Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 4

Abstract The irreversible demagnetization of permanent

magnet due to the armature reaction during the starting process


of line-start permanent magnet synchronous motor (LSPMSM)
has the tremendous influence on the performance, even makes
the electrical machine unable to work. This paper adopts the two-
dimensional time-stepping finite element method to calculate the
demagnetization of permanent magnet, and analyze the
influencing factors, such as the load factor and the inertia factor,
the initial rotor position, and the supply voltage amplitude.
Finally, the experiment validates the creditability of the
calculation results of the finite element method.
I. INTRODUCTION
Currently, the line-start permanent magnet synchronous
motor (LSPMSM) applied in industry generally faces the
demagnetization problem [1]-[2]. The demagnetization of
permanent magnets will cause the motor's excitation
electromotive force reduced and the output torque dropped,
and even make the motor unable to work, which then seriously
hamper the further promotion and application of LSPMSM.
Therefore, the research of the influences of a variety of factors
on demagnetization of permanent magnet motor has great
significance.
There are many influencing factors on the permanent
magnet demagnetization, such as temperature, structural
parameters, and armature reaction. Temperature has
influenced the permanent magnet demagnetization curve and
the conductor resistivity, which then affected the motor's
starting performance and the output torque, the efficiency in
motor's stable operation [3]-[4]. For reducing the temperature
of the permanent magnet, a well-designed ventilation structure
is introduced [5]. The demagnetization characteristics of the
permanent magnet motor with different rotor structures have
been studied [6]-[7]. The motor's anti-demagnetization ability
has been improved by changing the placement of permanent
magnets [8].
Due to the armature reaction magnetic field, the magnets
in LSPMSM are easily demagnetized especially during the
starting process. When the composite magnetic field
(produced by the currents of rotor bar and stator winding) is in
the opposite direction of the permanent magnetic field
(produced by the permanent magnet), the magnet's average
working point is low, and the irreversible demagnetization is
most probably to occur [9], which will seriously influence the
performances of LSPMSM. So it is necessary to analyze the
impact of the armature reaction on the permanent magnet
demagnetization.
In this paper, a LSPMSM has been taken as an example.
The multiple influencing factors on armature reaction
demagnetization have been studied by the two-dimensional
time-stepping finite element method.
II. ANALYSIS MODEL
A. Design Parameters and Model
The example LSPMSM is a 22 kW 8 poles 'V-type'
magnetic structure machine. Its main design data and flux
distribution model are respectively given in Table I and Fig.1.
TABLE I
22KW LSPMSM DESIGN PARAMETERS
Design Parameters Value
Number of stator/rotor slots 48/40
Rated speed 750 r/min
Outer diameter of stator 368 mm
Inner diameter of stator 260 mm
Air gap length 0.65 mm
Axial length of stator core 215 mm
Thickness of magnet 5.3 mm
Magnet material NdFeB


Fig. 1. Flux distribution model.
B. Analysis Method
Two-dimensional time-stepping finite element method is
usually used to analyze the transient performance of the motor,
which can consider the saturation, eddy current and skin effect.
The starting performance such as speed, winding currents and
electromagnetic torque can be obtained by this method. The
flux density in each element of the permanent magnet can also
be obtained, and then the average working point of the magnet
is calculated.
Influencing Factors on the Demagnetization of
Line-start Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
during Its Starting Process
Weifu Lu
1
, Mingji Liu
1
, Yingli Luo
1
, Yang Liu
2

1
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, China
2
Henan Polytechnic Institute, Nanyang, Henan, China
E-mail: xiaoluweifu@126.com

The equation of the electromagnetic field of the permanent
magnet motor can be presented in (1) [10].
s
1 2 c
1 1
( ) ( ) ( )
0 ( 1)
( 2)
G
x x y y t




