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THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA

OF INDIA
PART- I
VOLUME I
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE
DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbreviations | Appendices
Legal Notices | General Notices
CONTENTS
Legal Notices
General Notices
MONOGRAPHS
Sl. No. Plant Name Botanical Name
Page No.
(as per book)
1 AJAGANDH (Seed) Cleome gynandra Linn 1
2 AJAMOD (Fri!) A"im le"!o"#yllm ($er%&)
F&'&M&e( )en!#
2
* MALA+, (Fre%# Fri! "l") Em-li.a o//i.inali% Gaer!n& 0
0 MALA+, (Dried /ri!) Em-li.a o//i.inali% Gaer!n& 1
1 2AG'ADHA (Fri! "l") Ca%%ia /i%!la Linn 3
4 A2+A (2oo!) Calo!ro"i% "ro.era (Ai!&) 2&)r& 5
3 A2+A (Lea/) Calo!ro"i% "ro.era (Ai!&) 2&)r& 16
5 ASANA (Hear! 7ood) $!ero.ar"% mar%"im 2o(-& 12
8 A9O+A (S!em -ar:) Sara.a a%o.a (2o%.) DC ;illd 10
16 A9'AGANDH (2oo!) ;i!#ania %omni/era Dnal 11
11 A9'ATTHA ()ar:) Fi.% religio%a Linn& 13
12 ATAS, (Seed) Linm %i!a!i%%imm Linn 18
1* AT<)AL (2oo!) A-!ilon indi.m (Linn) S7 26
10 AT<'<= (2oo!) A.on!m #e!ero"#yllm ;all& E(
2oyle
22
11 )A))>LA (S!em -ar:) A.a.ia nilo!i.a (Linn ) ;illd& E( &
Del &S"& <ndi.a ( )en!# ) )renan
20
14 )+?C, (Fri!) $%oralea .oryli/olia Linn 21
13 )<)H,TA+A (Fri!) Terminalia -eleri.a 2o(-& 24
15 )<L'A (Fri! "l") Aegle marmelo% Corr& 23
18 CAND2A9>2A (Seed) Le"idim %a!i@m Linn& 24
26 C<T2A+A (2oo!) $lm-ago Aeylani.al Linn 28
21 DHNBA+A (Fri!) Coriandrm %a!i@m Linn *6
22 DHTA+, (Flo7er) ;ood/ordia /ri!i.o%a (Linn ) +rA *2
2* E2ACDA (2oo!) 2i.in% .ommni% Linn *0
20 GAM)H2, (2oo! -ar:) Gmelina ar-ora 2o(- *4
21 GO+=?2A (2oo!) Tri-l% !erre%!i% Linn *5
24 GO+=?2A (Fri!) Tri-l% !erre%!i% Linn 06
23 G?D>C, (S!em) Tino%"ora .ordi/olia (;illd&) Mier%& 01
25 G?GG?L? (E(da!e) Commi"#ora 7ig#!ii (Arn&) )#and& 0*
28 G?EJ (Seed) A-r% "re.a!ori% Linn& 00
*6 HA2<D2 (2#iAome) Cr.ma longa Linn& 01
*1 HA2,TA+, (Fri!) Terminalia .#e-la 2e!A& 03
*2 H<FG? (OleoGgmGre%in) Ferla /oe!ida 2egel& 08
** JATMHS, (2#iAome) Nardo%!a.#y% Ia!aman%i DC 11
*0 JT,$HALA (Seed) Myri%!i.a /ragran% Ho!!& 1*
*1 +AM$<LLA (Fri!) Mallo!% "#ili""inen%i% MellGArg& 11
*4 +ECAN2A (S!em -ar:) )a#inia @ariega!a )lme 14
*3 +AF+OLA (Fri!) $i"er .-e-a Linn& /& 15
*5 +ACJA+2, (;#ole "lan!) Solanm %ra!!n%e )rm&/& 18
*8 +ANBS2A (Lea/) Aloe -ar-aden%i% Mill 42
06 +A2AEJA (Seed) $ongamia "inna!a (Linn&) Merr& 4*
01 +A2A',2A (Lea/) Nerim indi.m Mill 40
02 +A2+AJA9KFG< (Gall) $i%!a.ia .#inen%i% )rgo 44
0* +2$SA (Seed) Go%%y"im #er-a.em Linn& 43
00 +A9E2? (2#iAome) S.ir"% :y%oor 2o(-& 45
01 +ETA+, (2oo!) $andan% !e.!ori% %oland&
e(&$ar:in%on
48
04 +HAD<2A (Hear! 7ood) A.a.ia .a!e.# (Linn&/&) ;illd& 36
03 +<2TAT<+TA (;#ole "lan!) S7er!ia .#ira!a ).#&GHam 31
05 +K=CAJ,2A+A (Fri!) Carm .ar@i Linn 3*
08 +?LATTHA (Seed) 'igna nLi.la!a (Linn&) ;al"& 31
16 +?=JHA (2oo!) Sa%%rea la""a C)& Clar:e 34
11 +?JAJA (S!em -ar:) Holarr#ena an!idy%en!eri.a (2o!#)
A&DC
35
12 LA'AFGA (Flo7er )d) SyAygim aroma!i.m (Linn&) Merr
M&$erry&
56
1* LODH2A (S!em -ar:) Sym"lo.o% ra.emo%a 2o(-& 52
10 MADANA (Fri!) Merom"#i% %"ino%a (T#n-) +eay 50
11 M<92EB (Fri!) Foeni.lm @lgare Mill 54
14 NBAG2ODHA (S!em -ar:) Fi.% -engalen%i% Linn 55
13 $=CA)HEDA (2#iAome) )ergenia .ilia!a (Ha7 ) S!ern-& 86
15 $JH (2oo!) Ci%%am"elo% "areira Linn 82
18 $>GA (Seed) Are.a .a!e.# Linn& 80
46 $?NA2NA' (2A+TA) (;#ole
"lan!)
)oer#a@ia di//%a Linn 81
41 SA$TA$A2CA (S!em -ar:) Al%!onia %.#olari% (Linn)2&)r& 83
42 9AJ, (2#iAome) Hedy.#im %"i.a!m Ham &
E(&Smi!#
88
4* SN?H, (S!em) E"#or-ia nerii/olia Linn 166
40 S>+=MA<L (Fri!) Ele!!aria .ardamo6mm (Linn&)
2&)r&
161
41 9?CJH, (2#iAome) Ningi-er o//i.inale 2o(-& 16*
44 S'A2CA$AT2, (Lea/) Ca%%ia ang%!i/olia 'a#l& 161
43 9'ETAJ,2A+A (Fri!) Cminm .yminm Linn 164
45 9'ETA S2<' (2oo!) Hemide%m% indi.% (Linn&) 2&)r& 163
48 TAGA2A (2#iAome) 'aleriana 7alli.#ii DC 168
36 TMALA+, (2oo!O S!em P Lea/) $#yllan!#% /ra!ern% ;e-%!& 111
31 T'A+ ()ar:) Cinnamimm Aeylani.m )lme 11*
32 T'A+$AT2A (Lea/) Cinnamomm !amala ().#G 111
Ham)Nee% P E-erm&
3* ?D?M)A2A ()ar:) Fi.% ra.emo%a Linn 113
30 ?$A+?EC<+ (Seed) Nigella %a!i@a Linn 118
31 'A2?CA (S!em -ar:) Cara!ae@a nr@ala ).#GHam& 126
34 'S (Lea/) Ad#a!oda @ai.a Nee% 122
33 '<DAFGA (Fri!)) Em-elia ri-e% )rm&/& 12*
35 '<JAB (Lea/) Canna-i% %a!i@a Linn 121
38 BA=J, (S!em P2oo!) Gly.yrr#iAa gla-ra Linn 123
56 BA'N, (Fri!) Tra.#y%"ermm ammi (Linn&)
S"rage e( Trril&
128
LEGAL NOT<CES
In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs
which follow. hese monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed
b! these laws wherever the! are applicable.
It is e"pedient that en#uir! be made in each case in order to ensure that the
provisions of the law are being complied with.
In general$ the %rugs & Cosmetics Act$ '()* +subse#uentl! amended in '(,)
and '(-./$ the %angerous %rugs Act$ '(0* and the 1oisons Act$ '('( and the rules
framed thereunder should be consulted.
2nder the %rugs & Cosmetics Act$ the A!urvedic 1harmacopoeia of India
+A.1.I./$ 1art3I$ 4ol. I$ is the boo5 of standards for single drugs included therein and
the standards prescribed in the A!urvedic 1harmacopoeia of India$ 1art3I$ 4ol. I
would be official. If considered necessar! these standards can be amended and the
Chairman of the A!urvedic 1harmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such
amendments. 6henever such amendments are issued the A!urvedic
1harmacopoeia of India$ 1art3I$ 4ol. I$ would be deemed to have been amended
accordingl!.
GENE2AL NOT<CES
Title - The title of the book is Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of
Name of the Drugs - The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in
Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of
India Part-I and Part-II !ill be considered official" These names have been arranged in
#nglish alphabetical order" The $atin name %ta&onomical nomenclature' of each drug as
found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the
introductory paragraph" The official name !ill be the main title of the drug and its
scientific name !ill also be considered as legal name"
Introductory Para - #ach monograph begins !ith an introductory paragraph indicating
the part scientific name of the drug in $atin !ith short description about its habit
distribution and method of collection if any"
Synonyms - Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit #nglish
(indi )rdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the
classical te&ts Ayurvedic Formulary of India Part-I and Part-II as procured from the
e&perts scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states"
Italics - Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the
introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents
substances or processes described in Appendi&"
Odour and Taste - *herever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned
but the description as +odourless, or +no odour, has in many cases been avoided in the
description as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour" The odour- is
e&amined by directly smelling ./ g of the po!dered drug contained in a package or
freshly po!dered" If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open
container and re-e&amined after 0/ minutes" If the odour persists to be discernible it is
described as having odour"
The Taste- of a drug is e&amined by taking a small 1uantity of 2/ mesh po!der
by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed !ith !ater" This
may not be done in case if poisonous drugs indicated in monograph"
Mesh Number - *herever the po!dering of the drug has been re1uired the sieve 3esh
4umber 2/- has been used" This !ill not apply for drugs containing much oily substance"
Weights and Measures - The metric system of !eights and measures is employed"
*eights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme %g' or of a milligram %mg'" Fluid
measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre %ml'"
*hen the term drop- is used the measurement is to be made by means of a
tube !hich delivers in .5 drops 0 gram of distilled !ater at 0/
o
6"
3etric measures are re1uired by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at .5
o
6 and
all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are
intended unless other!ise stated to be made at that temperature"
Identity, Purity and Strength - )nder the heading Identification- tests are provided
as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs"
The term Foreign 3atter- is used to designate any matter !hich does not form
part of the drug as defined in the monograph" 7egetable drugs used as such or in
formulations should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects
pests fungi micro-organisms pesticides and other animal matter including animal
e&creta be !ithin the permitted and specified limits for lead arsenic and heavy metals
and sho! no abnormal odour colour sliminess mould or other evidence of
deterioration"
The 1uantitative tests e"g" total ash acid-insoluble ash !ater-soluble ash
alcohol-soluble e&tractive !ater- soluble e&tractive ether-soluble e&tractive moisture
content volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon !hich the standards of
Pharmacopoeia depend" The methods for assays are described in their respective
monographs and for other 1uantitative tests methods are not repeated in the te&t of
monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendi& is given" The
analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is
satisfied that the method !hich he uses !ill give the same result as the
Pharmacopoeial 3ethod" In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis if of
e1uivalent accuracy may be substituted for the tests and assays described" (o!ever in
the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone
authoritative"
Limits for ea!y Metals 8 All Ayurvedic 9rugs %Single/6ompound formulation' must
comply !ith the limits for (eavy 3etals prescribed in individual 3onograph and !herever
limit is not given then they must comply !ith the limits given in *(: publication
;uality 6ontrol 3ethods for 3edicinal Plants and 3aterial-"
Standards - For statutory purpose statements appearing in the API Part-I 7ol" 7
under 9escription those of definition of the part and source plants and Identity Purity
and Strength shall constitute standards"
Thin Layer "hromatogra#hy $T%L%"%& - )nder this head !herever given the number
of spots and <f values of the spots !ith their colour have been mentioned as a guide for
identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial re1uirement" (o!ever the analyst
may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied
that the method !hich he uses even by applying kno!n reference standards !ill give
better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to
be present in the drug"
'uantities to be (eighed for )ssays and Tests - In all description 1uantity of the
substance to be taken for testing is indicated" The amount stated is appro&imate but the
1uantity actually used must be accurately !eighed and must not deviate by more than
05 per cent from the one stated"
"onstant Weight - the term 6onstant *eight- !hen it refers to drying or ignition
means that t!o consecutive !eighings do not differ by more than 0"5 mg per g of the
substance taken for the determination the second !eighing follo!ing an additional hour
of drying on further ignition"
"onstituents - )nder this head only the names of important chemical constituents
groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide
and not as pharmacopoeial re1uirement"
Percentage of Solutions - In defining standards the e&pression per cent %=' is used
according to circumstances !ith one of the four meanings given belo!"
Per cent !/! %percentage !eight in !eight' e&presses the number of grammes of
active substance in 055 grammes of product"
Per cent !/v %Percentage !eight in volume' e&presses the number of grammes of
active substance in 055 millilitres of product"
Per cent v/v %percentage volume in volume' e&presses the number of millilitres of
active substance in 055 millilitres of product"
Per cent v/! %percentage volume in !eight' e&presses the number of millilitres of
active substance in 055 grammes of product"
Percentage of alcohol - All statements of percentage of alcohol %6.(/:(' refer to
percentage by volume at 0/"/>
o
6"
Tem#erature - )nless other!ise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade %celsius'
thermometric scale"
Solutions - )nless other!ise specified in the individual monograph all solutions are
prepared !ith purified !ater"
*eagents and Solutions - The chemicals and reagents re1uired for the test in
Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices"
Solubility - *hen stating the solubilities of 6hemical substances the term Soluble- is
necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical
changes"
Statements of solubilities !hich are e&pressed as a precise relation of !eights of
dissolved substance of volume of solvent at a stated temperature are intended to apply
at that temperature" Statements of appro&imate solubilities for !hich no figures are
given are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature"
Pharmacopoeial chemicals !hen dissolved may sho! slight physical impurities
such as fragment of filter papers fibres and dust particles unless e&cluded by definite
tests in the individual monographs"
*hen the e&pression parts- is used in defining the solubility of a substance it is
to be understood to mean that 0 gramme of a solid or 0 millilitre of a li1uid is soluble in
that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts"
*hen the e&act solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not kno!n a
descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility"
The follo!ing table indicates the meaning of such terms ?-
Descri#ti!e terms *elati!e +uantities of sol!ent
7ery soluble $ess than 0 part
Freely soluble From 0 to 05 parts
Soluble From 05 to @5 parts
Sparingly soluble From @5 to 055 parts
Slightly soluble From 055 to 0555 parts
7ery slightly soluble From 0555 to 05555 parts
Practically insoluble 3ore than 05555 parts
Thera#eutic uses and im#ortant formulations 8 Therapeutic uses and important
formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are as provided in the recognised
Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India Part 8I and Part-II"
Doses 8 The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of !eights
!hich are the appro&imate conversions from classical !eights mentioned in )yur!edic
te&ts" A conversion table is appended giving classical !eights of )yur!edic System of
3edicine !ith their metric e1uivalents" 9oses mentioned in the )yur!edic
Pharmacopoeia of India %)%P%I"' are intended merely for general guidance and
represent unless other!ise stated the average range of 1uantities per dose !hich is
generally regarded suitable by clinicians for adults only !hen administered orally"

It is to be noted that the relation bet!een doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems set
forth in the te&t is of appro&imate e1uivalence" These 1uantities are for convenience of
prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes"
The abbreviations commonly employed are as follo!s?
)bbre!iations of technical terms
m 3etre
l $itre
mm 3illimetre
cm 6entimetre
A 3icron %5"550 mm'
kg Bilogram
g Cramme
mg 3illigram
ml 3illilitre
in 4ormal solution
5"/ 4 (alf-normal solution
5"0 4 9ecinormal solution
03 3olar solution
Fam" Family
PS Primary Standards
TS Transverse Section
)bbre!iations used for Languages
Sansk" Sanskrit
Assam" Assamese
Deng" Dengali
#ng" #nglish
CuE" CuErati
Ban" Bannada
Bash" Bashmiri
3al" 3alayalam
3ar" 3arathi
:ri" :riya
PunE" PunEabi
Tam" Tamil
Tel" Telugu
),,*-.I)TIONS /O* P)*TS O/ PL)NTS
6otyledon 6otldn"
Flo!er Fl"
Fruit Fr"
(eart *ood (t" *d"
$eaf $f"
Pseudo-bulb Pseudo-bulb
<oot Dark <t" Dk"
<oot <t"
<hiFome <F"
Seed Sd"
Stem Dark St" Dk"
Stem St"
Tuberous <oot Tub" <t"
*ood *d"
*hole Plant *h" Pl"
1& AIagand#a (Sd &)
AJAGANDH (Seed)
AIagand#Q .on%i%!% o/ !#e %eed% o/ Cleome gynandra Linn& Syn& Gynandro"%i%
gynandra (Linn&) )riLe! (Fam& Ca""arida.eae)R a %!rong %mellingO %ome7#a! /oe!id #er-O
6&4 G 1 m #ig#O /ond a-ndan!ly !#rog#o! 7armer "ar!% o/ <ndia&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S $aTgand#Q
A%%ame%e S )#!mlla
)engali S Hr#riaO S#l!e
Engli%# S Dog M%!ard
GIra!i S Tal@aniO D#eli!ala@an
Hindi S Hl#lO Hr#rO +a@alia
+annada S Naram -ele So""O Nayee!la%i
+a%#miri S Gandi )!i
Malayalam S A!nari @ela
Mara!#i S Til@anO )#a!@anO Ma-liO Tila@anaO Til@an!
Oriya S Ana%ori%iaO Ana%ori%a
$nIa-i S )gra
Tamil S Nal @alaiO Nal @elai
Telg S 'amin!aO 'ayin!a
?rd S GG
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Seed%O %mallO 1G2 mm in diame!erO :idney %#a"edO %r/a.e rog#O dar: -ro7n or
-la.:&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Dar: -ro7nO oilyR nder mi.ro%.o"e %#o7% a nm-er o/ /ragmen!% o/ e"idermi% o/
1
!e%!a .on%i%!ing o/ !#inG7alledO "olygonal .ell%R gro"% o/ .ell%O re%em-ling li:e %!one
.ell%O reddi%#G-ro7n 7i!# nonGligni/ied 7all%R a large nm-er o/ o@alO ronded or
irreglarly %#a"ed "ro!ein -odie%R %!ar.# and .ry%!al% a-%en!&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 3 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 6&0 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 14 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 3 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G Fi(ed oilO e%%en!ial oil and oleore%in


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aU
GVa S Lag#O 2W:Xa
'Yrya S 9Y!a
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S HZdyaO DY"anaO 'Q!a#araO $i!!alaO 9Wlag#nY
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G NQrQyaVa CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G GlmaO AXU#YlQO +ZmirogaO +aV[WO +arVaroga
DOSE G 1G* g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm&


2
2& AIamoda (Fr!&)
AJAMOD (Fri!)
AIamodQ .on%i%!% o/ driedO aroma!i. /ri!% o/ A"im le"!o"#yllm ($er%&) F& '& M&
e( )en!#& (Fam& ?m-elli/erae)R an annal #er- .l!i@a!ed in And#ra $rade%#O GIara!O
Mad#ya $rade%# and +arna!a:aR .olle.!ed -y !#ra%#ing "lan!% on a ma! and dried in %#ade
or in drying %#ed%&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S DY"ya:a
A%%ame%e S )onIamaniO )onaIainO BamaniO AIo7an
)engali S 2and#niO )anyamani
Engli%# S GG
GIra!i S )odi AIamoO AIamo
Hindi S AImdaO AImod
+annada S OmaO AIa@anaO Oma::i
+a%#miri S Fa:#aArO )anIan
Malayalam S Ayamoda:mO Oman
Mara!#i S AImodaO Oo@a
Oriya S )anaIani
$nIa-i S 'alIa7ainO AImod
Tamil S Omam
Telg S NaranIi @am
?rd S AImod
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Drg .on%i%!% o/ %mallO o@oid /ri!R -l: .olor yello7i%# -ro7nO mainly o..r a%
en!ire .remo.ar"% 7i!# "edi.el a!!a.#ed or de!a.#ed and -i/id %!ylo"odO /ree end% .r@ed
%ome!ime% o..r% a% %e"ara!e meri.ar"%R .remo.ar"% gla-ro%O o@oid !o .oni.alO a-o!
1&1G*&6 mm long and 1&2G2&5 mm 7ideO yello7 !o yello7i%# greenR %e"ara!ed meri.ar"%
-roadly o@oidO more or le%% .r@edO dor%al %r/a.e .on@e( 7i!# /i@e eLally di%!in.!O
longi!dinal "rimary ridge%R a! !#e %mmi! .r@ed %!ylo"odirnO .ommi%%ral %r/a.e
/la!O %#o7ing dar:er and lig#! .olored longi!dinal -and%O /ormer re"re%en!ing !#e
"o%i!ion o/ @i!!ae and @a%.lar -ndle% R odorR aroma!i.R !a%!eO %lig#!ly -i!!er gi@ing a
3
%en%a!ion o/ 7arm!# !o !onge&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ /ri! %#o7% meri.ar"% 7i!# /or large @i!!ae on dor%al
%r/a.eO !7o on .ommi%%ral %r/a.e and /or "rimary ridge% on dor%al %r/a.eR *G1
%e.ondary oil .anal% "re%en! nder ea.# "rimary ridge and al%o -e!7een ridge%R
.ar"o"#ore "re%en! on .ommi%%ral %r/a.eR e"i.ar" .ell% 7i!# !#in %!ria!ed .!i.leO o!er
7all% dra7n in!o "a"illaeR %!oma!aO anomo.y!i. !y"e "!o *1 in diame!erR me%o.ar"
.on%i%!% o/ "olygonal "aran.#ymaOS 7i!# !#i.:ened and ligni/ied .ell%O mea%ring
*6G42G81. in diame!er 7i!# o@al !o rond "i!%R .olla!eral @a%.lar -ndle% lie -enea!#
e"i.ar"R !ra.#eid% 21G26*G*55 in leng!# 7i!# %"iralO %.alari/orm or re!i.la!e
!#i.:ening%R (ylem "aren.#yma ligni/iedO elonga!ed 7i!# elli"!i.al "i!%O mea%ring
12G115G134 -y 1*G*6G00 large %e.ondary @i!!a. !o7ard% endo%"erm mea%re "!o
12* in 7id!# and !o7ard% "eri"#ery !#e %malle%! @i!!ae mea%ring 150 in diame!er&
$o7derGS#o7% modera!ely !#i.:G7alled .ell o/ e"i.ar" e(#i-i!ing .#ara.!eri%!i.
%!ria!ion% and o..a%ional "re%en.e o/ %!omaO /ragmen!% o/ !ri.#ome% and glandlar #air%O
re!i.la!e "aren.#yma!o% .ell% o/ me%o.ar"O /ragmen!% o/ yello7i%#G-ro7n @i!!aeR
/ragmen!% o/ endo%"erm !#i.:G7alled "olygonal .ell% .on!aining alerone grain and
mi.ro ro%e!!e .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!e&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er (<n.lding /S!al:) No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 10 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 0 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 10 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&
'ola!ile oil No! le%% !#an 2 "er .en! @\7O A""endi( 2&2&16

CONST<T?ENTS G E%%en!ial oil and /i(ed oil


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
4
2a%a S +aUO Ti:!a
GVa S Lag#O 2W:Xa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S 'idQ#YO +a"#a@Q!aIi!O DY"anaO 2.i:Z!O +ZmiIi!O 9Wlag#na
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G AIamodQr:aO AIamodQdi CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G Ar.iO d#mQnaO GlmaO Hi::QO C#ardiO +ZmirogaO 9Wla
DOSE G 1G* g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm&
No!eS Tra.#y%"ermm ro(-rg#ianm (DC) S"rage Syn& Carm ro(-rg#ianm )en!#&
Hoo:&/& i% !#e .ommon mar:e! %-%!i!!e


5
*& Amala:i (Fr& Fr!& $l")
MALA+, (Fre%# Fri! "l")
mala:Y .on%i%!% o/ /re%# /ri! "l" o/ Em-li.a o//i.inali% Gaer!n& (Fam&
E"#or-ia.eae)R a %mall or medim %iAed !reeO /ond in mi(ed de.ido% /ore%!%O a%.ending
!o 1*66 m on #ill% and .l!i@a!ed in garden% and #omeyard%&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S mala:aO AmZ!a"#alaO D#Q!rY"#ala
A%%ame%e S Amla:O Amla:#iO Amla:#
)engali S AmlaO D#a!ri
Engli%# S Em-li. Myro-alan
GIra!i S Am-alaO Amala
Hindi S AmlaO Aonla
+annada S Nelli:ayi
+a%#miri S Em-aliO Amli
Malayalam S Nelli::a
Mara!#i S An@alaO A@al:a!#i
Oriya S AnalaO Ainla
$nIa-i S AlaO Amla
Tamil S Nelli::aiO Nelli
Telg S ?%iri:a
?rd S AmlaO AmlaI
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Fri!O glo-o%eO 2&1G*&1 .m in diame!erO /le%#yO %moo!# 7i!# %i( "rominan! line%R
greeni%# 7#en !enderO .#anging !o lig#! yello7i%# or "in:i%# .olor 7#en ma!reO 7i!# a
/e7 dar: %"e.:%S !a%!eO %or and a%!ringen! /ollo7ed -y deli.a!ely %7ee! !a%!e&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
6
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ ma!re /ri! %#o7% an e"i.ar" .on%i%!ing o/ %ingle layer o/
e"idermi% and 2G0 layer% o/ #y"odermi%R e"idermal .ellO !a-lar <n %#a"eO .o@ered e(!ernally
7i!# a !#i.: .!i.le and a""ear in %r/a.e @ie7 a% "olygonalR #y"odermal .ell% !angen!ially
elonga!edO !#i.:G7alledO %maller in dimen%ion !#an e"idermal .ell%R me%o.ar" /orm% -l: o/
/ri!O .on%i%!ing o/ !#inG7alled "aren.#yma!o% .ell% 7i!# in!er.elllar %"a.e%O "eri"#eral 4G8
layer% %mallerO o@oid or !angen!ially elonga!ed 7#ile re%! o/ .ell% larger in %iAeO i%odiame!ri.
and radially elonga!edR %e@eral .olla!eral /i-ro@a%.lar -ndle% %.a!!ered !#rog#o!
me%o.ar" .on%i%!ing o/ (ylem and "#loemR (ylem .om"o%ed o/ !ra.#eal elemen!%O /i-re
!ra.#eid% and (ylem /i-re%R !ra.#eal elemen!% %#o7 re!i.la!e %.alari/orm and %"iral
!#i.:ening%R (ylem /i-re% elonga!ed 7i!# narro7 lmen and "oin!ed endR me%o.ar" .on!ain%
large aggrega!e% o/ nmero% irreglar %ili.a .ry%!al%&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 3 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e (On dried -a%i%) No! le%% !#an 06 "er .en!O A""endi(
2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 16 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&
Moi%!re .on!en! No! le%% !#an 56 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&8

CONST<T?ENTS G A%.or-i. a.id and !annin%


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S AmlaO +aXQyaO Mad#raO Ti:!aO +aU
GVa S 2W:XaO Lag#
'Yrya S 9Y!a
'i"Q:a S Mad#ra
+arma S TridoXaIi!O 'ZXyaO 2a%QyanaO Ca:XXya
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G Cya@ana"rQTa
7
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G 2a:!a"i!!aO Amla"i!!aO $rame#aO DQ#a
DOSE G 16G26 g o/ !#e drg
1G16 ml o/ /re%# Ii.e


8
0& Amala:i (Drd&Fr!&)
MALA+, (Dried /ri!)
mala:Y .on%i%!% o/ "eri.ar" o/ dried ma!re /ri!% o/ Em-li.a o//i.inali% Gaer!n&
Syn& $#yllan!#% em-li.a Linn& (Fam& E"#or-ia.eae)R mo%!ly .olle.!ed in 7in!er %ea%on
a/!er ri"ening and in +a%#mir in %mmerO a %mall or medim %iAed !reeO /ond -o!# in
na!ral %!a!e in mi(ed de.ido% /ore%!% o/ !#e .on!ry a%.ending !o 1*66 m on #ill%R
.l!i@a!ed in garden%O #omeyard% or gro7n a% a road %ide !ree&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S AmZ!a"#alaO mala:aO D#Q!rY"#ala
A%%ame%e S Amla:#iO Amla:#O Amla:
)engali S AmlaO D#a!ri
Engli%# S Em-li. Myro-alan
GIra!i S Am-alaO Amala
Hindi S AmlaO Aonla
+annada S Nelli:ayiO )ela nelliO $o!!adenolli:ayi
+a%#miri S AmliO Em-ali
Malayalam S Nelli::a
Mara!#i S An@alaO A@al:a!#i
Oriya S AinlaO Anala
$nIa-i S AlaO Amla
Tamil S Nelli::aiO Nelli
Telg S ?%iri:a
?rd S AmlaO AmlaI
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Drg .on%i%!% o/ .rled "ie.e% o/ "eri.ar" o/ dried /ri! o..ring ei!#er a%
%e"ara!ed %ingle %egmen!R 1G2 .m long or ni!ed a% * or 0 %egmen!%R -l: .olor grey !o
-la.:O "ie.e% %#o7ingO a -roadO #ig#ly %#ri@elled and 7rin:led e(!ernal .on@e( %r/a.e
!o %ome7#a! .on.a@eO !ran%@er%ely 7rin:led la!eral %r/a.eO e(!ernal %r/a.e %#o7% a
/e7 7#i!i%# %"e.:%O o..a%ionally %ome "ie.e% %#o7 a "or!ion o/ %!ony !e%!a (7#i.#
%#old -e remo@ed -e/ore "ro.e%%ing)R !e(!re rog#O .ar!ilagino%O !og#R !a%!eO %or
9
and a%!ringen!&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ /ri! %#o7% e"i.ar" .on%i%!ing o/ a %ingle layered
e"idermi%O .ell a""earing !a-lar and "oygonal in %r/a.e @ie7R .!i.le "re%en!R
me%o.ar" .ell% !angen!ially elonga!ed "aren.#yma!o% and .r%#edO di//eren!ia!ed
rog#ly in!o "eri"#eral 5 or 8 layer% o/ !angen!ially elonga!ed %maller .ell%O re%!
.on%i%!ing o/ mo%!ly i%odiame!ri. larger .ell% 7i!# 7all% %#o7ing irreglar !#i.:ening%R
rami/ied @a%.lar elemen!% o..a%ionally "re%en!R %!one .ell% "re%en! ei!#er i%ola!ed or in
%mall gro"% !o7ard% endo.ar" R "i!!ed @a%.lar /i-re%O 7all% a""earing %erra!ed de !o
!#e "i! .anal%O leading in!o lmen&
$o7derS Fine "o7der %#o7% e"idermi% 7i!# ni/ormly !#i.:ened %!raig#! 7alledO
i%odiame!ri. "aren.#yma .ell% 7i!# irreglar !#i.:ened 7all%O o..a%ionally %#or! /i-re%
and !ra.#eid%&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er (<n.lding %eed and %eed .oa!) No! more !#an * "er .en!O A""endi(
2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 3 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 06 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 16 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G A%.or-i. a.id and gallo!annin%


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S AmlaO +aXQyaO Mad#raO Ti:!aO +aU
GVa S 2W:XaO Lag#
'Yrya S 9Y!a
'i"Q:a S Mad#ra
10
+arma S TridoXaIi!O 'ZXyaO 2a%QyanaO Ca:XXya
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G Cya@ana"rQTaO D#Q!rY La#aO D#Q!ryQdi G#Z!aO
Tri"#alQ CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G 2a:!a"i!!aO Amla"i!!aO $rame#aO DQ#a
DOSE G *G4 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm


11
1& Araga@ad#a (Fr!&$l")
2AG'ADHA (Fri! "l")
rag@ad#a .on%i%!% o/ "l" o-!ained /rom /ri!% (de@oid o/ %eed%O %e"!a and "ie.e%
o/ "eri.ar") o/ Ca%%ia /i%!la Linn& (Fam& Legmino%ae)O a modera!e %iAed de.ido% !reeO
.ommon !#rog#o! <ndia a% 7ild or .l!i@a!ed "lan!O /ri!% .olle.!ed 7#en ri"e&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S +Z!amQlaO 'yQd#ig#Q!aO 9am"Q:aO NZ"adrma
A%%ame%e S Sonaroo
)engali S Sondala
Engli%# S <ndian La-rnmO $rging .a%%ia
GIra!i S GaramalaO Garamalo
Hindi S Amal!a%
+annada S Arag@ad#aO +a::eO +a::eGgidaO +a::emaraO +a::edaiO 2aIa!ar
+a%#miri S +riyangal $#ali
Malayalam S +onnaO +ri!amalam
Mara!#i S )a#a@aO GaramalaO Amal!a%
Oriya S Snari
$nIa-i S Amal!a%
Tamil S Sara:onraiO Sara::onnaiO Sara::ondiO S#ara::onrai
Telg S 2ela
?rd S +#iyar S#am-ar
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Fri!O a many .elledO inde#i%.en! "odO *1G46 .m long and 15G21 mm diame!erO
nearly %!raig#! and %-.ylindri.alO .#o.ola!eG-ro7n !o almo%! -la.: in .olorO "od
%r/a.e %moo!# !o na:ed eyeO -! nder len% %#o7ing min!e !ran%@er%e /i%%re%O -o!#
dor%al and @en!ral %!re% e@iden!O -! no! "rominen!O %#or! %!al: a!!a.#ed !o -a%e o/ /ri!
and ronded di%!al end m.rona!eO "eri.ar" !#inO #ard and 7oodyO /ri! ini!ially di@ided
-y !ran%@er%e %e"!a a-o! 1 mmO a"ar!O ea.# .on!aining a %ingle %eed a!!a.#ed !o @en!ral
%!re -y a long dar:O !#readGli:e /ni.le a-o! 5G12 -y 4G5 mmO .ir.lar !o o@alO
/la!!enedO reddi%#G-ro7nO %moo!#O e(!remely #ard and 7i!# a di%!in.! dar: -ro7n line
e(!ending /rom mi.ro"yle !o -a%eO %eed ini!ially em-edded in a -la.: @i%.id "l"
12
.on%i%!ing o/ -la.:O !#inO %#iningO .ir.lar di%. li:e ma%%e% #a@ing .en!ral de"re%%ion o/
%eed on -o!# %r/a.e% or a% -ro:en "ie.e% ad#ered 7i!# ea.# o!#erO 7#en di""ed in 7a!er
ma:e% yello7 %ol!ion 7#i.# dar:ne%% !o -ro7ni%#Gyello7 !o dar: -ro7nO on :ee"ingO
"l" /ill% !#e .ell -! %#rin:% on drying and ad#ere% !o -o!# %ide% o/ !e%!aO %eed% o/!en lye
loo%e in !#eir %egmen!%O odor /ain!O %i.:lyO !a%!eO %7ee!&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.

