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INTERPRETAO E
COMPREENSO DE TEXTOS
Para ler e entender um texto preciso atingir dois nveis
de leitura:
Informativa e de reconhecimento;
INTERPRETATIVA
A primeira deve ser feita cuidadosamente por ser o
primeiro contato com o texto, extraindo-se informaes
e se preparando para a leitura interpretativa. Durante a
interpretao grife palavras-chave, passagens importantes;
tente ligar uma palavra idia-central de cada pargrafo.
A ltima fase de interpretao concentra-se nas perguntas
e opes de respostas. Marque palavras com NO, EXCETO,
RESPECTIVAMENTE, etc, pois fazem diferena na escolha
adequada.
Retorne ao texto mesmo que parea ser perda de tempo.
Leia a frase anterior e posterior para ter idia do sentido
global proposto pelo autor.
ORGANIZAO DO TEXTO E IDIA CENTRAL
Um texto para ser compreendido deve apresentar idias
seletas e organizadas, atravs dos pargrafos que composto
pela idia central, argumentao e/ou desenvolvimento e a
concluso do texto.
Podemos desenvolver um pargrafo de vrias formas:
Declarao inicial;
Definio;
Diviso;
ALUSO HISTRICA.
Serve para dividir o texto em pontos menores, tendo em
vista os diversos enfoques. Convencionalmente, o pargrafo
indicado atravs da mudana de linha e um espaamento da
margem esquerda.
Uma das partes bem distintas do pargrafo o tpico
frasal, ou seja, a idia central extrada de maneira clara e
resumida.
Atentando-se para a idia principal de cada pargrafo,
asseguramos um caminho que nos levar compreenso do
texto.
OS TIPOS DE TEXTO
Basicamente existem trs tipos de texto:
Texto narrativo;
Texto descritivo;
Texto dissertativo.

012345789
434 5
Cada um desses textos possui caractersticas prprias de
construo.
DESCRIO
Descrever explicar com palavras o que se viu e
se observou. A descrio esttica, sem movimento,
desprovida de ao. Na descrio o ser, o objeto ou ambiente
so importantes, ocupando lugar de destaque na frase o
substantivo e o adjetivo.
O emissor capta e transmite a realidade atravs de seus
sentidos, fazendo uso de recursos lingsticos, tal que o
receptor a identifique. A caracterizao indispensvel, por
isso existe uma grande quantidade de adjetivos no texto.
H duas descries:
Descrio denotativa
Descrio conotativa.
DESCRIO DENOTATIVA
Quando a linguagem representativa do objeto objetiva,
direta sem metforas ou outras figuras literrias, chamamos
de descrio denotativa. Na descrio denotativa as palavras
so utilizadas no seu sentido real, nico de acordo com a
definio do dicionrio.
Exemplo:
Samos do campus universitrio s 14 horas com destino
ao agreste pernambucano. esquerda fica a reitoria e alguns
pontos comerciais. direita o trmino da construo de um
novo centro tecnolgico. Seguiremos pela BR-232 onde
encontraremos vrias formas de relevo e vegetao.
No incio da viagem observamos uma tpica agricultura de
subsistncia bem margem da BR-232. Isso provavelmente
facilitar o transporte desse cultivo a um grande centro de
distribuio de alimentos a CEAGEPE.
DESCRIO CONOTATIVA
Em tal descrio as palavras so tomadas em sentido
figurado, ricas em polivalncia.
Exemplo:
Joo estava to gordo que as pernas da cadeira estavam
bambas do peso que carregava. Era notrio o sofrimento
daquele pobre objeto.
Hoje o sol amanheceu sorridente; brilhava incansvel,
no cu alegre, leve e repleto de nuvens brancas. Os pssaros
felizes cantarolavam pelo ar.
NARRAO
Narrar falar sobre os fatos. contar. Consiste na
elaborao de um texto inserindo episdios, acontecimentos.


        
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O estudo do sentido em Lingstica tem uma dimenso
NM#5
filosfica, mas no momento o que vai nos ocupar a distino
ljc!,#(#'X#(0*O#X(,!(-#,"-#,+`#% entre alguns tipos relevantes de sentido.
!&)*"j(Z#',(.,5
Sentidos Prprio e Figurado
N(`#kNY^R[
yll
Comumente afirma-se que certas ocorrncias de
'ylll
discurso
tm sentido prprio e sentido figurado. Geralmente
&ylllll
os exemplos de tais ocorrncias so metforas. Assim, em
.ylll
Maria uma flor diz-se que flor tem um sentido prprio
yllll
e um sentido figurado. O sentido prprio o mesmo do
parte do vegetal que gera a semente. O sentido
z|6<H?9EF8;<G8<HC;@:;<8;=g8?;<8;=C<;8BGC<98~:G:;<< enunciado:
figurado o mesmo de Maria, mulher bela, etc. O sentido
a'-,&#"',*"-,M.!(#(5p
prprio, na acepo tradicional no prprio ao contexto,
l(#0*,.L,0*("#(&((`#[
mas ao termo.
O sentido tradicionalmente dito prprio sempre
y(,)L.(
corresponde
ao que definimos aqui como sentido imediato do
'y"-,#.*+(
enunciado.
Alm
disso, alguns autores o julgam como sendo
&y(!(.M,"!(
o
sentido
preferencial,
o que comumente ocorre, mas nem
.y"*!L.(
sempre.
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Gnero de texto refere-se s diferentes formas de


