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Unit-VB

Basics of Fiber Optics

Introduction, Principle of Optical Fiber, Acceptance


Angle and Acceptance Cone, Numerical Aperture,
Types of Optical fibers. Attenuation in Optical Fibers,
Application of Optical Fiber in communication system
Introduction
Optical fiber is a long thin transparent dielectric material
which carries EMwaves of visible and IR frequencies
from one end to the other end of the fiber by means of
TIR.
NOTE: Glass or Plastic is used as Dielectric material.
Optical fibers works as Wave guides in optical television
signals, digital data to transmit voice television signals,
digital data to any desired distance from one end to the
other end of the fiber.
Fiber Optics is a technology related to
transportation of optical energy(light energy) in
guiding media specifically glass fibers
It has become popular because of the following reasons:
1). Higher information carrying capacity.
2). Light in weight, small in size, low cost.
3). No hazards of short circuits and can safely used in
explosive environments.
4). No possibility of internal noise and cross talk
generation.
5). Using an optical fiber, 15,000 independent speeches can
be sent simultaneously where as using a pair of copper wires,
only 48 independent speech signals can be sent.
Optical fiber consists of three sections
1. Core 2. Cladding 3. Protective Jacket
Core: It is an inner cylindrical material made up of glass or plastic.
Cladding: It is a cylindrical shell of glass or plastic material in which
Core is inserted.
Protective Jacket: The Cladding is enclosed in polyurethane jacket and
it protects the fiber from surroundings.
NOTE: The RI of core is slightly greater than the RI of Cladding. The
normal standard values are 1.48 and 1.46 respectively.
Structure of an Optical fiber
Poly urethane protective jacket
Cladding
Core
Principle: Optical fiber works on the principle of TIR. Once
light ray enters into core ,it propagates by means of multiple
TIR s at core-cladding interface.
u
c
u u =
c
u u <
DENSAR MEDIUM
RERAR MEDIUM
NORMAL
u
NORMAL
r
r = 90
u
c
u u >
NORMAL
RERAR MEDIUM
DENSAR MEDIUM
1
2
0
1
2
0
2 1
sin
90 sin sin
90
sin sin
n
n
n
n
r
r n n
refraction of law to according
c
c
c
=
=
= =
=
u
u
u u
u
Acceptance Angle
The maximum angle of incidence at the end face of
an Optical fiber for which the light ray can be
propagated along Core-Cladding interface is known
as maximum Acceptance angle. It is also called
Acceptance cone half angle.
Core-Cladding interface
Fiber axis
Core n
1
Cladding n
2
A
B
C

r
i

Incident light ray


Applying Snell s law for Air-Core media
) 2 .........( cos sin
cos sin
) 90 sin( sin
90
90
) 1 ....( .......... sin sin
0
1
1 0
0
1 0
0
0
1 0
u u
u u
u u
u u
u u
u u
n
n
n n
n n
ABC triangle angle right the from
n n
i
i
i
r
r
r i
=
=
=
=
= +
=
) 4 ..( .......... cos
) ( 1 sin 1 cos
sin
90 sin sin
90
sin sin
) 3 ......( .......... cos sin
) (
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
0
1
2
0
2 1
0
1
n
n n
n
n
n
n
n
n
r i
r n i n
refraction of law to according
n
n
angle critical when
c
c c
c
c
c
c m
m i c

=
= =
=
=
= =
=
=
= =
u
u u
u
u
u
u u
u u u u
2
2
2
1
1
max
2
2
2
1
0
1
2
2
2
1
0
1
sin
sin
1 ,
sin
) 3 ( ) 4 (
n n
n n
n then air is fiber the g surroundin medium the if
n
n n
n
n
in equation substitute
m
m
=
=
=

u
u
u
Which is required expression for Maximum
Acceptance Angle in optical fibers.
Acceptance Cone
Rotating the Acceptance angle about the fiber axis
describes the Acceptance Cone of the fiber.
Light launched at the fiber end within this Acceptance
Cone alone will be accepted and propagated to the other
end of the fiber by total internal reflection.
m
m
Acceptance Cone
Numerical Aperture
The light gathering capacity of an
optical fiber is known as Numerical
Aperture and it is proportional to
Acceptance Angle.
It is numerically equal to sine of
minimum Acceptance Angle.
A =
A =
~
+ A =

