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Water treatment

The treatment of waters to make them suitable for subsequent use requires
physical, chemical, and biological processes. These processes may take place in
nature. Where natural processes cannot assure a desired quality, these processes
need to be engineered in water treatment plants.
Engineering processes are increasingly necessary, in part because the
contamination that impairs the quality of water is increasingly man-made and
resistant to nature’s purification process and in part because of growth of
population and its activity in the face of fixed natural resources.
The conventional sequence of processes for the purification of surface water for
potable purposes includes flocculation and coagulation, sedimentation, filtration,
and disinfection. This treatment removes color, turbidity, microorganisms,
colloidal particles, and some dissolved substances. Some of these processes may
be omitted where the waters are drawn from a protected source and are free of
color and turbidity. On the other hand ,the conventional treatment is not directed
to dissolved synthetic organic chemicals and is only moderately effective in the
removal of heavy metals and radioactivity. If these constitute a problem,
additional processes, such as adsorption on granular activated carbon, may be
Coagulation The processes described here include chemical addition, rapid
mixing, and flocculation. The purpose is to remove finely divided suspended
material, colloidal material, microorganisms, and to some extent dissolved
substances, particularly those of larger molecular size, by bringing them together
into flocs sufficiently large to be removed by sedimentation, filtration, or both.
The raw water may be highly colored and free of turbidity or turbid and free of
color. The particles responsible for the color and turbidity are not discernible to
the naked eye. After coagulation, however, the individual floc(絮状物) particles
are easily observed, being on the order of 1 to 2 mm in diameter.
The principal Coagulants are alum, aluminum sulfate available in solid or
liquid form, and ferric salts such as ferric sulfate. These aluminum and iron
salts, on solution, form trivalent aluminum and ferric ions. These ions react with
alkalinity, which may be naturally present or, if not, may be provided through
the addition of lime or soda ash.
The coagulation process is aided by flocculation produced in spedial tanks,
where mechanical paddles or diffused air stirs the water gently, promoting the
conjunction of suspended particles. The resulting large flocs then settle easily.

Sedimentation the effluent from the flocculation tanks with large but
variable-sized flocs is led into sedimentation tanks, where the flocs are
encouraged to settle.

Filtration--hrough layers of sand to improve turbidity, odour, colour

floc particles that escape the sedimentation tank are removed in filters. The
conventional filter is about 1 m in depth and is made up of sand grains varying
in size from 0.5 to 1.0 mm.
As water passes down through the filter beds, the floc settles in the intestices or
is adsorbed onto the surface of the sand grains. When the amount of floc
accumulated in the filter is sufficiently great to impede(i : 阻 止 ) the flow of
water by increasing the head loss to 2 to 3 m, the filter is backwashed.


Hypochlorous acid ionizes in part into H+ and OCl-. At pH below 5, the chlorine
exists almost entirely as HOCl and above pH 10 as OCl -. At pH 7, 80% of the
chlorine is in the form as HOCl. The distribution is important because HOCl has
a much higher killing power than OCl-.

C. Fluorides and endemic Fluorosis.

You know F is the necessary element for keeping human health. It’s the
essential ingredient consisting of teeth. But if we intake excessive F-, It can lead