expresso textual. Nos estudos da Literatura, temos, por
exemplo, poesia, crnicas, contos, prosa, etc.
Para a Lingustica, os gneros textuais englobam estes e
todos os textos produzidos por usurios de uma lngua. Assim,
ao lado da crnica, do conto, vamos tambm identificar a
carta pessoal, a conversa telefnica, o email, e tantos outros
exemplares de gneros que circulam em nossa sociedade.
Quanto forma ou estrutura das sequncias lingusticas
encontradas em cada texto, podemos classific-los dentro
dos tipos textuais a partir de suas estruturas e estilos
composicionais.
Gneros Orais e Escritos na Escola
Domnios sociais de comunicao: Cultura Literria
Ficcional.
Aspectos tipolgicos: Narrar.

14

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$"Z!,('"Z!)(-!-(!"$'.s-!)'! l!"(&'1

1. texto Literrio: expressa a opinio pessoal do autor


que tambm transmitida atravs de figuras, impregnado
de subjetivismo. Ex: um romance, um conto, uma poesia...
(Conotao Figurado, subjetivo Pessoal)
2. texto no-literrio: preocupa-se em transmitir uma
mensagem da forma mais clara e objetiva possvel. Ex: uma
notcia de jornal, uma bula de medicamento. (Denotao
Claro, objetivo Informativo)
TIPOS DE COMPOSIO
1. Descrio: descrever representar verbalmente um
objeto, uma pessoal, um lugar, mediante a indicao de
aspectos caractersticos, de pormenores individualizantes.
Requer observao cuidadosa, para tornar aquilo que vai ser
descrito um modelo inconfundvel. No se trata de enumerar
uma srie de elementos, mas de captar os traos capazes de
transmitir uma impresso autntica. Descrever mais que
apontar, muito mais que fotografar. pintar, criar. Por
isso, impe-se o uso de palavras especficas, exatas.
2. Narrao: um relato organizado de acontecimentos
reais ou imaginrios. So seus elementos constitutivos:
personagens, circunstncias, ao; o seu ncleo o incidente,
o episdio, e o que a distingue da descrio a presena de
personagens atuantes, que esto quase sempre em conflito.
A Narrao envolve:
I. Quem? Personagem;
II. Qu? Fatos, enredo;
III. Quando? A poca em que ocorreram os
acontecimentos;

IV. Onde? O lugar da ocorrncia;


V. Como? O modo como se desenvolveram os
acontecimentos;
VI. Por qu? A causa dos acontecimentos;

012345789
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3. Dissertao: dissertar apresentar idias, analislas, estabelecer um ponto de vista baseado em argumentos
lgicos; estabelecer relaes de causa e efeito. Aqui no
basta expor, narrar ou descrever, necessrio explanar e
explicar. O raciocnio que deve imperar neste tipo de
composio, e quanto maior a fundamentao argumentativa,
mais brilhante ser o desempenho.


 

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O discurso direto quando so as personagens que


falam. O narrador, interrompendo a narrativa, pe-nas em
cena e cede-lhes a palavra. Exemplo:
- Por que veio to tarde? perguntou-lhe Sofia, logo que
apareceu porta do jardim, em Santa Teresa.


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1-

Acentuao dos vocbulos proparoxtonos

a) Todos os vocbulos proparoxtonos so acentuados


na vogal tnica: xcara, mido, queramos, lgrima, lmpada,
pssego, estmago, quilmetro.
b) Acentuam-se tambm os vocbulos que terminam
por encontro voclico e que podem ser pronunciados como
proparoxtonos: rea, conterrneo, errneo, enxguam, etc.
2-

Acentuao dos vocbulos paroxtonos

a) Terminados em ditongo crescente, seguido, ou no,


de s: sbio, rseo, plancie, ndua, Mrcio, rgua, rdua,
espontneo, etc.
b) Terminados em i, is, us, um, uns: txi, lpis, bnus,
lbum, lbuns, etc.

