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Introduction to Non Destructive Testing

NDT
Ability
to detect the condition of the object without destroying the functionality of th
e object BASIC METHODS
Visual Inspection - VT
Penetrant Testing - PT Magnetic Pa
rticle Testing- MT Ultrasonic Testing - UT
Radiographic Testing - RT

Visual Inspection
Inspection object surface visually is called Visual Inspection May or may not us
e accessories Gauges for identifying the dimensions of surface Magnifying glasse
s Borescope for internal inspection Thermal chalks, Thermocouple, for the temper
ature measurement Etching for checking surface condition

Etching
for
identification of gross metallurgical discontinuity such as in welds.
For detect
ing the surface opening Fore runner to Penetrant Testing Different Etchants avai
lable for different metals

Advantages & Disadvantages


Advantages
Simple
Less training required Relatively less costly equipment Disadv
antages
Slow Inspector Fatigue is more
Surrounding environmental factors are imp
ortant

Penetrant Inspection
Is
a method that reveals discontinuities open to surface by the seepage of a liquid
penetrant medium into a surface open discontinuity which seeps out after removi
ng the excess penetrant revealing the discontinuity

Stages of Penetrant Testing


Pre
cleaning
Application of penetrant
Dwell Time
ation of Developer Inspection
Post Cleaning

Cleaning of Excess penetrant

Applic

DYE SYSTEMS
SOLVENT REMOVABLE DYE

DYE SYSTEMS
WATER WASHABLE DYE
POST EMULSIFICATION DYE

PT Indications

Penetrant Testing
Advantages
Simple method
Easy to train personnel
open defects can be detected

Cheap

Quick Disadvantages

Only

Magnetic Particle Testing


When
a ferromagnetic material is magnetised the flux lines flow inside the component
When there is a discontinuity in the material there is flux leakage The leaking
flux attracts a magnetic medium resulting in an indication.

Types of magnetisation
Longitudinal
Magnetisation
AC

Circular Magnetisation

Magnetisation

DC Magnetisation

HWDC magnetisation

Magnetic Particle Testing


COIL METHOD YOKE METHOD.

Types of Magnetisation Circular Magnetisation


HEAD SHOT METHOD
PROD METHOD
CENTRAL CONDUCTOR

Magnetic Particle Testing


PROD METHOD

MAGNETIC MEDIUM
Dry
Wet
Fluorescent
Requires Ultra violet lamp in darkened area More sensitive than
Non
Fluorescent

Magnetic Medium - Dry


Medium
Dry Medium
microns
Mixture of spherical and elongated powders Spherical shape helps in mobi
lity Elongated shape helps in alignment to magnetic field
about 30 50

MAGNETIC MEDIUM - WET


Oxides
of iron used in suspension with water, kerosene, petroleum oil.
crons More sensitive than dry medium

Size : 20- 30 mi

Demagnetisation
Residual
magnetism affects further operation such as welding.
Demagnetisation is preferab
ly done with AC
Object is moved slowly away from coil
After demagnetisation resi
dual magnetism is checked with gauss meters

Magnetic Particle Testing


Pre
- Cleaning
netization

Magnetisation

Applying magnetic medium

Inspection

Post cleaning

Demag

Magnetisation
Magnetisation
to be applied in two mutually perpendicular direction
Magnetic medium to applied
when the magnetisation is ON Adequacy of field to be checked by field indicator (
Pie Gage ) Magnetic medium could be wet or dry / Fluorescent or non-fluorescent

Advantages & Disadvantages


Advantages
For detecting surface & sub-surface discontinuity
Can be tested rapid
ly Not very costly
Relatively less skill required for testing Disadvantages
Only
useful in ferro-magnetic materials Demagnetisation may be required for many of
the parts

Ultrasonic Testing
A
beam of high frequency wave is introduced into the test object which gets reflec
ted from the surface of any discontinuity
Used to detect and locate the surface
and internal discontinuities Amplitude of a reflected sound pulse is nearly prop
ortional to the size of the reflector

Ultrasonic Testing

For Detecting internal flaws For almost all the materials metals, ceramic, rubbe
r, composites etc.. Requires only one side access Portable equipment Non hazardo
us Can test up to about 10 m of steel

Ultrasonic Testing

ULTRASONIC TESTING PULSE ECHO TECHNIQUE


Transducer acts as a pulser and receiver Can detect the location and depth of de
fect Only one side access is required

ULTRASONIC TESTING THROUGH TRANSMISSION TECHNIQUE


Separate transmitter and receiver Accurate Alignement of transmitter and receive
r required Cannot locate the depth of defect

PROBES
NORMAL BEAM PROBE
DUAL CRYSTAL PROBE

Test Procedure
Calculate
scanning zones
Calibrate unit
Draw DAC Scan
When indications observed - check th
e height of signal, location Calculate location and size of discontinuity
Scanning patterns

Location of defects
BP : Beam Path Depth of defect :
BP
D = BP Cos Position of defect P = BP Sin
IE
DEFECT ECHO

Rdiogrphy Testing
Employs
x rys or gmm rys to penetrte n object, detect discontinuities by recording
the difference on recording device For internl flws
Permnent record
Rdit
ion Sfety is mjor concern

Bsic Principle
X
ry mchines or Ir 192 or Co 60 min sources of rdition
Hole type or Wire type
penetrmeters used for checking sensitivity of rdiogrph
Source Rdition

Rdiogrphy
Uses
Penetrmeters for ensuring the qulity of the rdiogrphy procedure
Penetrmeter
s re hole type nd wire type
Sufficient rdiogrphic density is required for th
e rdiogrph for proper evlution

Techniques
Single Wll Single Imge
Job Film Weld
Double wll Single imge
Source Rdition

Techniques
Double Wll Double Imge
Job Film Weld
Pnormic Exposure
Source Rdition

DOUBLE WALL DOUBLE IMAGE


ASTM Hole Type Penetrmeter
SINGLE WALL SINGLE IMAGE

DIN Wire Type Penetrmeter


Tungsten Tungsten Inclusion Inclusion
Porosity
Porosity

Slg Inclusion

POROSITY