= A
+ =
=

=
=
2
2
) (
) )( (
sin
sin
1
2
1
2 1
2 1 1
1
2 1
2 1 2 1
2
2
2
1
0
2
2
2
1
max
max
n NA
n NA
n n
n n n NA
n
n n
n n n n NA
n n NA
n
n n
NA
u
u
The ratio between the difference
in RIs of
Core and Cladding to that of RI of
core is called the fractional change.
TYPES OF OPTICAL FIBRES
On the basis of variation of RI of core, the optical fibers
are mainly classified into following types. i.e.,
1.Step Index fiber 2.Gradex Index fiber
NOTE: Based on Mode of propagation, the fibers are
further divided into Single Mode and Multi Mode.
Single Mode Step Index fiber
The RI is constant for the core in this fiber. As we go radically from center
of the core, the RI undergoes a step change at core-cladding interface .
The core diameter of this fiber is about 8 to 10m and the outer diameter
of cladding is 60 to 70m.
There is only one path for light ray propagation. Hence it is called single
mode step index fiber.
It is a reflective fiber since light is transmitted from one end to the other
end of a fiber by TIR.
These are extensively used because distortion and transmission losses are
very less.
Refractive index profile of
single mode step index fiber
Radial distance
60 to 70 m
8 to 10 m
RI
SINGLE MODE STEP INDEX FIBER
CORE
CLADDING
RAY
PROPAGATION
Multimode Step Index Fiber
The construction of this fiber is similar to Single mode step
index fiber but dimensions of Core and Cladding are much
larger to have more number of paths for light propagation.
The Core diameter varies from 50 to 200m and the
Cladding diameter varies from 100 to 250m.
It is also a reflective fiber since light is propagated in the
form of multiple TIRS.
Radial distance
100 to 250 m
50 to 200 m
RI
REFRACTIVE INDEX PROFILE OF MULTI MODE STEP INDEX FIBRE
GRADED INDEX FIBRE
In this fiber , Radially the RI of Core continuously decreases
from center to the surface.
The RI is maximum at the center of Core and Minimum at
the Surface.
This fiber can be a single mode or Multimode ,the diameters
of core and cladding varies from 50-200m and 100-250m
respectively.
Radial distnce
100 to 250 m
50 to 200 m
RI
REFRACTIVE INDEX PROFILE OF SINGLE MODE GRADED INDEX FIBER
Radial distance
100 to 250 m
50 to 200 m
RI
REFRACTIVE INDEX PROFILE OF MULTIMODE GRADED INDEX FIBRE
As RI changes continuously radially in Core, the light rays
suffers continuous refraction with in the Core from its center
to surface.
Thus the propagation of light rays are not due to TIR but
by refraction. Therefore it is called Refractive fiber.
In this fiber, the light rays travel at different speeds in
different parts.
Near the surface RI is least so, the light rays travel faster
compared to the light rays near the axis. Because of this all
the rays almost arrive at the same time at the other end of the
fiber.
CLADDING
CORE
LIGHT PROPAGATION IN MUTI-MODE
GRADED INDEX FIBRE
RI of the core remains
constant and decreases a
step at cladding.
RI of the core decreases
parabolically from the axis
of the fiber to cladding.
It is of refractive type. It is refractive type.
Signal distortion is high in
multimode step index fiber.
Signal distortion is very
low in graded index fiber.
NA is more for multimode
step index fiber .
NA is less for grand index
fiber .
No focusing of light rays
takes place.
Focusing of light rays
takes place.
Difference b/w Step Index and Graded
Index Optical Fibers
Optical fiber Communication System
An efficient optical fiber communication system
requires high information carrying capacity
such as voice signals, video signals over long
distances with a minimum number of repeaters.
It essentially consists of following parts.
1.Encoder 2. Transmitter 3.Wave guide
4.Receiver 5.Decoder
1.Encoder: It converts electric signal corresponding to
analog information such as voice, figures, objects etc
into a binary data. This binary data comes out in the form
of stream of electrical pulses.
2.TRANSMITTER: It mainly consists of drive circuit and
a light source. Drive circuit supplies the electric pulses to
the light source from the encoder.
NOTE: LED or diode laser is used as light source and it
converts electrical signals are infected into optical
signals. These optical signals are injected into wave
guide.
Electrical
signal
ENCODER
DRIVE SOURCE LIGHT SOURCE
TRANSMITTER
OPTICAL SIGNAL
AMPLIFIER
PHOTO
DETECTOR
SIGNAL
RESTORER
DECODER
Wave guide
receiver
Attenuation or Power loss in Optical fibers
The power of the light at the out put end is found to be
always less than the power launched at the input end.
Attenuation is found to be a function of fiber material,
wavelength of light and length of the fiber and it is
measured in terms of the decibel.
Attenuation mainly three types.
1.Scattering losses
2.Absorption losses
3.Bending losses
Bending Loss in Single Mode
Fiber
Mode Field distributions in straight
and bent fibers
Microbending Loss Sensitivity vs
wavelength
Bending loss for lowest order modes