<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 4 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 04 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

ASSAB

T&L&C&



CONST<T?ENTS G SgarO m.ilageO "e.!in and an!#raLinone&


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Mad#raO Ti:!a
GVa S Gr
'Yrya S ?XVa
13
'i"Q:a S Mad#ra
+arma S 2e.ana
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G rag@ad#Qdi +@Q!#a CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G 'i-and#aO ?dQ@ar!aO GlmaO 9WlaO ?dararogaO HZdrogaO $rame#a
DOSE G 1G16 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /ormR No!eSG T#e mar:e! ma!erial .on!ain% %eed%O
%e"!a e!.&O 7#i.# /orm !#e Foreign Ma!!er and %#old -e %e"ara!ed -e/ore %e&


14
4& Ar:a (2!&)
A2+A (2oo!)
Ar:a .on%i%!% o/ dried roo!% o/ Calo!ro"i% "ro.era (Ai!&) 2& )r& (Fam&
A%.le"iada.eae) /ond 7ild more or le%% !#rog#o! <ndia&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S 2a@iO )#QnO Ta"ana
A%%ame%e S A:andO A:an
)engali S A:andaO A:one
Engli%# S Madar Tree
GIra!i S Aa:ado
Hindi S Aa:O MadarO A:a@ana
+annada S E::aO E::adagidaO E::egida
+a%#miri S A.:a
Malayalam S Eri::
Mara!#i S 2i
Oriya S Ara:#a
$nIa-i S A:
Tamil S 'eller::O Er::
Telg S Jilled
?rd S MadarO Aa:
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
2oo!SG rog#O /i%%red longi!dinallyO .or:y and %o/!O e(!ernally yello7i%#Ggrey
7#ile in!ernally 7#i!eO .en!ral .ore .ream .oloredO -ar: ea%ily %e"ara!ed /rom (ylemO
odorO .#ara.!eri%!i.S !a%!eO -i!!er and a.rid&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ roo! %#o7% o!er mo%! .or: !i%%e .on%i%!ing o/ 0G5 ro7% o/
!angen!ially elonga!ed and radially arranged .ell% /ollo7ed -y *G4 ro7% o/ modera!ely
15
!#i.:G7alledO irreglar .ell% o/ %e.ondary .or!e( de@oid o/ .al.im o(ala!e .ry%!al% and
%!ar.# grain%O .or!e( .om"o%ed o/ large "oly#edral "aren.#yma!o% .ell% .on!aining
a-ndan! ronded %!ar.# grain%O %ome .or!i.al .ell% .on!ain ro%e!!e .ry%!al% o/ .al.im
o(ala!eO %.a!!ered la!i.i/er .ell% 7i!# -ro7n .on!en!%O "#loem .on%i%!% o/ %ie@e elemen!%
and "#loem "aren.#yamaO %ie@e !-e% !#i.:G7alledO .ell% more "rominen! !o7ard% inner
region o/ "#loem !ra@er%ed -y ni !o !e!ra%eria!e medllary ray%O "#loem .ell% .on!ain
.ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!eO %!ar.# grain% and la!i.i/er% %imilar !o !#e%e /ond in .or!e(S
.am-im "re%en! I%! 7i!#in !#e "#loem .on%i%!ing o/ 2G1 ro7% o/ !#inG7alledO
!angen!ially elonga!ed .ell% (ylem /orm% !#e .en!ral "ar! o/ roo! .om"o%ed o/ @e%%el%&
!ra.#eid%O /i-re% and (ylem "aren.#ymaO @e%%el% "re%en! !#rog#o! (ylem region and
arranged radially in gro"% o/ 2G3O %ome!ime %ingle @e%%el% al%o o..rO %ally
.ylindri.al #a@ing -ordered "i!% on !#eir 7all%O (ylem /i-re% longO ligni/ied 7i!# 7ide
lmenO !a"ering on end% and #a@e %im"le "i!% on 7all%O medllary ray% 1G0 %eria!e and
!ri%eria!e in o!er region and ni or -i%eria!e in inner regionS .ell% o/ medllary ray%
radially elonga!edO /illed 7i!# %!ar.# %imilar !o !#o%e "re%en! in .or!i.al .ell%&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 0 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 5 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

ASSAB

T&L&C&



CONST<T?ENTS G Gly.o%ide% (.alo!ro"in)


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aUO Ti:!a
16
GVa S Lag#
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S +a"#a@Q!a#Z!O DY"anaO )#edanaO +Zmig#naO 'raVa#araO 'iXag#naO
+XU#ag#na
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G Ma#Q 'iXagar-#a TailaO D#Qn@an!ara G#Z!a
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G +aV[WO +XU#aO +ZmirogaO GlmaO ?dararogaO 'raVaO 9@Q%a
DOSE G 1G* g o/ !#e drg /or de.o.!ion


17
3& Ar:a (L/&)
A2+A (Lea/)
Ar:a .on%i%!% o/ dried lea@e% o/ Calo!ro"i% "ro.era (Ai!&) 2&)r& (Fam&
A%.le"iada.eae)O /ond 7ild more or le%% !#rog#o! <ndia&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S )#QnO 2a@iO Ta"ana
A%%ame%e S A:anO A:and
)engali S A:andaO A:one
Engli%# S Madar Tree
GIra!i S Aa:ado
Hindi S Aa:O A:a@anaO Madar
+annada S E::aO E::adagidaO E::egida
+a%#miri S A.:a
Malayalam S Eri::
Mara!#i S 2i
Oriya S Ara:#a
$nIa-i S A:
Tamil S Er::O 'eller::
Telg S Jilled
?rd S Aa:O Madar
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
S-G%e%%ileO 4G11 .m -y 0&1G5 .mO -roadly o@a!eO o@a!eGo-longO elli"!i. or
o-o@a!e a.!eO "-e%.en! 7#en yong and gla-ro% on -o!# %ide% on ma!ri!y&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Midri- G !ran%@er%e %e.!ion !#rog# midri- %#o7% an ""er and lo7er %ingle
layered e"idermi% e(!ernally .o@ered 7i!# !#i.:O %!ria!ed .!i.leO /e7 e"idermal .ell% on
-o!# %r/a.e% o/ lea/ elonga!ed !o /orm n iG%eria!eO 2G* .elled !ri.#ome%O e"idermal .ell%
18
.-i.al and radially elonga!edO e"idermi% /ollo7ed -y *G5 layered .ollen.#yma on -o!#
lo7er and ""er %r/a.e%O "aren.#yma!o% .ell% !#inG7alledO i%odiame!ri. !o .ir.lar
7i!# in!er.elllar %"a.e% "re%en! in grond !i%%eO %!ele .re%.en! %#a"ed .om"o%ed o/
-i.olla!eral and o"en @a%.lar -ndleO (ylem .on%i%!% mo%!ly o/ @e%%el% and !ra.#eid%O a
%!ri" o/ .am-im "re%en! -e!7een (ylem and "#loem !i%%e%O la!i.i/er% al%o "re%en! in !#e
"#loem and "aren.#yma!o% Aone&
Lamina G dor%i@en!ral 7i!# me%o"#yll di//eren!ia!ed in!o a "ali%ade and %"ongy !i%%eO
""er and lo7er e"idermi% .o@ered e(!ernally 7i!# a !#i.:O %!ria!ed .!i.leO -elo7 ""er
e"idermi% !#ree ro7% o/ elonga!edO .lo%ely arranged "ali%ade "aren.#yma "re%en!O
%"ongy "aren.#yma !i%%e% almo%! radially elonga!ed 7i!# in!er.elllar %"a.e%O .en!ral
.ell% irreglar in %#a"eO la!i.i/er% and @a%.lar -ndle% al%o "re%en! %.a!!ered in !#i%
region
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 21 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 20 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G Gly.o%ide (Calo!ro"in)


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aUO Ti:!a
GVa S Lag#O SaraO Snigd#a
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S 'Q!a#Z!O DY"anaO +Zmig#naO 9o"#aO 'raVa#araO 'iXag#naO )#edanaO
9@Q%a#ara
19
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G Ar:a La@aVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G 9o!#aO +aV[WO +XU#aO 'raVaO +ZmirogaO GlmaO 9leXmodararogaO
$lY#QrogaO ArTaO 9@Q%a
DOSE G 216G316 mg o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm


20
5& A%ana (H!&;d&)
ASANA (Hear! 7ood)
A%ana .on%i%!% o/ #ear!G7ood o/ $!ero.ar"% mar%"im 2o(-& (Fam&
Legmino%ae)R a modera!e !o large %iAedO de.ido% !reeO "!o *6 m #ig# and 2&1 m in
gir!#O 7i!# %!raig#! .lear -oleO /ond mo%!ly !#rog#o! GIara!O Mad#ya $rade%#O )i#ar
and Ori%%a&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S )YIa:aO $Y!a%QraO A%ana:aO )YIa%Qra
A%%ame%e S AaIar
)engali S $iya%alaO $i!a%ala
Engli%# S <ndian +ino Tree
GIra!i S )iyo
Hindi S 'iIaya%araO )iIa
+annada S )iIa%araO A%ana
+a%#miri S Lal C#ander
Malayalam S 'enga
Mara!#i S )i-ala
Oriya S $ia%#ala
$nIa-i S C#andan LalO C#annanlal
Tamil S 'engai
Telg S BegiO 'egi%a
?rd S )iIa%ar
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Drg o..r% a% irreglar "ie.e% in @aria-le %iAe and !#i.:ne%%O golden yello7i%#G
-ro7n 7i!# dar:er %!rea:%O on %oa:ing in 7a!er gi@e% yello7 .olor %ol!ion 7i!# -le
/lore%.en.e %!rongO !og#O @ery #ardO modera!ely #ea@yO /ra.!reO di//i.l! !o -rea: -!
-ri!!leO !a%!eO a%!ringen!&

21
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion %#o7% al!erna!ing -and% o/ larger and %maller "olygonal .ell%
.on%i%!ing o/ !ra.#eid%O /i-re !ra.#eid%O (ylem "aren.#yma and !ra@er%ed -y (ylem ray%O
nmero% (ylem @e%%el% di%!ri-!ed !#rog#o!O in %ingle% or in gro"% o/ 2G*O %#o7ing
!ylo%e% /illed 7i!# !anninR in i%ola!ed "re"ara!ion%O @e%%el%O drm or -arrel %#a"ed 7i!#
7ellGmar:ed "er/ora!ion rim% and -ordered "i!%R !ra.#eid% nmero%O longO !#i.:G7alled
7i!# !a"ering end% and %im"le "i!%R /i-re !ra.#eid% elonga!edO !#i.:G7alled 7i!# narro7
lmen and %im"le "i!%R (ylem "aren.#yma re.!anglar 7i!# %im"le "i!%O "ara!ra.#ealO
%rronding @e%%el%R (ylem ray% niG!oG-i%eria!eO *G1G3 .ell% #ig#O "ri%ma!i. .ry%!al% o/
.al.im o(ala!e "re%en! in .ry%!al /i-re%O %!ar.# a-%en!&
$o7derS )ro7n !o .#o.ola!e .olorO nder mi.ro%.o"e %#o7% @e%%el% 7i!# -ordered "i!%O
/i-re !ra.#eid%O !ra.#eid%O /ragmen!% o/ (ylem ray% and /e7 .ry%!al /i-re%O %!ar.# a-%en!&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 6&1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 3 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G Al:aloid% and re%in


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aXQyaO +aUO Ti:!a
GVa S Lag#O 2W:Xa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S +a"#a"i!!aTQma:aO GaladoXag#naO +eTyaO T@a.yaO S!am-#anaO
+XU#ag#naO 2a%QyanaO 2a:!aTod#ana
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G Nyagrod#Qdi CWrVaO A%ana-il@Qdi Taila
22
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G $QV[O $rame#aO MedodoXaO +XU#aO +Zmiroga
DOSE G 16G166 g o/ !#e drg /or de.o.!ion


23
8& A%#o:a (S!& ):&)
A9O+A (S!em -ar:)
ATo:a .on%i%!% o/ dried %!em -ar: o/ Sara.a a%o.a (2o%e&) De& ;illd O Syn& Sara.a
indi.a Linn& (Fam& Legmino%ae)O .olle.!ed in %"ring /rom ma!reO 7ild or .l!i@a!ed !ree%O
/ond in Cen!ral and Ea%!ern Himalaya%O ;e%!ern G#a!% and De..an&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S +a]:eli
A%%ame%e S A%#o:a
)engali S A%#o:a
Engli%# S A%o: Tree
GIra!i S A%#o:a
Hindi S A%#o:a
+annada S A%#o:adamaraO A%#o:amaraO +an:alimara
+a%#miri S A%#o:
Malayalam S A%o:am
Mara!#i S A%#o:
Oriya S A%#o:a
$nIa-i S A%o:
Tamil S A%ogamO A%ogO A%o:am
Telg S A%#o:a"a!!a
?rd S GG
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
)ar: .#annelledO e(!ernally dar: green !o greeni%# greyO %moo!# 7i!# .ir.lar
len!i.el% and !ran%@er%ely ridgedO %ome!ime% .ra.:edO in!ernally reddi%#G-ro7n 7i!# /ine
longi!dinal %!rand% and /i-er%O /ra.!re %"lin!ery e("o%ing %!ria!ed %r/a.eO a !#in
7#i!i%# .on!ino% layer i% %een -enea!# !#e .or: layerO !a%!eO a%!ringen!&
24

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ %!em -ar: %#o7% "eriderm .on%i%!ing o/ a 7ide layer o/ .or:O
radially /la!!enedO narro7 .or: .am-imO %e.ondary .or!e( 7ide 7i!# one or !7o
.on!ino% layer% o/ %!one .ell% 7i!# many "a!.#e% o/ %.lereid%O "aren.#yma!o% !i%%e
.on!ain% yello7 ma%%e% and "ri%ma!i. .ry%!al%S %e.ondary "#loem .on%i%!% o/ "#loem
"aren.#ymaO %ie@e !-e% 7i!# .om"anion .ell% and "#loem /i-re% o..ring in gro"%O
.ry%!al /i-re% "re%en!&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#ol (86 "er .en!) %ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi(
2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G Tannin% and a .ry%!alline gly.o%ide&


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aXQyaO Ti:!a
GVa S Lag#O 2W:Xa
'Yrya S 9Y!a
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S GrQ#YO 'arVyaO HZdyaO 9o!#a#araO 'iXag#na
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G ATo:QriXUaO ATo:ag#Z!a
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G A%ZgdaraO A"a.YO DQ#aO 2a:!adoXaO 9o!#a
DOSE G 26G*6 g o/ !#e drg /or de.o.!ion&
25
16& A%@agand#a (2!&)
A9'AGANDH (2oo!)
AT@agand#Q .on%i%!% o/ dried ma!re roo!% o/ ;i!#ania %omni/era Dnal& (Fam&
Solana.eae)O a "erennial %#r-O /ond in 7a%!e landO .l!i@a!ed /ield and o"en grond%
!#rog#o! <ndiaO 7idely .l!i@a!ed in .er!ain area% o/ Mad#ya $rade%# and 2aIa%!#an O
roo!% .olle.!ed in 7in!erO 7a%#ed and .! in!o %#or! "ie.e%&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S Hayagand#QO 'QIigand#Q
A%%ame%e S A%#@agand#a
)engali S A%#@agand#a
Engli%# S GG
GIra!i S A%gand#a
Hindi S A%gand#
+annada S Angar-erO HiremaddinaGgida
+a%#miri S A%agand#
Malayalam S Am::ram
Mara!#i S A%agand#aO A%:agand#a
Oriya S A%7agand#a
$nIa-i S A%gand#
Tamil S Am::aram:iAang
Telg S $ennergadda
?rd S A%gand
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
2oo!% %!raig#!O n-ran.#edO !#i.:ne%% @arying 7i!# age& roo!% -ear /i-reGli:e
%e.ondary roo!%O o!er %r/a.e -// !o greyGyello7 7i!# longi!dinal 7rin:le%O .ro7n
.on%i%!% o/ 2G4 remain% o/ %!em -a%eO %!em -a%e% @ario%ly !#i.:enedO node% "rominen!
only on !#e %ide /rom 7#ere "e!iole ari%e%O .ylindri.alO green 7i!# longi!dinal 7rin:le%O
/ra.!reO %#or! and ne@enO odorO .#ara.!eri%!i.O !a%!eO -i!!er and a.rid&
26

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ roo! %#o7% .or: e(/olia!ed or .r%#edO 7#en "re%en!
i%odiama!ri. and nonGligni/iedO .or: .am-im o/ 2G0 di//%ed ro7% o/ .ell%O %e.ondary
.or!e( a-o! !7en!y layer% o/ .om"a.! "aren.#yma!o% .ell%O "#loem .on%i%!% o/ %ie@e
!-e%O .om"anion .ell%O "#loem "aren.#ymaO .am-im 0G1 ro7% o/ !angen!ially
elonga!ed .ell%O %e.ondary (ylem #ard /orming a .lo%ed @a%.lar ring %e"ara!ed -y
ml!i%eria!e medllary ray%O a /e7 (ylem "aren.#yma
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 3 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#ol (21 "er .en!) %ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi(
2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

ASSAB
ASSAB GA%7agand#a .on%i%!% o/ no! le%% !#an 6&2 "er .en! o/ !o!al al:aloid%O 7#en
a%%ayed a% /ollo7%S
Ta:e a-o! *6g a..ra!ely 7eig#ed o/ !#e "o7dered drgO .o@er 7i!# Al.o#ol (86
"er .en!) and allo7 !o %!and o@ernig#!& E(!ra.! /or 4 #or% %o 7e! a""ara!% and
.on.en!ra!e !o a %yr" re%ide& Trea! 7i!# 21O 26O 11 and 16 ml "or!ion% o/ 1 "er .en!
Sl"#ri. A.id n!il .om"le!e e(!ra.!ion o/ al:aloid i% a//e.!ed&
To !#e .om-ined a.id e(!ra.!% add an e(.e%% o/ Dragandor/^% reagen!& Fil!er nder
%.!ion and di%%ol@e !#e re%ide in A.e!oneO S#a:e !#e a.e!one %ol!ion 7i!# /re%#ly
"re"ared %%"en%ion o/ 2ml Sil@er Car-ona!e in 16 ml o/ ;a!er& Fil!er !#e %ol!ion and
7a%# !#e "re.i"i!a!e 7i!# A.e!oneO Al.o#ol and 7a!er in !#a! order& $a%% %//i.ien!
Hydrogen Sl"#ide !#rog# !#e /il!ra!e& )oil !#e %ol!ion /or 16 min!e%O <n!er and
e@a"ora!e nder @a.m in a !ared /la%:& Add !o !#e re%ide 1 ml o/ E!#yl Al.o#ol G
e@a"ora!e !o dryne%%O re"ea! !#e "ro.e%% on.e again and 7eig#! !#e re%ide !o .on%!an!
27
7eig#! in a @a.m de%%i.a!or&

CONST<T?ENTS G Al:aloid% and 7i!#anolide%&


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Ti:!aO +aXQya
GVa S Lag#
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S Mad#ra
+arma S 'Q!a:a"#Q"a#aO )alyaO 2a%QyanaO 'QIY:araVa
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G AT@agand#QdyariXUaO AT@agand#Qdi Le#yaO
)alQT@agand#alQ:XQdi Taila
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G +XayaO Dar-alyaO 'Q!arogaO 9o!#aO +lai-ya
DOSE G *G4 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm


28
11& A%@a!!#a ():&)
A9'ATTHA ()ar:)
AT@a!!#a .on%i%!% o/ dried -ar: o/ Fi.% religio%a Linn& (Fam& Mora.eae)O a large
"erennial !reeO gla-ro% 7#en yongO /ond !#rog#o! !#e "lain% o/ <ndia "!o 136 m
al!i!de in !#e Himalaya%O largely "lan!ed a% an a@ene and road%ide !ree e%"e.ially near
!em"le%&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S $i""ala
A%%ame%e S A#an!
)engali S A%@a!!#aO A%#dO A%#@a!!#a
Engli%# S $i"al !ree
GIra!i S $i"loO JariO $i"aroO $i"alo
Hindi S $i"alaO $i"al
+annada S ArloO 2anIiO )a%riO A%#@a!!#anaraO A%#7a!#aO AralimaraO AralegidaO
A%#@a!#amaraO )a%ariO A%#@a!!#a
+a%#miri S )ad
Malayalam S Arayal
Mara!#i S $i"alO $im"alO $i""al
Oriya S A%7a!#a
$nIa-i S $i"alO $i""al
Tamil S A%#7ar!#anO Ara%amaramO Ara%anO Ara%O Arara
Telg S 2a@i.#e!!
?rd S GGG
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
)ar: o..r% in /la! or %lig#!ly .r@ed "ie.e%O @arying /rom 1&6G2&1 .m or more in
!#i.:ne%%O o!er %r/a.e -ro7n or a%# .oloredO %r/a.e ne@en de !o e(/olia!ion o/
.or:O inner %r/a.e %moo!# and %ome7#a! -ro7ni%#O /ra.!reO /i-ro%O !a%!eO a%!ringen!&

29
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ -ar: %#o7% .om"re%%ed re.!anglar !o .-i.alO !#i.:G7alled .or:
.ell% and dead elemen!% o/ %e.ondary .or!e(O .on%i%!ing o/ ma%%e% o/ %!one .ell%O .or:
.am-im di%!in.! 7i!# *G0 ro7% o/ ne7ly /ormed %e.ondary .or!e(O mo%!ly .om"o%ed o/
%!one .ell% !o7ard% "eri"#eryO %!one .ell% /ond %.a!!ered in large gro"%O rarely i%ola!edO
mo%! o/ "aren.#yma!o% .ell% o/ %e.ondary .or!e( .on!ain nmero% %!ar.# grain% and
/e7 "ri%ma!i. .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!eO %e.ondary "#loem a 7ide AoneO .on%i%!ing o/
%ie@e elemen!%O "#loem /i-re% in %ingle% or in gro"% o/ 2 !o many and nonGligni/iedO
nmero% .ry%!al /i-re% al%o "re%en!O in o!er region %ie@e elemen!% mo%!ly .olla"%ed
7#ile in inner region in!a.!O "#loem "aren.#yma mo%!ly !#i.:G7alledO %!one .ell% "re%en!
in %ingle or in %mall gro"% %imilar !o !#o%e in %e.ondary .or!e(O a nm-er o/ rayG.ell%
and "#loem "aren.#yma /illed 7i!# -ro7n "igmen!%O "ri%ma!i. .ry%!al% o/ .al.im
o(ala!e and %!ar.# grain% "re%en! in a nm-er o/ "aren.#yma!o% .ell%O medllary ray%
ni !o ml!i%eria!eO 7ider !o7ard% o!er "eri"#ery .om"o%ed o/ !#i.:G7alled .ell% 7i!#
%im"le "i!%O in !angen!ial %e.!ion ray .ell% .ir.lar !o o@al in %#a"eO .am-im 7#en
"re%en!O .on%i%!% o/ 2G0 layer% o/ !#inG7alled re.!anglar .ell%&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 3 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 6&* "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 5 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 8 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G Tannin%&


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aXQya
GVa S GrO 2W:Xa
'Yrya S 9Y!a
'i"Q:a S +aU
30
+arma S +a"#a"i!!a@inQTYO 'arVyaO Sa_grQ#YO )#agna%and#Qna:araO
MW!ra%a_gra#aVYya
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G Nyagrod#Qdi +@Q!#a CWrVaO Nyagrod#Qdi CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G 'Q!ara:!aO 2a:!a"i!!aO 'raVaO BonidoXaO $rame#a
DOSE G 26G*6 g o/ !#e drg /or de.o.!ion


31
12& A!a%i (Sd&)
ATAS, (Seed)
A!a%Y .on%i%!% o/ driedO ri"e %eed% o/ Linm %i!a!i%%imm Linn& (Fam& Lina.eae)O
an ere.! annal #er-O 6&4G1&2 m #ig#O e(!en%i@ely .l!i@a!ed !#rog#o! !#e "lain% o/<ndia
"!o an al!i!de o/ 566 mO .a"%le ri"en -y end o/ JneO dried %eed% %e"ara!ed /rom .a"%le
-y !#ra%#ing&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S ?mQO +XmQ
A%%ame%e S Ti%iO T%i
)engali S Ma%inaO A!a%i
Engli%# S Lin%eed
GIra!i S Al%#iO Ara%i
Hindi S Al%i
+annada S Aga%e-eeIaO SemeagareO Aga%i
+a%#miri S Al%i
Malayalam S Aga%!#aO Aga%iO C#er .#arm
Mara!#i S A!%#i
Oriya S A!%#i
$nIa-i S Ali
Tamil S AliO 'irai
Telg S A@i%a
?rd S Al%iO +a!an
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Seed %mallO -ro7nO glo%%y 7i!# min!ely "i!!ed %r/a.eO a-o! 0G4 mm long and
2G2&1 mm in ma(imm 7id!#O elonga!edGo@oidO /la!!enedO ronded a! one end and
o-liLely "oin!ed a! !#e o!#erO near 7#i.# on one edgeO a lig#! de"re%%ion en.lo%ing
#ilm and mi.ro"yleO em-ryo .on%i%!ing o/ !7o yello7i%#G7#i!eO /la!!ened "lano.on@e(
.o!yledon% and a radi.leO nearly /ill% !#e %eed and .om"le!ely %rronded -y a !#inO
7#i!i%# endo%"ermO -o!# endo%"erm and em-ryo oilyO !e%!a m.ilagino% 7#en %oa:ed in
7a!erO odorO .#ara.!eri%!i.O !a%!eO oily 7#en .#e7ed&
32
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ %eed %#o7% !e%!a .on%i%!% o/ i%odiame!ri. .ell% 7i!#
m.ilagino% o!er 7all%O .ollen.#yma!o% .ell% o/ middle layer o/ %eed .oa! .ylindri.alO
%ingle layeredO yello7i%# -ro7nO longi!dinally elonga!edO a-o! 126G186 long and
10G13 7ideO !#i.:O ligni/ied and 7i!# "i!!ed 7all%O %ingle layer o/ /la!!ened "olygonal
"igmen! .ell% 7i!# reddi%#G-ro7n .on!en!%O alerone grain% in !#e .o!yledon%O "!o 26
in diame!erO ea.# 7i!# glo-oid and .ry%!alloidO a-ndan! glo-le o/ /i(ed oil and
o..a%ional %!ar.# grain% "re%en!&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an *6 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&
Fi(ed oil No! le%% !#an 21 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&5

CONST<T?ENTS G Fi(ed oilO m.ilage and "ro!ein
$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Mad#raO Ti:!a
GVa S Snigd#aO Gr
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S 'Q!ag#naO A.a:XXya
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G SarXa"Qdi $rale"a
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G 9irorogaO +ZmirogaO +XU#aO $rame#a
DOSE G *G4 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm
33
1*& A!i-ala (2!&)
AT<)AL (2oo!)
A!i-alQ .on%i%!% o/ roo! o/ A-!ilon indi.m (Linn&) S7ee! (Fam& Mal@a.eae)O a
#airy #er- or nderG%#r- 1&6G1&1 m #ig#O annal or more o/!en "erennial 7i!# golden
yello7 /lo7er%O /lo7ering mo%!ly !#rog#o! !#e year /ond a-ndan!ly !#rog#o! !#e
#o!!er "ar!% o/ <ndiaO a% a .ommon 7eed on road %ide% and o!#er 7a%!e "la.e% in "lain% and
#ill%O "!o an ele@a!ion o/ 466 m&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S +a]:a!i:QO KXya"r`:!Q
A%%ame%e S Jaya@and#aO Jaya"a!eri
)engali S )adela
Engli%# S <ndian Mallo7
GIra!i S +an%a:iO +#a"a!
Hindi S +ang#i
+annada S S#rimdrigidaO MdragidaO Tr-e
Malayalam S ?ramO +a!@anO ?r-amO ?ra-amO 'an:rn!o!!O Oor"amO T!!i
Mara!#i S C#a:ra-#endiO $e!ariO Mdra
Oriya S $edi"idi:a
$nIa-i S +angiO +angi-oo!i
Tamil S T!!iO T#!#i
Telg S T!!r-enda
?rd S GG
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Ta" roo!%O /airly long 7i!# a nm-er o/ la!eral -ran.#e%O 1&1G2 .m in diame!erO
lig#! -ro7nO o!er %r/a.e %moo!# 7i!# do! li:e len!i.el%O -ar: !#in and .an -e ea%ily
"eeled o//O odorO /ee-leO !a%!eO a%!ringen! and -i!!er&

34
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ roo! %#o7% a !#in .or: o/ 0G3 or more !angen!ially elonga!ed
re.!anglar .ell%O .or: .am-imO %ingle layeredO and a! !#e len!i.el region% /ollo7ed -y
2G* layer% o/ %e.ondary .or!e( o/ !#inG7alledO almo%! .-i.al or re.!anglar .ell%O
.on!aining %mall .l%!er% o/ .al.im o(ala!e in mo%! o/ .ell%O "#ellogen /ollo7ed -y *G0
layer% o/ !#inG7alled .ell% o/ .or!e(O %ome .ell% o/ .or!e( 7#i.# are a-o@e !#e .oni.al
%!rand% o/ -a%!O .r%#edO %mall %!ar.# grain%O 4G8 in diame!erO "re%en! in %ome o/ !#e
.ell% O "#loem /orm% !#e maIor "or!ion% o/ -ar: and "re%en! a% .oni.al %!rand% 7i!# !#eir
-a%e% !o7ard% !#e 7ood and 7i!# dila!e di%!al end% o/ !#e "rimary medllary ray in
-e!7een !#emO /i-re%O "re%en! in gro"% o/ 16G12 in !#e%e .oni.al %!rand%O in !angen!ial
ro7%O al!erna!ing 7i!# !#inG7alled "#loem elemen!%O !o7ard% 7ood /i-re gro"%O elemen!
in -e!7een !#e /i-re% mo%!ly .on%i%!% o/ "#loem "aren.#ymaO Some .ell% .on!ain .l%!er
.ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!e and a /e7 o!#er% #a@e %!ar.# grain%O %ome "#loem .ell%
!o7ard% "eri"#ery a""ear .om"re%%ed and .r%#edO inner !o "#loemO a .am-im "re%en!O
.on%i%!ing o/ 1G2 ro7% o/ narro7O !#inG7alled re.!anglar .ell%O 7ood .om"o%ed o/
@e%%el%O 7ood /i-re%O 7ood "aren.#yma and medllary ray% @e%%el% @ary in diame!er and
arranged in radial gro"% o/ 2G0O al%o o..r in %ingle%O %ome .ell% %#o7 !ylo%e%
/orma!ionO "aren.#yma !#i.:G7alled and %lig#!ly 7ider !#an /i-re .ell%O -! le%%
!#i.:enedO %ingle or rarely .om"ond %!ar.# grain% "re%en!O !e!rar.# -ndle or "rimary
(ylem "re%en! a! !#e .en!re o/ 7oodO medllary ray% ni or -i%eria!e 7iden m.# !o7ard%
di%!al end%O mo%! o/ !#e ray .ell% .on!ain %!ar.# grain% and %ome .on!ain .l%!er o/
.al.im o(ala!eO %!ar.# grain% "re%en! in 7ood larger !#an !#o%e o/ -ar: regionO a /e7 ray
.ell% a! .en!re o/ !#e roo! .on!ain r#om-oidal .ry%!al%&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 5 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
35
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 8 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G A%"aragin


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Mad#ra
GVa S Snigd#a
'Yrya S 9Y!a
'i"Q:a S Mad#ra
+arma S GrQ#YO 'Q!a#araO )alyaO 'ZXya
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G )alQ TailaO NQrQyaVa TailaO Ma#Q NQrQyaVa Taila
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G Me#aO 'Q!ara:!aO 2a:!a"i!!a
DOSE G *G4 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm


36
10& A!i@i%#a (2!&)
AT<'<= (2oo!)
A!i@iXQ .on%i%!% o/ driedO !-ero% roo!% o/ A.oni!m #e!ero"#yllm ;all& e(&
2oyle (FamO 2ann.la.eae)O a "erennial #er-O na!i@e o/ 7e%!ern Himalaya% and /ond in
Gar#7alO +maon and +a%#mir a! al!i!de -e!7een 2O166G0O666 m&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S ArVQO G#Va"riyQO 'iXQ&
A%%ame%e S Aa!i.#
)engali S A!ai.#a
Engli%# S A!i% 2oo!
GIra!i S A!i@i%#ni +aliO A!i@i:#ani +ali
Hindi S A!i%
+annada S A!i@i%#aO A!#i#age
Malayalam S A!i@idayamO A!i@i!ayam
Mara!#i S A!i@i%#a
Oriya S A!%#i
$nIa-i S A!i%aO A!ee%
Tamil S A!i@idayam
Telg S A!i@a%a
?rd S A!ee%
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
2oo!%O o@oidG.oni.alO !a"ering do7n7ard% !o a "rin!O 2&6G3&1 .m longO 6&0G1&4 .m
or more !#i.: a! i!% ""er e(!remi!yO gradally de.rea%ing in !#i.:ne%% !o7ard% !a"ering
endO e(!ernally lig#! a%#GgreyO 7#i!e or greyG-ro7nO 7#ile in!ernally %!ar.# 7#i!eO
e(!ernal %r/a.e 7rin:led mar:ed 7i!# %.ar% o/ /allen roo!le! and 7i!# a ro%e!!e o/ %.aly
rdimen!ary lea@e% on !o"S /ra.!reO %#or!O %!ar.#yO %#o7ing ni/orm 7#i!e %r/a.eO
mar:ed !o7ard% .en!re -y 0G3 .on.en!ri.ally arranged yello7i%#G-ro7n do!%O
.orre%"onding !o end o/ /i-ro@a%.lar -ndle% !ra@er%ing roo! longi!dinally !a%!eO -i!!er
7i!# no !ingling %en%a!ion&

37
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ ma!re roo! %#o7%O %ingle layered e"idermi% .on%i%!ing o/
lig#! -ro7n !a-lar .ell% r"!ring on /orma!ion o/ .or:O .or: .on%i%!% o/ 1G16 ro7% o/
!angen!ially elonga!edO !#inG7alled .ell%O .or: .am-im %ingle layered .on%i%!ing o/
!angen!ially elonga!edO !#inG7alled .ell%O .or!e( m.# 7ider .on%i%!ing o/ !angen!ially
elonga!ed or rondedO !#inG7alled "aren.#yma!o% .ell% 7i!# in!er.elllar %"a.e%O .ell%
/lly "a.:ed 7i!# -o!# %im"le a% 7ell a% .om"ond %!ar.# grain%O .om"ond %!ar.# gain%
.om"o%ed o/ 2G0 .om"onen!% o/ %"#eri.al -odyO endodermi% di%!in.! .om"o%ed o/ -arrelG
%#a"ed .ell%O elemen!% o/ @a%.lar -ndle% "oorly de@elo"edO @a%.lar -ndle%O arranged
in a ringO in!erG/a%.i.lar .am-im "re%en! in /orm o/ a ring .om"o%ed o/ /e7 layered
!#inG7alled .ell%O .en!ral .ore .on%i%!ing o/ !#inG7alled "aren.#yma!o% .ell%O "o%%e%%ing
%!ar.# grain% %imilar !o !#o%e /ond in .or!i.al .ell%&
$o7derG A%# .olored !o lig#! -ro7nO nder mi.ro%.o"e %#o7% a-ndan! %im"le and
.om"ond %!ar.# grain% and "aren.#yma!o% .ell%&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 0 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 4 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 20 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G Al:aloid% (a!i%ineO di#ydroa!i%ineO #e!i%ined and #e!era!i%ine)&


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Ti:!aO +aU
GVa S Lag#O 2W:Xa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S DY"anaO $Q.anaO Sa_grQ#i:QO +a"#a"i!!a#ara
38
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G 2od#rQ%a@aO 9i@Q GUi:QO La:XmYnQrQyaVa 2a%aO Ma#Q
'iXagar-#a TailaO 2Q%nairaV[Qdi +@Q!#a CWrVaO SdarTana CWrVaO $aa.a!i:!a Gggl
G#Z!aO )Qla.Q!r-#adri:Q CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G J@araO +Q%aO C#ardiO AmQ!i%QraO +Zmiroga
DOSE G 6&4G2&6 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm


39
11& )a--la (S!& ):&)
)A))>LA (S!em -ar:)
)a--Wla .on%i%!% o/ dried ma!re %!em -ar: o/ A.a.ia nilo!i.a (Linn&) ;illd& e(&
Del& %"& indi.a ()en!#&) )renanO Syn& A.a.ia ara-i.a ;illd& (Fam& Legmino%ae) O a
modera!e %iAedO %"inyO e@ergreen !ree /ond !#rog#o! <ndia&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S )Q@arYO +in:irQ!a
A%%ame%e S )a-ala
)engali S )a-la
Engli%# S )a-la !reeO <ndian gm ara-i. !ree
GIra!i S )a@alO +aloa-a@al
Hindi S )a-laO )a-raO +i:ar
+annada S S#armeer:aO +ari JailO +ari go-liO $lai Jali
+a%#miri S Sa:
Malayalam S 'el!#a +ar@elan
Mara!#i S )a-#lO )a-#la
Oriya S )a-laO )a-ala
$nIa-i S +i::ar
Tamil S +ar@elanO +ar@el
Telg S Nalla!mmaO T#mma
?rd S GG
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
)ar: #ardO dar: -ro7n or -la.:O dee"ly /i%%red !ran%@er%ely and longi!dinallyO
inner %r/a.eO reddi%# -ro7nO longi!dinally %!ria!ed and /i-ro%O -rea:% 7i!# di//i.l!y
and e(#i-i!% a /i-ro% /ra.!reO !a%!eO a%!ringen!&
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ ma!re -ar: %#o7%O 11G21 layeredO !#inG7alledO %lig#!ly
/la!!ened mo%!ly re.!anglarO -ro7n .olored .or: .ell%O a /e7 len!i.el% /ormed -y
r"!ring o/ .or: .ell%O %e.ondary .or!i.al .ell% o@a!e !o elonga!edO many !anni/ero%
%!one .el1%O @aria-le in %#a"e and %iAe "re%en! in large gro"%O %e.ondary "#loem
40
.on%i%!% o/ %ie@e !-e%O .om"anion .ell%O /i-re%O .ry%!al /i-re% and "#loem "aren.#yma
"#loem /i-re% in many gro"% and !#i.:G7alledO "#loem !i%%e% /illed 7i!# reddi%# or
-ro7n .on!en!% "re%en!O .ry%!al /i-re% !#i.:G7alledO elonga!edO di@ided -y !ran%@er%e
%e"!a in!o %egmen!%O ea.# .on!ain a "ri%ma!i. .ry%!al o/ .al.im o(ala!eO medllary ray%
ni !oGml!iG %eria!e rn almo%! %!raig#!O ray .ell% elonga!ed !o "olygonalO 26G20 .ell%
#ig# and 2G1 .ell% 7ideO .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!e /ond %.a!!ered among%! !#e %!one
.ellb.el1% o/ %e.ondary .or!e( and "#loem "aren.#yma&
$o7derG$o7der a% %.# reddi%# -ro7n .oloredO nder mi.ro%.o"e many "ri%ma!i.
.ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!eO %!one .ell%O -o!# 7i!# narro7 and 7ide lmen and %!ria!ion%
and .ry%!al /i-re% %een&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 4 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 0 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G Tannin% and gm


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aXQya
GVa S GrO 2W:XaO 'iTada
'Yrya S 9Y!a
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S GrQ#YO +a"#a#araO 'iXag#na
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G MZ!a%aaIY@anY SrQO )a--WlQriXUa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G +XU#aO +ZmirogaO A!Y%QraO +Q%a
DOSE G 26G*6 g o/ !#e drg /or de.o.!ion

41
14& )a:.#i (Fr!)
)+?C, (Fri!)
)Q:.Y .on%i%!% o/ dry ri"e /ri!% o/ $%oralea .oryli/olia Linn& (Fam&
Legmino%ae)O an ere.!O 6&*G1&5 m #ig# annal #er-O di%!ri-!ed !#rog#o! <ndiaO /ond
.ommonly in ?!!ar $rade%#O )engal and Ma#ara%#!ra&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S A@algIaO SomarQIY
A%%ame%e S Ha-.#a
)engali S )a:.#iO SomraIiO Ha:.#a 'eeIa
Engli%# S GG
GIra!i S )a@a.#i
Hindi S )a-.#iO )a@a.#iO )a:.#i
+annada S )a.#igeO )#a@an!i-eeIaO )#a@an.#igidO )a:.#i
+a%#miri S )a-.#i
Malayalam S +ar:o:il
Mara!#i S )a7.#i
Oriya S )a:.#i
$nIa-i S )a-.#iO )a@.#i
Tamil S +ar"o:ari%iO +ar"ogalari%iO +ar-ogalari%i
Telg S )a@an.#al
?rd S )a-.#i
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Fri!%O dar: .#o.ola!e !o almo%! -la.: 7i!# "eri.ar" ad#ering !o !#e %eedG.oa!O
*G0&1 mm longO 2G* mm -roadO o@oidGo-long or -ean %#a"edO %ome 7#a! .om"re%%edO
gla-ro% ronded or m.rona!eO .lo%ely "i!!edO %eed% .am"ylo!ro"o%O nonG
endo%"ermo%O oily and /ree /rom %!ar.#O odorle%%O -! 7#en .#e7ed %mell o/ a "ngen!
e%%en!ial oil /el!O !a%!eO -i!!erO n"lea%an! and a.rid&

42
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ /ri! %#o7% "erio.ar" 7i!- "rominen! ridge% and
de"re%%ion%O .on%i%!ing o/ .olla"%ed "aren.#yma and large %e.re!ory gland% .on!aining
oleoGre%ino% ma!!er !e%!aO an o!er layer o/ "ali%ade e"idermi%O layer o/ -earer .ell%
7#i.# are m.# !#i.:ened in !#e inner !angen!ial and -a%al radial 7all% and 2G* layer% o/
"aren.#ymaO .o!yledon% o/ "oly#edral "aren.#yma and !#ree layer% o/ "ali%ade .ell% on
!#e ada(ial %ide&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 5 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 1* "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G E%%en!ial oilO /i(ed oilO $%oralen O "%oralidinO i%o"%oralen and
-a:.#iol&


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Ti:!aO +aU
GVa S 2W:Xa
'Yrya S 9Y!a
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S 9leXmQ%ra"i!!an!O GrQ#YO 'raVQ"a#aO HZdya
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G SomarQIY TailaO A@algIQdi Le"a
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G 9@i!raO +XU#aO +ZmirogaO J@araO Me#a
DOSE G *G4 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm
43
13& )i-#i!a:a (Fr!&)
)<)H,TA+A (Fri!)
)i-#Y!a:a .on%i%!% o/ "eri.ar" o/ dried ri"e /ri!% o/ Tern!inalia -eleri.a 2o(-&
(Fam& Com-re!a.eae)O a large de.ido% !reeO 16G12 m or more #ig#O .ommonly /ond in
"lain and /ore%!% "!o 866 m ele@a!ionO /ri!% ri"en !o7ard% No@em-er&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S 'i-#Y!aO A:XaO A:Xa:a
A%%ame%e S )#omoraO )#omraO )#aira
)engali S )ayadaO )a#eda
Engli%# S )eleri. Myro-alan
GIra!i S )a#edan
Hindi S )a#era
+annada S Tare :aiO S#an!i +ayi
+a%#miri S )a-eloO )alali
Malayalam S Tanni::a
Mara!#i S )a#eda
Oriya S )a#eda
$nIa-i S )a#era
Tamil S T#anri::ai
Telg S T#ani::aya
?rd S )a#era
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Fri! nearly %"#eri.al !o o@oidO 2&1G0&6 .m in diame!erO /re%# ri"e /ri!% %lig#!ly
%il@ery or 7i!# 7#i!i%# %#iny "-e%.en! %r/a.eO ma!re /ri!% grey or grayi%# -ro7n 7i!#
%lig#!ly 7rin:led a""earan.eO rind o/ /ri! %#o7% @aria!ion in !#i.:ne%% /rom *G1 mmO
!a%!eO a%!ringen!&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
44
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ /ri! %#o7% an o!er e"i.ar" .on%i%!ing o/ a layer o/ e"idermi%O
mo%! o/ e"idermal .ell% elonga!e !o /orm #air li:e "ro!-eran.e 7i!# %7ollen -a%eO
.om"o%ed o/ a Aone o/ "aren.#yma!o% .ell%O %lig#!ly !angen!ially elonga!ed and
irreglarly arrangedO in!ermingled 7i!# %!one .ell% o/ @arying %#a"e and %iAeO elonga!ed
%!one .ell% /ond !o7ard% "eri"#ery and %"#eri.al in !#e inner Aone o/ me%o.ar" in
gro"% o/ *G16O me%o.ar" !ra@er%ed in @ario% dire.!ion% -y nmero% @a%.lar %!rand%O
-ndle% .olla!eralO endar.#O %im"le %!ar.# grain% and %ome %!one .ell% /ond in mo%! o/
me%o.ar" .ell%O /e7 "eri"#eral layer% de@oid o/ %!ar.# grain%O ro%e!!e% o/ .al.im o(ala!e
and %!one .ell% "re%en! in "aren.#yma!o% .ell%O endo%"erm .om"o%ed o/ %!one .ell%
rnning longi!dinally a% 7ell a% !ran%@er%ely&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 3 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 5 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an *1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G Galli. a.idO !anni. a.id and gly.o%ide%


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aXQya
GVa S 2W:XaO Lag#
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S Mad#ra
+arma S +a"#a"i!!aIi!O )#eda:aO +ZminQTanaO Ca:XXyaO +eTyaO +Q%a#ara
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G Tri"#alQ CWrVaO Tri"#alQdi TailaO La@a]gQdi 'aUY
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G S@ara-#edaO Ne!rarogaO +Q%aO C#ardiO +ZmirogaO 'i-and#a
DOSE G *G4 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /rom

45
15& )il@a (Fr!& $l")
)<L'A (Fri! "l")
)il@a .on%i%!% o/ "l" o/ en!ireO nri"e or #al/ ri"e /ri!% o/ Aegle marmelo% Carr&
(Fam& 2!a.eae)O a !reeO a!!aining a #eig#! o/ 12 m gro7ing 7ild and al%o .l!i@a!ed
!#rog#o! !#e .on!ryO rind o/ /ri! i% remo@ed and "l" i% -ri%ed and dried&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S 9rY"#ala
A%%ame%e S )aelO 'ael
)engali S )elaO )il@a
Engli%# S )engal cin.eO )ael /ri!
GIra!i S )illO )ilmO )il@a"#al
Hindi S )elaO Sri"#alO )el
+annada S )il@a
+a%#miri S )el
Malayalam S +oo@alam
Mara!#i S )elO )aela
Oriya S )ela
$nIa-i S )il
Tamil S 'il@am
Telg S Mared
?rd S )el
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Fri!O %-Gglo-o%eO 1G15 .m in diame!erO e(!ernally greeni%# 7#en yongO
yello7i%#G-ro7n 7#en ri"eO rind a-o! 1&1 mmG* mm !#i.:O #ard and 7oodyO %r/a.e
%moo!# or %lig#!ly granlar -earing a .ir.lar %.ar a! !#e "oin! o/ a!!a.#men! 7i!#
"edn.leO .ar"el%O 16G11O .en!ralO ea.# .on!aining %e@eral #airy %eed% em-edded in
yello7i%#-ro7nO e(!remely %!i.:y m.ilageO %eed% o-longO /la!O 7oodyO and #a@ing 7#i!e
#airO /re%# "l" o/ ri"e /ri!O -ro7nO o/ %!i.:y %#read%O dried "l" #ard and "ale !o dar:
red in .olorO /reLen!ly -rea:% a7ay /rom !#e rind dring dryingO lea@ing a !#in layer
a!!a.#ed !o i!O odorO /ain!ly aroma!i.O !a%!eO m.ilagino% and %lig#!ly a%!ringen!&
46

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.