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35

6. (CARLOS CHAGAS) Estavam .......... de que os


congressistas chegassem .......... para a .......... de abertura.
a) receosos - atrasados - sesso
b) receosos - atrazados - seo
c) receiosos - atrazados - seo
d) receiosos - atrasados - sesso
e) receiosos - atrazados - sesso
7. (TRE-MG) A ............ das atividades industriais
provocou ............ freqentes entre os operrios. A soluo
foi a ............ do governo nas negociaes.
a) paralisao - discusses - intercesso
b) paralisao - discurses - intersesso
c) paralisao - discusses - interseo
d) paralizao - discurses - intercesso
e) paralizao - discusses - interseo
RESPOSTAS
1-A

2-A

3-B

4-C

5-A

6-A

7-A

CLASSE DE PALAVRAS
SUBSTANTIVO
Substantivo tudo o que nomeia as coisas em geral.
Substantivo tudo o que pode ser visto, pego ou
sentido.
Substantivo tudo o que pode ser precedido de artigo .
Classificao e Formao Substantivo Comum
Substantivo comum aquele que designa os seres de uma
espcie de forma genrica. Por exemplo pedra, computador,
cachorro, homem, caderno.
Substantivo Prprio
Substantivo prprio aquele que designa um ser
especfico, determinado, individualizando-o. Por exemplo
Maxi, Londrina, Dlson, Ester. O substantivo prprio sempre
deve ser escrito com letra maiscula.
Substantivo Concreto
Substantivo concreto aquele que designa seres que
existem por si s ou apresentam-se em nossa imaginao
como se existissem por si. Por exemplo ar, som, Deus,
computador, pedra, Ester.
Substantivo Abstrato
Substantivo abstrato aquele que designa prtica de aes
verbais, existncia de qualidades ou sentimentos humanos.
Por exemplo sada (prtica de sair), beleza (existncia do
belo), saudade.

012345789
434 5
Formao dos substantivos
Os substantivos, quanto sua formao, podem ser:

Substantivo Primitivo
primitivo o substantivo que no se origina de outra
palavra existente na lngua portuguesa. Por exemplo pedra,
jornal, gato, homem.
Substantivo Derivado
derivado o substantivo que provm de outra palavra da
lngua portuguesa. Por exemplo pedreiro, jornalista, gatarro,
homnculo.
Substantivo Simples
simples o substantivo formado por um nico radical.
Por exemplo pedra, pedreiro, jornal, jornalista.
Substantivo Composto
composto o substantivo formado por dois ou mais
radicais. Por exemplo pedra-sabo, homem-r, passatempo.
Substantivo Coletivo
coletivo o substantivo no singular que indica diversos
elementos de uma mesma espcie.
abelha - enxame, cortio, colmia
acompanhante - comitiva, cortejo, sqito
alho - (quando entrelaados) rstia, enfiada, cambada
aluno - classe
amigo - (quando em assemblia) tertlia
animal - em geral = piara, pandilha, todos de uma regio
= fauna; manada de cavalgaduras = rcua, rcova; de carga =
tropa; de carga, menos de 10 = lote; de raa, para reproduo
= plantel; ferozes ou selvagens = alcatia
anjo - chusma, coro, falange, legio, teoria
apetrecho - (quando de profissionais) ferramenta,
instrumental
aplaudidor - (quando pagos) claque
argumento - carrada, monte, monto, multido
arma - (quando tomadas dos inimigos) trofu
arroz - batelada
artigo - (quando heterogneo) mixrdia
artista - (quando trabalham juntos) companhia, elenco
rvore - quando em linha = alameda, carreira, rua, souto;
quando constituem macio = arvoredo, bosque; quando altas,
de troncos retos a aparentar parque artificial = malhada
asneira - acervo, chorrilho, enfiada, monte
asno - manada, rcova, rcua
assassino - choldra, choldraboldra
assistente - assistncia
astro - (quando reunidos a outros do mesmo grupo)
constelao
ator - elenco
autgrafo - (quando em lista especial de coleo)
lbum
ave - (quando em grande quantidade) bando, nuvem
avio - esquadro, esquadria, flotilha

