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Hardenableboronsteel

HardenableboronsteelgradesB13S,B24andB27areintendedtobehardenedthroughheattreatment.Themechanical
properties of hardened boron steel make it extremely resistant to abrasive wear and particularly useful in highstrength
structuralapplications,extendingthelifespanofstructuresandsavingcostsrelatedtoabrasionandtheenvironment.
Delivered in hotrolled condition as cut lengths and heavy plates.Prefabrication services available for boron steels are
shapecutting,bending,bevellingforwelding.
Applications:
Liningsandwearpartsformachinesandequipment
Edgeplates
Bladesandchains
Tools
Screwconveyors
Wearplates
Fanblades

Theinformationonourwebsiteisaccuratetothebestofourknowledgeandunderstanding.Althougheveryefforthasbeenmadetoensure
accuracy,thecompanycannotacceptanyresponsibilityforanydirectorindirectdamagesresultingfrompossibleerrorsorincorrect
applicationoftheinformationofthispublication.Wereservetherighttomakechanges.
Copyright2014RautaruukkiCorporation.Allrightsreserved.
Documentprintedon22.07.2014 www.ruukki.com
Dimensions
Productshapes
Cutlengths.Deliveredinasrolledconditionorpickledcondition.Additionally,coilsandslitstripsbyseparateagreement.
Heavyplates.Deliveredinasrolledconditionorshopprimedcondition.

Cutlengthswithmilledges
Steelgrade Thicknessmm Widthmm Lengthm
B13S,B24,B27 2.513 10001860 212
Maximumwidthofeachsteelgradedependsonthethickness.
Heavyplates
Steelgrade Thicknessmm Widthmm Lengthm
B13S 514 19013300 215
B24 860 19013300 215
B27 680 19013300 215
Maximumandminimumwidthaswellasmaximumlengthofeachsteelgradedependontheplatethickness.
More detailed information on dimensions is provided in the Coil Products Production Programme and Plate Products
ProductionProgramme.CoilProductsProductionProgrammePlateProductsProductionProgramme

Tolerances
Dimensionalandshapetolerances:
Cutlengths:EN10051
Heavyplates:EN10029,ClassA

Surfacequality
Plateproducts:EN101632ClassA3.Repairweldingisnotusedinthemanufactureofboronsteels.
Cutlengthsaredeliveredinasrolledconditionorpickledandoiledcondition.
Platesaredeliveredinasrolledorshopprimedcondition.

Properties
Thenumbers13,24and27inthedesignationrefertotheaveragecarboncontentsinonehundredthofapercentin
these grades. Excellent heat treatment properties make boron steel an environmentally friendly structural material for a
numberofapplications.

Materialstesting

Themechanicalpropertiesofboronsteelsarenottested.

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Typicalmechanicalproperties

Steelgrade Yieldstrength
ReHMPa
Tensilestrength
RmMPa
Elongation
A5%
HardnessHBW
B13S approx.450 approx.570 25 approx.160
B24 approx.400 approx.600 25 approx.160
B27 approx.420 approx.620 22 approx.170

Chemicalcompositionandmicrostructure

Thetypicalmicrostructureinthehotrolledconditionisferriticperlitic.Boron(onaverage0.002%)andcarbonarethealloy
materialsmainlycontributingtothegoodhardenabilityandheattreatmentpropertiesofboronsteels.
Typicalchemicalcomposition.Content%(castanalysis)
Steelgrade C Si Mn Cr Mo B
B13S
1)
0.13 0.25 0.80 0.9 0.25 0.002
B24 0.24 0.25 1.20 0.3 0.002
B27 0.27 0.25 1.20 0.3 0.002

Aluminium(Al)and/ortitanium(Ti)areusedasmicroalloyingelementsforthebindingofnitrogen(N).
1)
ForcutlengthC=0.14Si=0.20Mn=1.10Cr=0.8andB=0.002.