<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH


To!al A%# No! more !#an 0 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 4 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 16 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

ASSAB

T&L&C&

CONST<T?ENTS G Marmalo%inO !annin%O m.ilageO /a!!y oil and %gar&


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aUO Ti:!aO +aXQya
GVa S Lag#O 2W:Xa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S DY"anaO $Q.anaO GrQ#YO $i!!a:Z!O 'Q!a:a"#a#araO )alya
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G )il@Qdi Le#aO )Z#a! Ga]gQd#ara CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G $ra@Q#i:QO AgnimQndyaO Gra#aVYroga
DOSE G *G4 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm

47
18& C#andra%a (Sd&)
CAND2A9>2A (Seed)
CandraTWra .on%i%!% o/ dried %eed% o/ Le"idim %a!i@m Linn& (Fam& Cr.i/erae) a
%mall ere.!O annal #er-O a-o! 11G01 .m #ig#O .l!i@a!ed !#rog#o! <ndia&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S Candri:Q
A%%ame%e S Halim
)engali S C#and S#raO Halim
Engli%# S Common Cre%%
GIra!i S A%eriyaO A%eliyo
Hindi S C#an%r
+annada S Alli-iIaO +a"ila
+a%#miri S Alian
Malayalam S A%ali
Mara!#i S A#ali@aO Hali@
Oriya S C#anda%araO C#anda%ra
$nIa-i S HolonO Tara!eI
Tamil S Alli@irai
Telg S Adi!yalO Aadal
?rd S Halim
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Seed%O %mallO o@alG%#a"edO "oin!ed and !rianglar a! one endO %moo!#O a-o! 2G*
mm longO 1G1&1 mm 7ideO reddi%# -ro7nO a /rro7 "re%en! on -o!# %r/a.e% e(!ending
"!o !7o !#ird% do7n7ardO a %lig#! 7ing li:e e(!en%ion "re%en! on -o!# !#e edge% o/
%eedO 7#en %oa:ed in 7a!er %eed .oa! %7ell% and ge!% .o@ered 7i!# a !ran%"aren!O
.olorle%% m.ilageO !a%!eO m.ilagino%&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
48
$o7derG CreamGyello7 7i!# a nm-er o/ reddi%#G-ro7n /ragmen!% o/ %eed .oa!%O
nder mi.ro%.o"e %#o7% "ie.e% o/ %eed .oa!O %ome %#o7ing red .oloring ma!!er and
o!#er% 7i!# ni/ormly !#i.: 7all%O endo%"erm oily&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 5 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 6&1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 1* "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&


CONST<T?ENTS G Al:aloid%O e%%en!ial oilO /i(ed oil and m.ilage


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aUO Ti:!a
GVa S Lag#O 2W:XaO TY:XVa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S )ala"XUi@i@ard#anaO 'Q!aTleXma#Z!
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G +a%!WryQdi ('Qy) GUi:Q
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G Hi::QO A!Y%QraO 'Q!ara:!a
DOSE G *G4 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm


49
26& C#i!ra:a (2!&)
C<T2A+A (2oo!)
Ci!ra:a .on%i%!% o/ dried ma!re roo! o/ $lm-ago Aeylani.a Linn& (Fam&
$lm-agina.eae) O a large "erennial %-G%.anden! %#r-O /ond !#rog#o! <ndia in 7ile
%!a!e and o..a%ionally .l!i@a!ed in garden%&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S AgniO 'a#niO J@alanQ:#yaO +ZTQVO H!QTaO Da#anaO H!a-#:O 9i:#Y
A%%ame%e S Agiya.#i!O Agna.#i!
)engali S C#i!a
Engli%# S Lead 7ar
GIra!i S C#i!ra:mla
Hindi S C#iraO C#i!ra
+annada S C#i!ramlaO 'a#niO )ili.#i!ramoola
+a%#miri S C#i!raO S#a!ranIa
Malayalam S 'ella:ed@eliO T#m"o::od@eli
Mara!#i S C#i!ra:a
Oriya S C#i!amlaO C#i!o"ar
$nIa-i S C#i!ra
Tamil S C#i!ramoolamO +odi@eli
Telg S C#i!ramlam
?rd S S#ee!raI HindiO C#ee!a#
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
2oo!% *6 .m or more in leng!#O 4 mm or more in diame!er a% al%o a% %#or! %!o!
"ie.e%O in.lding roo! %!o.:% reddi%# !o dee" -ro7nO %.ar% o/ roo!le!% "re%en!O -ar: !#in
and -ro7nO in!ernal %!r.!re %!ria!edO odorO di%agreea-leO !a%!eO a.rid&
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ roo! %#o7% o!er mo%! !i%%e o/ .or: .on%i%!ing o/ 1 G3 ro7O
o/ .-i.al !o re.!anglar dar: -ro7n .ell%O %e.ondary .or!e( .on%i%!% o/ 2G* ro7% o/ !#inG
7alled re.!anglarO lig#! -ro7n .ell%O mo%! o/ !#e .or!e( .ell% .on!ain %!ar.# grain%O
50
%e.ondary .or!e( /ollo7ed -y a 7ide Aone o/ .or!e(O .om"o%ed o/ large "olygonal !o
!angen!ially elonga!ed "aren.#yma!o% .ell% @arying in %iAe and %#a"eO .on!aining %!ar.#
grain% and %ome .ell% 7i!# yello7 .on!en!%O /i-re% %.a!!ered %ingly or in gro"% o/ 2G4O
"#loem a narro7 Aone o/ "olygonalO !#inG7alled .ell%O .on%i%!ing o/ %al elemen!% and
"#loem /i-re%O %imilar !o .or!i.al AoneO "#loem /i-re% %ally in gro"% o/ 2G1 or more
-! o..a%ionally o..rring %inglyO ligni/ied 7i!# "oin!ed end% and narro7 lmenO %imilar
in %#a"e and %iAe !o !#o%e o/ %e.ondary .or!e(O .am-im indi%!in.!O (ylem lig#! yello7 !o
7#i!i%#O @e%%el% radially arranged 7i!# "i!!ed !#i.:ening%O medllary ray% %!raig#!O 1G4
%eria!eO .ell% radially elonga!ed %!ar.# /illed 7i!# %!ar.# grain%O %!one .ell% a-%en!&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 12 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 12 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G $lm-agin


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aU
GVa S Lag#O 2W:XaO TY:XVa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S DY"anaO $Q.anaO GrQ#YO +a"#a@Q!a#araO ArTo#araO 9Wla#araO
9o!#a#ara
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G Ci!ra:Qdi 'aUYO Ci!ra:a#arY!a:YO Ci!ra:Qdi CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G AgnimQndyaO Gra#aVYrogaO ArTaO ?daraTWlaO GdaTo!#a
DOSE G 1G2 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /ormR No!e G 9`d#ana o/ !#i% drg i% !o -e done -e/ore
%e a% de%.ri-ed in !#e a""endi(
51
21& D#anya:a (Fr!&)
DHNBA+A (Fri!)
D#Qnya:a .on%i%!% o/ dried ri"e /ri!% o/ Coriandrm %a!i@m Linn& (Fam&
?m-elli/erae) O a %lenderO gla-ro%O -ran.#edO annal #er-O .l!i@a!ed all o@er <ndiaO *6G86
.m #ig#O gi@ing .#ara.!eri%!i. aroma 7#en r--edO .ro" ma!re% in 2G* mon!#% a/!er
%o7ingO #er- i% "lled o! 7i!# roo!%O a/!er dryingO /ri!% !#rea%#ed o! and dried in %nO
7inno7edO and %!ored in -ag%&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S D#ani:aO D#QnyaO 'i!nna:aO +%!m-r
A%%ame%e S D#aniya
)engali S D#aneO D#ania
Engli%# S Coriander /ri!
GIra!i S D#ana
Hindi S D#aniya
+annada S Ha@iIaO +o!#am-ari -iIa
+a%#miri S D#ani7alO D#ana7al
Malayalam S MalliO +o!#am"a!ayari
Mara!#i S D#aneO +o!#im-ir
Oriya S D#ania
$nIa-i S D#ania
Tamil S +o!!amalli @iraiO D#aniya
Telg S D#aniyal
?rd S +i%#neeA
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Fri! glo-larO meri.ar"% %ally ni!ed -y !#eir margin% /orming a .remo.ar"
a-o! 2G0 mm in diame!erO ni/ormly -ro7ni%#Gyello7 or -ro7nO gla-ro%O %ome!ime%
.ro7ned -y !#e remain% o/ %e"al% and %!yle%O "rimary ridge% 16O 7a@y and %lig#!ly
in.on%"i.o% %e.ondary ridge% 5O %!raig#!O and more "rominen!O endo%"erm
.oelo%"ermo% O odorO aroma!i.O !a%!eO %"i.y and .#ara.!eri%!i.&
52

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ /ri! %#o7% "eri.ar" 7i!# o!er e"idermi%O 7#en "re%en!
7i!# %lig#!ly !#i.:ened an!i.linal 7allO a /e7 %!oma!aO many .ell% 7i!# %mall "ri%m% o/
.al.im o(ala!eO !ri.#ome% a-%en!O o!er layer o/ me%o.ar" "aren.#yma!o% 7i!# inner
.ell% in 7a@y longi!dinal ro7% and degenera!ed @i!!ae a% !angen!ially /la!!ened .a@i!ie%O
middle layer o/ me%o.ar" %.leren.#yma!o% /orming a !#i.: layer o/ /%i/ormO "i!!ed
.ell% in @ery %ino% ro7%O layer% o/!en .ro%%ing a! rig#! angle% 7i!# de/ini!e
longi!dinal %!rand% in !#e %e.ondary ridge%O %ino% "rimary .o%!ae 7i!# %ome %"iral
@e%%elS inner .ell% o/ me%o.ar"O largeO #e(agonal 7i!# ra!#er !#inO ligni/ied 7all%O inner
e"idermi% o/ @ery narro7 !#inG7alled .ell% %lig#!ly %ino% an!i.linal 7all %#o7ing
"arLe!ry arrangemen!O !7o or rarely moreO normal @i!!ae o..rring on .ommi%%ral %ide
o/ ea.# me%o.ar" .on!aining @ola!ile oilO endo%"erm o/ !#i.:G7alled .elllo%i.
"aren.#yma .on!aining m.# /i(ed oilO nmero% alerone grain%O a-o! 0G5 in diame!er
.on!aining mi.roGro%e!!e% o/ .al.im o(ala!e O %"li! .ar"o"#ore "a%%ing a! a"e( o/ ea.#
meri.ar" in!o ra"#eO adIa.en! !o 7#i.# a large .a@i!y and on inner %ide o/ !#i% a /la!!ened
@a%.lar %!randO .ar"o"#ore .on%i%!ing o/ /i-re% %rronded -y %"iral @e%%el%&
$o7derG Fa7n !o -ro7nO e"idermal .ell% o/ "eri.ar" 7#en "re%en!O %lig#!ly !#i.:G7alled
and many .on!aining %mall "ri%m o/ .al.im o(ala!eO "aren.#yma!o% .ell% o/ me%o.ar"
7i!#o! re!i.la!e !#i.:eningO ma%%e% o/ %.leren.#yma!o% .ell% o/ me%o.ar" in %ino%
ro7%O o/!en .ro%%ing a! rig#! angle%O large !-lar #e(agonal ra!#er !#inG7alled
%.leren.#yma!o% .ell% o/ endo.ar"O .ell% o/ inner e"idermi% 7i!# %lig#!ly %inno%
an!i.linal 7all%O !#i.:G7alled "olygonal "aren.#yma!o% .ell% o/ endo%"ermO .on!aining
/i(ed oil and nmero% %mall alerone grain%O mi.roGro%e!!e% o/ .al.im o(ala!e&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 4 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1&1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 16 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 18 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&
'ola!ile oil No! le%% !#an 6&* "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&16

CONST<T?ENTS G E%%en!ial oil (.oriandrol)

53

$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aUO Mad#raO Ti:!aO +aXQya
GVa S Lag#O Snigd#a
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S Mad#ra
+arma S DY"anaO $Q.anaO GrQ#YO TridoXan!O MW!ralaO Ca:XXyaO HZdya
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G D#Qnya"aa.a:a +@Q!#a CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G J@araO TZXVQO C#ardiO DQ#aO AIYrVaO A!Y%Qra
DOSE G 1G* g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm


54
22& D#a!a:i (Fl&)
DHTA+, (Flo7er)
D#Q!a:Y .on%i%!% o/ /lo7er% o/ ;ood/ordia /r!i.o%a (Linn&) +rA& (Fam&
Ly!#ra.eae) S m.# -ran.#edO %emi de.ido%O nder%#r- or %#r-O 1G* m #ig#O rarely
"!o * mO /ond !#rog#o! <ndiaO a%.ending !o 1166 m in Himalaya% and al%o in !#e
Gange!i. "lain% O al%o .l!i@a!ed in garden%&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S )a#"%"YO TQmra"X"YO 'a#niI@QlQ
A%%ame%e S D#ai"#ool
)engali S D#ai"#l
Engli%# S Fire /lame -%#
GIra!i S D#a@adiO D#a@ani
Hindi S D#aiO D#a@a
+annada S D#a!a:iO Tamra"%#"i
Malayalam S Ta!!iri"@O Ta!ire
Mara!#i S D#aya!iO D#a@a!i
Oriya S D#ai"#laO D#a!:i
$nIa-i S Da@iO $#l D#a@a
Tamil S +a!!a!iO +a!!a!#iO +a!!a!!i"oo
Telg S Aarl $r@
?rd S GG
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Flo7erO a-o! 1&2 .m longO o..r% a% %ingle or in -n.#e% o/ 2G11O .aly( 1&6G1&4
.m longO ridged and gla-ro%O -rig#! red 7#en /re%# -! /ade% on dryingO 7i!#
.am"anla!e -a%e and o-liLe a"e( #a@ing 4 !rianglar and a.!e !ee!#O ea.# !oo!# -eingO
2G2&1 mm longO 4O @ery min!e a..e%%ory %e"al% a!!a.#ed o!%ide a! !#e In.!re o/ .aly(
!oo!# and dee"er in .olorO "e!al% 4O a!!a.#ed in%ide !#e mo!# o/ .aly(G!-eO %#ig#!ly
longer !#an .aly( !oo!#O al!erna!ing 7i!# .aly(G!oo!# "ale ro%e or 7#i!i%#O !#inO "a"eryO
lan.eola!eO a.mina!eO %!amen% 12O ni!ed a! !#e -a%eO a-o! 1&1G2 .m longO /ilamen!
/ili/ormO .r@ed a! !#e a"e(O :ee"ing an!#er% in%ide .aly(G!-e O an!#er% dor%i/i(ed
-ro7nO almo%! ronded or -roadly o@a!eO .ar"el% 2O ni!edO o@ary %"eriorO %!yle /ili/ormO
55
longeO !#an o@ary and %!amen%O !a%!eO a%!ringen!&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ %e"al %#o7%O %ingle layered .!i.lari%ed e"idermi%O
"ro@ided 7i!# -o!# glandlar and .o@ering !ri.#ome% Rglandlar !ri.#ome%O
ml!i.elllarO longO .on%i%!ing o/ a %!al: and a glo-o%eO !#inG7alledO ml!i.elllar #eadO
.o@ering !ri.#ome%O ni.elllar !#i.:G7alled -road a! -a%e and "oin!ed a! !#e a"e(O
grond !i%%e .on%i%!ing o/ !#inG7alledO "aren.#yma!o% .ell% %r/a.e @ie7 o/ "e!al
%#o7% !#inG7alledO "aren.#yma!o% .ell%O "ro@ided 7i!# @ery /e7 %"ar%ely di%!ri-!ed
.o@ering !ri.#ome%O !ran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ /ilamen! %#o7%O e"idermi% .on%i%!ing o/ %ingle
layered !angen!ially elonga!ed .ell%O .o@ered 7i!# a @ery !#i.:G.!i.leO grond !i%%e
.on%i%!ing o/ !#in 7alled "aren.#yma!o% .ell% 7i!# in!er.elllar %"a.e%O %rronding a
.en!ral& @a%.lar .ylinder o/ %"irally !#i.:ened @e%%el%O !ran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ an!#er
%#o7%O %ingle layered e"idermi%O .o@ered 7i!# .!i.le /ollo7ed -y %e@eral layer% o/
!#i.:ened .ell%O %rronding -o!# !#e "ollenG%a.% #a@ing nmero% "ollen grain%O "ollen
grain% rog#ly !e!ra#edral 7i!# !#ree "ore%O mea%ring 12G14 a""ro(ima!ely O .en!ral
region .on%i%!ing o/ !#inG7alled .ell% em-oding @a%.lar -ndle%&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 16 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 3 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 25 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G Tannin and gl.o%ide


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aXQyaO +aU
GVa S Lag#
'Yrya S 9Y!a
'i"Q:a S +aU
56
+arma S GrQ#YO 'iXag#naO Gar-#a%!#Q"anaO +Zmin!O Sand#QnYya
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G )Z#a! Ga]gQd#ara CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G A!Y%QraO TZXVQO 'i%ar"aO 'raVaO 2a:!a"i!!a
DOSE G *G4 g& o/ drg in "o7der /orm


57
2*& Eranda (2!&)
E2ACDA (2oo!)
EraV[a .on%i%!% o/ driedO ma!re roo!% o/ 2i.in% .ommni% Linn& (Fam&
E"#or-ia.eae)O a !all gla-ro% %#r- or almo%! %mall !ree 2G0 m #ig#O /ond !#rog#o!
<ndiaO mo%!ly gro7ing 7ild on 7a%!e land and al%o .l!i@a!ed /or i!% oil %eed%&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S Gand#ar@a#a%!aO 'Q!QriO $aa.Q]glaO Ci!rQO ?r-O 2-
A%%ame%e S EdaO Era
)engali S )#erenda
Engli%# S Ca%!or oil "lan!
GIra!i S ErandioO Erando
Hindi S ArandO ErandO AndiO 2end
+annada S HaralO Odala gida
+a%#miri S AranO )anangir
Malayalam S A@ana::
Mara!#i S Erand
Oriya S JadaO Ga-a
$nIa-i S Arind
Tamil S Amana::
Telg S Amda" @er
?rd S )edanIirO Arand
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
2oo! lig#! in 7eig#! almo%! %!raig#! 7i!# /e7 roo!le!%O o!er %r/a.e dll
yello7i%# -ro7nO nearly %moo!# -! mar:ed 7i!# longi!dinal 7rin:le%O %ome "la.e%
7#i!i%#Gyello7 and %o/!O odorle%%O !a%!eO a.rid&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ roo! %#o7% !#in layer o/ .or: o/ %Lari%# !o !angen!ially
58
elonga!edO !#inG7alled .ell%O -enea!# .or:O %e.ondary .or!e( o/ !#inG7alledO !angen!ially
elonga!ed .ell%O narro7 .or!e( o/ ronded !o !angen!ially elonga!ed !#inG7alled
"aren.#yma!o% .ell%O %ome .on!aining large oil glo-le%O ro%e!!e% o/ .al.im o(ala!e
.ry%!al% and rond %im"le or .om"ond %!ar.# grain%O "#loem a -road AoneO .on%i%!ing o/
%ie@e !-e%O "#loem "aren.#yma and "#loem /i-re%O /i-re% longO mo%!ly %e"!a!eO #ig#ly
!#i.:enedO #a@ing narro7 lmenO %ome /i-re% %rronded -y .on.en!ri. ro7% o/ .ell%
.on!aining .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!eO %ie@e !-e%O !#inG7alled 7i!# .om"anion .ell% and
"#loem "aren.#yma in !#e inner region o/ "#loem more "rominen! O %ome "#loem
"aren.#yma .ell% .on!ain .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!e O .am-im *G1 layeredO .ell%
re.!anglar in %#a"eO (ylem o.."ie% maIor "ar! o/ roo!O "en!ar.#O /i@e gro"% o/ "rimary
(ylem di%!in.! in !#e .en!re o/ !#e 7oodO (ylem .on%i%!% o/ @e%%el%O "aren.#yma and
/i-re% O @e%%el% ni/ormly %.a!!ered !#rog#o! !#e (ylem regionO ei!#er %oli!ary or in
gro"%O larger in %iAe !o7ard% "#loemO 7i!# -ordered "i!% O (ylem "aren.#yma le%% ia
nm-er arond @e%%el% .on!aining %!ar.# grain%O (ylem /i-re% long and !#i.:G7alledO
medllary ray% niG!oG-i%eria!eO more or le%% %!raig#!O 0G1 %eria!e ray%O %ome!ime% /ond
near "ro!o(ylem gro"%O ray .ell%O !#inG7alledO %lig#!ly radially elonga!ed in "#loem
regionO !#i.:G7alled in (ylem regionO all ray .ell% .on!ain %!ar.# grain%&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 5 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 8 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G Al:aloid (ri.inine)


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Mad#ra
GVa S GrO Snigd#a
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S Mad#ra
+arma S 'ZXyaO 'Q!a#araO ma"Q.ana
59
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G Gand#ar@a#a%!Qdi +@Q!#a CWrVaO 'Q!Qri GgglO
Gand#ar@a#a%!a !aila
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G ma@Q!aO 9o!#aO 'a%!iTWlaO +aUiTWlaO ?dararogaO J@ara
DOSE G 26G*6 g o/ !#e drg /or de.o.!ion


60
20& Gam-#ari (2!&):&)
GAM)H2, (2oo! -ar:)
Gam-#QrY .on%i%!% o/ driedO ma!re roo! and roo! -ar: o/ Gmelina ar-orea 2o(-&
(Fam& 'er-ena.eae) O !ree a-o! 15 m #ig#O 7i!# a .lear -ole o/ 4G8 m and a gir!# o/
1&1G2&1 mO /ond in !#e lo7er Himalaya%O !#e Nilgiri% and !#e Ea%! and ;e%! Coa%!% o/
<ndia&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S +QTmarYO +QTmarya
A%%ame%e S Gamari
)engali S Gam-#arO Gamar
Engli%# S Cand#ar Tree
GIra!i S S#i@an
Hindi S Gam-#arO +#am-#ari
+annada S S#i@anigidaO S#i@ani
+a%#miri S +a%#mari
Malayalam S +miA#O +m"il
Mara!#i S S#i@an
Oriya S Gam-#ari
$nIa-i S Gm#arO +m#ar
Tamil S +mi%#anO +miA#an
Telg S $eggmmdO $eggmmadi
?rd S GG
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
2oo! G O..r% in "ie.e% 7i!# %e.ondary and !er!iary -ran.#e%O roo! "ie.e% nearly
.ylindri.al 7i!# ne@en %r/a.eO greyi%# -ro7nO /ra.!re %ome7#a! !og# in -ar:O -ri!!le
and "redominan! in 7oody "or!ion&
2oo! -ar:Gma!re roo! -ar: 7#en /re%#O yello7i%# in .olorO dry "ie.e% .r@ed and
.#annelledO !#inner one% /orming %ingle Lill%O e(!ernal %r/a.e rgged de !o "re%en.e
o/ @er!i.al .ra.:%O ridge%O /i%%re% and nmero% len!i.el%O /ra.!re %#or! and granlarO
!a%!eO m.ilagino%O %7ee!i%# 7i!# %lig#! -i!!erne%%&
61

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
2oo!G!ran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ roo! %#o7% 4G5 layer% o/ .or: .ell%O %e.ondary .or!e(O
in.lding "rimary and %e.ondary "#loem a-o! !7o !#ird .on%i%!ing o/ 7oodO .or:
-ro7ni%#O .ell% arranged in !angen!ial dire.!ion and -ro:en a! "la.e% !o7ard% ""er
layer%O .or!e( .#ara.!eri%ed -y !#e "re%en.e o/ !#inG7alled "aren.#yma!o% .ell% 7i!#
%!ar.# grain% O re%in d.!% "re%en! in a-ndan.e !#rog#o! .or!e(O %.a!!ered %!one .ell%
/i-re li:e or elonga!ed .ommonO /i-re% "re%en!O o..rring mo%!ly in %ingle%O .ell% o/
.or!e( al%o .on!ain ro%e!!e .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!e and oil glo-le%O "rimary "#loem
.#ara.!eri%ed -y !#e "re%en.e o/ %ie@e !-e% 7i!# .om"anion .ell%O "#loem "aren.#ymaO
%o/! -a%! /i-re% and ray .ell%O "#loem /i-re% o..r %ingly and %.a!!ered .or!i.al .ell%
06G36 -y 21G*1 and -a%! /i-re%O *66G1666 -y 16G11 de@elo"men! o/ .or: !a:e%
"la.e in %e.ond or !#ird layer o/ "rimary .or!e(O 7ood .on%i%!% o/ %im"le "i!!ed 7ood
"aren.#yma and medllary ray%O 7ood .ell% mainly .om"o%ed o/ @e%%el% and !ra.#eid%
and inner 7ood .on%i%!% o/ a maIor "or!ion o/ /i-re% !oge!#er 7i!# a /e7 @e%%el%O @e%%el%
nmero% and /orm almo%! a ring near !#e "eri"#ery o/ (ylem .ylinder and %ome7#a!
%"are%O -eing %.a!!ered in gro"% or %ingly nearer !#e .en!ral regionO lmen o/ @e%%el%
%ome7#a! largeO dimen%ion% o/ @e%%el% 1*6G216 -y 16G166 and !#o%e o/ !#e !ra.#eid%
131G*66 -y *6G16 7ood /i-re% a-ndan! and 7i!# %im"le "i!% O .am-im di%!in.!O
medllary ray% generally 1G2 .elled !#i.: 7i!# a-ndan! %!ar.# grain% .ell% o-long !o
re.!anglar&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 6&* "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 3 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 26 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G Al:aloid% and lignan% (ar-orealO i%oar-oreal and rela!ed lignan%)


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Ti:!aO +aXQya
62
GVa S Gr
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S DY"anaO $Q.anaO )#edanaO Med#yaO TridoXaIi!O 9o!#a#araO 'iXag#naO
J@ara#ara
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G DaTamWlQriXUaO DaTamWla#arY!a:YO DaTamWla G#Z!aO
DaTamWla =aU"ala:a G#Z!a
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G J@araO TZXVQO DQ#aO ArTaO 9o!#a
DOSE G 26G*6 g o/ !#e drg /or de.o.!ion


63
21& Go:%#ra (2!&)
GO+=?2A (2oo!)
Go:Xra .on%i%!% o/ roo! o/ Tri-l% !erre%!ri% Linn& (Fam& Nygo"#ylla.eae)S an
annal "ro%!ra!e #er-O rarely "erennial .ommon 7eed o/ !#e "a%!re land%O road %ide% and
o!#er 7a%!e landO .#ie/ly gro7ing in #o!O dry and %andy region% !#rog#o! <ndia and "!o
*O666 m in +a%#mir&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S Go:Xra:aO Tri:aVUaO 9@ada_XUrQO Trai:aVUa:a
A%%ame%e S Go:%#raO G:#r:a!a
)engali S Go:%#raO Go:#ri
Engli%# S Cal!ro"% roo!
GIra!i S )e !#a go:#arO Nana go:#arO Mi!#ogo:#ar
Hindi S Go:#r
+annada S SannanaggilO NeggilamllO Neggil
+a%#miri S Mi.#ir:andO $a:#da
Malayalam S NerinIil
Mara!#i S Sara!eO Go:#ar
Oriya S G:#raO Go:#yra
$nIa-i S )#a:#raO Go:#r
Tamil S NerinIilO NernIil
Telg S $aller@er
?rd S +#arGeG+#a%a: +#rd
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Drg .on%i%!% o/ roo!O 3G15 .m long and 6&*G6&3 .m in diame!erO %lenderO
.ylindri.alO /i-ro%O /reLen!ly -ran.#ed -earing a nm-er o/ %mall roo!le!%O !og#O
7oody and yello7 !o lig#! -ro7n in .olorO %r/a.e -e.ome% rog# de !o "re%en.e o/
%mall nodle%O /ra.!re /i-ro%O odor aroma!i.O !a%!eO %7ee!i%# and a%!ringen!&

64
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ "rimary roo!% %#o7 a layer o/ e"idermi% /ollo7ed -y 0G1
layer% o/ !#inG7alled "aren.#yma!o% .or!e(O endodermi% di%!in.!O "eri.y.le en.lo%ing
diar.# %!eleO in ma!re roo!O .or: 0G4 layeredO .or: .am-im %ingle layered /ollo7ed -y
4G10 layer% o/ !#inG7alled "aren.#yma!o% .ell% 7i!# @arying nm-er o/ /i-re%O
di%!ri-!ed !#rog#o!O %ome %e.ondary .or!e( .ell% %#o7 %e.ondary 7all /orma!ion and
re!i.la!e !#i.:eningO /i-re% /ond in gro"% re%em-ling !#o%e o/ "#loemO %e.ondary
"#loem di@ided in!o !7o Aone%O o!er Aone .#ara.!eri%ed -y "re%en.e o/ nmero%
"#loem /i-re% 7i!# a /e7 %ie@e !-e% %lig#!ly .olla"%edO inner Aone /reLen!ly
"aren.#yma!o%O de@oid o/ /i-re% o/!en %#o7ing %ie@e !-e% and .om"anion .ell%O
"#loem ray% di%!in.!O /e7 .ell% ge! .on@er!ed in!o /i-re% in o!er regionO .am-im *G1
layeredO 7ood .om"o%ed o/ @e%%el%O !ra.#eid% O "aren.#yma and /i-re% and !ra@er%ed -y
medllary ray%O @e%%el% %.a!!eredO arranged in %ingle% or do-le% !o7ard% inner %ideO in
gro"% o/ !#ree !o /or on o!er %ide #a@ing -ordered "i!%O !ra.#eid% longO narro7 7i!#
%im"le "i!%O (ylem "aren.#yma re.!anglar or %lig#!ly elonga!ed 7i!# %im"le "i!% and
re!i.la!e !#i.:eningO (ylem /i-re% /e7O !ra.#ied% elonga!ed 7i!# %im"le "i!%O medllary
ray% #e!erogeno%O 1G0 .ell% 7ideO %!ar.# grain% and ro%e!!e .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!e
"re%en! in %e.ondary .or!e(O "#loem and medllary ray% .ell%O /e7 "ri%ma!i. .ry%!al% al%o
"re%en! in (ylem ray .ell%&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 1* "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 0 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 16 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G Al:aloid% and %a"onin%
65


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Mad#ra
GVa S GrO Snigd#a
'Yrya S 9Y!a
'i"Q:a S Mad#ra
+arma S 'Q!an!O 'ZXyaO )Z_#aVaO MW!rala
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G Sa#a.arQdi TailaO DaTamWla +@Q!#a CWrVaO DaTamWla
+aU!raya +@Q!#a CWrVaO DaTamWla"aa.a:olQdi +@Q!#a CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G +Q%aO 9@Q%aO 9WlarogaO HZdrogaO 'Q!arogaO MW!ra:Z..#raO ATmar
Y
DOSE G 26G*6 g o/ !#e drg /or de.o.!ion


66
24& Go:%#ra (Fr!&)
GO+=?2A (Fri!)
Go:Xra .on%i%!% o/ driedO ri"eO en!ire /ri! o/ Tri-l% !erre%!ri% Linn& (Fam
Nygo"ylla.eae)O an annalO rarely "ernnial .ommon 7eed o/ !#e "a%!re land%O road %ide% and
o!#er 7a%!e "la.e%O .#ie/ly in #o!O dry and %andy region%O gro7% !#rog#o! <ndia a% "ro%!ra!e
#er- and "!o *O666 m in +a%#mir&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S 9@ada_XUrQO Go:Xra:aO Trai:aVUa:aO Tri:aVUa
A%%ame%e S Go:#r:a!aO Go:%#ra
)engali S Go:#riO Go:%#ra
Engli%# S Cal!ro"% /ri!
GIra!i S )e!#ago:#arO Mi!#ago:#rO Nanago:#ar
Hindi S Go:#r
+annada S NeggilamllO NeggilO Sannaneggil
+a%#miri S $a:#daO Mi.#i:and
Malayalam S NerinIil
Mara!#i S Go:#arO Sara!e
Oriya S Go:#yraO G:#ra
$nIa-i S )#a:#raO Go:#r
Tamil S NerinIilO NernIil
Telg S $aller +aya
?rd S +#arGeG+#a%a: +#rd
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Fri! %!al:edO lig#! or greeni%# yello7O /i@e ri--ed or angledO more or le%%
%"#eri.al in %!r.!re and .o@ered 7i!# %#or! %!i// or "-e%.en! #air%O 1 .m in diame!er
7i!# /i@e "air%O o/ "rominen! %#or! %!i// %"ine%O "oin!ed do7n7ard%O a-o! 6&1 .m in
leng!#O !i"% o/ %"ine% almo%! mee! in "air% 7#ole !oge!#er /orming "en!agonal /rameG
7or: arond /ri!O ri"e /ri! %e"ara!e% in!o /i@e %egmen!O o/ ea.# .o..i and ea.# a""ear%
a% %ingleG/ri!O ea.# .o..% %emiGlnar or "lanoG.on@e( in %!r.!re one .#am-eredO
armed 7i!# a "air o/ %"ine%O %!ar!ing /rom i!% middleO .on!aining /or or more %eed%O
!a%!eO %lig#!ly a%!ringen!&

67
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ /ri! %#o7% %mall e"idermal .ell% o/ ea.# .o..%
re.!anglarO ni.elllar !ri.#ome% in a-ndan.eO me%o.ar" 4G16 layer% o/ large
"aren.#yma!o% .ell%O ro%e!!e o/ .al.im o(ala!e .ry%!al% a-ndan!ly "re%en!O me%o.ar"
/ollo7ed -y *G0 .om"a.! layer% o/ %mall .ell% .on!aining "ri%ma!i. .ry%!al% o/ .al.im
o(ala!e&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 4 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 16 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

ASSAB

T&L&C&



CONST<T?ENTS G $o!a%%im ni!ra!eO %!erol%O %a"ogenin 7i!# "yro:e!one ring
(dio%genin)O gi!ogenin and #e.ogenin%&


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Mad#ra
GVa S GrO Snigd#a
'Yrya S 9Y!a
68
'i"Q:a S Mad#ra
+arma S 'Q!an!O 'ZXyaO )Z_#aVaO ATmarY#araO 'a%!iTod#ana
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G Go:XrQdi GgglO Trai:aVUa:a G#Z!aO DrQ:Xadi
CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G +Q%aO 9@Q%aO ATmarYO MW!ra:Z..#raO $rame#aO ArTaO 9WlarogaO
HZdrogaO Dar-alya
DOSE G *G4 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm
26G*6 g o/ !#e drg /or de.o.!ion


69
23& Gd.#i (S!)
G?D>C, (S!em)
G[W.Y .on%i%!% o/ driedO ma!red "ie.e% o/ %!em o/ Tino%"ora .ordi/olia (;illd&)
Mier%& (FamO Meni%"erma.eae)O a "erennial .lim-er /ond !#rog#o! Tro"i.al <ndiaO drg
.olle.!ed dring %mmer "re/era-ly in !#e mon!# o/ MayO drg i% %ed in /re%# /orm al%o&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S AmZ!a@allYO AmZ!QO Mad#"arVYO G[W.i:QO C#innod-#a@Q
A%%ame%e S Sidd#ila!aO Amarla!a
)engali S Glan.#a
Engli%# S GG
GIra!i S Gala.O Garo
Hindi S GiloeO Gr.#a
+annada S Amr!a-alli
+a%#miri S Amri!aO Gilo
Malayalam S C#i!!amr!
Mara!#i S Gl@el
Oriya S Gl.#i
$nIa-i S Gilo
Tamil S SeendalO Seendil :odi
Telg S T#i""a!eega
?rd S Gilo
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Drg o..r% in "ie.e% o/ @arying !#i.:ne%% ranging /rom 6&4G1 .m in diame!erO
yong %!em% green 7i!# %moo!# %r/a.e% and %7elling a! node%O older one% %#o7 a lig#!
-ro7n %r/a.e mar:ed 7i!# 7ar!y "ro!-eran.e% de !o .ir.lar len!i.el%O !ran%@er%ely
%moo!#ened %r/a.e %#o7% a radial %!r.!re 7i!# .on%"i.o% medllary ray% !ra@er%ing
"oro% !i%%e%O !a%!e -i!!er&