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80

b) de verbos
SUFIXO

Observaes:
SENTIDO

EXEMPLIFICAO

-(a)(e)(i)nte

ao,
estado

-()()vel

possibilidade de praticar
ou sofrer uma ao

louvvel
punvel

-io, -(t)ivo

ao referncia, modo
de ser

t a r d i o
afirmativopensativo

-(d)io, -(t)
cio

possibilidade de praticar
ou sofrer uma ao,
referncia

m o v e d i o ,
quebradio, factcio

-(d)ouro,(t)rio

ao, pertinncia

c a s a d o u r o ,
preparatrio

qualidade,

semelhante, doente,
seguinte
perecvel

SUFIXOS ADVERBIAIS
Na Lngua Portuguesa, existe apenas um nico sufixo
adverbial: o sufixo -mente, derivado do substantivo
feminino latino mens, mentis que pode significar a mente,
o esprito, o intento.Este sufixo juntou-se a adjetivos, na
forma feminina, para indicar circunstncias, especialmente
a de modo.
Exemplos: altiva-mente, brava-mente, bondosa-mente,
nervosa-mente, fraca-mente, pia-mente
J os advrbios que se derivam de adjetivos terminados
em s (burgues-mente, portugues-mente, etc.) no seguem
esta regra, pois esses adjetivos eram outrora uniformes.
Exemplos: cabrito monts / cabrita monts.
SUFIXOS VERBAIS
Os sufixos verbais agregam-se, via de regra, ao radical
de substantivos e adjetivos para formar novos verbos.
Em geral, os verbos novos da lngua formam-se pelo
acrscimo da terminao-ar.
Exemplos: esqui-ar; radiograf-ar; (a)do-ar; nivel-ar;
(a)fin-ar; telefon-ar; (a)portugues-ar.
Os verbos exprimem, entre outras ideias, a prtica de
ao. Veja:
-ar: cruzar, analisar, limpar
-ear: guerrear, golear
-entar: afugentar, amamentar
-ficar: dignificar, liquidificar
-izar: finalizar, organizar

Verbo Frequentativo: aquele que traduz ao


repetida.
Verbo Factitivo: aquele que envolve ideia de fazer ou
causar.
Verbo Diminutivo: aquele que exprime ao pouco
intensa.

SINTAXE

Frase, orao e perodo so fatores constituintes de


qualquer texto escrito em prosa, pois o mesmo compe-se de
uma sequencia lgica de ideias, todas organizadas e dispostas
em pargrafos minuciosamente construdos.
FRASE
Frase todo enunciado de sentido completo, podendo
ser formada por uma s palavra ou por vrias, podendo ter
verbos ou no. A frase exprime, atravs da fala ou da escrita:
idias, emoes, ordens e apelos.
A frase se define pelo seu propsito comunicativo, ou
seja, pela sua capacidade de, num intercmbio lingustico,
transmitir um contedo satisfatrio para a situao em que
utilizada.
Exemplos:
O Brasil possui um grande potencial turstico.
Espantoso!
No v embora.
Silncio!
O telefone est tocando.
Observao: a frase que no possui verbo denomina-se
Frase Nominal.
Na lngua falada, a frase caracterizada pela entoao,
que indica nitidamente seu incio e seu fim. A entoao pode
vir acompanhada por gestos, expresses do rosto, do olhar,
alm de ser complementada pela situao em que o falante
se encontra. Esses fatos contribuem para que frequentemente
surjam frases muito simples, formadas por apenas uma
palavra.
Observe: Rua!

Ai!

Essas palavras, dotadas de entoao prpria, e


acompanhadas de gestos peculiares, so suficientes para
satisfazer suas necessidades expressivas.


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- Locues: no entanto; apesar disso; ainda assim; no


obstante.
Ex: A avestruz tem asas, mas no voa.
3- Oraes coordenadas conclusivas
Indicam uma concluso tirada do que se disse
anteriormente. Podem ser
introduzidas por:
- Conjunes: pois; portanto; logo.
- Locues: por consequncia; por conseguinte; pelo que,
por isso
Ex: A terra est molhada, logo choveu.
4- Oraes coordenadas disjuntivas
Exprimem alternncia, distino ou contraste. Podem ser
introduzidas por:
- Conjunes: ou (repetido ou no).
- Locues: ora...ora; quer...quer; seja...seja; seja...ou; j...
j; nem...nem.
Ex: Ora chove ora faz sol.
ORAES SUBORDINADAS
1- Oraes subordinadas temporais
Expressam a ideia de tempo. Podem ser introduzidas por:
- Conjunes: quando; enquanto;
- Locues: logo que; depois que; desde que;
Ex.: Ele chamou o elevador quando eu fechei a porta.
2- Oraes subordinadas causais
Expressam a ideia de causa ou o motivo. Podem ser
introduzidas por:
- Conjunes: porque; pois; como;
- Locues: visto que; pois que; por causa de;
Ex.: No vou sair, porque est a chover.
3- Oraes subordinadas finais
Expressam ideia de fim (objectivo). Podem ser introduzidas
por:
- Conjunes: para (= para que);
- Locues: para que; a fim de que;
Ex.: Estudem, para que passem de ano.
4- Oraes subordinadas condicionais
Expressam uma condio ou hiptese. Podem ser
introduzidas por:
- Conjunes: se;
- Locues: salvo se; excepto se; a no ser que;
Ex.: Se estudares tens o teu futuro garantido.
5- Oraes subordinadas consecutivas
Expressam uma consequncia. Podem ser introduzidas por:
- Conjunes: que (antecedida por tanto, de tal modo);
- Locues: de maneira que; de forma que; de modo que;
Ex.: Aindei chuva, de modo que fiquei constipado.

012345789
434 5
6- Oraes subordinadas comparativas
Expressam uma comparao. Podem ser introduzidas por:
- Conjunes: como, conforme;
- Locues: assim como... assim tambm; to... como;
Ex.: Aquele animal forte como um elefante.