+ = +


A A A
J
A
A A

n n
(1)
Where, A is nodal magnetic vector potential, Js is current
density, and is permeability, is conductivity; G is solved
region, 1 is stator outer circle boundary, 2 is junction of
permanent magnet and other mediums; v
1
and v
2
are
reluctivities of different mediums,
c
is equivalent surface
current density of permanent magnet, and
c
=H
c
n, where H
c
is coercivity of permanent magnet, n is outer normal unit
vector of the boundary of permanent magnet.
The discrete equation of the electromagnetic boundary
value problem, coupling with the circuit equation and motion
equation, can be presented by matrix as in (2).

s s
r r
T
s s s
r r
m m
A
0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0
t
J T


K S B A
R I
+ R I
A H
P A F
M L I U
N L I 0
(2)
Where, F
A
is column vector of the permanent magnet
equivalent surface current density, U
s
is voltage source, T
m
is
electromagnetic torque, I
s
and I
r
are stator winding current and
rotor end-ring current respectively, is rotor mechanical
angular velocity, and is angle of rotor position.
The above field-circuit coupled time-stepping finite
element method will be used to analyze the armature reaction
demagnetization during the starting process of LSPMSM.
III. DEMAGNETIZATION DURING STARTING PROCESS
The composite magnetic field produced by the currents of
rotor bar and stator winding rotates at n
1
synchronous speed,
and the permanent magnetic field produced by the permanent
magnet rotates with rotor at (1-s)n
1
speed, where s is the slip
ratio.
The composite magnetic field's position is represented by
the composite magnetic motive force (MMF) F

as in Fig.2,
while the permanent magnetic field's position is represented
by d-axis magnet pole. When F

is in the same direction of d-
axis, the composite magnetic field with respect to the
permanent magnetic field is increasing magnetism. Contrarily,
when F

is in the opposite direction of d-axis, the composite
magnetic field with respect to the permanent magnetic field is
decreasing magnetism.


d- axis
n
1

( 1s) n
1
F




F
n
1
(1s) n
1

d-a xis

(a) Increased magnetism (b) Decreased magnetism
Fig. 2. Moments of increased magnetism and decreased magnetism during the
starting process.
Taking the no-load starting process of LSPMSM for
example, the speed and the magnet's average working point
flux density are shown in Fig.3.
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
-200
0
200
400
600
800
1000
Time(s)
S
p
e
e
d
(
r
/
m
i
n
)

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Time(s)
M
a
g
n
e
t
'
s

A
v
e
r
a
g
e

W
o
r
k
i
n
g

P
o
i
n
t
(
T
)

(a) Speed (b) Magnet's average working point


-60 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Speed(r/min)
M
a
g
n
e
t
'
s

A
v
e
r
a
g
e

W
o
r
k
i
n
g

P
o
i
n
t
(
T
)

(c) Magnet's average working point versus speed
Fig. 3. Speed and magnet's average working point flux density during the no-
load starting process of LSPMSM.
From Fig.3, it can be seen that, at about speed of 400
revolutions per minute, the magnet's average working point
flux density reaches the largest demagnetization point nearly
equals 0.2T, which will cause the irreversible demagnetization
especially when the point is lower than the knee point of the
demagnetization curve; at about 0.1s, the speed is close to
synchronous speed, and the relative position of F

and d-axis
keeps constant, the magnet's average working point flux
density becomes steady.
IV. INFLUENCING FACTORS ON ARMATURE REACTION
A. Different Load Factors and Different Inertia Factors
Compared to the no-load starting process, when starts
under large load or large moment of inertia, the time of
starting process becomes longer, and it is more likely for the
permanent magnets demagnetization.
Fig.4 compares the speed and the magnet's average
working point flux density during the starting process under
different load factors, such as 0, 1 or 2 times of rated load. It
can be seen that, with the increasing of the load factor, the
start-up time becomes longer and the lower flux density points
The largest demagnetization point

become more, which will make the permanent magnets more
likely demagnetized.
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35
0
200
400
600
800
1000
Time(s)
S
p
e
e
d
(
r
/
m
i
n
)


Load Factor=0
Load Factor=1
Load Factor=2

(a) Speed
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
Time(s)
M
a
g
n
e
t
's

A
v
e
r
a
g
e

W
o
r
k
i
n
g

P
o
i
n
t
(
T
)