70
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ %!em %#o7% o!erGmo%! layer o/ .or:O di//eren!ia!ing in!o
o!er Aone o/ !#i.:G7alled -ro7ni%# and .om"re%%ed .ell%O inner Aone o/ !#in 7alled
.olorle%%O !angen!ially arranged *G0 ro7% o/ .ell%O .or: -ro:en a! %ome "la.e% de !o
o"ening o/ len!i.el%O /ollo7ed -y 1 or more ro7% o/ %e.ondary .or!e( o/ 7#i.# !#e .ell%
o/ o!er ro7% %maller !#an !#e inner oneO I%! 7i!#in !#e o"ening o/ len!i.el%O gro"% o/
%.lereid% .on%i%!ing o/ 2G16 .ell% /ond in %e.ondary .or!e( regionO o!er Aone o/ .or!e(
.on%i%!% o/ *GG1 ro7% o/ irreglarly arrangedO !angen!ially elonga!ed .#loren.#yma!o%
.ell%O .or!i.al .ell% %i!a!ed !o7ard% inner %ideO "olygonal in %#a"e and /illed 7i!# "len!y
o/ %!ar.# grain%O %im"leO o@oidO or irreglarly o@oidGelli"!i.alO o..a%ionally .om"ond o/
2G0 .om"onen!%O %e@eral %e.re!ory .ell%O /ond %.a!!ered in !#e .or!e(O "eri.y.li. /i-re%
ligni/ied 7i!# 7ide lmen and "oin!ed end%O a%%o.ia!ed 7i!# a large nm-er o/ .ry%!al
/i-re% .on!aining a %ingle "ri%m in ea.# .#am-erO @a%.lar Aone .om"o%ed o/ 16G12 or
more 7edgeG%#a"ed %!ri"% o/ (ylemO e(!ernally %rronded -y %emiG.ir.lar %!ri"% o/
"#loemO al!erna!ingO 7i!# 7ide medllary ray%O "#loem .on%i%!% o/ %ie@e !-eO .om"anion
.ell% and "#loem "aren.#yma o/ "olygonal or !angen!ially elonga!ed .ell%O %ome o/ !#em
.on!ain .ry%!e1% o/ .al.im o(ala!eO .am-im .om"o%ed o/ one !o !7o layer% o/
!angen!ially elonga!ed .ell% in ea.# @a%.lar -ndleO (ylem .on%i%!% o/ @e%%el%O !ra.#eid%O
"aren.#yma and /i-re%O in "rimary (ylemO @e%%el% .om"ara!i@ely narro7 de@oid o/
!ylo%e%O %e.ondary (ylem elemen!% !#i.:G7alledO ligni/iedO @e%%el% .ylindri.al in %#a"e
-earing -ordered "i!% on !#eir 7all% %ome large @e%%el% "o%%e%% %e@eral !ylo%e% and o/!en
.on!ain !ran%@er%e %e"!aO medallry ray% 11G26 or more .ell% 7ide .on!aining rondedO
#emi%"#eri.alO o-longO o@oidO 7i!# /ain!ly mar:ed .on.en!ri. %!ria!ion% and .en!ral #ilm
a""earing li:e a "oin!O %!ar.# grain% o/ 1&1G11&26 in diame!er and 4G11&25 in leng!#O
"i!# .om"o%ed o/ largeO !#inG7alled .ell% mo%!ly .on!aining %!ar.# grain%&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

dried drg GForeign ma!!er
To!al a%# No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 14 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi(
For /re%# drg
Foreign ma!!er Nil A""endi( 2&2&2&
Moi%!re .on!en! 31 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&8&

71
CONST<T?ENTS G Ter"enoid% and al:aloid%&


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Ti:!aO +aXQya
GVa S Lag#
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S Mad#ra
+arma S TridoXaTQma:aO Sa_grQ#YO )alyaO DY"anaO 2a%QyanaO 2a:!aTod#a:aO
J@arag#na
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G AmZ!QriXUaO AmZ!o!!ara +@Q!#a CWrVaO G[W.Y TailaO
G[W.yQdi CWrVaO G[W.Y Sa!!@aO C#innod-#a@Qdi +@Q!#a CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G +XU#aO 'Q!ara:!aO J@araO +QmalQO $QV[O $rame#a
DOSE G *G4 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm
26G*6 g o/ !#e drg /or de.o.!ion


72
25& Gggl (E(da!e)
G?GG?L? (E(da!e)
Gggl .on%i%!% o/ e(da!e o/ Commi"#ora 7ig#!ii (Arn&) )#andO Syn&
)al%amodendron m:l Hoo:& e( S!o.:% Commi"#ora m:l Engl&)O dFam& )r%era.eae)O
a %mall "erennial !ree or %#r- "!o 1&2G1&5 m #ig#O o..ring in ro.:y !ra.!% o/ 2aIa%!#anO
GIara! O e(da!e i% .olle.!ed dring 7in!er %ea%on -y ma:ing !#e in.i%ion% in !#e -ar: or
in %mmerO /alling /rom !#e -ar: i!%el/&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S $rQO Ma#iXQ:XaO +aTi:aO $ala]:aXQ
A%%ame%e S Gggl
)engali S Gggla
Engli%# S GmGgglO <ndian )dellim
GIra!i S GgalO GggalO Ggar
Hindi S GgglO Ggal
+annada S +an!#aganaO GggalaO Ma#i%#a:%#a ggglO GgglgidaO Gggl
+a%#miri S Gggal D#oo"O +an!# Gan
Malayalam S GlglO Gggl
Mara!#i S GgglO Ma#i%#a:%#
Oriya S Gggl
$nIa-i S Gggal
Tamil S Ma#i%a:%i Gggal
Telg S Ma:i%#a:%#i ggglO Gggi"ann
?rd S MLil (S#i#a"")
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Drg o..r% in @ermi.lar or %!ala.!i!i. "ie.e% o/ "ale yello7 or -ro7n .olored
ma%%O ma:e% mil:y eml%ion in #o! 7a!er and readily -rn%O 7#en /re%# @i%.id and
golden .oloredO odorO arom!i.O !a%!e&O -i!!er and a%!ringen!&

73
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.

<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 0 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 23 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 1* "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&
'ola!ile oil No! le%% !#an 1 "er .en!O @\7O A""endi( 2&2&16

CONST<T?ENTS G E%%en!ial oilO gmO re%inO %!eroid%


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Ti:!aO +aUO +aXQya
GVa S Lag#O SaraO 'iTada
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S 'Q!a-alQ%aIi!O 2a%QyanaO 'arVyaO )alyaO )#agna%and#Qna:Z!O
Medo#ara
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G BogarQIa GgglO 'Q!Qri GgglO Si_#anQda
GgglO +aiTora GgglO Ma#QyogarQIa GgglO Candra"ra-#Q 'a!Y
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G 'Q!a@yQd#iO ma@Q!aO Gran!#iO 9o"#aO GaV[amQlQO MedorogaO
$rame#aO +XU#a
DOSE G 2G0 g o/ !#e drg


74
28& GnIa (Sd&)
G?EJ (Seed)
GaIQ .on%i%!% o/ %eed% o/ A-r% "re.a!ori% Linn& (Fam& Legmino%ae)S a .lim-er
me! 7i!# all along Himalaya% a%.ending !o 866 mO %"reading !#rog#o! "lain%O /lo7ering
in Ag%!GSe"!em-erO and /ri!% ri"en dring 7in!er&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S 2a:!i:QO +Q:aVan!Y
A%%ame%e S 2a!i
)engali S +n.#O S#on:ain.#
Engli%# S JeLiri!y
GIra!i S 2a!iO C#ano!#ee
Hindi S 2a!!iO G#ng.#i
+annada S GalganIiO GlagnIee
Malayalam S +nniO C@anna +nni
Mara!#i S GnIa
Oriya S +ain.#
$nIa-i S 2a!!i
Tamil S +n!riO +nrimaniO +ndamani
Telg S GriginIaO Gri@inda
?rd S G#ong.#aO 2a!!i
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
C#ara.!eri%ed -y %moo!#O glo%%y %r/a.e and -rig#! %.arle! .olor 7i!# -la.:
"a!.# #ilmO o@oid or %-Gglo-larO 1G5 mm longO 0G1 mm -road&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ %eed %#o7% !e%!a a-o! 31 !#i.:O grea!er "ar!% -eing
/ormed -y e"idermi%O .om"o%ed o/ radiallyO m.# elonga!ed .ell%O arranged irreglarly
75
and mea%re 01G16 in leng!#O <nner region o/ !#in !e%!a .on%i%!% o/ .olla"%ed .ell%
/orming a #yaline layer a-o! 21 !#i.:O endodermi% .om"o%ed o/ !#i.:G7alled
.elllo%i. "aren.#ymaO i%odiame!ri. .ell% larger !o7ard% in%ideO 7all% mainly o/
#emi.elllo%e and %7ell .on%idera-ly in 7a!erO o!er one or !7o layer% o/ .ell% o/
endodermi% ("%edoe"idermi%) /ormed o/ ra!#er %maller .ell%O 7all% o/ 7#i.# %7ell !o
le%% e(!en! in 7a!er&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 6&1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G An al-mino% %-%!an.e (a-rine and a-ralin)&
$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Ti:!aO +aXQya
GVa S 2W:XaO Lag#O TY:XVa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S 'Q!a"i!!aI@arQ"a#aO +eTyaO +aV[Wg#naO 'raVQ"a#aO Gar-#anirod#a:a
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G MZ!a%aaIY@anY GUi:QO GaIQ-#adra 2a%a
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G +XU#aO 'raVaO 'Q!a@yQd#iO <ndral"!a
DOSE G 46G156 mg o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orme
No!eS 9`d#ana o/ !#i% drg i% !o -e done -e/ore %e a% de%.ri-ed in !#e A""endi(&
e T#e do%e %#old no! e(.eed !#e #ig#er limi!%&


76
*6& Haridra (2A&)
HA2<D2 (2#iAome)
HaridrQ .on%i%!% o/ !#e dried and .red r#iAome% o/ Cr.ma longa Linn& (Fam&
Ningi-era.eae)O a "erennial #er- e(!en%i@ely .l!i@a!ed in all "ar!% o/ !#e .on!ryO .ro" i%
#ar@e%!ed a/!er 8G16 mon!#% 7#en lo7er lea@e% !rn yello7 r#iAome% .are/lly dg " 7i!#
#andG"i.:% -e!7een O.!o-erGA"ril and .red -y -oiling and dried&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S 2aIanYO NiTQO NiTYO 2Q!riO +XaVadQO DoXQ
A%%ame%e S Hald#iO Halad#i
)engali S HaldO Haldi
Engli%# S Trmeri.
GIra!i S Haldar
Hindi S HaldiO Hardi
+annada S Ari%#ina
+a%#miri S LedarO Lad#ir
Malayalam S ManIal
Mara!#i S Halad
Oriya S Haladi
$nIa-i S HaldiO Haldar
Tamil S ManIal
Telg S $a%"
?rd S Haldi
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
2#iAome% o@a!eO o-long or "yri/orm (rond !rmeri.) or .ylindri.alO o/!en %#or!
-ran.#ed (long !rmeri.)O /ormer a-o! #al/ a% -road a% longO la!!er 2G1 .m long and
a-o! 1G1&5 .m !#i.:O e(!ernally yello7i%# !o yello7i%#G-ro7n 7i!# roo! %.ar% and
annla!ion% o/ lea/ -a%e%O /ra.!re #ornyO /ra.!red %r/a.e orange !o reddi%# -ro7nO
.en!ral .ylinder !7i.e a% -road a% .or!e(S odor and !a%!e .#ara.!eri%!i.&

77
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ r#iAome %#o7% e"idermi% 7i!# !#i.:G7alledO .-i.al .ell% o/
@ario% dimen%ion%O .or!e( .#ara.!eri%ed -y !#e "re%en.e o/ mo%!ly !#inG7alled ronded
"aren.#yma .ell% %.a!!ered .olla!eral @a%.lar -ndle%O a /e7 layer% o/ .or: de@elo"ed
nder e"idermi% and %.a!!ered oleoGre%in .ell% 7i!# -ro7ni%# .on!en!%R .or: generally
.om"o%ed o/ 0G4 layer% o/ !#inG7alledO -ri.:G%#a"ed "aren.#ymaO .ell% o/ grond !i%%e
.on!ain %!ar.# grain% o/ 0G11 in diame!erO oil .ell 7i!# %-eri%ed 7all% .on!aining
ei!#er orangeGyello7 glo-le% o/ @ola!ile oil or amor"#o% re%ino% ma!!erO @e%%el%
mainly %"irally !#i.:enedO a /e7 re!i.la!e and annlar&
<den!i/i.a!ionG
1) On !#e addi!ion o/ Con.en!ra!ed Sl"#ri. a.id or a mi(!re o/ Con.en!ra!ed
Sl"#ri. a.id and al.o#ol !o !#e "o7dered drgO a dee" .rim%on .olor i% "rod.ed&
2) A "ie.e o/ /il!er "a"er i% im"regna!ed 7i!# an al.o#oli. e(!ra.! o/ !#e "o7derO driedO
and !#en moi%!ened 7i!# a %ol!ion o/ )ori. a.id %lig#!ly a.idi/ied 7i!# Hydro.#lori.
a.idO dried againO !#e /il!er "a"er a%%me% a "in: or -ro7ni%# red .olor 7#i.# -e.ome%
dee" -le or greeni%#G-la.: on !#e addi!ion o/ al:ali&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 8 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 5 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 12 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&
'ola!ile oil No! le%% !#an 0 "er .en!O@\7O A""endi( 2&2&16

CONST<T?ENTS G E%%en!ial oil and a .oloring ma!!er (.r.min)&


78
$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Ti:!aO +aU
GVa S 2W:Xa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S +a"#a"i!!an!O 'iXag#naO 'arVyaO +XU#ag#naO +Zmig#naO
$rame#anQTa:a
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G HaridrQ +#aV[a
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G 'iXa@i:QraO +XU#aO 'raVaO T@agrogaO $rame#aO $QV[O 9Y!a"i!!aO
$Yna%a
DOSE G 1G* g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm


79
*1& Hari!a:i (Fr!&)
HA2,TA+, (Fri!)
HarY!a:Y .on%i%!% o/ !#e "eri.ar" o/ ma!re /ri!% o/ Terminalia .#e-la 2e!A&
(Fam& Com-re!a.eae)O a modera!e %iAed or large !ree /ond !#rog#o! <ndiaO .#ie/ly in
de.ido% /ore%!% and area% o/ lig#! rain/allO -! o..a%ionally al%o in %lig#!ly moi%! /ore%!%O
"!o a-o! 1166 m ele@a!ionO !#rog#o! <ndiaO /lo7er% a""ear /rom A"rilO Ag%! and
/ri!% ri"en /rom O.!o-erGJanary&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S A-#ayQO +Qya%!#QO 9i@QO $a!#yQO 'iIayQ (No! )#a]gQ)
A%%ame%e S S#ili:#a
)engali S Hari!a:i
Engli%# S Myro-alan
GIra!i S HirdoO HimaIaO $loG#arda
Hindi S HarreO HaradO Harar
+annada S Alale:ai
+a%#miri S Halela
Malayalam S +a!::a
Mara!#i S HirdaO Hari!a:iO HardaO Hireda
Oriya S Harida
$nIa-i S HalelaO Harar
Tamil S +ad::ai
Telg S +ara:aO +ara::aya
?rd S Halela
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
<n!a.! /ri! yello7i%#G-ro7nO o@oidO 26G*1 mm longO 1*G21 mm 7ideO 7rin:led
and ri--ed longi!dinallyO "eri.ar" /i-ro%O *G0 mm !#i.:O nonGad#eren! !o !#e %eedO
!a%!eO a%!ringen!&

80
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ "eri.ar" %#o7% e"i.ar" .on%i%!ing o/ one layer o/ e"idermal
.ell% inner !angen!ial and ""er "or!ion% o/ radial 7all !#i.:O me%o.ar"O 2G* layer% o/
.ollen.#ymaO /ollo7ed -y a -road Aone o/ "aren.#yma in 7#i.# /i-re% and %.1ereid% in
gro" and @a%.lar -ndle% %.a!!eredO /i-re% 7i!# "eg li:e o! gro7!# and %im"le "i!!ed
7all%O %.lereid% o/ @ario% %#a"e% and %iAe% -! mo%!ly elonga!edO !annin% and ra"#ide% in
"aren.#ymaO endo.ar" .on%i%!% o/ !#i.:G7alled %.lereid% o/ @ario% %#a"e% and %iAe%O
mo%!ly elonga!edO e"idermal %r/a.e @ie7 re@eal "olygonal .ell%O ni/ormly !#i.:G
7alledO %e@eral o/ !#em di@ided in!o !7o -y a !#in %e"!aO %!ar.# grain% %im"le ronded or
o@al in %#a"eO mea%ring 2G3 in diame!erO /ond in "len!y in almo%! all .ell% o/
me%o.ar"&
$o7derG )ro7ni%# in .olorO nder mi.ro%.o"e %#o7% a /e7 /i-re%O @e%%el% 7i!# %im"le
"i!% and gro"% o/ %.lereid%&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 06 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 46 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G Tannin%O an!#raLinone% and "oly"#enoli. .om"ond%


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aXQyaO +aUO Ti:!aO AmlaO Mad#ra
GVa S Lag#O 2W:Xa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S Mad#ra
+arma S Sar@adoXa"raTamanaO 2a%QyanaO Ca:XXyaO DY"anaO AnlomanaO
HZdyaO Med#ya
81
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G A-#ayQriXUaO Aga%!ya HarY!a:Y 2a%QyanaO Ci!ra:a Har
Y!a:YO Dan!Y HarY!a:YO DaTamWla HarY!a:YO )rQ#ma 2a%QyanaO Tri"#alQ CWrVaO Tri"#alQdi
TailaO A-#ayQ La@aVaO $a!#yQdi Le"a
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G 'i-and#aO Ar.iO ?dQ@ar!aO GlmaO ?dararogaO ArTaO $QV[O
9o!#aO JYrVaI@araO 'iXamaI@araO $rame#aO 9irorogaO +Q%aO Tama:aT@Q%aO HZdroga
DOSE G *G4 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm


82
*2& Hing (OleoGgmG2e%in)
H<FG? (OleoGgmGre%in)
Hi]g .on%i%!% o/ oleoGgmGre%in o-!ained /rom r#iAome% and roo!% o/ Ferla
/oe!ida 2egel&O Ferla nar!#e( )io%%Oand o!#er %"e.ie% o/ Ferla (Fam& ?m-elli/erae)O a
"erennial #er-O o..rring in $er%ia and A/g#ani%!anO re%in .olle.!ed a/!er ma:ing in.i%ion%
a! !#e ""er "ar! o/ !a" roo! o/ more !#an /i@e year old "lan!% -y %.ra""ing in Mar.#O A"rilO
I%! -e/ore /lo7eringO 7#ole "ro.e%% re"ea!ed many !ime%O a/!er one or !7o day% or a/!er a
/e7 7ee:% 7#en i! ge!% #ardened&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S 2QmaU#aO Sa#a%ra@ed#i
A%%ame%e S Hin
)engali S Hing
Engli%# S A%/oe!ida
GIra!i S HingO 'ag#arni
Hindi S HingO Hingda
+annada S HingO <ng
+a%#miri S Eng
Malayalam S +ayam
Mara!#i S HingO HiraO Hing
Oriya S HengO Hing
$nIa-i S Hing
Tamil S $erngayam
Telg S <ng@a
?rd S Hi!lee!O Hing
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
2ondedO /la!!ened or ma%%e% o/ aggl!ina!ed !ear%O greyi%#G7#i!e !o dll yello7O
mo%!ly 12G21 mm in diame!erO /re%#ly e("o%ed %r/a.eO yello7i%# and !ran%l.en! or
mil:y 7#i!eO o"aLeO %lo7ly -e.oming "in:O redO /inally reddi%# -ro7nO odorO %!rongO
.#ara.!eri%!i. and "er%i%!en!O !a%!eO -i!!er and a.rid&
83

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTHG
<den!i/i.a!ion
(<) Fre%#ly -ro:en %r/a.e 7#en !o.#ed 7i!# %l"#ri. a.id a -rig#! red or
reddi%#G-ro7n .olor i% "rod.edO .#anging !o @iole! 7#en a.id 7a%#ed o// 7i!# 7a!er&
(<<) )oil 6&2 g 7i!# 2 ml Hydro.#lori. a.id /or a-o! 1 min!eO .oolO dil!e 7i!# an eLal
@olme o/ 7a!erO and /il!er in!o * ml o/ dil!e %ol!ion o/ AmmoniaO /lore%.en.e i%
"rod.ed&
A-%en.e o/ .olo"#ony re%inSGTri!ra!e 1 g 7i!# 16 ml o/ Lig#! $e!rolem (-&"& 06G46)
/or 2 min!e%O /il!er in!o a !e%! !-e and add !o !#e /il!ra!e 16 ml o/ a /re%# 6&1 "er .en! 7\
@ aLeo% %ol!ion o/ .o""er a.e!a!eO %#a:e 7ell and allo7 !#e liLid% !o %e"ara!eO
"e!rolem layer doe% no! %#o7 any green .olorO indi.a!ing a-%en.e o/ .olo"#ony re%in&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 16 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 16 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

ASSAB
$la.e a-o! 1 g a..ra!ely 7eig#edO in a %mall -ea:er /rni%#ed 7i!# a gla%% rodO and
!ared add 16 ml o/ Al.o#ol (86 "er .en!)O and -oil gen!ly& Fil!er !#e #o! %ol!ion !#rog#
a !ared /il!er "a"er and -oil !#e re%ide 7i!# /r!#er Lan!i!ie% o/ Al.o#ol (86 "er .en!)R
ni!l all %ol-le ma!!er i% remo@edO %ing !#e gla%% rod !o di%in!egra!e !#e %ol-le ma!!er&
;a%# !#e /il!er "a"er 7i!# #o! al.o#ol (86 "er .en!) !ran%/er !#e "a"er !o !#e -ea:erO dry
84
!#e 166`O and 7eig#& T#eG re%ide 7eig#% no! more !#an 16 "er .en! o/ !#e original
%am"le !a:en&

CONST<T?ENTS G E%%en!ial oilO gm and re%in


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aU
GVa S TY:XVa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S 2.yaO DY"anaO $Q.anaO AnlomanaO +Zmig#naO 'Q!a:a"#a"raTamanaO
HZdya
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G Hi]g@QXUa:a CWZVaO Hi]g@Qdi CWrVaO Hi]g@a.Qdi
CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G AgnimQndyaO d#mQnaO nQ#aO GlmaO 9WlarogaO ?dararogaO
HZdrogaO +Zmiroga
DOSE G 121G166 mg o/ !#e drg


85
**& Ja!aman%i (2A&)
JATMHS, (2#iAome)
Ja!QmQ_%Y .on%i%!% o/ dried r#iAome o/ Nardo%!a.#y% Ia!aman%i DC&(Fam&
'aleriana.eae) O an erre.! "erennial #er-O 16G46 .m #ig# gro7ing a! an al!i!de o/
*666G1666 m on !#e %-Gal"ine Himalayan !ra.!%&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S MQ_%YO JaUQO JaUilQ
A%%ame%e S Ja!aman%iO Ja!amang%#i
)engali S Ja!amam%i
Engli%# S Nard% roo!
GIra!i S )aal.#adO +ali.#ad
Hindi S )al.#ara
+annada S )#oo!aIa!aO Ganagila ma%!e
+a%#miri S )#!iIa!a
Malayalam S Man.#iO Ja!aman.#i
Mara!#i S Ja!aman%i
Oriya S Ja!aman%i
$nIa-i S )illilo!anO )al.##arO C##argddi
Tamil S Ja!amanIi
Telg S Ja!amam%i
?rd S Sm-lG!G!ee-
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Dried r#iAome dar: -ro7nO 2&1G3&1 .m longO .ylindri.alO .o@ered 7i!# reddi%#G
-ro7n /i-re% /orming a ne! 7or:O 7#i.# are %:ele!on% o/ %#ea!#ing lea/ -a%e%O /ra.!reO
-ri!!leO in!ernal .olor reddi%#G-ro7nO .olorO %!rongly aroma!i.O !a%!eO a.ridO %lig#!ly
-i!!er&

86
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ r#iAome %#o7% .or: .on%i%!ing o/ 2G1 layer% o/ .ell% /illed
7i!# oil glo-le%O .or!e( .#ara.!eri%ed -y !#e "re%en.e o/ %.#iAogeno% .anal%O "#loem
in /orm o/ "a!.#e% o/ %mall .ell%O .am-im ring di%!in.! and .on!ino%O (ylem .on%i%!%
o/ @e%%le%O %.a!!ered indi@idally or in ro7% o/ !7o or !#ree @e%%el%O 7i!# %.alari/orm
!#i.:eningO older r#iAome% %#o7 one or more %!ella!e %#a"ed ring% o/ in!er(ylary and
medllary .or:O .om"le!ely or in.om"le!ely %e"ara!ing !#e r#iAome in!o /or !o nine
@a%.lar %!rand% -y Ioining o!er .or:O ea.# %e"ara!ed %!rand en.ir.led -y a /e7 layer% o/
.or: .ell .on%i%!ing o/ an o!er .or!e( Aone /ollo7ed -y !7o or more /n.!ional @a%.lar
-ndle%O !i%%e% in -e!7een !#e %!rand% %ally nonG/n.!ional e(.e"! /or !#e .or: .ell%
7#i.# a.! a% %!orage organ /or oil glo-le&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTHG
<den!i/i.a!ionGS#a:e a-o! 2 g o/ !#e "o7der 7i!# 1 ml o/ Al.o#ol (56 "er .en!) /or !en
min!e% and /il!erO $la.e one dro" o/ !#e /il!ra!e on a /il!er "a"erO dry and e(amine nder
l!raG@iole! lig#!O a -rig#!O -li%#G7#i!e /lore%.ene i% @i%i-le&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 8 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&
'ola!ile oil No! le%% !#an 6&1 "er .en!O@\7O A""endi(2&2&16

CONST<T?ENTS G E%%en!ial oil and re%ino% ma!!er


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Ti:!aO +aXQya
GVa S Lag#
'Yrya S 9Y!a
'i"Q:a S +aU
87
+arma S TridoXan!O Med#yaO 'arVyaO NidrQIananaO +XU#ag#na
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G JaUQmQ_%yar:a
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G +XU#aO DQ#aO 'i%ar"aO MQna%arogaO AnidrQ
DOSE G 2G* g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm \"ar1G16 g o/ !#e drg /or de.o.!ion


88
*0& Ja!i"#ala (Sd&)
JT,$HALA (Seed)
JQ!Y"#ala .on%i%!% o/ !#e endo%"erm o/ dried %eed% (:ernel% o/ /ri!%) o/ Myri%!i.a
/ragran% Ho!!& (Fam& Myri%!i.a.eae)O dioe.io% or o..a%ionally monoe.io% aroma!i. !reeO
a-o! 16G26 m #ig#O /ond mo%!ly in Tamil Nad and !o %ome e(!en! in +eralaO And#ra
$rade%# and A%%am&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S JQ!iTa%yaO JQ!Y"#ala
A%%ame%e S Jai"#alO +ani@i%#
)engali S Jai"#alaO Jai!ri
Engli%# S N!meg
GIra!i S Jai"#alaO Jay/ar
Hindi S Jai"#al
+annada S Jadi:aiO Jay:aiO Jaidi:ai
+a%#miri S Ja/al
Malayalam S Ja!i:a
Mara!#i S Jai"#al
Oriya S Jai"#al
$nIa-i S Jai"#al
Tamil S Sa!#i::aiO Ja!#i::aiO Ja!i::aiO Jad#i:aiO Jad#i::ai
Telg S JaIi:aya
?rd S JaA-7aO Jai"#al
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Seed elli"%oidO 26G*6 mm long and a-o! 26 mm -roadO e(!ernally greeni%#G
-ro7n %ome!ime% mar:ed 7i!# %mall irreglar dar: -ro7n "a!.#e% or min!e dar: "oin!%
and line% %lig#!ly /rro7ed re!i.la!elyO a %mall lig#!G.olored area a! one end indi.a!ing
!#e "o%i!ion o/ !#e radi.le a groo@e rnning along !#e line o/ ra"#e !o !#e dar:er .#alaAa
a! !#e o""o%i!e endO %rronded -y a !#in layer o/ "eri %"erm 7i!# in/olding% a""earing
a% dar: rmina!ion% in !#e a-ndan! greyi%#G-ro7n endo%"ermO em-ryoO in an irreglar
.a@i!yO %mall 7i!# !7o 7idely %"reading .rm"led .o!yledon% and a %mall radi.le odorO
89
%!rong and aroma!i.O !a%!eO "ngen! and aroma!i.&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ endo%"erm %#o7% "eri"#eral "eri%"ermO o/ %e@eral layer% o/
%!ronglyO /la!!ened "oly#ederal .ell% 7i!# -ro7n .on!en!%O or .on!aining "ri%ma!i.
.ry%!al%O inner layer o/ "eri%"erm o/ !#inG7alled "aren.#yma a-o! 06 !#i.:O in/olding
in!o !#e !i%%e o/ !#e endo%"erm !o /orm !#e rmina!ion% .on!aining nmero%O @ery large
oil .ell% 7i!# -ro7n .ell 7all%O @a%.lar %!rand%O in !#e "eri"#eral regionO nmero%
%mall %"iral @e%%el%O large .elledO endo%"ermO "aren.#yma!o% ;i!# o..a%ional !annin
idio-la%!% 7i!# !#in -ro7n 7all%O .on!aining nmero% %im"leO ronded and .om"ond
%!ar.# grain%O 7i!# "!o a-o! 16 .om"onen!% %ally 2G5 indi@idal grain%O "!o 26 in
diame!er "re%en!O mo%! o/ !#e .ell% 7i!# .ry%!alline /a! and o/!en a large alerone grain in
ea.# .ellO .on!aining a r#om-i. "ro!ein .ry%!al "!o 12 and %mall alerone grain% 7i!#
le%% reglar .ry%!alloid%O em-ryoO o/ %#ri@elled and .olla"%ed "aren.#yma&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 6&1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 3 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&
E!#er %ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 21 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&5
'ola!ile oil No! le%% !#an 1 "er .en!O@\7O A""endi( 2&2&16

CONST<T?ENTS G E%%en!ial oil and /i(ed oil


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Ti:!aO +aU
GVa S Lag#O TY:XVa
'Yrya S ?XVa
90
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S DY"anaO GrQ#YO M:#a:ledanQTa:aO M:#adargand#yanQTa:aO
+a"#a@Q!Q"a#aO 'ZXya
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G JQ!Y"#alQdi CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G A!Y%QraO Gra#aVYO C#ardiO M:#arogaO $Yna%aO +Q%aO 9@Q%aO
9:rame#a
DOSE G 6&1 G 1&6 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm


91
*1& +am"illa (Fr!&)
+AM$<LLA (Fri!)
+am"illa .on%i%!% o/ gland% and #air% o/ /ri! o/ Mallo!% "#ili""inen%i% Mell &
Arg& (Fam& E"#or-ia.eae)O a @ery .ommon "erennial %#r- or %mall !ree /ond in o!er
Himalaya% a%.ending !o 1166 mO ma!re /ri!% .olle.!ed in Fe-raryGMar.#O reddi%# -ro7n
"o7der .olle.!ed in .lo!# -y %#a:ing and r--ing !#e /ri!% 7i!# #and%&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S 2aIana:aO +am"illa:a
A%%ame%e S Lo.#an
)engali S +amlagdi
Engli%# S +amala
GIra!i S +a"ilo
Hindi S +a-ila
+annada S +a"ilaO C#andra#e!!O +a"ila!#e!!
+a%#miri S +ameela:
Malayalam S +am"i""alaO +am"i"al
Mara!#i S S#endriO +a"ila
Oriya S +amalagndi
$nIa-i S +amila
Tamil S +amalaO +am"ila
Telg S +am"illam
?rd S +amila
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
FineO granlar "o7derO dllGred or madderGred .oloredO /loa!ing on 7a!er&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
92
?nder mi.ro%.o"e gland% a""ear de"re%%ed and glo-larO .on!aining dee"Gred
.olored re%inO %e.re!ed -y many .l- %#a"ed .ell radia!ing /rom a .ommon .en!reO a
nm-er o/ %!ella!e !ri.#ome% "re%en!O !ri.#ome% !#i.:G7alledO -ran.#ing ligni/ied 7i!#
%moo!# margin%O yello7 .oloredO arranged in %mall radia!ing gro"%&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 4 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 0 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 16 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 1&6 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

ASSAB

T&L&C&



CONST<T?ENTS G 2e%ino% .oloring ma!!er (ro!!lerin)&


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aU
GVa S Lag#O 2W:XaO TY:XVa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S 'ire.anaO 'raVQ"a#aO +Zmig#na
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G D#Qn@an!ara G#Z!aO MiTra:a Sne#a
93
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G 'i-and#aO +ZmirogaO d#mQnaO GlmaO 'raVa
DOSE G 6&1G1&6 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm
No!eG 9`d#ana o/ !#i% drg i% !o -e done -e/ore %eO a% de%.ri-ed in A""endi(


94
*4& +an.#anara (S!&):&)
+ECAN2A (S!em -ar:)
+Qa.anQra .on%i%!% o/ !#e driedO %!em -ar: o/ )a#inia @ariega!a )lme (Fam&
Legmino%ae)S a medim %iAed !ree o..rring in %-GHimalayan !ra.! e(!ending ea%!7ard% !o
A%%amO Ea%!ernO Cen!ral and So!# <ndia&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S +Qa.anQra:a
A%%ame%e S +an.anO +an.#an
)engali S +an.#anaO 2a:!a +an.#ana
Engli%# S Mon!ain E-ony
GIra!i S C#am"a:a!iO +an.#narO +a.#nar
Hindi S +a.#anarO +an.#anarO +a.#nar
+annada S +eymandarO +an.#a@ala
+a%#miri S +alad
Malayalam S C#@anna Mand#aram
Mara!#i S +an.#anaO 2a:!a:an.ana
Oriya S +a.#anaO +aniara
$nIa-i S +an.#nar
Tamil S Siga"" mandaraiO Si#a"" man!arai
Telg S De@a +an.#anam
?rd S GG
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
)ar:O dar: -ro7nO %ome!ime% 7i!# %il@ery "a!.#e%O rog#O .om"a.!O e(/olia!ing in
7oody %!ri"% and %.ale%O o!er %r/a.e 7i!# %mall !ran%@er%e and longi!dinal .ra.:%O
in!ernal %r/a.e 7#i!eO !a%!eO a%!ringen!