to the poison of Fluoride. Now we will talk about the Fluorides and Endemic
Endemic Fluorosis is the in full-body disease, but their major target organs
are bones and teeth.
 Endemic Fluorosis is a full-body disease, but the major target organs are
bones and teeth.
 Excessive intake of fluoride during pre-eruptive stage of teeth leads to
dental fluorosis and further continued ingestion over years and decades
causes skeletal fluorosis.
General Description
 Fluorosis is endemic in at least 25 countries across the globe.
 The fluorosis problem is most severe in the two largest countries of the
world, China and India .
 The total number of people affected is not known, but a conservative
estimate would number in the tens of millions.
Dental fluorosis
 The term ‘Dental fluorosis’ or ‘mottling’ refers to the effects of fluoride
on the hard, crystalline dental enamel that covers the exposed surfaces of
the teeth.
 It occurs when enamel is being ‘grown’ during the formation of the tooth.
 Dental fluorosis can range from slight white flecks in the enamel of teeth
to more severe brown staining and pitting of the enamel of teeth.
 The source of the fluoride was found to be occurring naturally in local
water supplies in areas where the dental effects were seen in the local
 Until the 1930’s, US dentist and epidemiologist, H.Trendley Dean, made
the association between fluoride and this mottling.
 Dean also noticed that decay rates were significantly lower when
fluoride was present in sufficient concentration.
 It seemed that the optimum fluorosis was noticed at levels of 1 milligram
per litre of water (1 part per million or ppm)
 There have been some areas in the world where the natural water fluoride
concentration has been over 10 times the recommended dose and attempts
have been made to de-fluoridate the water.
Skeletal fluorosis
 Skeletal fluorosis is a bone disease caused by excessive consumption of
fluoride .
 This is because the skeletal symptoms, in the more severe stages of the
disease, are quickly apparent to the observer.
 Victims of the severe stages of fluorosis often suffer from permanent
hunchback as the result of an extreme immobilization of the spine
Deformation of bones-
 The bones, particularly the legs, can become 'soft' due to fluoride-induced
osteomalacia, which can result in a curving, "bowing", of the leg.
 Joints throughout the rest of the body become extremely stiff, making
movement of any kind (i.e. getting out of bed, sitting down) a difficult,
painful, and belaboring experience.
Non-skeletal problems
 Gastro-intestinal disorders, kidney impairment, reduced IQ, etc
 Reproductive function of male
 Have, to date, attracted the greatest deal of attention.

the mechanism of Endemic Fluorosis:

1 destroying the metabolism of Ca, P .If excessive fluorides were intaken
into the and formed CaF2, and then can cause several changes in the
2 F in the body can influence(restrain ) the activity of some enzymes
such as
Cytochrome c oxidase;Succinate dehydrogenase;

First Ca F2 deposit on the skeleton’s and bone’s surface, some deposit on the
ligament tendon then make the ligament tendon and skeleton harden second,
after caF2 was formed, the calcium in the blood will decrease. This change may
lead to the change of some hormone in the blood. These changed hormone are
parathyroid (Abbreviation is PTH) hormone and the calcitomin.
We all know the regulation of the hormone in human body is relative fixed.
Thus, some change of substance in the body may influence the concentration of
You have learnt the physiology, So we know that the regulation of calcium
concentration are PTH and calcitomin . PTH can mobilize the calcium entering
blood from bone (or skeleton) and then lead to calcium in the blood in creasing.
On the other hand , PTH cause the amount of osteoclast rising , and result in
osteolysis fastening. So when PTH rising, a great of calcium set into blood (is
released into blood ) from bone (skeleton) of course, if the Ca++ of the blood
reduce (decrease) it can lead to the PTH rising, inducing the Ca++ from skeleton
to blood to supplement the Ca++ in the blood.
Another hormone is calcitomin Its action is contrary to the PTH, It can
reduce the concentration of Ca++ in the blood, At the same time, it make the
osteoclast change into osteoblast and then inhibit (hinder, prevent) the calcium
of the skeleton entering the blood.

Deposit into teeth change of enamel dental Fluorosis
deposit on the skeleton’s surface skeleton
ligament tendon’s surface ligament tendon’s

F- CaF2 the skeleton and ligament tendon fracture easily

the action of skeleton is restricted

pressuring pain and insensitive

syndrome of lacking Ca2+:waist and leg feel pain,
spasm of hand and foot
Ca2+↓ PTH↑ Osteoclast↑
(blood) Osteolysis↑
Calcitomin↓ Osteoblast↓ (fasten)

Osteoporosis Skeleton losing Ca2+

Osteomalacia blood into Ca2+

maybe cause the skeleton and spine deformed, such as

hunchbacked, bowlegs

Basic epidemiological character:

This disease occurs mainly in droughty and some mountain areas, because
in these areas, the climate is droughty and rainless, and its F comparative higher
than the that in carnpagna (the plain) areas. In China, the north areas are the high
incidence areas because of lacking water the less of the quantity of water, the
more concentrated of the fluorosis.
B. The reasons couse this disease:
About two reasons can cause this disease:
Excessive fluorides indrinking water supplies are the most important reason.
Excessive fluorides in coal can lead to food and air polluted.
C. Its major symptom
Dental fluorosis: It makes the teeth being yellow or brownie,
or fracture easily.
Boned flurosis: It makes the bone being malformed or harden
or fracture easily.