Carbonequivalent(CEV),typicalvaluesforeachthicknessrangeandproductform

CEV=C+Mn/6+(Cr+Mo+V)/5+(Ni+Cu)/15
Steelgrade Thicknessmm CEV Product
B13S 2.513 0.51 Cutlength
B24 2.513 0.51 Cutlength
B24 860 0.51 Plate
B27 2.513 0.54 Cutlength
B27 680 0.54 Plate

Inordertooptimisetheweldingprocedure,thecastspecificcarbonequivalentvaluesareindicatedintheinspectiondocument.
Prefabricationservices
Wideflatsfromplateandstrip
Wideflatsfromplateandstriparedimensionallyaccurateandreadyforassembly.Wideflatsspeedupthemanufactureof
steelstructuresandavoidwastingofmaterial.
Flatcutshapes
Flat cut shapes will decrease the throughput time of installation. The customer will receive the components ready for
installation. So, unnecessary material and storing costs can be avoided. If ordered, the products are delivered as shop
primed,bevelledandbent.
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Bevelling
Precision cut lengths and precision cut plates with a bevelled edge are components that can be delivered directly to the
installation site, which saves time and reduces transport and storage costs. The dimensionally accurate groove ensures
uninterruptedautomatedweldingandfitting.
Bentplateproducts
Bent plate products are components that are ready to be delivered to the installation site, which is beneficial in terms of
schedule as well as transport and storing costs. If needed, the products can be ordered as shopprimed, furnished with
weldingbevels,andcuttoshape.Premarkedmatchmarksfacilitateinstallation.
Processinginstructions
Welding
Boron steels can be welded in the hotrolled or hardened condition. When choosing the welding consumables, the most
importantfactoriswhetherthesteelistobeweldedbeforeorafterhardening.Inallcases,theuseoflowhydrogen,basic
fillermaterialsisrecommended,inordertoensurethatthelevelofdetrimentalhydrogenremainslow.Thesurfacesofthe
weld groove must be dry and clean. In addition, the recommendations of the manufacturer must be adhered to regarding
thestorage,useandpossibleredryingoftheconsumables.
Weldingbeforehardening
The normal instructions for the welding of highstrength steels also apply in the welding of boron steels in the hotrolled
condition.The best result is obtained using lowhydrogen welding consumables and methods.The best result is obtained
whentheweldmetalhydrogencontentHDisamaximumof5ml/100g(ENISO3690).
Carbonequivalent(CEV),typicalvaluesforeachthicknessrangeandproductform
CEV=C+Mn/6+(Cr+Mo+V)/5+(Ni+Cu)/15
Steelgrade Thicknessmm CEV Product
B13S 2.513 0.51 Cutlength
B24 2.513 0.51 Cutlength
B24 860 0.51 Plate
B27 2.513 0.54 Cutlength
B27 680 0.54 Plate

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RecommendedworkingtemperaturesforweldingofhotrolledboronsteelsC(EN10112)

The advantages of common lowalloy welding consumables compared to the highalloyed and highstrength welding
consumables are their lower hardenability, reduced need for preheating and lower price. When hardened, the weld metal
produced using normal filler materials is almost as hard as if using highstrength filler materials, but the depth of the
hardeningsmaller.Highalloyedconsumablesmustbeusedwhenadeephardenableweldmetalisrequired,orwhenwear
resistanceisrequiredfromthefillermaterialintheweldedcondition.Theuseofhighalloyedconsumablescanusuallybe
limitedtothesurfacelayers.Thewearofsoftfillermaterialsmaybereducedbythelocationoftheweld.
Weldingafterhardening
The welding instructions given for Raex abrasion resistant steels in the Raex datasheet can be used in the welding of
hardenedboronsteels.Raex400canbeusedforhardenedB13SandhardenedB24andRaex500forhardenedB27.
Whenweldingboronsteelsinthehardenedcondition,anarrowbandofmaterialsofterthanthebasematerialiscreatedin
theheataffectedzone.Thewidthandhardnessofthisbanddependsontheweldingenergyandthethicknessoftheplate.
Thesofterbandinweldsmadeusingmediumenergylevelsdoesnotusuallyaffectthedurabilityoftheweld.Lowhydrogen,
basicconsumablesmustbeusedinordertoensurethatthelevelofdetrimentalhydrogenremainslow.Structureswelded
afterhardeningarenotusuallysubjectedtofurtherheattreatmentasthismayweakentheabrasionresistanceofhardened
steelcomponents.
Downloadinformationaboutweldinghotrolledsteels