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ ma!re %!em -ar: %#o7% a 7ide %!ra!i/ied .or:O o!er .or:
.om"o%ed o/ !#inG7ailedO %lig#!ly .om"re%%edO yello7 -ro7n .ell% /ollo7ed -y a nm-er
o/ layer% o/ -ro7n .olored .ell%O inner .or: .om"o%ed o/ !ran%@er%ely elonga!ed orange
-ro7n .ell%O .or: in!err"!ed a! .er!ain "la.e% de !o /orma!ion o/ r#y!idomaO %ome
%e.ondary .or!e( .om"o%ed or 11 or more ro7% or !ran%@er%ely elonga!ed !o .ir.larO
95
!#inG7alledO "aren.#yma!o% .ell%O %ome %e.ondary .or!e( .ell% .on!ain orange -ro7n
.on!en!%S gro"% o/ %!one .ell% /ond %.a!!ered in !#i% region o..a%ionally arranged in 1G3
or more !angen!ial ro7%O "eri.y.li. /i-re%O !#i.:G7alled 7i!# narro7 lmenO %.a!!ered in
%e.ondary .or!e( in %ingle% or in gro"%O %e.ondary "#loem .on%i%!% o/ %ie@e !-e%O
.om"anion .ell%O "#loem "aren.#yma and /i-re% !ra@er%ed -y /nnel %#a"ed medllary
ray% O "#loem /i-re% arranged in radial ro7% !#rog#o! "#loem regionO "ri%ma!i. and
r#om-oidal .ry%!al% or .al.imO o(ala!e a-ndan!ly /ond in "#loem and %e.ondary
.or!e( region%O @ery rarely /ond in .or: .ell%O .l%!er .ry%!al% al%o "re%en! in %e.ondary
.or!e( and %e.ondary "#loemO .ry%!al /i-re% al%o /ond in %e.ondary "#loem&
$o7der G "in:i%#O nder mi.ro%.o"e %#o7ing a-ndan! .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!eO
%.1er.id% in %ingle% or in gro"% 7i!# 7ide lmenO -i!% o/ /i-re%O .or: and %e.ondary
.or!e( .ell%O .on!aining .olored .on!en!O and nmero% .ry%!al /i-re%
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 6&2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 4 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G Tannin%
$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aXQya
GVa S Lag#O 2W:Xa
'Yrya S 9Y!a
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S TridoXa#araO GrQ#YO DY"anaO GaV[a@Zdd#i#ara
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G +Qa.anQra Gggl
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G +ZmirogaO GaV[amQlQO A"a.YO Gda-#ra_TaO 'raVa
DOSE G 26G*6 g o/ !#e drg /or de.o.!ion
96
*3& +an:ola (Fr!&)
+AF+OLA (Fri!)
+a]:ola .on%i%!% o/ ma!reO dried /ri!% o/ $i"er .-e-a Linn&/& (Fam& $i"era.eae)O
7oodyO .lim-ingO "erennial 7i!# dioe.eo% /lo7er% in %"i:eO .l!i@a!ed !o a %mall e(!en! in
<ndiaO %"e.ially in !#e +arna!a:a %!a!eO /ri!% .olle.!ed 7#en ma!re -! %!ill nri"e and
.are/lly dried&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S +a]:ola:aO CinoXaVaO Cina!Y:XVaO +a::olaO +a]:oli:Q
A%%ame%e S +a::olO +a-a-.#eni
)engali S +a#a-.#iniO Sgand#amari.#a
Engli%# S C-e-%O Tailed $e""er
GIra!i S C#ana:a-a-O C#ini:a-a-
Hindi S See!al.#iniO +a-a-.#ini
+annada S Gand#amena%O )alamena%
+a%#miri S +%#/alO +a-a-.#ini
Malayalam S C#eenamla:O Ta::olamO 'almla:
Mara!#i S +an:ol
Oriya S +a-a-.#ini
$nIa-i S +a-a-.#iniO Sard.#ini
Tamil S 'aali mila:O 'almilag
Telg S C#ala@amiriyalO To:amiriyal
?rd S +a-a-.#ini
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Fri! 7rin:ledO rondedO 1G3 mm in diame!erO lig#! -ro7n !o dar: -ro7nO a-o! 3
mm long %!al: a!!a.#edO "eri.ar" red !o %lig#!ly -ro7nO !e%!a /%ed 7i!# "eri.ar"O /ri!
#ard and %!ony al-men 7#i!e and oilyO odorO aroma!i. end .#ara.!eri%!i.O !a%!eO
"ngen! and %lig#!ly -i!!er&

97
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ /ri! %#o7% an o!er layer% o/ e"idermi%O e(!ernally .o@ered
7i!# !#i.: .!i.leO a ra7 o/ 2G1 %mallO .r%#edO -ro7n and !#i.:G7alled .ell% -elo7O
me%o.ar" .om"o%ed o/ largeO !#inG7alled "aren.#yma!o% .ell%O oil .ell% and @a%.lar
-ndle%O endo.ar" o/ ml!iGlayered %.lereid% #ea@ily ligni/ied 7i!# narro7 lmenO !e%!a
and !egmen .om"o%ed o/ elonga!ed .ell% !egmen .ell% #yaline and :ernel .ell% greyi%# in
.olor&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 5 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 10 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

ASSAB

T&L&C&



CONST<T?ENTS G E%%en!ial oil (.-e-in)&


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aUO Ti:!a
GVa S Lag#O TY:XVa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S DY"anaO $Q.anaO 2.yaO +a"#a@Q!a#araO M:#adargand#ya#araO
'a%!iTod#ana
98
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G DaTamWlQriXUaO +mQryQ%a@a
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G Ar.iO M:#arogaO MW!ra:Z..#raO 9Wla
DOSE G 1G2 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm


99
*5& +an!a:ari (;&$&)
+ACJA+2, (;#ole "lan!)
+aVUa:QrY .on%i%!% o/ ma!reO dried 7#ole "lan! o/ Solanm %ra!!en%e )rm& /&O
Syn& Solanm (an!#o.ar"m S.#rad & P ;endl O (Fam& Solana.eae)O "erennialO @ery
"ri.:ly di//%ed #er- o/ 7a%!e landO /ond !#rog#o! <ndia&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S 'yQg#rYO Nidigd#i:QO +XdrQO +aVUa:Qri:QO D#Q@anYO Nidigd#QO
D%"arTQ
A%%ame%e S +a!@aedanaO +an!a:ar
)engali S +an!a:ari
Engli%# S Fe-ri/ge "lan!
GIra!i S )#aringani
Hindi S +a!aiO +a!aliO 2inganiO )#a!a:a!aiyaO C##o!i:a!eri
+annada S NelagllaO +iraglla
Malayalam S +an!a:ari .#nda
Mara!#i S )#aringaniO +a!aringani
Oriya S )#eIi-aganaO An:ara!iO C#a:ada )#oIi
$nIa-i S +andiari
Tamil S +andanga!riO +andan:a!riO +andang#a!#iri
Telg S Nelamla:aO $innamla:aO Mla:aO C#innamla:aO 'a:d
?rd S GG
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
2oo!G16G01 .m longO /e7 mm !o !7o .m in diame!erO almo%! .ylindri.al and
!a"eringO -earing a nm-er o/ /ine longi!dinal and /e7 !ran%@er%e 7rin:le% 7i!#
o..a%ional %.ar% or a /e7 len!i.el% and %mall roo!le!%O !ran%@er%ely %moo!#ened
%r/a.e %#o7% a !#in -ar: and 7ide .om"a.! .ylinder o/ 7oodO /ra.!reO %#or!O
!a%!eO -i!!er&
S!emG#er-a.eo%O "ri.:ly 7i!# "rominen! node% and in!ernode%O green 7#en /re%#O yong
-ran.#e%O .o@ered 7i!# nmero% #air%O ma!re one% gla-ro%O /rro7% more
"rominen! in yong %!em a""earing almo%! .ir.lar !o7ard% -a%al regionO %!em
"ie.e% 5G16 mm !#i.: o/ @aria-le leng!#O e(!ernal %r/a.e lig#! greenO 7#en dryO
100
%r/a.e yello7i%# green and %moo!#O !ran%@er%ely %moo!#ened %r/a.e %#o7% a
@ery !#in -ar: and "rominen! 7oodO .en!re %#o7% a large and di%!in.!O "i!#O mr
!re and dry %!em o/!en 7i!# #ollo7 "i!#O /ra.!re %#or! !o %lig#!ly /i-ro%&
Lea@e%G"e!iola!eO e(%!i"la!eO o@a!eGGo-long or elli"!i.O %ina!e or %-G"inna!i/idO %-G
a.!e #airyO 0G12&1 .m long and 2G3&1 .m 7ideO greenO @ein% and midri- /ll 7i!#
%#ar" "ri.:le%O odor and !a%!e no! di%!in.!&
Flo7erG e-ra.!ea!eO "edi.ella!eO -i%e(alO "en!amero%O reglarO .om"le!eO -rig#! -le or
-li%# "r"leO & .aly(G"er%i%!en!O gamo%e"alo%O !-e %#or!O glo-o%eO linearG
lan.eola!eO a.!eO #airyO 6&1G1 &* .m long and den%ely "ri.:lyO
.orollagamo"e!alo%O lo-e% del!oidO a.!eO #airyO 1G2 .m long and "r"le in
.olorO %!amen% 1O e"i"e!alo%O -a%i/i(edO /ilamen! %#or! 1G1&1 mm longO an!#erO
o-long lan.eola!eO 6&3G6&5 .m longO o@ary %"eriorO o@oidO gla-ro%O -ilo.lar
7i!# a(ile "la.en!a!ion #a@ing nmero% o@le%&
Fri!G)erry glo-lar O mea%ring 6&5G1 .m in diame!erO %rronded -y "er%i%!en! .aly( a!
-a%e nri"e /ri!% @ariega!ed 7i!# green and 7#i!e %!ri"%O ri"e /ri! %#o7%
di//eren! yello7 and 7#i!e %#ade%&
Seed%G.ir.larO /la!O nmero%O em-edded in a /le%#y me%o.ar" a-o! 6& 2 .m in
diame!er& gla-ro% !a%!eO -i!!er and a.rid &

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
2oo!G !ran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ ma!re roo! %#o7% .or: .om"o%ing o/ *G4 layer% o/
!#inG7alledO re.!anglar and !angen!ially elonga!ed .ell%O .or: .am-im %ingle layered
/ollo7ed -y 4G11 layer% o/ !#inG7alledO !angen!ially elonga!ed !o o@al or .ir.lar
"aren.#yma!o% .ell%O %!one .ell% ei!#er %ingle or in gro"% o/ 2G26 or e@en more "re%en!
in !#i% regionO %e.ondary "#loem .om"o%ed o/ %ie@e elemen!% and "#loem "aren.#yma
!ra@er%ed -y medllary ray%O %!one .ell% "re%en! in %ingle% or in gro"% o/ 2G26 or more
in o!erO and middle "#loem region%O "#loem ray% 1G0 .ell% 7ide and 2G22 .ell% #ig#O
.am-im *G1 layered o/ !#inG7alled re.!anglar .ell%O (ylem .om"o%ed o/ @e%%el%O
!ra.#eid%O /i-re !ra.#ied%O "aren.#yma and !ran%@er%ed -y medllary ray%O all elemen!%
-eing ligni/iedO @e%%el% and !ra.#eid% 7i!# -ordered "i!%O /i-re% 7i!# a /e7 %im"le "i!%O
(ylem "aren.#yama re.!anglar or lig#!ly elonga!ed 7i!# %im"le "i!% and rarely 7i!#
re!i.la!e !#i.:eningO (ylem ray% 1G* .ell% 7ide and 1G26 .ell% #ig#O mi.ro%"#enoidal
.ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!e a% %andy ma%%e% and %im"le %!ar.# grain% "re%en! in
%e.ondary .or!e(O "#loem and medllary ray%&
S!emG!ran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ ma!re %!emO 1&1G2 .m !#i.: .on%i%!% o/ 4G12 layer% o/ .or:
o/ !#inG 7alled %ome7#a! re.!anglar .ell%O e"idermi% remain% in!a.! /or a long !imeO
%e.ondary .or!e( .on%i%!% o/ 3G11 layer% o/ "aren.#yma!o% .ell%O %ome .ell% !#i.:ened
and ligni/ied /orming %!one .ell% "rimary .or!e( remain% in!a.! e@en in Li!e ma!re
%!age -! la!er ge!% .r%#edO "eri.y.li. /i-reO o..r %ingly or in %mall gro"% o/ 2G*O
%e.ondary "#loem .on%i%!% o/ %ie@e elemen!%O "aren.#yamaO a /e7 /i-re%O %!one .ell% and
!ra@er%ed -y "#loem ray%O /i-re% /ond %.a!!ered in %ingle% or in %mall gro"% in o!er
and middle "#loem regionO inner "#loem de@oid o/ /i-re%O %!one .ell% "re%en! in %ingle%
101
or in %mall gro"% o/ 2G0O "#loem ray%O 1G2 or rarely * .ell% 7ideO .am-im .om"o%ed o/
2G* layer%O (ylem .on%i%!% o/ @e%%el%O !ra.#eid%O "aren.#ymaO /i-re% and !ra@er%ed -y
(ylem ray%O @e%%el% @ary grea !ly in %#a"e and %iAe and %#o7 -ordered "i!%O !ra.#eid%
elonga!ed 7i!# irreglar 7all% and -ordered "i!%O /i-re% m.# elonga!edO !#i.:G7alled
and ligni/ied 7i!# !a"ering and "oin!ed end%O %ome #a@ing !rn.a!ed end% or -i/r.a!ed a!
one or -o!# end% 7i!# a /e7 %im"le "i!%O !ran.#eid% /i-re% %maller !#an /i-re%O 7i!# -o!#
end% !a"ering and #a@e re!i.la!e !#i.:eningO (ylem "aren.#yma .-i.al !o re.!anglar
7i!# %im"le or -ordered "i!% or re!i.la!e !#i.:eningO (ylem ray% .on%"i.o% -y !#eir
"i!!ed !#i.:ening%O longer %iAe and radial elonga!ion o/ .ell%O 1G2 or rarely * .ell% 7ide
and 2G21 .ell% #ig#O in!ernal "#loem .om"o%ed o/ %ie@e elemen!% and "aren.#ymaO
/orming more or le%% .on!ino% -and and em-edded in "erimedllary AoneO a /e7
"#loem /i-re% %imilar !o !#o%e o/ o!er "#loem region al%o "re%en!O .en!ral region
o.."ied -y a large "i!#O mi.ro%"#enoidal .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!e a% %andy ma%%e%
and %im"le %!ar.# grain% "re%en! in .or!e(O %e.ondary .or!e(O "#loemO medllary ray% and
"i!# .ell%&
Lea@e%G
(i) $e!ioleG!ran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ "e!iole %#o7% .ir.lar !o 7a@y o!line%O e"idermi% %ingle
layeredO .o@ered e(!ernally -y a !#i.: .!i.leO #y"odermi% .on%i%!% o/ *G0
layer% o/ .ollen.#yma!o%O .ell%O one largeG.re%.en!G%#a"edO -i.olla!eralO
.en!ral @a%.lar -ndle and !7o %mall la!eral -ndle% "re%en!O re%! o/ !i%%e
o/ "e!iole .om"o%ed o/ "olygonalO& anglarO !#inG7alledO "aren.#yma!o%
.ell%O e"idermi% %#o7% mo%!ly %!ella!e and rarely rn !o !ri.elllar #air%&
(ii) Midri-G!ran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ midri- %#o7% a -i.on@e( %!r.!reO e"idermi% on ei!#er
%ide .o@ered e(!ernally -y a !#i.: .!i.leO -elo7 e"idermi% *G0 layer% o/
.ollen.#yma "re%en!O %!ele .om"o%ed o/ .re%.en!G%#a"edO -i.olla!eralO .en!ral
@a.%.lar -ndle and !7o %mall la!eral @a%.lar -ndle%O re%! o/ !i%%e
.om"o%ed o/ !#inG7alledO "aren.#ymaO %ome %!ella!e #air "re%en! on
e"idermi%&
(iii) LaminaG!ran%@er%e %e.!ion %#o7% dor%i@en!ral %!r.!reO e"idermi% on ei!#er %ideO
7a@y in o!lineO .o@ered e(!ernally -y a !#i.: .!i.leO on ""er %ide
me%o"#yll .om"o%ed o/ a %ingle layered "ali%ade and 0G4 layer% o/ loo%ely
arranged %"ongy "aren.#ymaO %ome %!ella!e #air% (0G5 armed) "re%en! on
-o!# %ide% o/ e"idermi%O ani%o.y!i. %!oma!a "re%en! on -o!# %r/a.e%O @einG
i%le! nm-er 04G56 on lo7er e"idermi% (mean 4*)O 41G56 on ""er e"idermi%
(mean 36)O %!oma!al inde( 26G21 (mean 22&1) on lo7er e"idermi%O 10G20
(mean 18) on ""er e"idermi%O "ali%ade ra!io 1&3G0 (mean 2 &51)&
Fri!G!ran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ ma!re /ri! %#o7% %ingle layered e"idermi%O .o@ered
e(!ernally -y a !#in .!i.leO 1G2 layer% o/ .ollan.#yma "re%en! -elo7 e"idermi%O
me%o.ar" .om"o%ed o/ !#inG7alledO o@al !o "olygonal .ell%O %ome /i-re&O @a%.lar
-ndle% "re%en! %.a!!eredO %eed .on%i%!% o/ !#i.:G7alled radially elonga!ed !e%!aO
narro7 endo%"erm 7i!# em-ryoO %ome .ell% o/ endo%"erm .on!ain oil glo-le%&
$o7der G Greeni%#O nder mi.ro%.o"e %#o7% %ingle or gro"% o/ %!one .ell%O gro"% o/
a%e"!a!e /i-re 7i!# !a"ering end%O "i!!ed @e%%el%O gro"% o/ %"ongy "aren.#ymaO
/ragmen!% o/ "ali%ade !i%%eO ani%o.y!i. %!oma!aO %!ella!e #air% and %im"leO ronded
102
!o o@al %!ar.# grain% mea%ring 2&31G11 in dia&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 8 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 4 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 14 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G Gl.oal:aloid% and %!erol%


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aUO Ti:!a
GVa S Lag#O 2W:Xa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S DY"anaO $Q.anaO madoXanQTa:aO +aVU#yaO 9o!#a#ara
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G +aVUa:QryQ@ale#aO $aa.a!i:!a:a G#Z!aO 'yQg#rY#ar
Y!a:Y
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G 9@Q%aO +Q%aO J@araO Ar.iO $Yna%aO $QrT@aTWlaO S@ara-#eda
DOSE G 26G*6 g o/ !#e drg /or de.o.!ion


103
*8& +anya%ara (L/&)
+ANBS2A (Lea/)
+anyQ%Qra .on%i%!% o/ dried Ii.e o/ lea@e% o/ Aloe -ar-aden%i% Mill& Syn& Aloe
@era Torn&e( LinnO Aloe indi.a 2oyle& (Fam& Lilia.eae)O %#r- "lan!ed in many <ndian
garden% and /ond gro7ing !#rog#o! <ndia&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S +mQrYra%a%am-#a@aO Sa#Q%Qra
A%%ame%e S M%a-#arO Ma.#am-ar
)engali S G#ri!a:almi
Engli%# S <ndian Aloe
GIra!i S EliyoO Eariyo
Hindi S M%a-#arO El@a
+annada S +ari-olaO Lole%ara %a!@aO Lo@al%araO Lole%ara
+a%#miri S M%a--arO Si-er
Malayalam S C#enninaya:am
Mara!#i S +or"#ad
Oriya S M%a-ara
$nIa-i S +ala%o#agaO M%%a-arO Ala
Tamil S +a!!aA#iO Sa!!#::a!#aA#ai
Telg S M%am-aram
?rd S M%a--arO Aili@aO Si-er
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Dar: .#o.ola!e -ro7nO !o -la.:O .om"a.!O irreglar ma%%e%S %r/a.e dllO o"aLe
7i!# %lig#!ly @i!reo% a""earan.eO odorO .#ara.!eri%!i.O !a%!eO na%eo% and -i!!er&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
$o7der 7#en mon!ed in gly.erin or la.!o"#enol and e(amined nder !#e
104
mi.ro%.o"e %#o7% innmera-le .ry%!allineO yello7i%#G-ro7n !o .#o.ola!e .olored
"ar!i.le% o/ @arying %iAe and %#a"e&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTHG
<den!i/i.a!ionS
Mi( 6&1 g 7i!# 16 ml o/ 7a!erO -oil n!il nearly di%%ol@edO .oolO add 6&1 g o/ +ie%elg#r
and /il!erO !o !#e /il!ra!e a""ly !#e /ollo7ing !e%!%G
(i) Hea! 1 ml o/ /il!ra!e 7i!# 6&2 g o/ )ora( n!il di%%ol@edO add a /e7 dro"% o/ !#i%
%ol!ion !o a !e%!G!-e nearly /illed 7i!# ;a!erO a green /lore%.en.e i% "rod.ed&
(ii) Mi( 2 ml o/ /il!ra!e 7i!# 2 ml o/ a /re%#ly "re"ared %ol!ion o/ )romineO a "ale
yello7 "re.i"i!a!e i% "rod.ed&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 56 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 46 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&
Moi%!re .on!en! No! more !#an 16 "er .en!O $er .en! o/ i!% 7eig#!
7#en dried !o .on%!an! 7eig#! a! 161` C 2&2&8

CONST<T?ENTS G An!#raLinoneO gly.o%ide


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aU
GVa S ?XVa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S )#edYO $i!!anir#araVaO 2aIaf"ra@ar!a:aO J@aran!
105
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G 2aIaf"ra@ar!inY 'aUYO C::m!i""alyQdi GUi:Q
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G ?dararogaO +aXUQr!a@aO J@araO Ba:Zd@i:Qra
DOSE G 121 G 166 mg o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm


106
06& +aranIa (Sd&)
+A2AEJA (Seed)
+araaIa .on%i%!% o/ %eed% o/ $ongamia "inna!a (Linn&) MerrO Syn& $ongamia gla-ra
@en!&(Fam& Legmino%ae)O a medim %iAed gla-ro% !ree 7i!# a %#or! -ole and %"reading
.ro7n and /ond almo%! !#rog#o! <ndia "!o an al!i!de o/ 1266 m&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S +araaIa:aO Na:!amQlaO Na:!Q#@aO G#Z!a:araaIa
A%%ame%e S +ora.#
)engali S Na!a +aranIaO Da#ara +aranIa
Engli%# S Smoo!# lea@ed "ongamia
GIra!i S +anaIoO +aranIi
Hindi S Di!#oriO +araini
+annada S HongeO Hlagil
Malayalam S A@i!!alO ?ngO ?nO $ng
Mara!#i S +aranIa
Oriya S +arnIa
$nIa-i S +aranI
Tamil S $nganO $ongana
Telg S LamigaO +anga
?rd S +aranI
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Seed %ally one and rarely !7oO elli"!i. or reni/orm in %#a"eO 1&3G2&6 .m long
and 1&2G1&5 .m -roadO 7rin:led 7i!# reddi%# lea!#ery !e%!aO mi.ro"ylar end o/ .o!yledon%
%lig#!ly de"re%%ed 7#ile o!#er %ide %emiG.ir.lar in %#a"e&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ %eed %#o7%O !e%!a .om"o%ed o/ a layer o/ "ali%ade li:e o!er
107
e"idermi%O /illed 7i!# -ro7n "igmen!O .o@ered e(!ernally 7i!# a !#i.: .!i.leO a layer o/
largeO !#in 7alledO %ome7#a! re.!anglar .ell%O 2G0 layer% o/ !#i.:G7alled "aren.#yma
.ell%O a /e7 ro7% o/ .ell% 7i!# %mall in!erG.elllar %"a.e%O 2G* layer% o/ !#i.:G7alled
elonga!ed .ell%O a /e7 layer% o/ %"ongy "aren.#yma #a@ing large in!erG.elllar %"a.e%O a
nm-er o/ "aren.#yma .ell% .on!aining -ro7n "igmen!O .o!yledon% .om"o%ed o/ o!er
layer o/ e"idermi% 7i!# .ylindri.al .ell%O e(!ernally .o@ered 7i!# !#in .!i.leO e"idermi%
/ollo7ed -y re.!anglar !o "olygonal .ell% o/ me%o"#yllO /illed 7i!# glo-le%O al%o
"re%en! %.a!!ered in !#i% region&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 6&1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 2* "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 1* "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G Fi(ed oilO /la@one% and !ra.e% o/ e%%en!ial oil


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aUO Ti:!a
GVa S TY:XVa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S +a"#a@Q!ag#naO +ZmiIi!O +XU#ag#naO 'raVaTod#ana
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G rag@ad#Qdi +@Q!#a CWrVaO $a!#yQdi Le"a
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G 'raVaO +ZmiO +XU#a
DOSE G 6&21 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm \"ar1G16 g o/ !#e drg /or de.o.!ion


108
01& +ara@ira (L/&)
+A2A',2A (Lea/)
+ara@Yra .on%i%!% o/ dried lea@e% o/ Nerim indi.m Mill& Syn& Nerim odorm
Soland (Fam& A"o.yna.eae)O a large e@ergreen 7oody %#r- 7i!# mil:y Ji.eO /ond
!#rog#o! !#e year in ""er Gange!i. "lain%O Himalaya%O /rom Ne"al !o +a%#mir "!o
2666 m& Cen!ral and So!#ern <ndiaO al%o .l!i@a!ed near !em"le% and garden%&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S HayamQra:aO Hara"riyaO AT@amQra
A%%ame%e S +ar-iraO +ara@iO +ar@ir
)engali S +ara@iO +al:e"#l
Engli%# S <ndian Oleander
GIra!i S +aneraO +arenaO +aren
Hindi S +aner
+annada S +anagalO +anagile
+a%#miri S GandeelaO Gandla
Malayalam S +ana@e eramO AraliO +a!!alari
Mara!#i S +an#er
Oriya S +aniaraO +aniar
$nIa-i S +aner
Tamil S AraliO AlariO Aa!rlari
Telg S Ganner
?rd S +aner
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Lea@e% e(%!i"la!eO linearO lan.eola!eO 16G26 .m long and "!o 2&1 .m 7ideO !#i.:O
dar: green and %#ining a-o@e and do!!ed -enea!#O @ena!ion ni.o%!a!eO re!i.la!e 7i!#
midri- -eing %!o! and !#e %e.ondary @ein% ari%ing in @ery large nm-erO rnning
"arallelO %!oma!a anamo.y!i.&

109
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
$e!ioleG!ran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ "e!iole %#o7% a %ingle layer o/ e"idermi% .o@ered
e(!ernally -y !#i.: .!i.leO e"idermal .ell% elonga!e !o /orm ni.elllarO nonGligni/ied
and nonGglandlar #air%O a 7ide Aone o/ .or!e(O .om"o%ed o/ 0G3 layer% o/
.ollen.#yma!o% .ell% and a ;ide Aone o/ "aren.#yma /ollo7% !#e e"idermi%O
"aren.#yma!o% .ell% !#inG7alledO more or le%% i%odiame!ri. 7i!# in!er.elllar %"a.e%O
%ome .ell% .on!ain ro%e!!e .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!eO "e!iole re.ei@e% !#ree @a%.lar
-ndle% /rom %!emO .en!ral one large and .re%.en! %#a"ed 7#ile o!#er !7o m.# %maller
and %ome7#a! .ir.lar "re%en! on ea.# %ide o/ .en!ral @a%.lar -ndleO "#loem "re%en!
on ""er %ide and (ylem on lo7er Side ;i!# %al elemen!%&
LaminaG!ran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ lamina %#o7% an i%o-ila!eral %!r.!reO ""er e"idermi%
.om"o%ed o/ "en!a or #e(agonal "aren.#yma!o% .ell%O e(!ernally .o@ered 7i!# !#i.:
.!i.leO -elo7 ""er e"idermi%& 2G* layer% o/ #y"odermi% "re%en!O "ali%ada *G0 layered
.om"o%ed o/ elonga!ed and .om"a.!ly arranged .ell%O @a%.lar %!rand% al%o %een in
-e!7een "ali%ade and %"ongy "aren.#ymaO %"ongy "aren.#yma /illed 7i!# .#loro"#yllO
!o7ard% lo7er %r/a.e 2G* layered "ali%adeO -elo7 7#i.# "aren.#yma and lo7er
e"idermi% "re%en!O lo7er e"idermi% al%o .oa!ed 7i!# !#e .!i.le e(!ernallyO in lo7er
%r/a.e many "i!% "o%%e%%ing %!oma!aO ni.elllarO nonGglandlar and nonGligni/ied
!ri.#ome%O ro%e!!e .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!e "re%en! !#rog#o! laminaO a@erage
"ali%ade ra!io 0S 1&
Midri-G!ran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ midri- %#o7% e"idermi% .om"o%ed o/ a layer o/ .ell%O
e(!ernally .o@ered 7i!# .!i.leO %ome e"idermal .ell% on ""er and lo7er %ide% /orm
ni.elllar #air%O -e!7een e"idermi% and "aren.#yma 2G0 ro7% o/ !#i.:G7alled .ell%O
more "rominen! !o7ard% lo7er %ideO %ome "aren.#yma!o% .ell% .on!ain ro%e!!e .ry%!al%
o/ .al.im o(ala!eO la!i.i/er% /ond %.a!!ered %ingly or in gro"% o/ 2 in !#i% regionO
-enea!# !#e @a%.lar -ndle a %n i" o/ /i-re% "re%en!O @a%.lar -ndle ^?^ %#a"edO (ylem
-eing !o7ard% lo7er %ide and "#loem !o7ard% !#e ""er .on%i%!% o/ !ra.#eid%O @e%%el%
and "aren.#ymaO @e%%el% 7i!# endGo"ening%O rarely 7i!# %ide o"ening% !ra.#eid% many
7i!# %"iralO annlar or re!i.la!e !#i.:ening% on !#eir 7all%&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 8 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 26 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 26 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

110
CONST<T?ENTS G Cardia. gl.o%ide (oleandrin)


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aUO Ti:!aO +aXQya
GVa S TY:XVaO Lag#O 2W:Xa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S J@arQ"a#aO Ca:XXyaO +XU#ag#naO +aV[Wg#naO +Zmig#naO 'raVQ"a#aO
9@Q%a#araO ($ra-#Q@aS HZdya)
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G +Q%Y%Qdi Taila
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G J@araO 'raVaO +XU#aO +aV[WO +ZmirogaO Ne!rarogaO
Tama:aT@Q%aO HZdroga
DOSE G *6G121 mg o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm
eDo%e %#old no! e(.eed !#e #ig#er limi!
NOTEGSod#ana o/ !#i% drg i% !o -e done -e/ore %e a% de%.ri-ed in !#e a""endi(&


111
02& +ar:a!a%#ringi (Gall&)
+A2+AJA9KFG< (Gall)
+ar:aUaTZ]gY .on%i%!% o/ gallGli:e e(.re%.en.e% /ormed -y in%e.!% on !#e lea@e%O
"e!iole% and -ran.#e% o/ !#e "lan! $i%!a.ia .#inen%ia )rgoO $i%!a.ia in!egerrima S!e7& e(
)randi%O 2#% %..edanea Linn& (Fam& Ana.ardia.eae) dring a!mn %ea%onO gro7ing on
!#e %!e"% o/ ;e%!ern Himalaya% /rom <nd% !o +maon a! an al!i!de o/ *16G2066 mO o/!en
.l!i@a!ed in $nIa- "lain%&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S 9Z]gYO 'iXQnYO +ar:aUa
A%%ame%e S +a:ia%rngi
)engali S +an:da S#ringi
Engli%# S Cra-^% .la7
GIra!i S +a:ada %#ingO +a:ada %ingi
Hindi S +a:ada%ingiO +a:ara%ingiO G#ee:ada@a
+annada S +a:ada%ingiO +ar:a!a:a%ringi
+a%#miri S +a::arO +amaladina
Malayalam S +ar:a!a%ringi
Mara!#i S +a:ad%#ingi
Oriya S +a:ada%#rngiO +a:ada%#ringi
$nIa-i S +a:arO +a:ar%ingi
Tamil S +ar:a!a %ingi
Telg S +a:ar%ingiO +ar:a!a:a%#rngi
?rd S +a:ra%ing#i
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Dried gall% #ardO #ollo7O #ornGli:eO !#inG7alledO generally .ylindri.alO !a"ering a!
-o!# !#e end%O greyi%# -ro7n e(!ernally and reddi%# -ro7n in!ernallyO %iAe @arie% /rom
2&1G*6&6 .m or moreO ea.# gall .on!ain% nmero% dead in%e.!%O odorO !ere-in!#ineO !a%!e
o/ "o7dered gall%O %!rongly a%!ringen! and %lig#!ly -i!!er&

112
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ gall %#o7% !#e .olla"%ed e"idermi% on -o!# !#e %ide%O
e"idermal .ell% !#inG7alledO !angen!ially elonga!edO grond !i%%e% !#inG7alled and o@al
or .ir.larO !#e o!er !7o layer% !angen!ially elonga!ed 7#ile -e!7een @a%.lar -ndle%
radially elonga!edO o!er /e7 layer% and %ome o/ .ell% o/ grond !i%%e /illed 7i!#
yello7i%# -ro7n .on!en!%O @a%.lar -ndle %.a!!ered !#rog#o! !#e grond !i%%e% in
!7o ro7%O .on%i%! o/ "#loem a..om"anied -y a large !annin %a. in ea.# @a%.lar -ndle&
$o7derG$o7der greyi%# -ro7nO nder mi.ro%.o"eO %#o7% orange yello7 .olor i%ola!ed
or a%%o.ia!ed /ragmen!% o/ (ylem @e%%el% and grond !i%%e%&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 3 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 6&2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an *6 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an *6 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G E%%en!ial oilO !annin% and re%ino% ma!!er%&

$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aXQyaO Ti:!a
GVa S Gr
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S +a"#a@Q!a#araO +Q%a#araO >rd#@a@Q!aIi!O Hi::Qnigra#aVa
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G )Qla.a!r-#adri:Q CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G J@araO 9@Q%aO +Q%aO Hi::QO +XayaO Ar.iO C#ardi
DOSE G *G4 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm
113
0*& +ar"a%a (Sd&)
+2$SA (Seed)
+Qr"Q%a .on%i%!% o/ %eed% (de@oid o/ lin!) o/ Go%%y"im #er-a.em Linn& (Fam&
Mal@a.eae) O an annal or "erennial %#r-O 6&4G2&0m #ig#O e(!en%i@ely .l!i@a!ed in <ndia&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S TV[a:eTi
A%%ame%e S +ar"a%aO Tla
)engali S )onaO +a"a%ia
Engli%# S Co!!on "lan! %eed
GIra!i S GG
Hindi S +a"a%aO )inala
+annada S Ha!iO Arale
Malayalam S +ar"a%iO $anIi +ar"a%am
Mara!#i S Sar:i
Oriya S GG
Tamil S $ar!!i ::oo!!am
Telg S $a!!i ginga
?rd S $am-adanaO Ha--GlGc!n
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
SeedO dar: -ro7nO o@oidO 6&*G6&4 .m diame!erO min!eO %#allo7 longi!dinal
groo@e% ari%e /rom /ni.lar region o/ %eedO !a%!eO %lig#!ly -i!!er&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ ma!re %eed %#o7%O !7o in!egmen!% /orming %eed .oa!O
o!er in!egmen! di//eren!ia!ed in!o e"idermi%O a 7ide Aone o/ "aren.#yma and a #yaline
layerO e"idermi% %ingle layeredO %ome !ri.#ome% ari%e /rom e"idermi% and /orm lin! and
/AA #air%O lin! #air% elonga!ed 7i!# !#in 7all

and 7ide lmenO /AA #air% !#i.:G7alled
7i!# narro7 lmenO "aren.#yme!o% Aone .on%i%!% o/ 0G5 layer% o/ reddi%#G-ro7n .ell%O a
/e7 @a%.lar -ndle% em-edded in !#i% AoneO #yaline layer .on%i%!ing o/ 2G* layer% o/
114
!angen!ially elonga!edO .-i.alO !#i.:G7alled .ell%O inner in!egmen! .om"o%ed o/
"ali%ade and "aren.#ymaO "ali%ade .ell% .om"a.!ly arranged and .olorle%%O "aren.#yma
many layered o/ !angen!ially elonga!ed .ell% 7i!# dee" reddi%#G-ro7n .on!en!%O
.o!yledon% !#inO large and /oldedO ""er e"idermi% o/ .o!yledonO %ingle layeredO
e(!ernally .o@ered 7i!# .!i.le /ollo7ed -y 1 or 2 layered "ali%ade li:e .ell% o/
me%o"#yllO -enea!# !#i% AoneO me%o"#yll .ell% %#o7 elonga!ed !o ronded %!r.!re
7i!#o! in!erG.elllar %"a.e%O lo7er e"idermi% %ingle layeredO .-i.al or o@alO .o@ered
7i!# .!i.leO %ome ly%igeno% gland% /illed 7i!# yello7i%#G-ro7n .on!en!% al%o /ond
%.a!!ered in me%o"#yll regionO %!ar.# and .al.im o(ala!e .ry%!al% a-%en!&
$o7derG )ro7n nder mi.ro%.o"e %#o7% "ali%ade .ell%O !#inG7alled me%o"#yll .ell%O
dee" -ro7n .on!en!% and #air%O "ie.e% o/ !e%!a and /AA in!a.!&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 6&1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 10 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 5 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

ASSAB

T&L&C&



CONST<T?ENTS G Fi(ed oilO re%in and %!erol%


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Mad#ra
115
GVa S Snigd#aO Gr
'Yrya S 9Y!a
'i"Q:a S Mad#ra
+arma S S!anyaIananaO 'ZXyaO +a"#a:araO HZdya
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G +Qr"Q%Q%!#yQdi Taila
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G DQ#aO 9ramaO )#rQn!iO MWr..#QO S!anya:Xaya
DOSE G *G4 g o/ #e drg in "o7der /orm


116
00& +a%er (2A&)
+A9E2? (2#iAome)
+aTer .on%i%!% o/ r#iAome o/ S.ir"% :y%oor 2o(-& (Fam& Cy"era.eae)O a 7eed
.ommonly /ond on !#e margin% o/ "ond% and %7am"y "la.e% !#rog#o! <ndia&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S +aTer:a
A%%ame%e S +a#er
)engali S +e%#ra
Engli%# S ;a!er .#e%!n!
GIra!i S +a%elaO +a%ola
Hindi S +a%er
+annada S +a%re gaddO +a%er@aO +o!#igadde
Malayalam S +aA#i M!#anga
Mara!#i S +a%araO +a.#eraO +a.#ora
Oriya S +a%ar +a7daO +a%ar +anda
$nIa-i S +a%er
Tamil S Gnda!igagaddi
Telg S Gn!a!ngagaddi
?rd S +a%er
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
2#iAome%O o@al !o .ylindri.alO o/!en -ran.#ed #a@ing a nm-er o/ !ran%@er%e
ring%O -la.: .olored roo!% and ronded %.ar%O -la.: e(!ernally and .ream .olored
in!ernallyO odorO aroma!i.O !a%!eO -i!!er&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran@er%e %e.!ion o/ r#iAome %#o7% e"idermi% o/ .olla"%ed and -ro7n .olored
.ell%S #y"odermi%O 0G5 .ell% 7i!# !#i.: -ro7n .ell 7all%O /ollo7ed -y a 7ide Aone o/
.or!i.al grond !i%%e o/ o@al !o rondedO !#inG7alledO "aren.#yma!o% .ell%O /illed 7i!#
o@al !o %"#eri.al %!ar.# grain%O en.ir.led -y %.leren.#yma!o% %#ea!#O @a%.lar -ndle%O
117
/ond %.a!!ered !#rog#o! .or!i.al grond !i%%eO endodermi% .on%i%!% o/ -ro7n
.olored .ell% 7i!# #ea@y !#i.:ening% on !#ier 7all%O en.lo%ing a 7ide .en!ral %!elar
grond !i%%e 7i!# a nm-er o/ %.a!!ered @a%.lar -ndle% o/ .lo%edO .olla!eral !y"eO
en.ir.led -y %.leren.#yma!o% %#ea!#O %!elar grond !i%%e% o/ ronded !o o@alO !#inG
7alled and "aren.#yma!o% .ell%O .on!aining o@al !o %"#eri.al %!ar.# grain%O a nm-er o/
%e.re!ory .ell 7i!# orangeG-ro7n .on!en!% /ond !#rog#o! .or!i.al and %!elar grond
!i%%e&
$o7derG Lig#! -ro7nO nder mi.ro%.o"e %#o7% a-ndan! rond !o o@al %!ar.# grain% and
orangeGyello7 "igmen!%O /ragmen!% o/ (ylem @e%%el% 7i!# annlar !#i.:ening% and !#inG
7alledO "aren.#yma!o% !i%%e&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 5 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 0 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 8 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G S!ar.#O %a"onin%O %gar% and "roge%!erone&


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Mad#raO +aXQya
GVa S Gr
'Yrya S 9Y!a
'i"Q:a S Mad#ra
+arma S $i!!ag#naO DQ#ag#naO 9:ra:araO S!anya:araO Ca:XXyaO GrQ#YO
2.i:ara
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G Sa-#QgyaTVU#Y
118
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G DQ#aO Ne!rarogaO Ar.iO A!Y%QraO 9:ra:XayaO S!anya:XayaO
Dar-alya
DOSE G 1G16 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm&


119
01& +e!a:i (2!&)
+ETA+, (2oo!)
+e!a:Y .on%i%!% o/ driedO ndergrond roo!% o/ $andan% !e.!ori% Soland&e(
$ar:in%on (Fam& $andana.eae)O a den%ely -ran.#ed %#r-O rarely ere.! /ond along !#e
.oa%! o/ <ndia and Andaman <%land and %ome!ime% .l!i@a!ed in garden% al%o&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S SW.i:Q"X"a
A%%ame%e S +a!:i
)engali S +a!:i
Engli%# S S.re7 "ine
GIra!i S +e@ado
Hindi S +e@ada
+annada S +adaIlmdO Tale#@
+a%#miri S GGGG
Malayalam S $oo:ai!#a
Mara!#i S +e7da
Oriya S +e!a:iO +ia
$nIa-i S +eora
Tamil S TaA#ai
Telg S Mogali
?rd S GGGG
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
2oo! "ie.e%O 2G4 .m longO 6&*G2 .m in diame!erO .ylindri.alO r%!y or yello7i%#G
-ro7nO !o greyO %r/a.e %moo!# e(.e"! /or "ro!-eran.e% a! .er!ain "la.e%O "a"ery .or:O
%r/a.e ne@enO ea%ily "eela-le e("o%ing a /i-ro% %r/a.eO /ra.!reO %ally n-rea:a-le&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ ma!re roo! %#o7% a 7ide Aone o/ %!ra!i/ied .or:O
120
e(/olia!ing a! "la.e%O .on%i%!ing o/ re.!anglarO !#inG7alledO !angen!ially elonga!edO
radially arranged .ell%O ""er /e7 layer% /illed 7i!# reddi%#G-ro7n .on!en!%O remaining
.ell% .olorle%%O .or!e(O a 7ide Aone o/ ronded .ell% 7i!# /i-re gro"% !o7ard% .en!ral
and middle regionO .ell% o-li!era!ed a! "la.e%O endodermi% -arrelG%#a"edO %lig#!ly !#i.:G
7alled O "eri.y.le and "#loem no! di%!in.!O (ylem /orm% -l: o/ roo! .on%i%!ing o/
@e%%el%O /i-re% and "aren.#ymaO medllary ray% no! di%!in.!O @e%%el% %#o7 annlar or
"i!!ed !#i.:eningO /i-re% !#i.:G7alledO elonga!ed #a@ing a /e7 %im"le "i!%&
$o7derGBello7i%#G-ro7nO nder mi.ro%.o"e %#o7% /ragmen!% o/ .or:%O (ylem @e%%el%
and /i-re%&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 8 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 14 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G E%%en!ial oil

$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Ti:!aO Mad#raO +aU
GVa S Lag#
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S 'arVyaO +eTyaO Dargand#yanQTanaO )alyaO 2a%QyanaO DQr[#ya:araO
Sa:#ya:araO +a"#Q"a#aO Ca:XXya
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G Tri"#alQdi Taila
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G GlmaO +a"#arogaO Ne!raroga
DOSE G 26G*6 g o/ !#e drg /or de.o.!ion


121
04& +#adira (H!&;d&)
+HAD<2A (Hear! 7ood)
+#adira .on%i%!% o/ dried "ie.e% o/ #ear!G7ood o/ A.a.ia .a!e.# (Linn& /&) ;illd&
(Fam& Legmino%ae)O a modera!e %iAed !reeO /ond mo%!ly in dry "ar!% o/ <ndia&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S GQya!ri
A%%ame%e S +#ariraO +#araO +#ayar
)engali S +#eraO +#ayera
Engli%# S )la.: .a!e.#O C!.# !ree
GIra!i S +#airO +a!#eO +#er
Hindi S +#air
+annada S +aggaliO +aggalinaraO +a.#inamaraO +oggigida
+a%#miri S +a!#
Malayalam S +aringali
Mara!#i S +#airaO +#air
Oriya S +#aira
$nIa-i S +#air
Tamil S +arngaliO +arng:ali
Telg S C#andraO +a@iri
?rd S C#an-e +aa!#
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Hear!G7oodO lig#! redO !rning -ro7ni%#Gred !o nearly -la.: 7i!# ageO a!!a.#ed
7i!# 7#i!i%# %a"7oodO /ra.!re #ardO !a%!eO a%!ringen!