CONCORDNCIA NOMINAL
E VERBAL

Concordncia Nominal
Regra Geral: a concordncia entre nomes, isto ,
os determinantes (adjetivo, artigo, pronome, numeral)
concordando com o substantivo a que se referem.
Ex: Aqueles meninos lindos desfilam hoje no evento de
moda.
Os professores e a diretora so competentes.
Casos Especiais:
1- Adjetivo
(posposto):

aps

dois

ou

mais

substantivos

a) Se os substantivos estiverem no mesmo nmero


(singular ou plural) o adjetivo pode concordar com o mais
prximo ou com o todo.
Ex: Comprei po e bolacha salgada. (mais prximo)
Comprei tomate e batata podre. (mais prximo)
Comprei po e bolacha salgados. (com o todo)
Comprei tomate e batata podres. (com o todo)
b) Um adjetivo referindo-se a substantivos de gnero
ou nmero diferente.
Ex: Casa e apartamento reformado. (mais prximo)
Casa e apartamento reformados. (com o todo)
Menino e menina enamorada
Menino e menina enamorados.
c) Dois ou mais adjetivos referindo-se a um nico
substantivo.
Ex: As selees brasileira e americana.
As polcias civil e militar.
As alunas italiana e espanhola.
Ou
A seleo brasileira e a americana.
A polcia civil e a militar.
A aluna italiana e a espanhola.

012345789
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96

10. (TRE-SP) Cada uma dessas pessoas ..........


muitas oportunidades de trabalho e s no .......... por
incompetncia.
a) teve - o aproveitaram
b) tiveram - as aproveitaram c) teve - a aproveitaram
d) teve - as aproveitou
e) tiveram - os aproveitou

012345789
434 5
REGNCIA NOMINAL E
VERBAL

Regncia Nominal
Quando os substantivos e adjetivos (nomes) no tm
sentido completo e estes necessitam de um complemento
preposicionado.Na anlise sinttica recebe o nome de
complemento nominal.

11. (TRE-SP) .......... que .......... ao mnimo a


quantidade de papis necessrios para obter esse
documento.
a) Foi noticiado est reduzida
b) Foram noticiados esto reduzidos
c) Foi noticiado esto reduzida
d) Foram noticiados est reduzido
e) Foi noticiado esto reduzidos
12. (TRE-SP) Que .......... de ns se no .......... os
direitos que nos .......... em qualquer circunstncia?
a) seria - fossem - defende
b) seramos - fosse - defende
c) seria - fosse - defendem
d) seramos - fossem - defendem
e) seria - fossem - defendem
13 . (TRE-MT) Tendo em vista as regras de
concordncia verbal, a forma do verbo sublinhado est
incorreta em:
a) Existem pessoas que no sabem fazer discurso de
improviso.
b) A maioria dos ministros prestigiou a posse de Pel.
c) Ficaram na sala eu e o ministro.
d) Nessa solenidade esto o presidente e o chefe de
Gabinete.
e) H pessoas que sempre falam mal do Governo.
14. (TRE-MT) A nica concordncia verbal correta
est na afirmativa:
a) O que fizeram Capitu e eu?
b) No relgio deu duas horas.
c) Fazem, hoje, dois meses de sua morte.
d) Houveram muitas discusses naquela reunio.
e) Os Estados Unidos so o pas mais poderoso do
mundo.
RESPOSTAS
1-D

2-C

3-E

4-E

5-E

6-A

7-C

8-A

9-D

10-D

11-A

12-D

13-D

14-E

Acessvel a, para, por


Acostumado a, com
Adaptado a
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Aflito com, por
Agradvel a, de, para
Alheio a, de
Alienado de:
Aluso a:
Amante de
Ambicioso de:
Analogia com, entre
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Ansioso de, para, por
Apto a, para
Assduo a, em
Atento a, em
Ausente a, de, em
Averso a, para, por
Avesso a:
vido de, por:
Bacharel em, por
Benfico a, para
Capaz de, para
Certo com, de, em, para
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Cuidadoso com:
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101

