generator running!
7rame )ole S*,e Bol0 S*,e Tor/ue Nm
& "& "# @%
@earings Part Nu.-ers
4ores ACBCCC9CEC 7CGC
9r*De end
(ear*ns %+"-%"%#$ %+"-%"%+@
Non-dr*De end
(ear*ns %+"-%"%#' %+"-%"%#'
Technical &ata
8ir Flo5 re=uire.ents
7rame PE& +%),C "+%% rpm #%),C "?%% rpm
(*n0a;eEou0le0)
Pressure 9rop
$!#@mdEse4 '!>+mdEse4 #mm 2a0er aue
All 4ores
+&%%41m &$%%41m (%!$+X)
The a*r *n0a;eEou0le0 mus0 (e su*0a(le 1or 0he a*r Fo2
*Den *n 0he 0a(le 2*0h add*0*onal pressure drops less
0han or e/ual 0o 0hose sho2n:
>inding Resistances
Coupling disc Tor=ue setting
7rame No! O1 9*s4s S*nle 9*s4 Th*4;ness To0al
Th*4;ness T*h0en*n Tor/ue
& # "!$ &!$ ?>;m
?$$Nm
?ift Capacity
Assume a m*n*mum 4apa4*0y o1 "&%% . (s0a0*4) 0o l*10
0he ro0or and >"%% . 1or 0he 2hole enera0or!
145
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
7or 0he purposes o1 es0a(l*sh*n 0he ense0 des*n 0he
(end*n momen0 a0 0he en*ne Fy2heel hous*n 0o
enera0or adap0or *n0er1a4e should no0 e54eed $&+ ;m!
($%%%10!l(s!)
Custo.er output ca-les
Clean pla0ed sur1a4es 2*0h a dereas*n
aen0C 0hen l*h0ly a(rade 0hem 0o
remoDe any 0arn*sh! 9onY0 s4ore 0he
sur1a4e! The ou0pu0 4a(les should (e
4onne40ed 0o 0he 0erm*nals us*n rade ?!? s0eel (ol0s
and asso4*a0ed an0*-D*(ra0*on hard2are! The 0a(le
*s 1or your u*dan4e!
Generator internal connections!
The 0or/ue se00*ns 1or all 4onne40*ons 2*0h*n 0he
enera0orC l*n;sC CTUsC a44essor*esC 4a(lesC e04! *s >+Nm!
Reco..ended Ser2ice Parts
9*ode Se0 RS.#%%"
(# d*odes 2*0h Sure
Suppressors)
MB'$" A<R E%%%-$'$"$E"P
MB'>" A<R E%%%- $'>"$E"P
.lu(er Grease >+-%$?"
Ohms Ma*n S0a0or Ma*n Ro0or E54*0er S0a0or E54*0er
Ro0or PM S0a0or
PE&B %!%%"# "!#& "& %!%>? $!#
PE&C %!%%"$# "!?+ "& %!%>? $!#
PE&9 %!%%""> "!@? "& %!%>? $!#
PE&E %!%%%@' $!"& "& %!%>? $!#
PE&7 %!%%%&# $!'" "& %!%>? $!#
PE&G %!%%%? $!>$ "&!+ %!%>' $!#
Re1lu-rication :etails For Regreasa-le
@earings
7rame P& Bear*n Pos*0*on Grease Wuan0*0y
4m. Grams
Re-8u(r*4a0*on Per*od
146
Preston university kohat (Lahore
Campus)
AC BC CC 9C E Non-9r*De End ?+ &+ >%%% - >+%% )rs
AC BC CC 9C E 9r*De End "%% ?@ >%%% - >+%% )rs
7C GC Non-9r*De End ?+ &+ >%%% - >+%% )rs
7C GC 9r*De End "'# "$" >%%% - >+%% )rs
The End
147