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ #ear!G7ood %#o7%O nmero%O niG!o -iG%eria!e medllary
ray%O @e%%el% o..rring i%ola!ed or in %mall gro"% o/ !7o !o /orO (ylem /i-re% 7i!#
narro7 lmen o.."ying maIor "or!ion o/ 7oodO (ylem "aren.#yma %ally
122
"redominan!ly "ara!ra.#ealO /orming a %#ea!# arond @e%%el%O 7ood .on%i%!% o/ .ry%!al
/i-re% 7i!# 10G25 %egmen!%O ea.# #a@ing one "ri%ma!i. .ry%!al o/ .al.im o(ala!eO a /e7
!ra.#eid% 7i!# %.alari/orm !#i.:eningO %ome o/ .ell%O in.lding @e%%el%O /illed 7i!# -ro7n
.on!en!O "ri%ma!i. .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!e "re%en! in a nm-er o/ .ell% !#rog#o! !#e
7ood&
$o7derG )ro7n .oloredO nder mi.ro%.o"e %#o7% a nm-er o/ (ylem /i-re%O @e%%el%O
.ry%!al /i-re%O "ri%ma!i. .ry%!al% o/ .al.im e(ala!e&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1&2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G Ca!e.#inO .a!e.#G!anni. a.id and !annin


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Ti:!aO +aXQya
GVa S Lag#O 2W:Xa
'Yrya S 9Y!a
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S +a"#a"i!!a#araO 2a:!aTod#a:aO +XU#ag#naO Medo#araO +Zmig#naO
Dan!ya
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G +#adirQriXUaO ArimedQdi TailaO +#adirQdi GUi:Q
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G +XU#aO 'raVaO 9o!#aO $rame#a
DOSE G 26G*6 g o/ !#e drg /or !#e de.o.!ion&

123
03& +ira!a!i:!a (;&$)
+<2TAT<+TA (;#ole "lan!)
+irQ!a!i:!a .on%i%!% o/ 7#ole "lan! o/ S7er!ia .#ira!a ).#&HamO (FamO
Gen!iana.eae)O a %mallO ere.!O annalO #er-a.eo% "lan!O 6&4G1& 21 m #ig#O /ond in
!em"era!e Himalaya% a! an al!i!de -e!7een 1266G*666 m /rom +a%#mir !o )#!an and
+#a%ia Hill% in Meg#alayaO drg .olle.!ed 7#en /lo7ering (JlyGO.!o-er) and dried&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S +irQ!aO +irQ!a:aO )#Wnim-aO +irQ!a!i:!a:a
A%%ame%e S C#ir!a
)engali S C#ira!a
Engli%# S C#ire!a
GIra!i S +ariya!O +ariya!n
Hindi S C#iraya!a
+annada S Nale-e@O C#ira!a +addiO C#iraya!
+a%#miri S Lo%eO C#irai!a
Malayalam S Nela@e""O +iraya!#O Nilama:anIiram
Mara!#i S +irai!aO +ad.#irai!a
Oriya S C#irei!a
$nIa-i S C#ire!!aO C#irai!a
Tamil S Nila@em-
Telg S Nela@em
?rd S C#irai!a
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Drg .on%i%!% o/ 7#ole "lan!O a "e.liar %#ining yello7i%# !inge all o@er !#e #er-
in /re%# %am"leO %!em "!o 1 m long and 4 mm in diame!erO gla-ro%O yello7i%#G-ro7n !o
"r"li%#O %lig#!ly Ladranglar a-o@e and .ylindri.al -elo7O largeO .on!ino%O ea%ily
%e"ara-le yello7 "i!#O lea/O o""o%i!eO .alineO -road a! -a%eO o@a!e or lan.eola!eO en!ireO
a.mina!eO gla-ro%O %ally 7i!# 1G3 "rominen! la!eral @ein%O -ran.#ing /rom !#e a(il%
o/ !#e lea@e% 7#i.# rami/y /r!#er in!o "ani.la!e in/lore%.en.eO /lo7erO !e!ramero%O
2G* mm 7ideO o@oidO 7i!# !7o glandlar de"re%%ion% near !#e -a%e o/ ea.# o/ .orolla
lo-e%O o@aryO %"eriorO -i.ar"ellaryO nilo.larO o@oid and "oin!edO /ri!& a .a"%le 7i!#
124
nmero%O min!e re!i.la!ed %eedO 6&21G6&11 mm longO 6&14G6&01 mm -road irreglarly
o@oid&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
2oo!G!ran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ roo! %#o7%O 2G0 layer% o/ .or:O %e.ondary .or!e(
re"re%en!ee -y 0G12 layer% o/ !#i.:G7alledO "aren.#yma!ao% .ell%O %ome %#o7ing radial
7all /orma!ionO !angen!ially elonga!ed 7i!# %ino% 7all%O %e.ondary "#loem .om"o%ed
o/ !#inG7alled %!rand% o/ %ie@e !-e%O .om"anion .ell% and "#loem "aren.#ymaO
%e.ondary (ylem .om"o%ed o/ @e%%el%O !ra.#eid% "aren.#yma and (ylem /i-re%O all
elemen!% ligni/ied and !#i.:G7alledO in older roo!%O .en!re o/ 7ood more or le%% %"ongy
and #ollo7 in mo%! .a%e%O o!er 7oody ring remaining %!rongly ligni/iedO @e%%el% %#o7
%.alari/orm !#i.:ening and al%o %im"le and -ordered "i!%O !ra.#eid% %imilar in !#i.:ening
a% !#e @e%%el%O /i-re% #a@e %im"le "i!%O m.ilage "re%en! in %e.ondary .or!i.al .ell%O
min!e a.i.lar .ry%!al% "re%en! in a-ndan.e in %e.ondary .or!e( and "#loem regionO
re%in al%o "re%en! a% dar: -ro7n ma%% in %e.ondary .or!e( .ell%&
S!emG!ran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ %!em %#o7% %ingle layered e"idermi%O e(!ernally .o@ered 7i!#
a !#i.: %!ria!ed .!i.le "re%en! in yong %!emO in older e"idermi% remain% in!a.! -! .ell%
/la!!ened and !angen!ially elonga!edO /or ri-% al%o .on%i%!% o/ an e"idermi% and
"aren.#yma!o% .or!i.al .ell%O endodermi% di%!in.!O %#o7ing an!i.linal or "eri.linal
7all%O /ollo7ed -y %ingle layered "eri.y.le .on%i%!ing o/ !#in 7alled .ell%O %!em
"o%%e%%e% an am"#i"#loi. %i"#ono%!eleO e(!ernal "#loem re"re%en!ed -y %al elemen!%O
.am-im -e!7een e(!ernal "#loem and (ylem .om"o%ed o/ a !#in %!ri" o/ !angen!ially
elonga!ed .ell%O in!ernal "#loem %imilar in %!r.!re a% !#a! o/ e(!ernal "#loem e(.e"!ing
!#a! %ie@e !-e %!rand i% more 7idely %e"ara!edO (ylem .on!ino% and .om"o%ed mo%!ly
o/ !ra.#eid%O a /e7 (ylem @e%%el% "re%en! %ingly or rarely in gro"% o/ !7o 7#ile
!ra.#eid% and /i-re% "re%en! in a-ndan.eO @e%%el% and /i-re !ra.#eid% #a@e mo%!ly %im"le
and -ordered "i!% and /i-re% 7i!# %im"le "i!% on !#e 7all%O medllary ray% a-%en!O .en!ral
"ar! o/ !#e %!em o.."ied -y a "i!# .on%i%!ing o/ ronded and i%odiame!ri. .ell% 7i!#
"rominen! in!er.elllar %"a.e% m.ilage "re%en! in .or!i.al .ell%O min!e a.i.lar .ry%!al%
al%o "re%en! in a-ndan.eO .or!i.al .ell%O in re%in "re%en! a% dar: -ro7n ma%% in %ome
.or!i.al .ell% along 7i!# oil dro"le!%&
Lea/G!ran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ lea/ %#o7% @ery li!!le di//eren!ia!ion o/ me%o"#yll !i%%e%O
e"idermi% %ingle layered .o@ered 7i!# a !#i.:O %!ria!ed .!i.leO more %!rongly de@elo"ed
on !#e ""er %r/a.e !#an !#e lo7erO %!oma!a o/ ani%o.y!i. !y"eO "ali%ade !i%%e %ingle
layeredO .ell% a! "la.e% -e.ome 7ider and le%% elonga!ed "ar!i.larly in -igger @ein%O
%"ongy me%%o"#yll re"re%en!ed -y 0G3 layer% o/ %ome7#a! loo%ely arrangedO !angen!ially
elonga!ed .ell%O %ome e"idermal .ell% "rominen!ly ar.#ed o!%ide a! !#e marginO
m.ilage "re%en! in e"idermal and me%o"#yll .ell 7#ile min!e a.i.lar .ry%!al al%o
"re%en! in a-ndan.e in me%o"#yll .ell%O in lea/ "aren.#yma% oil dro"le!% al%o "re%en!&
125
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 4 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#ol (46 "er .en!) %ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 16 "er .en!O A""endi(
2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 16 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

ASSAB
A-%en.e o/ !anninGOn addi!ion o/ Ferri. C#loride !o aLeo% or al.o#oli. e(!ra.! no -le
-la.: .olor de@elo"%&
A%%ay GCon!ain% no! le%% !#an 1&* "er .en!O o/ !#e -i!!er "rin.i"le a% de!ermined -y !#e
/ollo7ing me!#odSG
Mi( 26 g in "o7der (No& 46 %ie@e) 7i!# -oiling 7a!er .on!aining 6&1 g o/ Cal.im
Cor-ona!e and e(!ra.! 7i!# -oiling 7a!er !ill !#e la%! "or!ion o/ !#e e(!ra.! i% de@oid o/
-i!!erne%%O .on.en!ra!e in @a.m and di%%ol@e !#e re%ide in #o! Al.o#ol& Fil!er 7#ile
#o! and 7a%# !#e re%ide !#ri.e on !#e /il!er 7i!# 16 ml "or!ion% o/ #o! Al.o#olO remo@e
!#e al.o#ol /rom !#e /il!ra!e and !a:e " !#e re%ide re"ea!edly 7i!# 21O 11O 11O 11O and
11 ml o/ #o! 7a!er& S#a:e !#e aLeo% e(!ra.! re"ea!edly 7i!# 21O 26O 11O 11 and 16 ml
o/ E!#yl A.e!a!eO .olle.! !#e E!#yl A.e!a!e e(!ra.!%O e@a"ora!eO dry and 7eig#&

CONST<T?ENTS G Man!#one%O (an!#one gly.o%ide and mangi/erine (Fla@onoid)&


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Ti:!a
GVa S Lag#O 2W:Xa
'Yrya S 9Y!a
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S J@arag#naO 'raVaTod#anaO SQra:aO TZXVQ"a#aO 2a:!aTod#a:aO
+a"#a"i!!a#ara
126
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G SdarTana CWrVaO C#innod-#a@Qdi +@Q!#a CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G J@araO TZXVQO DQ#aO 9o!#aO +XU#aO 'raVaO +ZmirogaO +aV[WO
Me#a
DOSE G 1G* g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm
26G*6 g o/ !#e drg /or de.o.!ion&


127
05& +ri%#naIira:a (Fr!&)
+K=CAJ,2A+A (Fri!)
+ZXVaIYra:a .on%i%!% o/ dried ri"e /ri!% o/ Carm .ar@i Linn& (Fam& ?m-elli/erae)O
a -iennial #er-O *6G86 .m #ig#O .l!i@a!ed a% a .old %ea%on .ro" in "lain% o/ <ndia and a%
%mmer .ro" in #illy area% o/ +a%#mirO +maonO Gar#7al and C#am-a&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S A%i!aIYra:a
A%%ame%e S +ri%nIeeraO +a1aIiraO +alIira
)engali S +ala Iira
Engli%# S )la.: Cara7ay
GIra!i S S#a#Iirn
Hindi S +alaIira
+annada S +ari IeerigeO S#a#aIeerige
+a%#miri S +ri#nAr
Malayalam S +arnIira:aO +arinIeera:am
Mara!#i S S#a#iraO S#a#aIira
Oriya S +alaIira
$nIa-i S Nira Siya#O +alaIira
Tamil S +aramIiragamO S#imai %#am-
Telg S Nalla Jeela:arra
?rd S Nira Siya#O +ala Nira
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Fri!O greeni%#G-ro7nO %lig#!ly .r@edO elonga!edO meri.ar"%O %ally %e"ara!eO
/ree /rom !#e "edi.elO .ar"o"#ore%O "!o 3 mm longO 2 mm -road almo%! eLally /i@e
%idedO narro7O !a"ering !o ea.# endO ar.a!eO gla-ro%O -ro7n 7i!# /i@e @ery narro7O
yello7i%# "rimary ridge%^ endo%"ermO or!#o%"ermo%O odor and !a%!eO aroma!i. and
.#ara.!eri%!i.&

128
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ /ri! %#o7% "eri.ar" 7i!# o!er e"idermi% o/ "olygonal
!a-lar .ell% 7i!# a !#i.: o!er 7all and %!ria!ed .!i.leO !ri.#ome%O a-%en!O @i!!ae /or
dor%alO in!er.o%!al and !7o .ommi%%ral e(!ending !#e leng!# o/ ea.# meri.ar"O 7i!# an
e"i!#elim o/ -ro7n .ell% and @ola!ile oil in !#e .a@i!yO me%o.ar" "aren.#yma!o%
7i!#o! re!i.la!e !#i.:eningO .o%!ae /i@e in ea.# meri.ar" 7i!# @a%.lar %!rand
.on%i%!ing o/ an inner gro" o/ %mall @e%%el% and /i-re% and ar.#edO o!er gro" o/ "i!!ed
%.leren.#yma 7i!# a %mall gro" o/ "#loem on ea.# la!eral %r/a.eO on !#e o!er margin
o/ ea.# @a%.lar %!rand a %mall %.#iAogeno% .anal e(!ending in!o -o!# %!ylo"od and
"edi.elO inner e"idermi% o/ !#in G7alledO %-re.!anglar .ell%O elonga!ed !angen!ially
ea.# a-o! 5G12 7ide and 06G166 longO arranged "arallel 7i!# one ano!#erO
endo%"erm o/ !#i.:G7alledO .elllo%i. "aren.#ymaO .on!aining m.# /i(ed oil and
nmero% %mall alerone grain% "!o 16 in diame!erO ea.# .on!aining one or
%ome!ime% !7o mi.roGro%e!!e .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!eO .ar"o"#oreO 7#en "re%en!O
"a%%ing a! !#e a"e( !o a ra"#e in ea.# meri.ar"O and 7i!# a %mall %!rand o/ %.leren.#ymaO
!#e %.lereid% o/ 7#i.# .on!ine in!o !#e %!ylo"od&
$o7derGColor /a7n !o -ro7nO e"idermal .ell% o/ "eri.ar" 7i!# %!ria!ed .!i.leO
/ragmen!% o/ -ro7n endo!#elim o/ @i!!aeO "aren.#yma!o% .ell% o/ !#e me%o.ar"
7i!#o! re!i.la!e !#i.:eningO re.!anglarO /inely "i!!ed %.lereid% o/ me%o.ar"O !#i.:G
7alled "olygonal "aren.#yma!o% .ell% o/ endo%"erm .on!aining m.# /i(ed oilO
nmero% %mall alerone grain% .on!aining mi.roGro%e!!e .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!eO
!ri.#ome%O %!ar.# and "arLe!ry layer a-%en!O i! .on!ain% no le%% !#an 2&1 "er .en! o/
@ola!ile oil&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 8 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1&1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 12 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&
'ola!ile oil No! le%% !#an *&1 "er .en!O@\7O A""endi(2&2&16

CONST<T?ENTS G E%%en!ial oil% (.ar@one and .ar@a.rol)&


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
129
2a%a S +aU
GVa S Lag#
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S $Q.anaO DY"anaO Sa_grQ#YO J@arag#naO 2.yaO Ca:XXyaO 9o!#a#ara
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G JYra:QdyariXUaO JYra:Qdi Moda:a
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G AgnimQndyaO d#mQnaO JYrVaI@araO Gra#aVYrogaO +Zmiroga
DOSE G 1G* g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm&


130
08& +la!!#a (Sd&)
+?LATTHA (Seed)
+la!!#a .on%i%!% o/ dry %eed% o/ 'igna nLi.la!a (Linn&) ;al"& Syn& Doli.#o%
-i/lor% Linn& (Fam Legmino%ae)R an annal -ran.#edO %-Gere.! or !7iningO do7ny or
gla-re%.en! R #er-R .l!i@a!ed all o@er <ndia&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S +#al@aO 'ard#i"a!ra:a
A%%ame%e S GG
)engali S +la!!#aO +alaya
Engli%# S Hor%e gram
GIra!i S +ala!#iO +la!#i
Hindi S +la!#iO +ra!#i
+annada S HrliO Hrali
Malayalam S Mdiraa
Mara!#i S +li!#a
Oriya S GG
Tamil S +ollO +aanam
Telg S ?la@al
?rd S +l!#i
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Seed%O #ardO %r/a.e %moo!#O elli"%oidO /la!!enedO greyi%# !o reddi%# -ro7nO 0G4
mm long and 0 mm 7ideO mi.ro"yle "rominen!O !a%!eO %ome7#a! a%!ringen!&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ %eed %#o7% !e%!a .on%i%!ing o/ a %ingle layer o/ .olmnarO
!#inG7alledO "aren.#yma!o%O "ali%ade li:e .ell% .o@ered 7i!# a !#in .!i.le /ollo7ed -y
%ingle layer o/ re.!anglar !o %Lare -earer .ell% and *G0 layer% o/ !#inG7alled
re.!anglar "aren.#yma!o% .ell%O more 7ide a! mi.ro"yler regionO .o!yledon .on%i%!ing
131
o/ %ingle layer o/ ""er and lo7er e"idermi% .o@ered 7i!# a !#in .!i.leO e"idermal .ell%
!#inG7alledO re.!anglar and "aren.#yma!o% /ollo7ed -y me%o"#yllO .on%i%!ing o/
anglar "aren.#yma!o% .ell%O /illed 7i!# nmero% %im"le %!ar.# grain% and "ro!ein
-odie% al%o "re%en!&
$o7derG;#i!i%# in .olorO nder mi.ro%.o"e %#o7% -ro:en "ie.e% o/ !e%!aO
"aren.#yma!o% .ell% and %!ar.#
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an Nil "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 12 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G An enAyme (rea%e) and oil&


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aXQya
GVa S Lag#O Sara
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S 'idQ#YO S@eda%a_grQ#a:aO +Zmi#araO +a"#a@Q!a#ara
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G Sa"!a%Qra +@Q!#a CWrVaO D#Qn@an!ara Taila
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G ATmarYO NaXUQr!a@a
DOSE G 12 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm /or de.o.!ion&


132
16& +%#!a (2oo!)
+?=JHA (2oo!)
+XU#a .on%i%!% o/ dried roo!% o/ Sa%%rea la""a C&)& Clar:e (Fam& Com"o%i!ae)O a
!allO ro-%!O "erennial #er- 7i!# !#i.: roo!%O /ond in +a%#mir a! an al!i!de o/ 2166G*466
mO roo!% .olle.!ed in Se"!em-erGO.!o-er&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S mayaO $Q:ala
A%%ame%e S +dO +r
)engali S +do
Engli%# S GG
GIra!i S ?"le!aO +a!#
Hindi S +!#a
+annada S C#angal +%!#a
+a%#miri S +!#
Malayalam S +o!!am
Mara!#i S ?"le!aO +%!#a
Oriya S +d#a
$nIa-i S +!#
Tamil S Go%#!amO +o%#!#amO +o!!am
Telg S C#angal@a +o%#!
?rd S c%!
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Drg greyi%# !o dll -ro7nO !#i.:O %!o!O /%i/orm !o .ylindri.alO 3G11 .m longO
1&6G1&1 .m -roadO !#i.:er roo!% 7i!# .olla"%ed .en!reO o..a%ionally ridgedO 7rin:le%
longi!dinal and ana%!omo%edO roo!le!% rarely "re%en!O .! %r/a.e %#o7% !7o region%O
o!er "eriderm ring !#inO inner "oro% 7oody "or!ion lig#!er in .olor %#o7ing /ine
radial %!ria!ion% and o/!en !#e .en!ral "or!ion .olla"%edO /ra.!reO %#or!O #ornyO odorO
%!rongO .#ara.!eri%!i.ally aroma!i.O !a%!eO %lig#!ly -i!!er&

133
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ !#in roo! %#o7% !#in "eridermO /ollo7ed -y -road Aone o/
"#loem and %!ill -roader Aone o/ (ylem !ra@er%ed -y 7ide medllary ray%O .or:O *G1
layered 7ide %e.ondary .or!i.al .ell% "olygonalO mo%!ly elonga!edO %e.ondary "#loem
.on%i%!% o/ mo%!ly %!orage "aren.#ymaO %mall gro"% o/ %ie@e !-e% and .om"anion .ell%
and o/!en "#loem /i-re%O -a%! /i-re% !#i.:G7alledO ligni/iedO "!o *16 in leng!#O 7i!#
many %im"le "i!% a%%o.ia!ed 7i!# /i-reO !ra.#eid% and "aren.#ymaO 7ood /i-re% %maller
!#an -a%! /i-re%O 7i!# 7ider lmen and o-!%ely !a"ering end%O medallary ray% ml!i
%eria!e and 7ider in "#loem regionO re%in .anal% /ond !#rog#o! a% large .a@i!ie%O %ome
roo!% "o%%e%% a .en!ral .ylinder o/ %.leren.#ymaO 7#ile o!#er% #a@e "aren.#yma!o%
.en!re 7i!# %.a!!ered (ylem elemen!%O in older roo!%O 7ood "aren.#yma .olla"%e% and
!a:e% a %"ongy a""earan.e in !#e .en!re o/ roo!O inlin "re%en! in %!orage "aren.#yma&
$o7derGDee" -ro7n or r%!yO nder mi.ro%.o"e irreglar -i!% o/ yello7O -ro7n or
orangeGred /ragmen!% o/ re%in% and oil% a%%o.ia!ed 7i!# !#inG7alled "aren.#yma!o%
.ell%O -ro:en -i!% o/ (ylem @e%%el% 7i!# %.alari/ormO re!i.la!e !#i.:ening and #oriAon!al
end 7all%&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 0 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 12 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 26 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G E%%en!ial oilO al:aloid (%a%%rine) and -i!!er re%in&


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aUO Ti:!a
GVa S Lag#
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
134
+arma S +a"#a@Q!aIi!O 9:ralaO 2a:!aTod#a:aO 'arVya
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G +oUUam.::Qdi Taila
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G 'Q!ara:!aO 'i%ar"aO +XU#aO +Q%aO 9@Q%a
DOSE G 6&2G1&6 o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm&


135
11& +!aIa (S!&):&)
+?JAJA (S!em -ar:)
+UaIa .on%i%!% o/ dried %!em -ar: o/ Holarr#ena an!idy%en!eri.a (2o!#) A& DC&
(Fam& A"o.yna.eae)S a %mall !o medim %iAed !reeO /ond !#rog#o! <ndiaO drg .olle.!ed
/rom 5G12 year% old !ree dring !#e middle o/ rainy %ea%on (Jly !o Se"!em-er) and again a!
!#e end o/ 7in!er %ea%on -y #e7ing and "eeling and %e"ara!ed /rom a!!a.#ed 7ood&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S +ali]gaO 9a:raO 'a!%a:a
A%%ame%e S Dd#:ri
)engali S +r.#i
Engli%# S E%!er !reeO Cone%%i -ar:
GIra!i S +daO +ada.##alO +do
Hindi S +r.#iO +raiya
+annada S +oda%igeO Halaga!!igidaO Halaga!!i Mara
+a%#miri S +ogad
Malayalam S +!a:a""ala
Mara!#i S $and#ra +da
Oriya S +reiO +eran
$nIa-i S +ra%::O +ra
Tamil S +da%a"alai
Telg S +odi%a"alaO $ala:odi%a
?rd S +r.#i
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Small re.r@ed "ie.e% o/ @arying %iAe% and !#i.:ne%%O o!er %r/a.e -// !o
-ro7ni%# longi!dinally 7rin:led and -earing #oriAon!al len!i.el%O inner %r/a.e
-ro7ni%#O rog# and %.aly /ra.!re %#or! and granlarO !a%!eO a.rid and -i!!er&

136
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ dried %!em -ar: %#o7% .or: .on%i%!ing o/ 0G12 ro7% o/
!angen!ially elonga!ed .ell%O radial 11G 01 !angen!ial *6G46 .or: .am-im .on%i%!% o/
a ro7 o/ !#in 7alled !angen!ially elonga!ed .ell%O %e.ondary .or!e( %ally 7ideO
"aren.#yma!o%O in!er%"er%ed 7i!# %!rand% o/ %!one .ell%O %!one .ell re.!anglar !o o@alO
7i!# nmero% "i!% o/!en .on!aining "ri%ma!i. .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!eO nonGligni/ied
"eri.y.li. /i-re% "!o 12 mm !#i.:O "re%en! in -ar:O %e.ondary "#loem 7ide .on%i%!ing o/
%ie@eG!-e%O .om"anion .ell%O "#loem "aren.#yma and %!one .ell%O %!one .ell% arranged
in !angen!ial ro7% in .on.en!ri. manner a%%o.ia!ed 7i!# .ry%!al %#ea!# .on!aining "ri%m%
o/ .al.im o(ala!eO medllary ray% mo%!ly -i or !ri%eria!e rarely ni%eria!e -e.oming
7ide !o7ardO o!er "ar! and .on%i%! o/ !#inG7alledO radially elonga!edO "aren.#yma!o%
.ell%O medllary ray .ell% near %!one .ell% -e.ome %.lero%ed&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 16 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&
Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 3 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 15 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&

ASSAB
A%%ayG +UaIa .on!ain% no! le%% !#an 2 "er .en! o/ !o!al al:loid% 7#en a%%ayed -y !#e
/ollo7ing me!#odS7eig# a..ra!ely a-o! 1 g in "o7der (No& 51 %ei@e) and moi%!en 7i!#
16 ml o/ an Al.o#olG.#loro/orm mi(!re (1 S*) .on!aining 2 "er .en! o/ Ammonia
%ol!ion /or 11 min!e%& $a.: !#e mi(!re in a %mall gla%% "er.ola!or %rronded -y a
Ia.:e! o/ #o! 7a!er :e"! a! 16& Ma.era!e 7i!# more o/ !#e al:aline Al.o#olG.#loro/orm
mi(!re /or an #or and .olle.! 21 ml o/ "er.ola!e in a re.ei@er .on!aining 1 g o/ O(ali.
a.id di%%ol@ed in 1 ml o/ al.o#ol& S!o" !#e "er.ola!ion add l6 ml o/ !#e al.o#olG
.#loro/orm mi(!re .on!aining 1 "er .en! 7\@ o/ Sodim Hydro(ide and ma.era!e /or
/i/!een min!e%& Con!ine !#e "er.ola!ion adding /r!#er Lan!i!ie% o/ !#e al.o#olG
.#loro/orm mi(!re n!il !#e al:aloid% are .om"le!ely e(!ra.!ed& Mi( !#e "er.ola!e 7ell
and e(!ra.! -y %#a:ing 7i!# /i@e 26 ml "or!ion% o/ 2 N Hydro.#lori. a.id& Com-ine !#e
a.id e(!ra.!% and ma:e al:aline 7i!# dil!e Ammonia Sol!ion& E(!ra.! 7i!# /or 16 ml
137
"or!ion% o/ C#loro/ormO add 1 ml o/ 6&1 N Sodim Hydro(ideO and e(!ra.! again 7i!#
C#loro/orm& ;a%# ea.# C#loro/orm e(!ra.! 7i!# !#e %ame !7o 16 ml "or!ion% o/ 7a!er
.on!ained in di//eren! %e"ara!or%& Com-ine !#e C#loro/orm e(!ra.!%O add 26 ml o/ O&<N
Sl"#ri. A.id and %#a:e 7ell /or 1 Min!e%& Tran%/er !#e a.id LiLid !o a .oni.al /la%:O
7a%# !#e C#loro/orm e(!ra.! 7i!# !7o 26 ml "or!ion% o/ 7a!er and add !#e 7a%#ing !o
!#e a.id liLid in !#e .oni.al /la%:& Ti!ra!e !#e e(.e%% o/ a.id 7i!# 6&1N Sodim
Hydro(ide %ing !#e mi(ed * indi.a!or& Ea.# ml o/ 6&1N Sl"#ri. A.id i% eLi@alen! !o
6&61413g o/ !o!al al:aloid% o/ +!aIa&

CONST<T?ENTS G Cone%%ine and rela!ed al:aloid%&


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Ti:!aO +aXQya
GVa S Lag#O 2W:Xa
'Yrya S 9Y!a
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S DY"anaO Sa_grQ#YO +a"#a"i!!aTQma:a
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G +UaIQriXUaO +UaIQ@ale#aO +UaIag#ana 'aUY
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G $ra@Q#i:QO A!Y%QraO J@arQ!i%QraO ArTaO +XU#aO TZXVQ
DOSE G 26G*6 g o/ !#e drg /or de.o.!ion&


138
12& La@anga (F&)d&)
LA'AFGA (Flo7er )d)
La@a]ga i% !#e dried /lo7er -d o/ SyAygim aroma!i.m (Linn&) Merr& P L&M&
$erry Syn& Egenia aroma!i.a +n!AeO Egenia .aryo"#ylla!a T#n-& (Fam& Myr!a.eae)O a
!ree& .l!i@a!ed in many "ar!% o/ !#e& 7orld and al%o !o a .on%idera-le e(!en! in So!# <ndiaS
/lo7er -d% .olle.!ed !7i.e a yearO <n !#e mon!#% o/ O.!o-er and Fe-rary 7#en !#ey
.#ange .olor /rom green !o .rim%onO dried .are/lly and %e"ara!ed /rom !#eir "edn.le%&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S De@a"X"a
A%%ame%e S La@angO LanO Long
)engali S La@ang
Engli%# S Clo@e
GIra!i S La@angO La@ing
Hindi S La@angaO Lang
+annada S La@anga
+a%#miri S 2ng
Malayalam S +aram"O +arayam"oo@O Gram"
Mara!#i S La@ang
Oriya S La-anga
$nIa-i S LangO Long
Tamil S +iram-O La@angam
Telg S La@angal
?rd S carn/lO Lang
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Flo7er -d mea%ring 16G13&1 mm in leng!#O dar: -ro7n or d%!y redO .on%i%!ing
o/ a %-G.ylindri.alO %lig#!ly /la!!enedO /or %ided #y"an!#imO readily e(ding oil 7#en
"re%%ed #y"an!#im .on!aining in i!% ""er "or!ion a !7o .elled in/erior o@ary 7i!#
nmero% o@le% a!!a.#ed !o a a(ile "la.en!aO %rmon!ed -y /or !#i.:O di@ergen! %e"al%
139
and .o@ered -y no"ened .orolla .on%i%!ing o/ /or mem-rano% im-ri.a!e "e!al%O
/reLen!ly de!a.#edO en.lo%ing nmero% in.r@ed %!amen% and one ere.!G%!yleO odorO
%!rongly aroma!i.O !a%!eO "ngen!O aroma!i. /ollo7ed -y %lig#! !ingling o/ !#e !onge&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ #y"an!#im %#o7% e"idermi% and .aly( !ee!# .om"o%ed o/
%!raig#! 7alled .ell%O ;i!# !#i.: .!i.le #a@ing large anomo.y!i. %!oma!aO #y"an!#im
!i%%e %"ongyO .l%!er% o/ .al.im o(ala!e .ry%!al% @arying in %iAe /rom 4G26 in
diame!erO %mall nm-er o/ %!one .ell% and "ri%ma!i. .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!e "re%en!
in %!al:O %!amen%O ea.# 7i!# an oil gland in !#e a"e( o/ !#e .onne.!i@eO !rianglarly
.en!ri.lar "ollen grain%O 11G26 in diame!er an!#er 7all% %#o7ing a !y"i.al /i-ro%
layerO %.#iAoly%igeno% gland% /ond in all "ar!% o/ .lo@eO o..a%ional i%ola!e "eri.y.li.
/i-re% "re%en!&
$o7erGDar: -ro7nO /ragmen!% o/ "aren.#yma %#o7ing large o@alO %.#iAoly%igeno% oil
.a@i!ie%O %"iral !ra.#eid% and a /e7 ra!#er !#i.:G7alledO %"indle %#a"ed /i-re%O .al.im
o(ala!e .ry%!al% in ro%e!!e aggrega!e%O 16G11 in diame!erO /ragmen!% o/ an!#er 7all%
7i!# .#ara.!eri%!i. re!i.la!ed .ell% "ollen grain% nmero%O !e!ra#edralO 11G26& in
diame!er&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 3 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 8 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&
'ola!ile oil No! le%% !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&16

CONST<T?ENTS G E%%en!ial oil% (egenala.e!a!e and .aryo"#yllene)


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
140
2a%a S Ti:!aO +aU
GVa S Lag#O TY:XVa
'Yrya S 9Y!a
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S DY"anaO $Q.anaO 2.yaO +a"#a"i!!aTQma:aO 9Wla#araO +Q%a#ara
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G La@a]gQdi 'aUYO La@a]gQdi CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G +Q%aO 9@Q%aO Hi::QO +XayaO d#mQnaO TZXVQO C#ardiO Amla"i!!a
DOSE G 6&1G2&6 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm&


141
1*& Lod#ra (S!&):&)
LODH2A (S!em -ar:)
Lod#ra .on%i%!% o/ dried %!em -ar: o/ Sym"lo.o% ra.emo%a 2o(-& (Fam&
Sym"lo.a.eae)S an e@ergreen !reeO 4G5&1 m !allO /ond a-ndan!ly in "lain% and lo7er #ill%
!#rog#o! <ndia&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S 2od#raO $aiUU:Q Lod#raO 9Q-ara Lod#raO TirYUa&
A%%ame%e S Mgam
)engali S Lod#aO Lod#ra
Engli%# S Sym"lo.o% -ar:
GIra!i S Lod#ar
Hindi S Lod#a
+annada S Lod#ra
Malayalam S $a.#o!!i
Mara!#i S Lod#aO Lod#ra
Oriya S GG
$nIa-i S Lod#ar
Tamil S 'ellila!#iO 'ellilo!#ram
Telg S Lod#ga
?rd S Lod#O Lod#"a!#ani
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Ma!re %!em -ar: o..r% in .#annelled or .r@ed "ie.e%O /e7 /ia! "ie.e% al%o
o..r in !#i.:ne%% "!o 1.mO o!er %r/a.e ne@en and rog# de !o /i%%re% and .ra.:%O
grayi%# -ro7n !o grey e(!ernallyO "ale !o 7#i!i%#G-ro7n in!ernallyO /ra.!re %#or! and
granlar in .or!i.al region and %ome7#a! /i-ro% in inner regionO !a%!eO a%!ringen! and
/ee-ly -i!!er&

142
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ ma!re -ar: %#o7% a 7ide .or: o/ !#inG7alledO re.!anglar
.ell% arranged in radial ro7%O .or: .am-im 1G* layeredO %e.ondary .or!e( .on%i%!% o/
!#inG7alledO o@al and !angen!ially elonga!ed "aren.#yma!o% .ell% !o7ard% o!er %ide
and ronded .ell% !o7ard% inner %ideO a nm-er o/ %!one .ell%O in %ingle% or in gro"%
"re%en!O %.a!!ered !#rog#o! !#e region #a@ing #ig#ly !#i.:ened 7all% 7i!# di%!in.! "i!%O
"ri%ma!i. and .l%!er .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!eO and %!ar.# grain%O mo%!ly %im"le
"re%en! in a nm-er o/ .or!i.al .ell%O %e.ondary "#loem 7ide .on%i%!ing o/ %ie@e
elemen!%O "#loem "aren.#ymaO "#loem /i-re% and %!one .ell%O "#loem "aren.#yama !#inG
7alledO o@al !o re.!anglarO .on!aining "ri%ma!i. .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!e %.a!!ered in
"#loem "aren.#ymaO "#loem /i-re% ligni/ied and "re%en! in %ingle% or in gro"%O .ry%!al%
no! "re%en! in /i-re%O i%ola!ed /i-re% %"indle %#a"ed 7i!# "oin!ed end%O gro"% o/ %!one
.ell% a% ronded "a!.#e% di%!ri-!ed !#rog#o! "#loem regionO medllary ray% ni !o
ml!i%eria!e .on%i%!ing o/ re.!anglar .ell% #a@ing -ro7n .oloring ma!!er in %ome .ell%O
-roader medllary ray% diala!ing !o7ard% o!er "#loem regionO a nm-er o/ "#loem .ell%
al%o .on!ain %!ar.# grain%O mo%!ly arranged in gro"%O rarely %oli!aryO %im"le and
ronded&
$o7derGGreyi%#G-ro7nO nder mi.ro%.o"e %#o7% /ragmen!% o/ .or:O %!one .ell%O /i-re%O
"ri%ma!i. and .l%!er .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!e and %!ar.# grain%&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an Nil "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 12 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 8 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

ASSAB

T&L&C&



CONST<T?ENTS G Al:aloid% (lo!rine and .ollo!rine) and red .oloring ma!!er&
143


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aXQya
GVa S Lag#
'Yrya S 9Y!a
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S +a"#a"i!!an!O GrQ#YO Ca:XXya
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G 2od#rQ%a@a (Lod#rQ%a@a )O $XyQnga CWrVaO )Z#a! Ga
]gQd#ara CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G 2a:!a"i!!aO A!Y%QraO 9o!#aO $radaraO Ne!raroga
DOSE G *G1 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm
26G*6 g o/ !#e drg in /or de.o.!ion