Heattreatment,hardeningandtempering
Thanks to their specific alloying, boron steels have a variety of metallurgical properties that can be utilised in hardening.
Hardening is a heat treatment process that consists of heating, holding and rapid cooling.The steel is heated in order to
changetheferriticperliticmicrostructuretofullyaustenitic.Holdingtimeshouldbeappropriateforsteelthicknesstoobtain
homogenous temperature. Austenitization temperature for these steels is close to 910 930C. Rapid cooling from
austenitizationtemperatureintoroomtemperatureiscalledquenching.Thepurposeofquenchingistoobtainamartensitic
microstructure.Hardenedboronsteelisahard,strongandwearresistantstructuralmaterial.
In certain applications, hardened steel as such is only an intermediate product. The manufacture of such applications
includes further tempering. Hardening and tempering can also be jointly called quenching+tempering. The purpose of
tempering is to turn the martensitic microstructure into tempered martensite with good toughness properties. Tempering
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results in slightly lowered strength and hardness values.The degree of softening depends on the tempering temperature,
which is the most important parameter affecting the mechanical properties of hardened boron steel. The quenched and
temperedboronsteelhasafavourablecombinationofstrength,hardnessandtoughness.Thehardnesstemperingcurveis
an essential tool in the metallurgical utilisation of boron steels.A further advantage of tempering results in releasing heat
andstructuralstressesthatappearedduringquenching.
As indicated in the figure below, tempering at a temperature of 480 600C clearly improves impact strength and
elongation,whereastensilestrength,yieldstrengthandhardnessarelowerthanthoseofonlyquenchedboronsteel.
TypicalhardnesstemperingcurvesforthehardenedboronsteelB13S,B24andB27grades(austenitization
temperature920C)
Typicalmechanicalpropertiesofboronsteelswhenquenchedinoilorwater
Steel
grade
Heattreatment
condition
Yield
strength
ReN/mm
2
Tensile
strength
RmN/mm
2
Elongation
A%
Hardness
HBW
Impactstrength
KV
tCKV
J
B13S Hardened, Oil 750 950 14 300
notempering Water 900 1200 10 370 40 50
B24 Hardened, Oil 850 1250 10 340
notempering Water 1100 1500 8 430 40 20
B27 Hardened, Oil 1000 1250 8 380
notempering Water 1200 1600 6 460 40 20
Thevaluesgiveninthetableareaveragesatroomtemperature.Austenizationtemperatureused920C.
Note:Hardeningresultspresentedinthetableaboveandonthiswebpageonlygivegeneralinstructionsforthehardening
and other heat treatment of boron steels. Those using hardening and heat treating Ruukki boron steels are specialists in
theirownrespectivefields.Customerscanobtainthedesiredmicrostructureandmechanicalpropertiesfortheirhardened
steel products by means of productspecific selection of tempering parameters. Expertise in ones own heat treatment
processcreatesastrongbasisforthecompetitivenessofourcustomersproducts.
Forming
The boron steel B 13S and B 24 grades in hotrolled and hardened condition can be cold formed at room temperature
(+20C)undernormalengineeringshopconditionsuptothethicknessof20mm.TheB27gradecanbeformedintheas
rolledcondition.Boronsteelinthehotrolledconditionismoreformablethanhardenedboronsteel,becauseitrequiresless
bendingforce.Theminimumbendingradiiforboronsteelsandrecommendationsforhotrolledandhardenedsteelshave
beenlistedinthetable.
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Coldformabilityintheasrolledconditionandashardened
Thickness(mm)
2.5
5
(5)
6
(6)
7
(7)
8
(8)
10
(10)
12
(12)
14
(14)
16
(16)
18
(18)
20
Heattreatment
condition
Thesmallestallowableinsidebendingradius(mm)
B
13S
Hotrolled 10 18 21 24 30 48
Oilhardened 15 18 21 24 30 48
Waterhardened 20 24 28 32 40 60
B24 Hotrolled 15 24 28 32 40 60 70 80 90 100
Oilhardened 20 30 35 40 50 72 84 96 108 120
Waterhardened 25 36 42 48 60 96 112 128 144 160
B27 Hotrolled 20 30 35 40 50 72 84 96 108 120
Oilhardened
Waterhardened
Flanging irrespective of rolling direction.It is recommended to contact Ruukki'sTechnical Customer Service prior to coldforming of over 20 mm thick plates