Load Factor=0
Load Factor=1
Load Factor=2

(b) Magnet's average working point
Fig. 4. Speed and magnet's average working point flux density during the
starting process under different load factors.
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
0
200
400
600
800
1000
Time(s)
S
p
e
e
d
(
r
/
m
i
n
)


Inertia Factor=1
Inertia Factor=3
Inertia Factor=6

(a) Speed
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Time(s)
M
a
g
n
e
t
's

A
v
e
r
a
g
e

W
o
r
k
i
n
g

P
o
i
n
t
(
T
)


Inertia Factor=1
Inertia Factor=3
Inertia Factor=6

(b) Magnet's average working point
Fig. 5. Speed and magnet's average working point flux density during the
starting process under different inertia factors.
Fig.5 compares the speed and the magnet's average
working point flux density during the starting process under
different inertia factors, such as 1, 3 or 6 times of rated inertia.
With the increasing of the inertia factor, the start-up time
becomes longer and the lower flux density points become
more, which will make the permanent magnets more likely
demagnetized.
B. Different Initial Rotor Positions
The initial rotor position affects the starting performance
especially during the light-load starting process, which will
affect the permanent magnet demagnetization obviously. Fig.6
compares the speed and the magnet's average working point
flux density during the no-load starting process with different
initial rotor position angles, such as 0, 60 or 90.
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35
0
200
400
600
800
1000
Time(s)
S
p
e
e
d
(
r
/
m
i
n
)


Intial Position Angle=0
Intial Position Angle=60
Intial Position Angle=90

(a) Speed
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Time(s)
M
a
g
n
e
t
's

A
v
e
r
a
g
e

W
o
r
k
i
n
g

P
o
i
n
t
(
T
)


Intial Position Angle=0
Intial Position Angle=60
Intial Position Angle=90

(b) Magnet's average working point
Fig. 6. Speed and magnet's average working point flux density during the no-
load starting process with different initial rotor position angles.
0 50 100 150 200 250
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
Initial Rot or Posit ion(deg)
T
h
e

L
o
w
e
s
t

P
o
i
n
t

F
l
u
x

D
e
n
s
i
t
y
(
T
)

Fig.7. Minimum of the magnet's flux density versus the initial rotor position
As shown in Fig.7, the lowest point flux density during the
no-load starting process varies with the initial rotor position.
When starts at the initial rotor position of 90 electrical angle,
the demagnetization is most severe. Therefore, the initial rotor
position should be considered carefully especially during the
light-load starting process. However, analysis results show
that when heavy-load starts, the initial rotor position has little
effects on the starting performance.
C. Different Supply Voltage Amplitude
The supply voltage amplitude fluctuates about 10% when
the motor is supplied by the network voltage. Fig.8 compares
the speed and the magnet's average working point flux density
with different supply voltages. It's known that, the supply
voltage root mean square value U
ph
is lower, the start-up time
is longer, and it's more likely for the permanent magnets
demagnetization.

0 0.5 1 1.5
0
200
400
600
800
Time(s)
S
p
e
e
d
(
r
/
m
i
n
)


Uph=198V
Uph=220V
Uph=242V

(a) Speed
0 0.5 1 1.5
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Time(s)
M
a
g
n
e
t
's

A
v
e
r
a
g
e

W
o
r
k
i
n
g

P
o
i
n
t
(
T
)


Uph=198V
Uph=220V
Uph=242V

(b) Magnet's average working point
Fig. 8. Speed and magnet's average working point flux density during the
large load and large inertia starting process with different supply voltages.
V. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF FINITE ELEMENT
ANALYSIS
Experiments are carried out to verify the creditability of
the finite element method to analyze the demagnetization. A
line-start permanent magnet motor with solid rotor is taken as
the experimental motor [10]. In order to place the Hall effect
sensor for measuring the permanent magnet's flux density, a
slot was milled out on the side of permanent magnet as shown
in Fig.9.