144
10& Madana (Fr!&)
MADANA (Fri!)
Madana .on%i%!% o/ dried /ri! o/ Merom"#i% %"ino%a (T#n-) +eayO Syn 2andia
dme!orm Lam& (Fam& 2-ia.eae)O a de.ido% !#orny %#r- or a %mallO !reeO rea.#ing a
#eig#! "!o 8 m and gir!# a-o! a me!reO -ran.#e% nmero%O !#i.: and #oriAon!alO /ond in
%-GHimalayan !ra.!% e(!ending ea%!7ard% in Si::im "!o 1266 m and %o!#7ard% !o
$enin%lar <ndia&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S MQdanY
A%%ame%e S Maen
)engali S Maina"#alO Mayana"#al
Engli%# S Eme!i. n!
GIra!i S Mind#alO Mind#olO Mind#ar
Hindi S Man"#al
+annada S Mangari:aiO +arigiddaO Madana"#ala Maggre:aiO +ariO Maggare +ayi
+a%#miri S Madan/al
Malayalam S Malan:araO Malam:ara::a
Mara!#i S GalO Gal"#alaO Gie"#alaO Madan"#ala
Oriya S MaenaO Madana
$nIa-i S Mind#alO 2araO Man"#al
Tamil S Mar::arai
Telg S Mranga +ayaO Monga +aya
?rd S Main"#alO JaAGlGcai
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Fri!O 1&5G0&1 .m longO glo-o%e or -roadly o@oidO longi!dinally ri--ed or %moo!#
yello7i%#G-ro7nO .ro7ned 7i!# "er%i%!en! .aly(Glim-O /ri!O .on!ain% nmero% %eed%O
6&0G6&4 .m longO .om"re%%edO %moo!#O -ro7n and @ery #ard&

145
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Fri!G!ra%n@er%e %e.!ion %#o7% e"i.ar" .on%i%!ing o/ %ingle layered e"idermi%O
%ome!ime% o-li!era!ed in %r/a.e @ie7O e"idermal .ell% !#inG7alled and "olygonalO
me%o.ar"O -road Aone .on%i%!ing o/ !#inG7alledO "aren.#yama!o% .ell%O %ome .ell%
.on!ain reddi%#G-ro7n .on!en!O a nm-er o/ @a%.lar -ndle% /ond em-edded in !#i%
AoneO endo.ar" %!ony .on%i%!ing o/ lig#! yello7 "olygonalO %.leren.#yma!o% .ell% o/
@aria-le %#a"e and %iAe&
SeedG!ran%@er%e %e.!ion %#o7% a %eed .oa!O .on%i%!ing o/ %ingle layeredO ronded !o o@al
e"idermal .ell%O a /e7 layer% o/ yello7i%#G-ro7n "igmen!ed .ell%O endo%"erm /orm% -l:
o/ %eed .on%i%!ing o/ large o@al and irreglar %#a"ed "aren.#yma!o% .ell%O al-men
#ornyO !ran%l%.en!O .ell% o/ o!ermo%! layer %maller in %iAe&
$o7derG2eddi%# -ro7nO nder mi.ro%.o"e %#o7% nmero%O largeO irreglarO reddi%#
-ro7n .ell% %.lereid% o/ @aria-le %#a"e and %iAeO "ie.e% o/ (ylem @e%%el% 7i!# re!i.la!e
!#i.:ening%O !#inG 7alledO .r%#ed "aren.#yma!o% .ell% and yello7Gorange "ie.e% o/
%eed .oa!
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 4 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 6&21 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 18 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 14 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G E%%en!ial oilO %a"oninO !annin and re%in


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Mad#raO Ti:!a
GVa S Lag#O 2W:Xa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
146
+arma S 'amanaO Le:#ana
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G $i""alyQdi Taila
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G GlmaO 'idrad#iO +XU#aO 9leXmaI@araO $ra!iTyQya
DOSE G 6&1 G1&6 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm /or de.o.!ion
*G4 g o/ !#e drg /or ind.!ion o/ @omi!ing&


147
11& Mi%#reya (Fr!&)
M<92EB (Fri!)
MiTreyQ .on%i%!% o/ dried ri"e /ri!% o/ Foeni.lm @lgare Mill (Fam&
?m-elli/erae) O an ere.!O gla-ro%O aroma!i. #er-O 1G2 m #ig#O .l!i@a!ed e(!en%i@ely
!#rog#o! <ndia "!o 15*6 m and al%o %ome!ime% /ond 7ildO /ri!% ri"en in Se"!em-erO
%!em% .! 7i!# %i.:le% and "! " in loo%e %#ea@e% !o dry in %nO 7#en dryO /ri!% are -ea!en
o! in a .lo!# in %nO .leaned -y 7inno7ing and .olle.!ed&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S MiTiO Mi%iO Mad#ri:Q
A%%ame%e S G@amri
)engali S MariO $anmari
Engli%# S Fennel Fri!
GIra!i S 'ariyali
Hindi S San/
+annada S )adi%om"O Dodda%om"
+a%#miri S San/O )adnai
Malayalam S +a!!%a!a:""aO $arinIaeragm
Mara!#i S )adi%#o"
Oriya S $anamad#ri
$nIa-i S San/
Tamil S S#om-
Telg S So"
?rd S San/
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Fri!%O %ally en!ire 7i!# "edi.el a!!a.#edO meri.ar"%O "!o a-o! 16 mm long
and 0 mm -roadO /i@e %ided 7i!# a 7ider .ommi%%ral %r/a.eO !a"ering lig#!ly !o7ard%
-a%e and a"e(O .ro7ned 7i!# a .oni.al %!ylo"odO gla-ro%O greeni%# or yello7i%#G-ro7n
7i!# /i@e "aler "rominen! "rimary ridge% O endo%"ermO or!#o%"ermo%&

148
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ /ri! %#o7% "eri.ar" 7i!# o!er e"idermi% o/ Ladranglar !o
"olygonal .ell% 7i!# %moo!# .!i.le and a /e7 %!oma!aO !ri.#ome%O a-%en! @i!!aeO 0 dor%al
and 2 .ommi%%ral e(!ending 7i!# leng!# o/ ea.# meri.ar"O in!er.o%!al 7i!# an
e"i!#elim o/ -ro7n .ell% and @ola!ile oil in .a@i!yO me%o.ar"O 7i!# m.# re!i.la!e
ligni/ied "aren.#ymaO .o%!aeO 1 in ea.# meri.ar"O ea.# 7i!# 1@a%.lar %!rand #a@ing
inner (ylem %!rand and 2 la!eral "#loem %!rand% %e"ara!ed -y a -ndle o/ /i-re% inner
e"idermi% o/ @ery narro7O !#inG7alled .ell% arranged "arallel !o one ano!#er in gro"% o/
1G3O many o/ !#e%e gro"% 7i!# longer a(i% o/ !#eir .ell% a! angle 7i!# !#o%e o/ adIa.en!
gro"% ($arLe!ry arrangemen!)O endo%"erm .on%i%!% o/ !#i.:G7alledO .elllo%i.
"aren.#yma .on!aining m.# /i(ed oilO mi.roGro%e!!e .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!eO and
nmero% alerone grain% "!o 1 in diame!erO .ar"o"#ore 7i!# @ery !#i.:G7alled
%.leren.#yma in !7o %!rand%O o/!en n%"li! 7i!# !7o %!rand% @ery .lo%e !o ea.# O!#er&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 12 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 0 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&
'ola!ile oil No! le%% !#an 1&0 "er .en! @\7O A""endi( 2&2&16

CONST<T?ENTS G E%%en!ial oil and /i(ed oil


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Mad#raO +aUO Ti:!a
GVa S Lag#O 2W:Xa
'Yrya S 9Y!a
'i"Q:a S Mad#ra
+arma S DY"anaO 'Q!a"i!!a#araO )alyaO AnlomanaO madoXa#ara
149
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G MiTreyQr:aO $aa.a%a:Qra CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G AgnimQndyaO 9WlaO +Q%aO 2a:!adoXaO $ra@Q#i:QO ArTa
DOSE G *G4 g o/ !#e "o7der in "o7der /orm


150
14& Nyagrod#a (S!&):&)
NBAG2ODHA (S!em -ar:)
Nyagrod#a .on%i%!% o/ dried ma!re %!em -ar: o/ Fi.% -engalen%i% Linn& (Fam&
Mora.eae) O a large -ran.#ing !ree 7i!# nmero% aerial roo!% o..rring all o@er <ndia&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S 'a!a
A%%ame%e S 'a!O A#a!O 'a!ga.#
)engali S )o!
Engli%# S )anyan !ree
GIra!i S 'adO 'adalo
Hindi S )adraO )argadO )ada
+annada S AalaO AladamaraO 'a!a
+a%#miri S )ad
Malayalam S $eraal
Mara!#i S 'ad
Oriya S )a!aO )ara
$nIa-i S )#ar
Tamil S AalamaramO Aalam
Telg S Marri
?rd S )argadO )ad
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Ma!re %!ern -ar: grey 7i!# !#inO .lo%ely ad#ered a%#y 7#i!eO lig#! -li%#Ggreen
or grey "a!.#e%O -ar: /ia! or %lig#!ly .r@eO !#i.:ne%% @arie% 7i!# age o/ !ree S e(!ernally
rog# de !o "re%en.e o/ #oriAon!al /rro7% and len!i.el%O mo%!ly .ir.lar and "rominen!O
/ra.!re %#or! in o!er !7o !#ird% o/ -ar: 7#ile inner "or!ion %#o7% a /i-ro% /ra.!re
!a%!eO a%!ringen!

151
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ ma!re -ar: %#o7% .om"re%%ed .or: !i%%e and dead
elemen!% o/ %e.ondary .or!e( .on%i%!ing o/ mo%!ly %!one .ell% and !#inG7alledO
.om"re%%ed elemen!% o/ .or!e( .or: .ell% re.!anglarO !#i.:G7alled and .on!aining
-ro7ni%# .on!en!O %e.ondary .or!e( 7ideO /orming more !#an #al/ o/ !#i.:ne%% o/ -ar:O
.om"o%ed o/ large gro"% o/ %!one .ell% and "aren.#yma!o% .ell%O %!one .ell% @ary in
%#a"eO "aren.#yma!o% .ell% !#inG7alled and %ome7#a! .-i.al !o o@al /e7 in nm-er
and o..r -e!7een gro"% o/ %!one .ell%O %ome o/ .ell% .on!ain "ri%ma!i. .ry%!al% o/
.al.im o(ala!eO %!ar.# grain% and !anninO %e.ondary "#loem .om"o%ed o/ a /e7 %ie@e
elemen!% "aren.#ymaO /i-re%O %!one .ell% and la!e( !-e al!erna!ing 7i!# medllary ray%O
%ie@e elemen!% .om"re%%ed in &o!er region o/ -ar: 7#ile in!a.! m inner regionO /e7
!#i.:G7alled "#loem "aren.#yma o..rring in -e!7een "a!.#e% o/ "#loem /i-re% and
%!one .ell%O %!one .ell% %imilar !o !#o%e "re%en! in %e.ondary .or!e(O %ome "#loem .ell%
.on!ain "ri%ma!i. .al.im o(ala!e .ry%!al% al%oO "re%en! in /i-re% /orming .ry%!al /i-re%O
medllary ray% 2G1 %eria!eO .om"o%ed o/ !#i.:G7alledO .ir.lar !o o@al .ell% /e7 .ell% al%o
.on@er!ed in!o %!one .ell% and %ome #a@e "i!!ed 7all%O al%o .on!aining "len!y o/ %!ar.#
grain%O mo%!ly rondedO rarely o@al or %emiGlnar in %#a"eO %im"le a% 7ell a% .om"ond
!y"eO .om"ond %!ar.# grain% .on%i%! o/ 2G* .om"onen!%O .am-im .om"o%ed o/ a /e7
layer% o/ %mallO re.!anglarO !#inG7alled .ell%&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 5 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 4 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 5 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G Tannin%O gly.o%ide% and /la@onoid%


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aXQya
GVa S GrO 2W:Xa
'Yrya S 9Y!a
152
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S +a"#a"i!!aIi!O 'raVQ"a#aO 'arVyaO S!am-#anaO MW!ra%a_gra#aVYyaO
DQ#ag#naO BonidoXa#Z!
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G Nyagrod#Qdi +@Q!#a CWrVaO Nyagrod#Qdi CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G DQ#aO TZXVQO 2a:!a"i!!aO 'raVaO 'i%ar"aO BonidoXaO $rame#a
DOSE G *G4 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm&


153
13& $a%#ana-#eda (2A&)
$=CA)HEDA (2#iAome)
$QXQVa-#eda .on%i%!% o/ r#iAome% o/ )ergenia .ilia!a (Ha7&) S!ern-&O Syn&
)ergenia ligla!a (;all&) Engl& (Fam& Sa(i/raga.eae)O a %mall "erennial #er- /ond
!#rog#o! !em"era!e Himalaya% /rom )#!an !o +a%#mir a! an al!i!de -e!7een
2666G*666 m and in +#a%ia #ill% "!o 1266 m al!i!de&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S ATma-#eda:aO 9ilQ-#eda
A%%ame%e S $a!#ar:.#i
)engali S $a!#ar:.#iO Hima%agaraO $a!ran:r
Engli%# S GG
GIra!i S $a%#an-#edaO $a:#an-#eda
Hindi S $a:#ana-#edaO Sil"#araO $a!#ar.aO $a:#ana-#edO Sil"-#eda
+annada S Ale"gayaO $a#an-#ediO Hi!!agaO $a%ana-erO Hi!!la:a
+a%#miri S $a%#an-#ed
Malayalam S +allr@an.#iO +allr@anniO +allor@an.#i
Mara!#i S $a%#an-#eda
Oriya S $a%an-#ediO $a%#ana-#eda
$nIa-i S +a.#alO $a%#an-#ed
Tamil S Sir"ilai
Telg S +onda"indi
?rd S GG
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
2#iAomeO %olidO -arrel %#a"edO .ylindri.alO 1&1G* .m long and 1G2 .m in diame!er
7i!# %mall roo!%O ridge%O /rro7% and roo! %.ar% di%!in.!O !ran@er%ely .! %r/a.e %#o7%
o!er ring o/ -ro7n .olored .or:O %#or! middle .or!e(O @a%.lar -ndle% and large
.en!ral "i!#O odorO aroma!i.O !a%!eO a%!ringen!&

154
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ r#iAome %#o7% .or: di@ided in!o !7o Aone%O o!er a /e7
layer% o/ %lig#!ly .om"re%%ed and -ro7n .olored .ell%O inner Aone ml!ilayered
.on%i%!ing o/ !#inG7alled !angen!ially elonga!d and .olorle%% .ell%O /ollo7ed -y a %ingle
layered .or: .am-im and 2G* layer% o/ %e.ondary .or!e( .om"o%ed o/ !#i.:G7alledO
!angen!ially elonga!edO re.!anglar .ell% 7i!# in!er.elllar %"a.e%O %ome .ell% .on!ain
ro%e!!e .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!e and %im"le %!ar.# grain% .or!e( a narro7GAone o/
"aren.#yma!o% .ell% .on!aining a nm-er o/ %im"le %!ar.# grain%O mo%! o/ .or!i.al .ell%
al%o .on!ain large ro%e!!e .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!eO endoderm i% and "eri.y.le a-%en!&
@a%.lar -ndle%O arranged in a ringO .olla!eralO .onIoin! and o"enO "#loem !i%%e% .ornG
"o%ed o/ %ie@e elemen!% and "aren.#ymaO in o!er region /ond a% .om"re%%ed ma%%e%
7#ile in inner region in!a.!& a nm-er o/ ro%e!!e .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!e al%o /ond
a% .ry%!al /i-re%O .am-im "re%en! a% .on!ino% ring .om"o%ed o/ 2G* layer% o/ !#inG
7alledO !angen!ially elonga!ed .ell%O (ylem .on%i%! o/ /i-re%O !ra.#eid%O @e%%el% and
"aren.#ymaO 7i!# .en!re o.."ied -y large "i!# .om"o%ed o/ .ir.lar !o o@alO
"aren.#yma!o% .ell%O @arying in %iAe and .on!aining %!ar.# grain% 7i!# .ry%!al% o/
.al.im o(ala!e %imilar !o !#o%e /ond in .or!i.al region&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 1* "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 6&1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 8 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G Tanni. a.idO galli. a.id and gl.o%e


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Ti:!aO +aXQya
GVa S Lag#
'Yrya S 9Y!a
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S ATmarYg#naO )#edanaO 'a%!iTod#anaO MW!ra@ire.anYya
155
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G ATmarY#ara +aXQya CWrVaO MW!ra@ire.anYya +aXQya
CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G Me#aO MW!ra:Z..#raO ATmarY
DOSE G *G4 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm
26G*6 g o/ !#e drg /or de.o.!ion&


156
15& $a!#a (2!&)
$JH (2oo!)
$QU#Q .on%i%!% o/ roo!% o/ Ci%%am"elo% "areira Linn& (Fam& Meni%"errna.eae)O an
e(!en%i@ely %"readingO gla-ro% !o %o/!y "-e%.en!O "erennial .lim-ing %#r- 7i!# nodo%e
%!emO .ommon in 7arm and dry region% o/ !ro"i.al and %-G!ro"i.al "ar!% o/ <ndia "!o an
al!i!de o/ a-o! 1166 m&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S Am-aXU#a:Y
A%%ame%e S T"rila!a
)engali S $a!#aO A:anadi
Engli%# S 'el@e! lea/
GIra!i S +ali"a!#O +arond#imO +arondimO 'eni@elO +ared#im
Hindi S $a!#aO $ad#O A:anadi
+annada S $a#ada@elaO Agal%#n!#i
+a%#miri S $ad
Malayalam S $a!#a
Mara!#i S $a%#ad@elO $a#arrelO $a#ada@elO $adali
Oriya S +ana-ind#iO $a!#a
$nIa-i S $a!#a
Tamil S 'a!!a !ir""i
Telg S Adi@i-an:a!igaO .#ir -oddiO )oddi !iga
?rd S GG
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
2oo!%O .ylindri.alO o/!en !or!o%O 1G1&1 .m in diame!erO lig#! -ro7n !o yello7i%#
in .olorO %r/a.e rog# and a! "la.e% rgged de !o !ran%@er%e 7rin:le%O .ra.:% and
/i%%re%O /ra.!re %#or! and %"lin!eryO odorO /ain! aroma!i.O !a%!eO -i!!er&

157
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@ar%e %e.!ion o/ roo! %#o7%O 4G16 layer% o/ !#inG7alledO re.!anglar .or: .ell%
%e.ondary .or!e(O 1G* layered o/ o@al !o !angen!ially elonga!ed .ell%O di%.on!ino% ring
.on%i%!ing o/ 2G* ro7% o/ %!one .ell% and gro" o/ "#loem /i-re%O %!one .ell% @aria-le in
%#a"e 7i!# %im"le "i!%O @a%.lar %!rand% a% radia!ing %!ri"% %ally 5G12 o/ (ylem and
"#loem %ome rea.#ing " !o !#e .en!reO "#loem .on%i%!% o/ %mall %!rand% o/ %ie@e
elemen!% and "aren.#yma I%! -elo7 !#e ring o/ %!one .ell%O (ylem .on%i%!% o/ @e%%el%O
!ra.#eid%O /i-re% and (ylem "aren.#ymaO @e%%el% and !ra.#eid% %#o7 %im"le "i!% on !#e
7all%O (ylem "aren.#yma %ally !#i.:G7alled and ligni/ied -! de !o deligni/i.a!ion
"a!.#e% o/ !#inG7alled "aren.#yma a""ear in !#e (ylem region&O medllary ray% 1G*
%eria!e a""ear !o -e @ery 7ide a! a nm-er o/ "la.e% de !o addi!ion o/ deligni/ied (ylem
"aren.#yma!o% .ell%O ray .ell% !#inG7alledO a /e7 ligni/ied and !#i.:G7alled 7#ile %ome
%#o7 re!i.la!e !#i.:eningO "len!y o/ %!ar.# grain% "re%en! in %ome o/ ray .ell%&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 3 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 1* "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G Al:aloid%O %a"onin and Lar!ernary ammonim -a%e%O /la@onol and
%!erol


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Ti:!aO +aU
GVa S Lag#O TY:XVa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S TridoXaTamanaO 2a:!aTod#a:aO 'iXag#naO )#agna%and#Qna:Z!O GrQ#YO
S!anyaTod#ana
158
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G $XyQnga CWrVaO $radarQn!a:a La#aO SQra%@a!a
G#Z!aO )Z#a! Ga]gQd#ara CWrVaO S!anyaTod#ana +aXQya CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G 9WlarogaO A!Y%QraO +XU#aO +aV[WO J@araO C#ardiO S!anyadXUi
DOSE G *G4 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm&


159
18& $ga (Sd&)
$>GA (Seed)
$Wga .on%i%!% o/ dried ri"e %eed o/ Are.a .a!e.# Linn& (Fam& $almae)O a gra.e/lO
%lenderO %!emmedO "erennial "almO !rn: rea.#ing a #eig#! o/ a-o! 21 m .l!i@a!ed in !#e
.oa%!al region% o/ So!#ern <ndiaO )engal and A%%am "!o an al!i!de o/ 1666 m&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S +ram:aO G#oVUQ
A%%ame%e S TamolO Taml
)engali S S"ari
Engli%# S Are.a n!O )e!le n!
GIra!i S So"ari
Hindi S S"ariO C#aalia
+annada S Adi:a
+a%#miri S S"ariO S"ari
Malayalam S Ada::O $a::
Mara!#i S S"ariO $o"#al
Oriya S Ga
$nIa-i S S"ariO S"ari
Tamil S +amgO $a::O $a:#maram
Telg S $a:a .#e::aO 'a::a
?rd S F/alO C#oalia
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
O@oidO e(!ernally "aleO reddi%#G-ro7n !o lig#! yello7i%#G-ro7nO mar:ed 7i!# a
ne! 7or: o/ "aler line%O /reLen!ly 7i!# ad#ering "or!ion% o/ %il@ery -ri!!le endo.ar" and
ad#ering /i-re% o/ me%o.or" a! -a%e o/ %eedO %eed #ard 7i!# rmina!e endo%"erm o/
-ro7ni%# !i%%e al!erna!ing 7i!# 7#i!i%# !i%%eO odorO .#ara.!eri%!i.O !a%!eO a%!ringen!&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
160
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ %eed %#o7% a %eed .oa! .on%i%!ing o/ %e@eral ro7% o/ .ell%O
!angen!ially elonga!edO 7i!# inner 7all% more or le%% !#i.:enedO 7#i!i%# .ell o/
endo%"erm !i%%e 7i!# !#i.: "oro% 7all% .on!aining oil glo-le% and aleroni. grain%O
-ro7n "eri %"erm !i%%e 7i!# !#i.: 7alled .ell% and deli.a!e !ra.#eae&
$o7derG2eddi%# -ro7n !o lig#! -ro7nO nder mi.ro%.o"e %#o7% /ragmen!% o/ endo%"erm
!i%%e 7i!# "oro% 7all%O irreglarly !#i.:ened and %mall %!one .ell% o/ %eed .oa!O a /e7
alerone grain% and oil glo-le% and a /e7 deli.a!e !ra.#eaeO %!ar.# a-%en!&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 6&0 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 18 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 16 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

ASSAB

T&L&C&



CONST<T?ENTS G Al:aloid (are.oline) !annin% and /a!%


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aXQya
GVa S 2W:XaO Gr
'Yrya S 9Y!a
'i"Q:a S +aU
161
+arma S ($ra-#Q@aS Mo#a:Z!)O DY"anaO +a"#a"i!!aIi!O +ledanQTanaO Mala-#ed
YO M:#aTod#anaO 'i:Q%Y
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G $Wga:#aV[a
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G M:#a@i:QraO Ar.iO BoniTai!#ilyaO 9@e!a"radara
DOSE G 1G2 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm&


162
46& $narna@a (2a:!a) (;&$)
$?NA2NA' (2A+TA) (;#ole "lan!)
$narna@Q .on%i%!% o/ driedO ma!red 7#ole "lan! o/ )oer#aa@ia di//%a Linn& (Fam
Ny.!agina.eae)O !railing #er- /ond !#rog#o! <ndia and .olle.!ed a/!er rainy %ea%onO #er-
i% di//%ely -ran.#ed 7i!# %!o! roo! %!o.: and many long %lenderO "ro%!ra!e or a%.ending
-ra n.#e%&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S +aU#illaO 9o"#ag#nYO 9o!#ag#nYO 'arXQ-#
A%%ame%e S 2anga $narna-#a
)engali S 2a:!a "narna@a
Engli%# S Hor%e $r%leneO Hog ;eed
GIra!i S D#oli%a!rdiO Mo!o%a!odo
Hindi S Gada"rnaO Lal"narna@a
+annada S Sanadi:aO +omme-erO +omma
+a%#miri S 'anIla $narna@a
Malayalam S C#@anna TaA#!a7a
Mara!#i S G#e!liO 'a%.#imliO Sa!odimlaO $narna@aO +#a"ar:#!i
Oriya S Lala"irniO Nali"rni
$nIa-i S l!.i! (<al)O +#a!!an
Tamil S M:ra!!ai (S#i#a"")
Telg S A!i:amamidiO Erra galiIer
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
S!emGgreeni%#"r"leO %!i//O %lenderO .ylindri.alO %7ollen a! node%O min!ely
"-e%.en! or n early gla-ro%O "ro%!ra!e di@eri.a!ely -ran.#edO -ran.#e% /rom .ommon
%!al:O o/!en more !#an a me!re long&
2oo!G 7el de@elo"edO /airly longO %ome7#a! !or!o%O .ylindri.alO 6&2G1&1 .m in
diame!erO yello7i%# -ro7n !o -ro7n .oloredO %r/a.e %o/! !o !o.# -! rog#
de !o min!e longi!dinal %!ria!ion% and roo! %.ar%O /ra.!reO %#or!O no di%!in.!
odorO !a%!eO %lig#!ly -i!!er&
163
Lea@e%Go""o%i!e in neLal "air%O larger one% 21G*3 mm long and %maller one% 12G15
mm long o@a!eGo-long or %-or-i.larO a"e( ronded or %lig#!ly "oin!edO -a%e
%-.orda!e or rondedO green and gla-ro% a-o@eO 7#i!i%# -elo7O margin en!ire
or %-Gndla!eO dor%al %ide "in:i%# in .er!ain .a%e%O !#i.: in !e(!reO "e!iole%
nearly a% long a% !#e -ladeO %lender&
Flo7er%G@ery %mallO "in: .oloredO nearly %e%%ile or %#or!ly %!al:edO 16G21 .mO in %mall
m-ell%O arranged on %lender long %!al:%O 0G16 .orym-O a(illary and in !erminal
"ani.le%O -ra.!eole%O %mallO a.!eO "erian!# !-e .on%!ri.!ed a-o@e !#e o@aryO
lo7er "ar! greeni%#O o@oidO ri--edO ""er "ar! "in:O /nnelG%#a"edO * mm longO
!-e 1 lo-edO %!amen 2G*&
Fri!Gone %eeded n!O 4 mm long .la@a!eO rondedO -roadly and -ln!ly 1 ri--edO @i%.idly
glandlar&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
S!emGTran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ %!em %#o7% e"idermal layer .on!aining ml!i
.elllarO ni%eri!e glandlar !ri.#ome .on%i%!ing o/ 8G12 %!al:ed .ell% and an
elli"%oidal #eadO 116G226 longO .or!e( .on%i%!% o/ 1G2 layer% o/ "aren.#ymaO
endodermi% indi%!in.!O "eri.y.le 1G2 layeredO !#i.:G7alled o/!en .on!aining
%.a!!ered i%ola!ed /i-re%O %!ele .on%i%!ing o/ many %mall @a%.lar -ndle% o/!en
Ioined !oge!#er in a ring and many -ig @a%.lar -ndle% %.a!!ered in !#e grond
!i%%eO in!ra /a%.i.lar .am-im "re%en!&
2oo!G!ran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ ma!re roo! %#o7% a .or: .om"o%ed o/ !#inG7alled
!angen!ially elonga!ed .ell% 7i!# -ro7n 7all% in !#e o!er /e7 layer%O .or:
.am-im o/ 1G2 layer% o/ !#in 7alled .ell% %e.ondary .or!e( .on%i%!% o/ 2G*
layer% o/ "aren.#yma!o% .ell% /ollo7ed -y .or!e( .om"o%ed o/ 1G12 layer% o/
!#inG7alledO o@al !o "olygonal .ell%O %e@eral .on.en!ri. -and% o/ (ylem !i%%e
al!erna!ing 7i!# 7ide Aone o/ "aren.#yma!o% !i%%e "re%en! -elo7 .or!i.al
region%O nm-er o/ -and% @ary a..ording !o !#i.:ne%% o/ roo! and .om"o%ed o/
@e%%el%O !ra.#eid% and /i-re%O @e%%el% mo%!ly /ond in gro"% o/ 2G5 in radial
ro7%O #a@ing %im"le "i!% and re!i.la!e !#i.:eningO !ra.#eid%O %mallO !#i.:G7alled
7i!# %im"le "i!%O /i-re% a%e"!a!eO elonga!edO !#i.:G7alledO %"indle %#a"ed 7i!#
"oin!ed end%O "#loem o..r% a% #emi%"#eri.al or .re%.en!i. "a!.#e% o!%ide ea.#
gro" o/ (ylem @e%%el% and .om"o%ed o/ %ie@e elemen!% and "aren.#ymaO -road
Aone o/ "aren.#yma!o% !i%%eO in -e!7een !7o %..e%%i@e ring% o/ (ylem
elemen!% .om"o%ed o/ !#inG7alled more or le%% re.!anglar .ell% arranged in
radial ro7%O .en!ral region% o/ roo! o.."ied -y "rimary @a%.lar -ndle%O
nmero% ra"#ide% o/ .al.im o(ala!eO in %ingle or in gro" "re%en! in .or!i.al
region and "aren.#yma!o% !i%%e in -e!7een (ylem !i%%eO %!ar.# grain% %im"le
and .om"ond #a@ing 2G0 .om"onen!% /ond in a-nden.e in mo%! o/ .ell% o/
.or!e(O (ylem elemen!% in "aren.#yma!o% !i%%e -e!7een (ylem elemen!%O
%im"le %!ar.# grain% mo%!ly ronded in %#a"e and mea%re 2&31G11 in
diame!er&
164
Lea@e%GTran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ lea/ %#o7% anomo.y!i. %!oma!a on -o!# %ide%O nmero%O a
/e7 %#or! #air%O *G0 .elledO "re%en! on !#e margin and on @ein%O "ali%ade one
layeredO %"ongy "aren.#yma 2G0 layered 7i!# %mall air %"a.e%O idio-la%!%
.on!aining ra"#ide%O o..a%ionally .l%!er .ry%!al o/ .al.im o(ala!e and orangeG
red re%ino% ma!!er "re%en! in me%o"#yll&
$ali%ade ra!io *&1G4&1O %!oma!al inde( 11G14 O @ein i%le! nm-er 8G11&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 4 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 0 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

ASSAB
A%%ayGCon!ain% no! le%% !#an 6&1 "er .en! o/ !o!al al:aloid%O 7#en a%%ayed -y !#e
/ollo7ing me!#od%O
Ta:e a..ra!ely a-o! 166 g o/ !#e drg (46 me%# "o7der) and moi%!en 7i!# dil!e
%ol!ion o/ Ammonia& E(!ra.! .on!ino%ly in a %o(#le! a""ara!% /or 15 #or% 7i!# 81
"er .en! Al.o#ol& 2emo@e !#e al.o#ol -y di%!illa!ion& E(!ra.! !#e re%ide 7i!# /i@e 21 ml
"or!ion% o/ 1 N Hydro.#lori. a.id !ill .om"le!e e(!ra.!ion o/ !#e al:aloid i% e//e.!ed&
Tran%/er !#e mi(ed a.id %ol!ion% in!o a %e"ara!ing /nnel and 7a%# 7i!# 1 ml o/
C#loro/ormO rno// !#e C#loro/orm layer& Ma:e !#e a.id %ol!ion di%!in.!ly al:aline 7i!#
Ammonia and %#a:e 7i!# /i@e 21 ml "or!ion% o/ C#loro/orm or !ill .om"le!e e(!ra.!ion
o/ al:aloid% i% e//e.!ed& ;a%# !#e .om-ined .#loro/orm e(!ra.!% 7i!# !7o "or!ion% ea.#
o/ 1 ml o/ 7a!er& Fil!er !#e .#loro/orm layer in !ared /la%: and e@a"ora!e !o dryne%%& Add
!o !#e re%ide 1 ml o/ Al.o#olO e@a"ora!e !o dryne%%O re"ea! !#e "ro.e%% on.e again and
7eig# !#e re%ide !o .on%!an! 7eig#! in a @a.m de%i..a!or&

CONST<T?ENTS G Al:aloid ($narna@ine)&


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
165
2a%a S Mad#raO Ti:!aO +aXQya
GVa S 2W:Xa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S Mad#ra
+arma S 'Q!aTleXma#araO MW!ralaO 9o!#a#araO Anlomana
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G $narna@QXUa:a +@Q!#a CWrVaO $narna@Q%a@aO
$narna@Qdi MaV[WraO S:mQra G#Z!aO 9o!#ag#na Le"a
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G $QV[O 9o!#a
DOSE G 26G*6 g o/ !#e drg /or de.o.!ion&


166
41& Sa"!a"arna (S!&):&)
SA$TA$A2CA (S!em -ar:)
Sa"!a"arVa .on%i%!% o/ %!em -ar: o/ Al%!onia %.#olari% (Llnn&) 2& )r& (Fam&
A"o.yna.eae)O a !all e@ergreen !reeO /ond in !#e S-GHimalayan !ra.!% a%.ending !o 866 m
/rom Jamm ea%!7ard% and 7e%!ern "enin%la mo%!ly in de.ido% /ore%!%&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S Sa"!a..#adaO Sa"!a"ar]YO Sa"!Q#@Q
A%%ame%e S C#a!iyan
)engali S C#a!in
Engli%# S Di!a
GIra!i S Sa"!a"arnaO Sa!@ana
Hindi S C##a!i@anO Sa!a7ana
+annada S MaddaleO HaleO Eleyalaga
Malayalam S Dai@a"#alO EAilam"ala
Mara!#i S Sa!@een
Oriya S C#-a!ianaO C#a!iana
$nIa-i S Sa!#iO Sa!anna
Tamil S EAilam"alai
Telg S Eda:la $onna
?rd S GG
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
)ar: o..r% in .#annelled or o..a%ionally Lilled "ie.e%O *G0mm !#i.: /rom
-ran.#e% and .! or -ro:en irreglarly in!o .r@ed or /la! "ie.e%O a-o! 3 mm !#i.: /rom
%!emO e(!ernally yonger -ar: dar: grey !o -ro7nO older -ar: @ery rog#O ne@en and
m.# /i%%red !ran%@er%ely and longi!dinallyO -o!# mar:ed 7i!# nmero% ronded or
!ran%@er%ely elonga!edO grey !o 7#i!i%# -ro7n len!i.el%O in!ernally -ro7ni%#G-// !o dar:
greyi%#G-ro7nO %ome7#a! %!ria!ed and inden!edO /ra.!reO %#or! and %moo!#O /ra.!red
167
%r/a.e %#o7% a narro7O inner "or!ion !ra@er%ed -y nmero%O /ineO medllary ray% and a
@arying %"ongy o!er "or!ion

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ -ar: %#o7% a ml!iGlayeredO !#i.: and !#inG7alled .or:O a
-road Aone o/ %e.ondary .or!e( .om"o%ed o/ !#inG7alledO "aren.#yma!o% .ell%O
in.lding many ronded la!e( .a@i!ie%O %.a!!ered !#rog#o! !i%%eO .on!aining nmero%
r#om-i. !o "olygonal .al.im o(ala!e .ry%!al%O nmero% %!one .ell% /orming a nonG
.on!ino% layer o/ 0G5 .ell%O irreglarO ronded !o linearO /i-reGli:eO -ln! a! -o!# end%O
in!ernal !o %e.ondary .or!e( a %e.ondary "#loem .ell% .on!aining many %ie@e !-e%O .or:
.ell% -ri.: %#a"ed !o almo%! %Lare in !ran%@er%e and longi!dinal %e.!ion% and "olygonal
in %r/a.e @ie7O .or: .am-im /orm% a region o/ !7o ro7% o/ .ell% iden!i.al !o .or:
.ell%O %i!a!ed in -e!7een .or: and %e.ondary .or!e(O %e.ondary "#loem .ell% %maller in
dimen%ion !#an .or!i.al .ell% .on%i%!ing o/ "#loem "aren.#ymaO many %ie@e !-e% and
.om"anion .ell%O /i-re% a-%en!&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 0 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 12 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

ASSAB
A%%ayGCon!ain% no! le%% !#an 6&2 "er .en! o/ !o!al al:aloid% 7#en a%%ayed -y !#e
/ollo7ing me!#odSG
Ta:e 21 g in No& 46 me%# "o7der& Tran%/er !o a .on!ino% e(!ra.!ion a""ara!%
and e(!ra.! 7i!# 86 "er .en! Al.o#ol /or 0 #or% (a! lea%! * e(!ra.!ion% are e%%en!ial)&
2emo@e !#e %ol@en! and !ran%/er !o a %e"ara!ing /nnel 7i!# !#e #el" o/ a li!!le 7a!er and
1 ml o/ 81 "er .en! Al.o#ol& Add a-o! 11 ml o/ ;a!er and 2 ml o/ %ol!ion o/ 26
168
"er.en! Sodim Hydro(ide !o ma:e !#e %ol!ion al:aline and e(!ra.! 7i!# %..e%%i@e
Lan!i!ie% o/ C#loro/orm !ill !#e e(!ra.!ion o/ al:aloid i% .om"le!e& S#a:e !#e .om-ined
C#loro/orm e(!ra.! 7i!# %..e%%i@e Lan!i!ie% o/ a mi(!re o/ 0 @olme% o/ 6&2 N
Sl"#ri. A.id and 1 @olme o/ Al.o#ol n!il .om"le!e e(!ra.!ion o/ al:aloid i%
e//e.!ed& ;a%# !#e mi(ed a.id %ol!ion !7i.e 7i!# 16 ml "or!ion o/ C#loro/orm and !#en
!7i.e 7i!# 16 ml "or!ion o/ E!#er& ;a%# !#e .om-ined C#loro/orm and E!#er %ol!ion
7i!# 26 ml o/ 6&1 N Sl"#ri. a.id& Tran%/er !#i% 7a%#ed a.id e(!ra.! !o !#e original a.id
e(!ra.!O ma:e di%!in.!ly al:aline 7i!# %ol!ion o/ Sodim Hydro(ide and %#a:e 7i!#
%..e%%i@e "or!ion% o/ .#loro/orm !ill !#e e(!ra.!ion o/ !#e al:aloid% i% .om"le!e& ;a%#
!#e .om-ined .#loro/orm %ol!ion 7i!# a-o! 1 ml o/ 7a!er& 2emo@e mo%! o/ !#e
.#loro/orm and !ran%/er !#e remainder !o a %mall o"en di%#& ;#en !#e remo@al o/
.#loro/orm i% almo%! .om"le!e on 7a!er -a!#O add a-o! 2 ml De#ydra!ed Al.o#ol and
e@a"ora!e !o dryne%%& Dry a! 166 !o .on%!an! 7eig#! and 7eig# a% !o!al al:aloid%&

