Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 7

APUNTES METODOLOGA II

ndice
Activating prior knowledge ........................................................................................................... 2
Formulaic language ....................................................................................................................... 2
Translingualism ............................................................................................................................. 3
Task based learning ....................................................................................................................... 3
Songs and rhymes ......................................................................................................................... 4
Errors and mistakes ....................................................................................................................... 5
Evaluation in Clil ............................................................................................................................ 6











Activating prior knowledge
Activating prior knowledge or activating existing knowledge - involves getting the learners
brains working at the start of a topic or theme, as well as motivating them to learn. It means
engaging learners in the topic of a lesson, and helping them to access what they already know
about the topic, so that they can link that knowledge with the material to be learned. In CLIL, it
is important to activate both ideas and language. At the activating stage of a lesson, a CLIL
teacher:
helps learners to activate their existing subject knowledge and experience in a variety of
ways:
1. an example for History
encourages learners really to think about a new topic
1. an example for Physics
creates activating activities which appeal to different learning styles or multiple
intelligences
1. an example for History
stimulates interaction between learners so that they communicate with each other
1. an example for History
engages learners curiosity in order to motivate them
Formulaic language
- Teachers speech & discourse
- Major input for students
- Impact in oral comprehension
- CLIL - Real settings

Which language?
Language issues: Only English?
Explanations in L1?
Materials in L1?
Grammar and pronunctiation?

Translingualism
- Using both languages
- Glossaries / materials in L1
- Occasional rephrasing in L1
- Given explanations in L1
- Language communicative value

Task based learning
What is TBL?
- Using real language in the classroom
- Asking students to do meaningful tasks using the L2
Similar approaches
- Project based learning
- Problem based learning
- Communicative/Funcionalist approaches
Objective
- Build up students confidence
- Improve students fluency in the L2
- Optimize students communicative skills.
Assesment
- Primarily based on the task outcome
- Not (totally) centered on language accuracy
Stages in TBL
- Pre-task
- Task
- Planning: Decide what you are going to do and explain it to the rest.
- Report: Communicate the results.
- Analysis: It is done by the teacher, what is the best, what are the weaknesses.
- Practice
Similarities with Clil
- Language learning as a holistic process
- Functions and communication
- User centered methodology
- Learning by doing
- Independence
- Motivation

Songs and rhymes
- Learning through play
- Acquisition of vocabulary and patterns
- Group use of language (supportive tool)
- Participation
- Cultural and behavioural models
- Improving pronunciation, stress and
intonation
- Focus on important areas of the childs
world
- Consolidation of motor skills
Contribute to:
- Add variety, relevance and motivation
- Memory skills
- Timing skills
- Coordination
- Acquisition of listening and speaking skills
- Acquisition of reading and writing skills
- Learning to learn
- Learning consolidation

Types of songs:
- Counting
- Singing
- Finger play
- Action
- Clapping
- Cultural songs
- Nursery rhymes
- Lullabies
- Shanties
- Historical
What are they useful for?
- Encourage people to participate
- Praise and provide feedback
- Reward positive behaviour
- Offer speed alternatives
To create:
- New verses
- Arts &Crafts
- Singing
- Puppets
4 cs:
- Communication: Listening sans singing.
- Content: Song, they have content.
- Cognition: Finish and start the song, draw
pictures.
- Culture: Of the song.



Errors and mistakes
Interlanguage
- Coined in 1972 by Selinker.
- Related to foreign language learning.
- Relevant in error analysis.
- System of rules and applications that can either bear the
1. Properties and rules of L1-
2. Properties and rules of both L1 and L2
3. 3. can also not possess features of neither
- Individual
- Transitory stage (in progress)
- Autonomous (own rules)
- Systematic / variable
- Context sensitive input

Error:
- Students competence: The knowledge about English. We do not know something.
- Unconscious
- Systematic
- Mistake
- Performance: moment of speaking.
- Awareness
- Casual conversation

Dealing with errors
- Students own development process
- Natural / unavoidable
- Positive attitude
- Raise students awareness (constructivism)
- Collective correction
- Cooperative correction
- Individual correction

When should we correct?
- Errors are systematic (repetitive)
- Errors are collective
- Errors are relevant
- Errors can be corrected

Evaluation in Clil
Evaluation
- What is it?
- Why do we evaluate?
- What do we evaluate (in CLIL)?
- How do we evaluate?
- Is evaluation different in CLIL? If so, why?
- Should evaluation be adapted in CLIL?
What is to evaluate?
- Assess students achievement in the subject we teach.
- Monitor and appraise the progress of our students.
Why?
- Evaluation is an essential part of the learning / teaching process.
- Evaluation gives us feedback and improvement proposals.
- Evaluation is an objective tool to assess if objectives have been met.
What?
- Students achievement (and progress).
- Content andlanguage.
- Language competence?
How?
- Formal vs. informal evaluation
- Formative vs. summative evaluation
- Holistic vs. analytic evaluation
- Social and pedagogical dimension
- Collection of evidence
- Oral, written, portfolios.

Principles
- Fair
- Suitable and appropriate: We have to adapt the curriculum to students.
- Objective
- Reliable
- Valid
- Based on well-designed objectives

Possible issues
- Subjectivity
- Teachers profile (e.g. age, content vs. language teacher, native vs. non-native teacher)
- Students characteristics
- Speed / amount of work
- Serial effect, halo effect
- How do we measure...?...

CLIL: problems at stake
- Complex issue in CLIL
- Guidelines? Common standards?
- Content (and language?) learning
- Content-driven curriculum
- 4Cs? (abstraction, quantification)
- Separated or integrated evaluation?