4. (UM-SP)
I - Certifiquei-o ............ que uma pessoa muito querida
aniversaria neste ms;
II - Lembre-se ............ que, baseada em caprichos, no
obter bons resultados;
III - Cientificaram-lhe ............ que aquela imagem
refletia a alvura de seu mundo interno. De acordo com a
regncia verbal, a preposio de cabe:
a) nos perodos I e II
b) apenas no perodo II
c) nos perodos I e III
d) em nenhum dos trs perodos
e) nos trs perodos
5. (PUCC) Assinale a letra correspondente alternativa
que preenche corretamente as lacunas da frase apresentada:
O projeto, ............ realizao sempre duvidara, exigiria toda
a dedicao .......... fosse capaz.
a) do qual a, que
d) que sua, de cuja
b) cuja a, da qual
e) cuja, a qual
c) de cuja, de que
6. (FMU) Assinale a nica alternativa incorreta quanto
regncia do verbo:
a) Perdoou nosso atraso no imposto.
b) Lembrou ao amigo que j era tarde.
c) Moraram na rua da Paz.
d) Meu amigo perdoou ao pai.
e) Lembrou de todos os momentos felizes.
7. (UFF) Assinale a frase que apresenta um erro de
regncia verbal:
a) Este autor tem idias com que todos ns
simpatizamos.
b) Eis a ordem de que nos insurgimos.
c) Aludiram a incidentes de que j ningum se
lembrava.
d) Qual o cargo a que aspiras?
e) H fatos que nunca esquecemos.
8. (CARLOS CHAGAS-BA) Quanto a amigos, prefiro
Joo ....... Paulo, .......... quem sinto ............ simpatia.
a) a, por, menos
d) do que, com, menos
b) do que, por, menos
e) do que, para, menos
c) a, para, menos
9. (CARLOS CHAGAS-BA) Como no .......... vi,
chamei o contnuo e mandei-.........., ento, ......... .
a) o - o - procur-lo
d) o - ele - procurar-lhe
b) lhe - o - procur-lo
e) lhe - lhe - procur-lo
c) lhe - lhe - procurar-lhe

012345789
434 5
10. (UF-PR) Preencha convenientemente as lacunas das
frases seguintes, indicando o conjunto obtido:
1. A planta ............ frutos so venenosos foi derrubada.
2. O estado ............ capital nasci este.
3. O escritor ............ obra falei morreu ontem.
4. Este o livro ........... pginas sempre me referi.
5. Este o homem ............ causa lutei.
a) em cuja, cuja, de cuja, a cuja, por cuja
b) cujos, em cuja, de cuja, cujas, cuja
c) cujos, em cuja, de cuja, a cujas, por cuja
d) cujos, cujas, cuja, a cujas, por cuja
e) cuja, em cuja, cuja, cujas, cuja
RESPOSTAS
1-D
6-E

2-B
7-B

3-C
8-A

4-A
9-B

5-C
10-C

CRASE
A crase a unio do A + A dos termos abaixo relacionados
e representada pelo acento grave (`) ou metaforicamente
um casamento perfeito entre:
O A preposio mais o A artigo:
Referia-me s meninas.
(Referir-se a + as meninas)
Ofereci um jantar professora.
(oferecer a + a professora)
O A dos pronomes demonstrativos Aquele(s),
Aquela(s) e Aquilo:
Referia-me quele menino.
(Nota-se que aqui ocorre a fuso com o A do
demonstrativo desconsiderando que aquele utilizado como
palavra masculina).
O juiz referiu-se quela condenada.
Referia-me quilo.
O A dos pronomes relativos A qual e As quais:
A cidade qual me referi magnfica.
O stio ao qual me referi magnfico.
Ateno: Utiliza-se a substituio do correlato.
(a palavra feminina substituda por uma masculina
e vice-versa)
Alerta: Crase no o acento grave!
*Crase X Lugar
Lembre-se de que:
Vou a .... volto da : crase h!
Vou a .... volto de: crase pra qu?

012345789
434 5

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104

7. (TRE-RJ) a tenso social poderia levar-nos a


duas extremas posies. Das expresses que substituem
a sublinhada na passagem acima, aquela cujo a pode ter o
acento grave indicativo de crase :
a) a mesma posio
b) a certa posio
c) a alguma posio
d) a qualquer posio
8. (TRE-RO)
I - O povo da regio vai votar p ou cavalo;
II - Pedimos V. Excelncia que no se esquea do
povo, que no o elegeu toa.
III - O cabo eleitoral dirigiu-se ela e ensinou-lhe a
copiar o nome.
IV - Permaneceram reunidos noite, face a face, a
conversar.
A ocorrncia de crase est corretamente indicada:
a) somente na I
b) somente na II
c) somente na III
d) somente na IV
e) somente na II e na IV
9. (TRE-MT) A nica frase em que o a sublinhado
deveria ser grafado com o acento grave indicativo de crase
:
a) Estou pronto a discutir o novo projeto.
b) Pel far uma viagem a Roma.
c) O presidente no fez aluso a qualquer ministro.
d) Vamos a sala vizinha, disse o ministro.
e) Preferiu morrer a entregar-se.
10. (TRE-RJ) O a (sublinhado) que dever levar o
acento grave indicativo de crase est na seguinte alternativa:
a) Eles entregam pizza a domiclio.
b) O menino no quis ir a casa dos tios.
c) A encomenda foi entregue a uma pessoa estranha.
d) As moas comearam a gritar logo no incio do filme.
e) O fiscal no se referia a candidatas, mas a candidatos.