andhardenedsteelgradeB27.
Platesthickerthan20mmmustbepreheatedtherecommendedformingtemperatureis150200C.Preheatingimproves
the deformation properties of the plate and guarantees successful bending. Special care must always be taken when
formingthickorhardenedplates.
Highqualitytechnologyshouldbeusedforforming,aswearoftools,insufficientlubrication,surfacedefectsonplatesand
burrs in cut edges will impair forming quality. A basic requirement for successful flanging and bending is that, prior to
commencingwork,aplatethathasbeenstoredinacoldatmosphereisallowedtowarmupthoroughlytoroomtemperature
(+20C).
Flamecutting
Specialcaremustbetakenintheflamecuttingofboronsteelsparticularlysowhencuttinghardenedand/orthickplates.
Prior to commencing work, a plate that has been stored in a cold atmosphere is allowed to warm up thoroughly to room
temperature(+20C).Excessivehardeningcanbepreventedbymeansofpreheatingtoraisetheworkingtemperature.Itis
recommendedtoraisetheworkingtemperaturewhentheplatethicknessisover10mmorwhencuttingsteelgradesB24
or B 27. The table gives the working temperatures recommended for hardened boron steels and boron steels in the hot
rolled condition. Steel grade B 13S does not require preheating even in the hardened condition, thanks to its low carbon
equivalentvaluesandsmallplatethicknesses.
RecommendedworkingtemperaturesBoronsteelsinhotrolledconditionorhardenedboronsteels
Steelgrade Thicknessmm WorkingtemperatureC
B24 1030 5075
B24 (30)60 75125
B27 1080 125175
B13Sdoesnot,eveninthehardenedcondition,requirepreheatingundernormalconditions.
Whenflamecuttinghardenedboronsteels,thehardnessoftheplatesdecreasesinareaswherethetemperatureexceeds
+200C. Softening is highlighted in the flame cutting of small components. In order to prevent excessive hardening, the
cooling of the cut area must not be accelerated externally on the contrary, the process should be slowed down, if
necessary,bycoveringtheplatewith,forexample,mineralwool.
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Mechanicalcutting
Inthehotrolledconditionboronsteelscanbemechanicallycutinthesamewayasstructuralsteelsofthesamestrength
grade, although the wear on cutting blades may be slightly greater. The mechanical cutting of hardened boron steels is
challenging, as the hardness of the steel approaches that of the cutting blades. B 13S and B 24 can be cut using heavy,
robust machines. The mechanical cutting of B 27 is recommended only with reservation, and then only for plates whose
thicknessislessthan10mm.Thehardnessofthecuttingbladesmustbegreaterthan53HRC.Mechanicalcuttingofsmall
componentsmustbeavoided.
Machining
Boronsteelsinthehotrolledconditioncanbemachinedinthesamewayasstructuralsteelsofthecorrespondingstrength
grade. Robust machinery and hard metal bits are recommended for the machining of hardened boron steels. Boron steel
platescanbedrilledwithhighspeedsteelbitsifthebitgeometryandcuttingfluidarecorrectlychosen.
Furtherinformationonprocessinginthermalcuttingandflamestraighteningdatasheetandinmechanicalcuttingdatasheet.

Occupationalsafety
Specialcaremustbetakeninallstagesofhandlingandworkshopprocessingofboronsteels.Safeworkingmethodsare
particularlyimportantinbending,flangingandcutting.Thehandlinginstructionsofthesteelsupplierandsafetyinstructions
oftheworkshopmustbeadheredtoindetail.Newemployeesmustreceiveappropriatetrainingbeforetheyareallowedto
processboronsteels.
Order&delivery
Deliverycondition
Thedeliveryconditionforhardenableboronsteelishotrolled.
Inspectiondocument
TheinspectiondocumentstatesthechemicalcompositionincompliancewithEN10204.
RuukkiprovidesboronsteeldeliverieswiththesocalledAnalysiscertificate.
Alternatively, on the customers request, we either provide the Test report 2.2 or the Inspection certificate 3.1., in
accordancewithEN10204.
Generaldeliveryinformationforhotrolledsteels
GeneraldeliveryinformationcanbefoundfromdocumentsMarkingsandpacking,UltrasonictestingandGeneraltermsof
sale.

Thecontentofthisdocumenthasbeencreatedfromwebpagelastupdated25Apr2014
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