Fig.9. LSPMSM with solid rotor for experiment.
0.5
0.52
0.54
0.56
0.58
0.6
0.62
0.64
0 -3 -6 -9 -12
Id(A)
F
l
u
x

D
e
n
s
i
t
y
(
T
)
Simulation result
Measurement result

Fig.10. Comparison of calculation and measurement results of permanent
magnet's flux density.
During the experiments procedure, the rotor is kept steady,
and the stator three-phase winding are applied by DC current.
The synthesis of the three-phase DC current is made to
produce demagnetization field with respect to the permanent
magnets. Then the curve of the measured flux density, varied
with the demagnetization current I
d
, is obtained as shown in
Fig.10. Fig.10 shows that the calculation results analyzed by
finite element method are basically consistent with the
measured results, which indirectly verified the validity of the
finite element method to calculate the demagnetization of
permanent magnet and analyze the influencing factors.
VI. CONCLUSION
In this paper, the armature reaction demagnetization during
the starting process of LSPMSM has been calculated, and the
variety of influencing factors has been studied. Analysis
results show that, the magnet demagnetization is more prone
to occur when start-up time is longer because of larger load or
larger inertia or lower supply voltage, or because of a specific
initial rotor position especially during the light-load starting
process. Therefore, to reduce the risk of permanent magnets
demagnetization, the above influencing factors should be
comprehensively considered in design and operation of
LSPMSM.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The project is supported by the Nature Science Foundation
of China (No. 50777018) and Chinese Universities Scientific
Fund.
REFERENCES
[1] Jing Lian, Yafu Zhou, Teng Ma, Xiaoyong Shen, and Mengdong Mi,
Design of doubly salient permanent magnet motor for small
displacement ISG mild hybrid, Proceedings of IEEE International
Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, pp. 4698 -4703, 2009.
[2] C. Versele, A. De Greve, F.Vallee, R. Hanuise, O. Deblecker,
M.Delhaye, et al. ,Analytical design of an axial flux permanent magnet
in-wheel synchronous motor for electric vehicle, European Conference
on Power Electronics and Applications, pp. 1-9, 2009.
[3] Yubo Yang, Xiuhe Wang, Wei Song, and Renyuan Tang, Study on the
performance sensitivity to ambient temperature for permanent magnet
synchronous motor used in pump jack, ICEMS, vol.1, pp. 116-119,
2003.
[4] Sebastian, T., Temperature effects on torque production and efficiency
of PM motors using NdFeB magnets, IEEE Trans on Industry
Applicantions, vol.31, No. 2, pp. 353-357, 1995.
[5] Junqiang Xing, Fengxiang Wang, Tianyu Wang, and Yingbo ZHANG,
Study on anti-demagnetization of magnet for high speed permanent
magnet machine, IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity,
vol.20, pp.856-860, 2010.
[6] Ki-Chan Kim, Kwangsoo Kim, Hee Jun Kim, and Ju LEE,
Demagnetization analysis of permanent magnets according to rotor
types of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor, IEEE Trans. on
Magn, vol.45, No.6, pp. 2799-2802, 2009.
[7] M. Rosu, A. Arkkio, T. Jokinen, J. Mantere, and J. Westerlund,
Demagnetization state of permanent magnets in large output power
permanent magnet synchronous motor, International Conference on
Electric Machines and Drives, pp. 776-778, 1999.
[8] Gyu-Hong Kang, Jin Hur, Hyuk Nam, Jung-Pyo Hong, and Gyu-Tak
Kim, Analysis of irreversible magnet demagnetization in line-start
motors based on the finite-element method, IEEE Trans. on Magn,
vol.39, No.3, pp. 1488-1491, 2003.
[9] Renyuan Tang, Modern permanent magnet machinestheory and
design, 1st ed. Beijing: Mechanical Industry Press, 1997, pp. 185-188.
[10] Weifu Lu, Mingji Liu, Yingli Luo, and Jian Zhang, Demagnetization
field analysis and calculation for line-start permanent magnet
synchronous motor during start process, Proceedings of the CSEE,
vol.31, no.15, pp.53-60, 2011(in Chinese).

Hall Effect Sensor Location