2-E
7-A

3-D
8-D

4-B
9-A

COLOCAO PRONOMINAL

Colocao pronominal: o conjunto de regras referentes


colocao dos pronomes pessoais e oblquos que funcionam
como complementos (objetos): me, te, se, o, lhe, a, nos, vos,
se, os, as, lhes. Classificam-se em: Prclise, Mesclise e
nclise.
Prclise (pronome colocado antes do verbo) - Ocorre
nos seguintes casos:
1- Palavras de sentido negativo, Pronome indefinido,
Pronome relativo, com alguns advrbios, Conjunes
subordinadas, Gerndio regido de preposio em.
No me irrite. Nada me impedir.
Tudo me permitido. Algum me entender.
Tudo quanto me disseste falso.
Aqui se vive bem.
Se mame o encontrar, mat-lo- sem d nem piedade.
Em se tratando de flores, prefiro orqudeas a rosas
vermelhas.
2- Nas oraes optativas (aquelas que expressam
desejo) de sujeito anteposto ao verbo, nas oraes
exclamativas e nas interrogativas.
Deus o abenoe!. Deus te proteja! (optativas)
Quantos corruptos que se livraram da cassao!
Por que me acusas?
Mesclise (pronome colocado no meio do verbo)
- Ocorre somente com os verbos no futuro do presente do
indicativo ou no futuro do pretrito do indicativo, se no tiver
nenhum fator que influencie a prclise ou a nclise.
Ex: Falar-me- do ocorrido assim que chegar a minha
casa.
Convid-lo-ei para a grande inaugurao do museu.
Dar-te-ia meu corao se no tivesse brincado com meus
sentimentos.
nclise (pronome colocado depois do verbo)

RESPOSTAS
1-D
6-A

012345789
434 5

5-E
10-B

Ex:
Falava-me tristemente do termino do casamento.
Disseram-me que ele partiu nesta manh.
D-me um refrigerante, mame.


 
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PONTUAO

Pontuao o conjunto de sinais grficos que indica na


escrita as pausas da linguagem oral.

Com certas conjunes. Neste caso tambm usado


o duplo emprego da vrgula:
Isso, entretanto, no foi suficiente para agradar o diretor.

Aps a primeira parte de um provrbio.


O que os olhos no vem, o corao no sente.

Em alguns casos de termos oclusos:


Eu gostava de ma, de pra e de abacate.
RETICNCIAS

PONTO
O ponto empregado em geral para indicar o final de
uma frase declarativa. Ao trmino de um texto, o ponto
conhecido como final. Nos casos comuns ele chamado de
simples.
Tambm usado nas abreviaturas: Sr. (Senhor), d.C.
(depois de Cristo), a.C. (antes de Cristo), E.V. (rico
Verssimo).
PONTO DE INTERROGAO
usado para indicar pergunta direta.
Onde est seu irmo?
s vezes, pode combinar-se com o ponto de
exclamao.
A mim ?! Que idia!
PONTO DE EXCLAMAO
usado depois das interjeies, locues ou frases
exclamativas.
Cus! Que injustia! Oh! Meus amores! Que bela
vitria!
jovens! Lutemos!
VRGULA
A vrgula deve ser empregada toda vez que houver uma
pequena pausa na fala. Emprega-se a vrgula:

Nas datas e nos endereos:


So Paulo, 17 de setembro de 1989.
Largo do Paissandu, 128.

No vocativo e no aposto:
Meninos, prestem ateno!
Termpilas, o meu amigo, escritor.

Nos termos independentes entre si:


O cinema, o teatro, a praia e a msica so as suas
diverses.

Com certas expresses explicativas como: isto , por


exemplo. Neste caso usado o duplo emprego da vrgula:
Ontem teve incio a maior festa da minha cidade, isto ,
a festa da padroeira.

Aps alguns adjuntos adverbiais:


No dia seguinte, viajamos para o litoral.

So usadas para indicar suspenso ou interrupo


do pensamento.
No me disseste que era teu pai que ...

Para realar uma palavra ou expresso.


Hoje em dia, mulher casa com po e passa fome...

Para indicar ironia, malcia ou qualquer outro


sentimento.
Aqui jaz minha mulher. Agora ela repousa, e eu
tambm...
PONTO E VRGULA

Separar oraes coordenadas de certa extenso ou


que mantm alguma simetria entre si.
Depois, lracema quebrou a flecha homicida; deu a
haste ao desconhecido, guardando consigo a ponta farpada.

Para separar oraes coordenadas j marcadas por


vrgula ou no seu interior.
Eu, apressadamente, queria chamar Socorro; o motorista,
porm, mais calmo, resolveu o problema sozinho.
DOIS PONTOS

Enunciar a fala dos personagens:


Ele retrucou: No vs por onde pisas?

Para indicar uma citao alheia:


Ouvia-se, no meio da confuso, a voz da central de
informaes de passageiros do vo das nove: queiram
dirigir-se ao porto de embarque.

Para explicar ou desenvolver melhor uma palavra


ou expresso anterior:
Desastre em Roma: dois trens colidiram frontalmente.

Enumerao aps os apostos:


Como trs tipos de alimento: vegetais, carnes e amido.
TRAVESSO
Marca, nos dilogos, a mudana de interlocutor, ou serve
para isolar palavras ou frases
Quais so os smbolos da ptria?
Que ptria?


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A EXPANSO ULTRAMARINA PORTUGUESA
DOS SCULOS XV E XVI

As grandes navegaes foram um conjunto de viagens


martimas que expandiram os limites do mundo conhecido
at ento. Mares nunca antes navegados, terras, povos,
flora e fauna comearam a ser descobertas pelos europeus.
E muitas crenas passadas de gerao a gerao, foram
conferidas, confirmadas, ou desmentidas. Eram crenas de
que os oceanos eram povoados por animais gigantescos ou
que em outros lugares habitavam seres estranhos e perigosos.
Ou que a terra poderia acabar a qualquer momento no meio
do oceano, o que faria os navios carem no nada.
Os motivos
O motivo poderoso que fez alguns europeus desafiar
o desconhecido, enfrentando medo, foi a necessidade de
encontrar um novo caminho para se chegar s regies
produtoras de especiarias, de sedas, de porcelana, de ouro,
enfim, da riqueza.
Outros fatores favoreceram a concretizao desse
objetivo:
Comerciantes e reis aliados j estavam se organizando
para isso com capitais e estruturando o comrcio
internacional;
A tecnologia necessria foi obtida com a divulgao
de invenes chinesas, como a plvora (que dava mais
segurana para enfrentar o mundo desconhecido), a
bssola, e o papel. A inveno da imprensa por Gutenberg
popularizou os conhecimentos antes restritos aos conventos.
E, finalmente, a construo de caravelas, que impulsionadas
pelo vento dispensavam uma quantidade enorme de mo-deobra para remar o barco como se fazia nas galeras nos mares
da antiguidade, e era mais prpria para enfrentar as imensas
distncias nos oceanos;
Histrias como a de Marcopolo e Prestes Joo aguavam
a imaginao e o esprito de aventura;
At a Igreja Catlica envolveu-se nessas viagens,
interessada em garantir a catequese dos infiis e pagos, que
substituiriam os fiis perdidos para as Igrejas Protestantes.

Os pioneiros
Os dois primeiros pases que possuam essas condies
favorveis eram Portugal e Espanha.
Portugal, conhecedor de que as ndias (como
genericamente era chamado o Oriente), ficava a Leste,
decidiu navegar nessa direo, contornando os obstculos
que fossem surgindo. Optou pelo Ciclo Oriental.
J a Espanha apostou no projeto trazido pelo genovs
Cristvo Colombo, que acreditava na idia da esfericidade
da terra, e que bastaria navegar sempre em direo do ocidente
para se contornar a terra e se atingir as ndias. Era o Ciclo
Ocidental. E a disputa estava iniciada entre os dois pases.
Conquistas Portuguesas
Partindo de Lisboa, aps a beno do sacerdote e
da despedida do povo, caravela aps caravela deixava
Portugal, voltando com notcias e lucros sempre crescentes.
Inicialmente contornando a frica em:
1415 conquistaram Ceuta;
durante o sculo XV o litoral da frica e Ilha da
Madeira, Aores, Cabo Verde e Cabo Bojador;
1488 chegaram ao Sul da frica, contornando o Cabo
da Boa Esperana;
1498 atingiram a ndia com Vasco da Gama. O objetivo
fora atingido.
Conquistas Espanholas
Espanha comeou a navegar mais tarde, s aps
conseguir expulsar os rabes de seu territrio. Mas em 1492,
Cristvo Colombo obteve do rei espanhol as trs caravelas,
Santa Maria, Pinta e Nina, com as quais deveria dar a volta
ao mundo e chegar s ndias. Aps um ms de angstias e
apreenses chegou a terra firme, pensando ter atingido seu
destino. Retorna Espanha, recebendo todas as glrias pelo
seu feito.
Portugal apressou-se a garantir tambm para si as
vantagens dessa descoberta e, em 1494, assinou com a Espanha
o famoso Tratado das Tordesilhas, que simplesmente dividia
o mundo entre os dois pioneiros das grandes navegaes. Foi
traada uma linha imaginria que passava a 370 lguas de
Cabo Verde. As terras a Leste desta linha seriam portuguesas
e as que ficavam a Oeste seriam espanholas. Foi assim que
parte do Brasil ficou pertencendo a Portugal seis anos antes
de Portugal aqui chegar.
Infelizmente para Colombo, descobriu-se pouco depois
que ele no havia chegado s ndias, e apenas tinha
descoberto um novo continente, que recebeu o nome de
Amrica, em homenagem a Amrico Vespcio que foi o
navegador que constatou isso.


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