T&L&C&



CONST<T?ENTS G Al:aloid% (e.#i!amineO di!amine and e.#i!amidine)&


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Ti:!aO +aXQya
GVa S SaraO Snigd#a
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S TridoXag#naO DY"anaO AnlomanaO 2a:!aTod#a:aO +XU#ag#naO
J@arag#na
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G rag@ad#Qdi +@Q!#a CWrVaO AmZ!QriXUaO 'aIra:a Taila
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G 9WlaO GlmaO +ZmirogaO +XU#aO J@araO SQndrame#a
DOSE G 26G*6 g o/ !#e drg /or de.o.!ion&


169
42& S#a!i (2A&)
9AJ, (2#iAome)
9aUY .on%i%!% o/ %li.edO dried r#iAome% o/ Hedy.#im %"i.a!m Ham&e( Smi!#
(Fam& Ningi-era.eae)O a "erennial r#iAoma!o% #er-O mea%ring "!o 1 m o..r% in "ar!% o/
7e%!ern and .en!ral region% o/ %-G!ro"i.al Himalaya% a! an al!i!de o/ 1166G2666 mO
gro7% a-ndan!ly in +maon and $nIa-&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S 9a!#YO Gand#amWli:Q
A%%ame%e S +a!riO Sa!i
)engali S S#a!iO +a.#ri
Engli%# S S"i:ed ginger lily
GIra!i S +a"r:a.#riO +a"r:a.#ali
Hindi S +a"r:a.#ri
+annada S Gol +a.#oraO Seena:a.#oraO +a.#ora
+a%#miri S +a"oor:a.#ara
Malayalam S +a!.#olamO +a!.#ooram
Mara!#i S +a"ra:a.#ariO Ga-la:a.#ari
Oriya S Gand#a%n!#i
$nIa-i S +a.#rO +a.#oor
Tamil S +i.#ili +iAongO $oolan:iAang
Telg S Gand#a +a.#ral
?rd S GG
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
2#iAome% 11G26 .m longO 26G21 mm in diame!erO e(!ernally yello7i%#G-ro7n #!
.#anged !o dar: -ro7n on %!orageO drg a@aila-le in "ie.e% o/ 2&1 .m diame!erO edge o/
ea.# "ie.e i% .o@ered -y a rog# reddi%#G-ro7n layer mar:ed 7i!# nmero% %.ar% and
.ir.lar ring%O rdimen!% o/ roo!Gle!% @i%i-leO odorO .am"#ora.eo%O !a%!eO -i!!er&

170
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ r#iAome %#o7% an o!ermo%! !#i.: layer o/ %-eri%edO dar:
-ro7n .ell% o/ o!er .or: .on%i%!ing o/ 16G11 or more layer% o/ irreglar
"aren.#yma!o% .ell%O inner .or: .on%i%!ing o/ a /e7 layered lig#! -ro7nO re.!anglarO
radially arranged .ell% /ollo7ed -y a 7ide Aone o/ .or!e(O *6G06 .ell% !#i.:O %ome
.or!i.al .ell% /illed 7i!# /la!!ened and o@alGo-long %!ar.# grain%O nmero% oleoGre%in
.ell% al%o /ond in !#i% region 7#i.# #a@e %-eri%ed 7all% .on!aining greenGyello7 oilO a
!#in endodermal layer "re%en! -enea!# .or!e(O .en!ral .ylinder di%!ingi%#ed -y "re%en.e
o/ "eri"#eral "le(% o/ irreglar .onge%!ed @a%.lar -ndle% 7i!# "oorly de@elo"ed
me.#ani.al !i%%e%O @a%.lar -ndle% %.a!!ered irreglarly !#rog#o! grond !i%%eO
-ndle% .lo%ed and .olla!eral "o%%e%%ing gro" o/ !7o or more (ylem elemen!%O grond
!i%%e .om"o%ed o/ large "aren.#yma!o% .ell% 7i!# a-ndan! %!ar.# grain% and oil&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 5 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 0 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 5 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G E%%en!ial oil

$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aUO Ti:!aO +aXQya
GVa S Lag#O TY:XVa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S +a"#a@Q!ag#naO M:#aTod#anaO GrQ#YO 9Wla#ara
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G Aga%!ya#arY!a:Y 2a%QyanaO 9aUyQdi CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G +Q%aO 9@Q%aO M:#arogaO 9WlaO C#ardiO +aV[W
DOSE G 1G* g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm&

171
4*& Sn#i (S!&)
SN?H, (S!em)
Sn#Y .on%i%!% o/ %!em o/ E"#or-ia nerii/olia Linn& (Fam& E"#or-ia.eae)O a large
-ran.#edO ere.!O gla-ro%O %..len!O (ero"#y!i. %#r- o..rring 7ild on ro.:y grond
!#rog#o! .en!ral <ndia and e(!en%i@ely gro7n a% a #edge "lan!&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S Sd#QO 'aIradrmQO Sn:
A%%ame%e S GG
)engali S Mana%a%iI
Engli%# S Mil:#edge
GIra!i S T#orO +an!alo
Hindi S T##arO Se#nda
+annada S Mr +anina +alli
Malayalam S +alliO +ai:alli
Mara!#i S Ni@adng
Oriya S T#orO +an!alo!#or
$nIa-i S T#o#ar
Tamil S Elai:alliO $erm- +alli
Telg S +adaIemd
?rd S GG
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
S!emO greenO .ylindri.alO %#o7ingO %"iral ridge "or!ion onlyO dried %!emO !og#
7i!# "air% o/ %#ar" %!i"lar !#orn%O 7i!# #ollo7 %"a.e in .en!re .on!aining 7#i!e
re!i.la!e ma%%O !a%!eO a.rid&
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion %#o7% a %ingle layered e"idermi% .om"o%ed o/ %Lari%#O !#inG
7alledO "aren.#yma!o% .ell%O /ollo7ed -y a !#i.: Aone o/ .or!e(O di//eren!ia!ed in!o !7o
"ar!%O o!er o/ !#in 7alledO re.!anglarO o@al and o-long "aren.#yma!o% .ell% o/ a-o!
26 layer% de"!#O inner 7ider AoneO .on%i%!ing o/ a-o! *6G06 layer% o/ !#inG7alledO
o-long or o@oidO elonga!ed "aren.#yma!o% .ell% #a@ing a nm-er o/ ronded and o@al
172
la!e( .ell%O %ome .on!ain dar: yello7i%# la!e(O !#e nm-er o/ la!e( .ell% gradally red.e
!o7ard% o!er %ideO -elo7 .or!e(O a-o! 16 layer% o/ "#loem "re%en!O .on!aining gro" o/
/i-re% !o7ard% .or!e(O (ylem .on%i%!% o/ @e%%el%O !ra.#eid%O /i-re% and (ylem
"aren.#ymaO "i!# .on%i%!% o/ !#inG7alledO ronded or o@alO "aren.#yma!o% .ell%O %!ar.#
and .al.im o(ala!e .ry%!al% a-%en!&
$o7derG Cream yello7O nder mi.ro%.o"e %#o7%O @e%%el%O /i-re% and .or!i.al .ell%O %!ar.#
and .al.im o(ala!e .ry%!al% a-%en!&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 5 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G 2e%inO gm and !ri!er"ene%

$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aUO Ti:!a
GVa S GrO TY:XVa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S TY:XVa@ire.anaO )#edanaO ma:a"#a@Q!a#ara
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G Ci!ra:Qdi TailaO A-#ayQ La@aVaO A@i!!olQdi )#a%maO
'aIra:XQra
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G GlmaO ?dararogaO Me#aO +XU#aO 9o!#a
DOSE G 121 G216 mg o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm
No!eG 9`d#ana o/ !#i% drg i% !o -e done -e/ore %e a% de%.ri-ed in a""endi(&


173
40& S:%#maila (Fr!&)
S>+=MA<L (Fri!)
SW:XmailQ .on%i%!% %eed% o/ dried /ri!% o/ Ele!!aria .ardamomm (Linn&) Ma!on
and i!% @arie!ie% (Fam& Ningi-era.eae)O a %!o! large "erennial #er-O gro7ing na!rally in
moi%! /ore%!% o/ 7e%!ern g#a!% " !o 1166 mO al%o .l!i@a!ed in many o!#er "ar!% o/ %o!#
<ndia a! an ele@a!ion /rom 316G1166m&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S TrUiO ElQ
A%%ame%e S Saroo"laa.#i
)engali S C#o!a elai.#
Engli%# S Cardamom
GIra!i S El.#iO Ela.#iO Elaya.#i
Hindi S C#o!i <laya.#i
+annada S Ela::iO Sanna Bala::i
Malayalam S ElamO C#i!!elam
Mara!#i S 'ellodaO La#an@eldodaO 'el.#i
Oriya S GIra!iO C#o!aa lei.#aO Alai.#a
$nIa-i S <lla.#iO C##o!i La.#i
Tamil S Sirelam
Telg S C#inne Ela:lO Sanna Ela:l
?rd S Heel +#rd
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Fri! G 1G2 .m long o@oid or o-long and more or le%% !#ree %ided 7i!# rondedO
angle%O greeni%# !o "aleG-// or yello7i%# in .olorO -a%e ronded or 7i!# !#e remain% o/
"edi.leO a"e( %#or!ly -ea:edO %r/a.e almo%! %moo!# or 7i!# %lig#! longi!dinal
%!ria!ion%O %mall !rilo.lar /ri!O ea.# .on!aining a-o! 11G26 %eed% in a ro7 o/ do-le%O
ad#ering !oge!#er !o /orm .om"a.! ma%%&
SeedGdar: -ro7n !o -la.:O a-o! 0 mm long and * mm -roadO irreglarly anglarO
!ran%@er%.<y 7rin:led -! no! "i!!edO 7i!# a longi!dinal .#annel .on!aining ra"#eO
en.lo%ed in a .olorle%%O mem-rano% arilO odorO %!rongly aroma!i.O !a%!eO .#ara.!eri%!i.&
174

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ %eed %#o7% /la!!enedO arilO !#inG7alled "aren.#yma!o%
.ell%O !e%!a 7i!# o!er e"idermi% o/ !#i.:G7alledO narro7O elonga!ed .ell%O /ollo7ed -y a
layer o/ .olla"%ed "aren.#ymaO -e.oming 2 or * layered in !#e region o/ ra"#eO
.om"o%ed o/ largeO !#inG7alled re.!anglar .ell% .on!aining @ola!ile oilO a -and o/ 2 or *
layer% o/ "aren.#yma and an inner e"idermi% o/ !#inG7alledO /la!!ened .ell%O inner
in!egmen! 2 layeredO an o!er "ali%ade %.leren.#yma 7i!# yello7 !o reddi%#G-ro7n
-ea:er %#a"ed .ell%O 26 long in radial dire.!ion and 12 7ideO !#i.:ened on inner and
an!i.linal 7all%O ea.# .ell 7i!# a %mall -o7l %#a"ed lmen .on!aining a 7ar!y nodle o/
%ili.a and an inner e"idermi% o/ /la!!ened .ell%O "eri %"erm .ell% !#inG7alledO "a.:ed 7i!#
min!e ronded "oly#edral %!ar.# grain%O a-o! 1G2 !o 0G4 in diame!er and .on!aining
1G3 %mall "ri%ma!i. .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!eO a-o! 16G26 longO endo%"erm o/ !#inG
7alled "aren.#yma .on!aining "ro!ein a% a granlar #yaline ma%% in ea.# .ellO em-ryoO
o/ %mall !#inG7alled .ell% .on!aining alerone grain%O %!ar.# a-%en! in endo%"erm land
em-ryoO /i-re% %.leren.#yma!o%O large @e%%el% "re%en! in "eri.ar"&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an Nil "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 4 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 0 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 16 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&
'ola!ile oil No! le%% !#an 0 "er .en!O @\7O A""endi( 2&2&16

CONST<T?ENTS G E%%en!ial oi


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aUO Mad#ra
GVa S Lag#
'Yrya S 9Y!a
175
'i"Q:a S Mad#ra
+arma S 2o.anaO DY"anaO AnlomanaO HZdyaO MW!rala
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G ElQdi Moda:aO ElQdi CWrVaO Si!o"alQdi CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G +Q%aO 9@Q%aO Ar.iO C#ardiO MW!ra:Z..#ra
DOSE G 216G166 mg o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm&


176
41& S#n!#i (2A&)
9?CJH, (2#iAome)
9VU#Y .on%i%!% o/ dried r#iAome o/ Ningi-er o//i.inale 2o(-& (Fam&
Ningi-era.eae)O 7idely .l!i@a!ed in <ndiaO r#iAome% dg in JanaryGFe-raryO -d% and
roo!% remo@edO %oa:ed o@ernig#!Gin 7a!erO de.or!i.a!edO and %ome !ime% !rea!ed 7i!# lime
and dried&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S AXad#aO M#aXad#aO NQgaraO 'iT@aO 'iT@a-#eXaIaO 9Z]ga@eraO
'iT@QO 'iT@aQXad#a
A%%ame%e S Ada%!#O Aadar S#!#
)engali S Sn!#aO Sn!#i
Engli%# S Ginger roo!O Ginger
GIra!i S Sn!#O Snd#O Sn!#a
Hindi S Son!#
+annada S S#n!#i
+a%#miri S S#on!#
Malayalam S C#::
Mara!#i S Sn!#
Oriya S Sn!#i
$nIa-i S Snd
Tamil S S::O C#::
Telg S Son!#iO Sn!i
?rd S Son!#O NanIa-eel
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
2#iAomeO la!erally .om"re%%ed -earing %#or!O /la!!i%#O o@a!eO o-liLeO -ran.#e% on
""er %ide ea.# #a@ing a! i!% a"e( a de"re%%ed %.arO "ie.e% a-o! 1G11 .m longO 1&1G4&1
.m 7ide (%ally *G0 .m) and 1G1&1 .m !#i.:O e(!ernally -// .olored %#o7ing
longi!dinal %!ria!ion% and o..a%ional loo%e /i-re%O /ra.!re %#or!O %moo!#O !ran%@er%e
%r/a.e e(#i-i!ing narro7 .or!e( (a-o! oneG!#ird o/ radi%)O a 7ellGmar:ed endodermi%
and a 7ide %!ele %#o7ing nmero% %.a!!ered /i-roG@a%.lar -ndle% and yello7
177
%e.re!ing .ell%O odor agreea-le and aroma!i.O !a%!eO agreea-le and "ngen!&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ r#iAome %#o7% .or!e(& o/ i%odiame!ri. !#inG7alled
"aren.#yma 7i!# %.a!!ered @a%.lar %!rand% and nmero% i%odiame!ri. idio-la%!%O a-o!
06G56 <n diame!er .on!aining a yello7i%# !o reddi%#G-ro7n oleoGre%inO endodermi%
%lig#!ly !#i.: 7alledO /ree /rom %!ar.# immedia!ely in%ide endodermi% a ro7 o/ nearly
.on!ino% .olla!eral -ndle% %ally 7i!#o! /i-re% %!ele o/ !#inG7alledO "aren.#yma
.ell%O arranged radially arond nmero% %.a!!eredO .olla!eral @a%.lar -ndle%O ea.#
.on%i%!ing o/ a /e7 nligni/iedO re!i.la!e or %"iral @e%%el% "!o a-o! 36 in diame!erO
a gro" o/ "#loem .ell%O nligni/iedO !#inG7alledO %e"!a!e /i-re% "!o a-o! *6 7ide
and 466 long 7i!# %mall o-liLe %li!O li:e "i!%O "re%en!O nmero% %.a!!ered idio-la%!%O
%imilar !#o%e o/ .or!e(O and a%%o.ia!ed 7i!# @a%.lar -ndle%O al%o "re%en!O idio-la%!%
a-o! 5G26 7ide and " !o 1*6 long 7i!# dar: reddi%#G-ro7n .on!en!%S in %ingle or
in a(ial ro7%O adIa.en! !o @e%%el%O "re%en!O "aren.#yma o/ .or!e( and %!ele "a.:ed 7i!#
/la!!enedO re.!anglarO o@a!eO %!ar.# grain%O mo%!ly 1G11 G *6G46 long a-o! 21
7ide and 3 !#i.:O mar:ed -y /i@e !ran%@er%e %!ria!ion%&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 4 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1&1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 16 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G E%%en!ial oilO "ngen! .on%!i!en!% (gingerol and %#ogaol)O re%ino%
ma!!er and %!ar.#&


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aU
GVa S Lag#O Snigd#a
'Yrya S ?XVa
178
'i"Q:a S Mad#ra
+arma S DY"anaO $Q.anaO AnlomanaO madoXa#araO 'Q!a:a"#Q"a#aO HZdya
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G Sa-#QgyaTVU#YO Tri:aU CWrVaO Sa-#Qgya 'aUYO
'aiT@Qnara CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G AgnimQndyaO d#mQnaO $QV[O 9@Q%aO ?dararogaO ma@Q!a
DOSE G 1G2 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm&


179
44& S@arna"a!ri (L/&)
S'A2CA$AT2, (Lea/)
S@arVa"a!rY .on%i%!% o/ dried lea@e% o/ Ca%%ia ang%!i/olia 'a#l (Fam&
Legmino%ae)O a %mall %#r-O 46G31 .m #ig#O /ond !#rog#o! !#e yearO .l!i@a!ed largely
in So!#ern <ndiaO e%"e.ially in di%!ri.!% o/ Tinne@ellyO Madrai and Tir.#ira"ally and #a%
al%o -een in!rod.ed in My%oreO /lly gro7nO !#i.: -li%# .olor lea@e% %!ri""ed o// -y
#andO .olle.!ed and dried in %#ade /or 3G16 day%O !ill a%%me a yello7i%#Ggreen .olorO
graded and !#en "a.:ed in!o large -ale%&
SBNONBMS
A%%ame%e S Sonam:#i
)engali S S@amam:#iO Sona"a!a
Engli%# S <ndian Senna& Tinne@elly Senna
GIra!i S Mind#ia@alO Sonam:#i
Hindi S SanayaO Hindi%ana
+annada S Nela@ari:aO Sonam:#iO Nelaa@areO Nela@ari:eO Nela A@aria:e
+a%#miri S Sna
Malayalam S Snnam:#iO Nila@a:aO C#inn::iO Ada"a!iyan
Mara!#i S Sonam:#i
Oriya S Snam:#i
$nIa-i S Sannama:#iO Sana"a!iO Sarna"a!!a
Tamil S Nila""onnaiO A@arai
Telg S Snam:#i
?rd S SenaO )argGeGSana
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Lea/le!%O 2&1G4 .m long and 3G11 mm 7ide a! .en!reO "ale yello7i%#GgreenO
elonga!ed lan.eola!eO %lig#!ly a%ymme!ri. a! -a%eO margin% en!ireO /ia! a"e( a.!e 7i!# a
%#ar" %"ineO -o!# %r/a.e% %moo!# 7i!# %"ar%e !ri.#ome%O odorO /ain! -! di%!in.!i@eO
!a%!e m.ilageno% and di%agreea-le -! no! di%!in.!ly -i!!er&

180
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ lea/le! !#rog# midri- %#o7% an i%o-ila!eral %!r.!reO
e"idermal .ell%O %!raig#! 7alled .on!aining m.ilageO -o!# %r/a.e% -ear %.a!!eredO
ni.elllar #airO o/!en .oni.alO .r@ed near -a%eO !#i.:G7alledO nonGligni/iedO 7ar!y
.!i.leO %!oma!aO "ara.y!i.O nmero% on -o!# %r/a.e%O me%o"#yll .on%i%!% o/ ""er and
lo7er "ali%ade layer% 7i!# %"ongy layer in -e!7eenO "ali%ade .ell% o/ ""er %r/a.e
longer !#an !#o%e o/ lo7er %r/a.e !#e la!!er #a@ing 7a@y an!i.linal 7all%O "ri%maa!i.
.ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!e "re%en! on larger @ein% and .l%!er% o/ .al.im o(ala!e
.ry%!al% di%!ri-!ed !#rog#o! !#e "ali%ade and %"ongy !i%%e%O midri- -i.on@e(O
-ndle% o/ midri- and larger @ein%O in.om"le!ely %rronded -y a Aone "eri.y.li. /i-re%
and a .ry%!al %#ea!# o/ "aren.#yma!o% .ell% .on!aining "ri%ma!i. .ry%!al% o/ .al.im
o(ala!e&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 10 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 21 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G An!#raLinoneO gl.o%ideO /la@onoid%O %!eroid% and re%in&

$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aUO Ti:!aO +aXQya
GVa S Lag#O 2W:XaO TY:XVa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S 2e.ana
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G $aa.a%a:Qra CWrVaO SQri@QdyQ%a@a
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G 'i-and#aO ?dararoga
DOSE G 6&1G2 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm&

181
43& S@e!aIira:a (Fr!&)
9'ETAJ,2A+A (Fri!)
9@e!aIYra:a .on%i%!% o/ ri"e /ri!% o/ Cminm .yminmO Linn& (Fam&
?m-elli/erae)O a gla-ro%O annal #er-O *6G86 .m #ig#!O /lo7er% @ery %mallO 7#i!eO a-o!
*5 mm long %!al: in .om"ond m-el%O mo%!ly .l!i@a!ed in "lain%O "lan!% "lled o!O dried
!#ra%#ed /or .olle.!ing ma!re /ri!%&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S AIQIYO JYra:aO AIQIi:Q
A%%ame%e S Jira
)engali S JiraO SadaIira
Engli%# S Cmin %eed& Cmin
GIra!i S Jira!miO JirO JiragiO JeerO Jirn
Hindi S JiraO Sa/ed Iira
+annada S JirageO )ileIirege
+a%#miri S Sa/ed Noor
Malayalam S Jeera:am
Mara!#i S $and#are Iire
Oriya S D#alaIeeraO DalaIiraO Jira
$nIa-i S Sa/ed JiraO C#i!!a Jira
Tamil S S#eeragamO C#ira:amO Jeera:am
Telg S Jila:arraO Tella Jila:arra
?rd S Nira#O Nira%a/ed
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Fri!O a .remo.ar"O o/!en %e"ara!ed in!o meri.ar"%O -ro7n 7i!# lig#! .olored
ridge% elli"%oidalO elonga!edO a-o! 0G4 mm longO 2 mm 7ideO !a"ering a! end% and
%lig#!ly .om"re%%ed la!erallyO meri.ar"% 7i!# 1 longi!dinal #airy "rimary ridge% /rom
-a%e !o a"e(O al!erna!ing 7i!# 0 %e.ondary ridge% 7#i.# are /la!!er and -ear .on%"i.o%
emergen.e%O %eed% or!#o%"ermo%O odor m-elli/ero% .#ara.!eri%!i.O !a%!eO ri.#ly %"i.y&

182
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ /ri! %#o7% e"idermi% .on%i%!ing o/ %#or! "olygonalO !a-lar
.ell% den%ely .o@ered 7i!# %#or!O -ri%!le #air% on ridge%O me%o.ar" 7i!# /e7 layer% o/
"aren.#yma and /i@e @a%.lar -ndle% nder /i@e "rimary ridge%O %i( @i!!ae nder
%e.ondary ridge%O /or on dor%al and !7o on .ommi%%ral %r/a.eO endo.ar" .on%i%!% o/
"olygonal .ell% .on!aining /i(ed oil and alerone grain% .ar"o"#ore .on%i%!% o/ %lender
/i-re%&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 5 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 3 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G E%%en!ial oil


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aU
GVa S Lag#O 2W:XaO TY:XVa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S 2.yaO DY"anaO $Q.anaO GrQ#YO +Zmig#naO +a"#a@Q!a#ara
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G JYra:QdyariXUaO JYra:Qdi Moda:aO Hi]g@Qdi CWrVaO Hi
]g@a.Qdi CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G AgnimQndyaO A!Y%QraO +Zmiroga
DOSE G 1G* g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm&
183
45& S@e!a Sari@a (2!&)
9'ETA S2<' (2oo!)
9@e!a SQri@Q .on%i%!% o/ roo! o/ Hemide%m% indi.% (Linn&) 2& )r& (Fam&
A%.le"iada.eae)O a "ro%!ra!e or %emiGere.! %#r- /ond !#rog#o! <ndia /rom ""er
Gange!i. "lain% ea%!G7ard% !o A%%amO !#rog#o! Cen!ralO ;e%!ern and So!#ern <ndia "!o
an ele@a!ion o/ 466 m&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S Anan!QO Go"a%!QO SQri@Q
A%%ame%e S 'aga Sari@a
)engali S Anan!amlO S#@e!a%#ari@a
Engli%# S <ndian Sar%a"arilla
GIra!i S ?"al%ariO +a-ri
Hindi S Anan!aml
+annada S Namada @erO )ili Namada-erO Anan!amoolO Sogade-erO
Namada-er
+a%#miri S Anan! mool
Malayalam S NannariO NannarO Narneendi
Mara!#i S ?"al%ariO Anan!amla
Oriya S Drala%#@an LaiO Anan!amool
$nIa-i S Anan!moolO ?%#-a#
Tamil S 'en Nannar
Telg S Sgand#i $alaO Tella Sgand#i
?rd S ?%#-a Hindi
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
2oo!% o..r in "ie.e%O a-o! *6 .m long and *G5 mm in diame!erO .ylindri.alO !#i.:O
#ardO %ome7#a! !or!o%O %"ar.ely -ran.#edO "ro@ided 7i!# /e7 !#i.: roo!le!% and %e.ondary
roo!%O e(!ernal a""earan.e dar: -ro7nO %ome!ime% 7i!# @iole! grey !ingeO .en!re yello7O
7oodyO %rronded -y a mealy 7#i!e .or!i.al layerO -ar: -ro7ni%#O .or:yO mar:ed 7i!#
!ran%@er%e .ra.:% and longi!dinal /i%%re% and ea%ily de!a.#a-le /rom !#e #ard .en!ral .oreO
odorO .#ara.!eri%!i.O !a%!eO %7ee!i%#O %lig#!ly a.rid and aroma!i.&
184

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ roo! %#o7% "eriderm .on%i%!ing o/ !#ree layer% o/ !i%%e%O .or:O
.or: .am-im and %e.ondary .or!e(O .or: .ell% radially /la!!ened and re.!anglar in
a""earan.e /illed 7i!# dar: -ro7n .on!en!% gi@ing rea.!ion% o/ !annin%O .or: .am-imO 2
or * layeredO .om"re%%edO and /illed 7i!# dee" -ro7n .on!en!%O %e.ondary .or!e(O *G0
layer% o/ .ell%O %imilar !o .or: .ell%O 7i!# @ery li!!le or no dar: -ro7n .on!en!%O
%e.ondary "#loem .on%i%!% o/ %ie@e elemen!%O "aren.#ymaO "#loem ray .ell% along 7i!#
%e@eral la!i.i/ero% d.!%O "aren.#yma .ell% /illed 7i!# %!ar.# grain%O diame!er 3G16 O
o..a%ional "ri%ma!i. .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!eO la!i.i/ero% d.!% %.a!!ered in
"aren.#yma!o% !i%%eO .am-im @ery narro7S (ylem !ra@er%ed -y narro7 medllary
ray%O @e%%el% and !ra.#eid% .#ara.!eri%ed -y !#e "re%en.e o/ "i!!ed mar:ing%O "i!# a-%en!
and .en!ral region o.."ied -y 7oody !i%%e%&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 0 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 6&1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 1* "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

T&L&C&
3


CONST<T?ENTS G Ea%en!ial oilO %a"oninO re%inO !annin%O %!erol% and gl.o%ide%


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Mad#ra
GVa S Snigd#aO Gr
185
'Yrya S 9Y!a
'i"Q:a S Mad#ra
+arma S TridoXanQTanaO DY"anaO 2a:!aTod#a:aO manQTanaO 'iXag#naO
J@ara#ara
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G SQri@QdyQ%a@a
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G Ar.iO AgnimQndyaO A!Y%QraO +Q%aO 9@Q%aO +aV[WO +XU#aO J@araO
2a:!a@i:Qra
DOSE G 26G*6 g o/ !#e drg /or de.o.!ion&


186
48& Tagara (2A&)
TAGA2A (2#iAome)
Tagara .on%i%!% o/ "redominan!ly dried r#iAomeO %!olon and %mall "or!ion o/ roo! o/
'aleriana 7alli.#ii DCO (Fam&'aleriana.eae)S a #airy "erennial #er-O gro7ing in !em"era!e
Himalaya% /rom +a%#mir !o )#!an and +#a%ia #iil% "!o an al!i!de o/ *O666 mO r#iAome%
dg in a!mnO 7ell 7a%#ed 7i!# 7a!er and dried&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S +QlQn%QriO +QlQn%Qri:QO Na!a
A%%ame%e S Tagar
)engali S Tagar $ad:a
Engli%# S <ndian 'alerian
GIra!i S Tagar Gan!#odaO Tagar Gan!#oO G#oda7aI
Hindi S M%#:-alaO Sgand#a-ala
+annada S Mandi-a!!alO Mandya@an!#O Mandi-a!!alO Tagar
+a%#miri S )alaO M%#:-ala
Malayalam S T#a:aram
Mara!#i S TagarO Gan!#ode
Oriya S Tagara"ad:aO Jala%#ili
$nIa-i S M%#:o-alaO Sgand#-ala
Tamil S Tagarai
Telg S Grand#i Tagaram
?rd S Tagar
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
2#iAomeO o/ a-o! 0G5 .m long and 0G16 mm !#i.: "ie.e%O dll yello7i%#G-ro7&
%-G.ylindri.a1 and dor%i@en!rally %ome7#a! /la!!enedO rog#O %lig#!ly .r@ed and
n-ran.#edO ""er %r/a.e mar:ed 7i!# rai%ed en.ir.ling lea/ %.ar%O nder %r/a.e
-earing nmero%O %mallO .ir.lar "rominen!O roo! %.ar% and a /e7 %!o! roo!le!%O .ro7n
-earing remain% o/ aerial %!em% 7i!# %.ale lea@e%O /ra.!re %#or! and #ornyO %!olon
187
.onne.!ing r#iAome% %!o!O 1G1 mm long and 2G0 mm !#i.:O yello7i%#Ggrey in .olorO
longi!dinally 7rin:ledO %ally 7i!# node% and in!ernode% and -earing ad@en!i!io%
roo!%O o..a%ionally !#in %!olon% 1G2 mm !#i.:O roo!O yello7i%#G-ro7nO *G1 .m long and 1
mm !#i.:O odorO %!rong and remini%.en! o/ i%o@aleri. a.idO !a%!eO -i!!er and %ome7#a!
.am"#ora.eo%&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
2#iAome G !ran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ r#iAome %#o7% .or:O .on%i%!ing o/ 0G10 layer% o/
ligni/iedO .ell% o..a%ionally .on!aining oil glo-le%O .or!e( "aren.#yma!o% .on!aining
nmero% %!ar.# grain oil glo-le% and yello7i%#G-ro7n %-%!an.eO o!er 2 or * layer% o/
.or!e(O .ollen.#yma!o% o..a%ional roo! !ra.e% a""ear a% "aler %!rand%O endodermi%
%ingle layeredO "eri.y.leO "area.#yma!o% &and 7i!#in i! 12G15 .olla!eral @a%.lar
-ndle%O %e"ara!ed -y dar: medllary ray "re%en!O "i!# largeO "aren.#yma!o%O la.narO
.on!aining %!ar.# gram%O %!ar.# o..r% a% %ingle or o..a%ional .om"ond grain% o/ !7o
.om"onen!%O indi@idal grain% -eing 3G*6 mo%!lyO 16G21 in diame!er .al.im
o(ala!e .ry%!al% a-%en!&
S!olonGG!ran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ %!olon %#o7% .or:O .on%i%!ing o/ 2G1 layer%O .or!e( "!o 21
layer%O "area.#yma!o%O /ollo7ed -y 26 .olla!eral @a%.lar -ndle%O 7#i.# in yong
%!olon% %e"ara!ed -y .elllo%i. "aren.#yma!o% medllary ray% and in older %!olon%
-e.ome ligni/iedO "i!# 7ide and la.narO roo! !ra.e% a-%en!&
2oo!G !ran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ roo! %#o7% %mallO .en!ral "aren.#yma!o% "i!#O %rrondod
-y !e!ra.# !o "olyar.# (ylem and a 7ide "aren.#yma!o% -ar:&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 12 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 16 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an *6 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 18 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G E%%en!ial oil

188

$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Ti:!aO +aUO +aXQya
GVa S Lag#O Snigd#a
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S TridoXa#araO 'iXag#naO 2a:!adoXa#araO MQna%adoXa#ara
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G D#Qn@an!ara TailaO Ma#Q NQrQyaVa TailaO
De@adQr@QdyariXUaO JQ!Y"#alQdi CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G A"a%mQraO ?nmQdaO 9irorogaO Ne!raroga
DOSE G 1G* g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm&


189
36& Tamala:i (2!& S!&P L/&)
TMALA+, (2oo!O S!em P Lea/)
TQmala:Y .on%i%!% o/ roo!O %!em and lea/ o/ $#yllan!#% /ra!ern% ;e-%!& Syn&
$#yllan!#% nirri Hoo:& /& non Linn& (Fam& E"#or-ia.eae)O an annal #er-O 26G46 .m
#ig#O /ond in Cen!ral and So!#ern <ndia e(!ending !o Ceylon&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S Ma#id#Q!ri:QO )#WmyQmala:YO )a#"#alQ
A%%ame%e S )#in Amla
)engali S )#mamlaO )#mi amala:i
Engli%# S GG
GIra!i S )#oi AmaliO )#ony amariO )#onyamali
Hindi S )#i Amala
+annada S Nelanelli
Malayalam S +iAanelliO +eeA#anelliO AII#ada
Mara!#i S )#ia7ali
Oriya S )#in Amla
Tamil S +iA#:ai nelliO +iAanelli
Telg S Nela %iri:a
?rd S GG
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
2oo!G%mallO 2&1G11 &6 .m long& nearly %!raig#!O gradally !a"eringO 7i!# a nm-er
o/ /i-ro% %e.ondary and !er!iary roo!%O e(!ernal %r/a.e lig#! -ro7nO /ra.!reO
%#or!&
S!emGSlenderO ga-ro%O lig#! -ro7nO .ylindri.alO 26G31 .m longO -ran.#ing "ro/%e
!o7ard% ""er region -earing 1G16 "air% o/ lea@e%O in!ernodeO 1G*&1 .m longO
odorO indi%!in.!O !a%!eO %lig#!ly -i!!er&
Lea/G.om"ond and lea/Gle! arranged in !7o ro7% 7i!# a ra.#i%O al!erna!eO o""o%i!e and
de.%%a!e almo%! %e%%ileO %!i"la!eO o-longO en!ireO "!o 1&1 .m long and 6&1 .m 7ideO
greeni%#G-ro7n in .olorO odorO indi%!in.!O !a%!eO %lig#!ly -i!!er
190

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
2oo!G!ran%@er%e %e.!ion %#o7%O 0G4 layer% o/ .or: .on%i%!ing o/ !#inG7alledO
re.!anglarO !angen!ially elonga!ed and radially arranged .ell%O /illed ;i!# reddi%#G-ro7n
.on!en!O %e.ondary .or!e( .on%i%!% o/ 5G16 layer% o/ !#inG7alledO !angen!ially elonga!ed
"aren.#yma!o% .ell%O %e.ondary "#loem narro7 .on%i%!ing o/ %ie@e elemen!%O "#loem
"aren.#yma and !ra@er%ed -y narro7 "#loem ray%O %e.ondary (ylem re"re%en!ed -y a
-road Aone o/ !i%%e%O .om"o%ed o/ @e%%el%O !ra.#eid%O /i-re% and "aren.#ymaO all
elemen!% -eing !#i.:G7alled and ligni/ied #a@ing %im"le "i!%O (ylem ray% ni%eria!e&
S!emG!ran%@er%e %e.!ion %#o7%O a %ingle layered e"idermi% .om"o%ed o/ !#i.:G7alledO
/la!!enedO !angen!ially elonga!ed .ell%O older %!em %#o7% 0G1 layer% o/ .or:O .om"o%ed o/
!#inG7alledO !a-larO !angen!ially elonga!ed and radially arranged .ell%O /illed ;i!#
reddi%#G-ro7n .on!en!O .or!e( .om"o%ed o/ 0G4 layer% o/ o@alO !angen!ially elonga!edO
!#inG7alledO "aren.#yma!o% .ell%O %ome .or!i.al .ell% /illed 7i!# yello7i%#G-ro7n
.on!en!O endodermi% Li!e di%!in.!O "eri.y.le re"re%en!ed -y a di%.on!ino% ringO
.om"o%ed o/ %e@eral !angen!ially elonga!ed %!rand% o/ ligni/ied /i-re% 7i!# !#i.: 7all%
and narro7 lmenO %e.ondary "#loem narro7O .om"o%ed o/ %ie@e elemen!%O di%"er%ed in
ma%% o/ "#loem "aren.#ymaO %e.ondary (ylem .om"o%ed o/ @e%%el%O /i-re%O "aren.#yma
and !ra@er%ed -y nmero% ni%eria!e ray%O @e%%el% mo%!ly %im"le "i!!edO a /e7 %#o7
%"iral !#i.:ening%O /i-re% narro7 elonga!edO 7i!# narro7 or %ome!ime% -ln! end% 7i!#
%im"le "i!%O .en!reO o.."ied -y a "i!# .om"o%ed o/ !#inG7alledO .ir.lar !o o@al
"aren.#yma!o% .ell%O o..a%ionally .l%!er .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!e "re%en! in
"aren.#yma!o% .ell% o/ grond !i%%e&
Lea/G!ran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ lea/ %#o7%O a -i.on@e( o!lineO e"idermi% on ei!#er %ideO
%ingle layered .o@ered e(!ernally -y a !#i.: .!i.leO a "ali%ade layer "re%en! -enea!#
""er e"idermi%O in!er.e"!ed -y a /e7 "aren.#yma!o% .ell% in !#e middleO meri%!ele
.om"o%ed o/ %mall %!rand% o/ (ylem !o7ard% ""er %r/a.e and "#loem !o7ard% lo7er
%r/a.eO re%! o/ !i%%e o/ lea/ .om"o%ed o/ !#inG7alledO "aren.#yma!o% .ell% %ome
#a@ing .l%!er .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!eO lamina %#o7% a dor%i@en!ral %!r.!reO
me%o"#yll di//eren!ia!ed in!o "ali%ade and %"ongy "aren.#ymaO e"idermi% on ei!#er %ide
.om"o%ed o/ !#inG7a1ledO !angen!ially elonga!ed .ell%O .o@ered e(!ernally -y a !#i.:
.!i.leO ani%o.y!i. !y"e %!oma!a "re%en! on -o!# e"idermi%e%O "ali%ade %ingle layeredO
me%o"#yll .om"o%ed o/ *G1 layer% o/ loo%ely arranged .ell% #a@ing a nm-er o/ @ein%
!ra@er%ed in !#i% regionO a /e7 .l%!er .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!e "re%en! in %"ongy
"aren.#yma&
$o7derG$o7der o/ !#e drgO -ro7n .oloredO nder mi.ro%.o"e %#o7%O /ragmen!% o/
.or: .ell%O @e%%el% and /i-re%&
191
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 14 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 3 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 1* "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

T&L&C&



CONST<T?ENTS G $#yllan!#in


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aXQyaO Ti:!aO Mad#ra
GVa S Lag#O 2W:Xa
'Yrya S 9Y!a
'i"Q:a S Mad#ra
+arma S 2o.anaO DQ#anQTanYO $i!!aTQma:aO MW!rala
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G Ci!ra:a HarY!a:iO Mad#yaXUyQdi TailaO $i""alyQdi
G#Z!aO Cya@ana"rQTaO 9a!Q@arY G[a
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G TZXVQO +Q%aO Amla"i!!aO $QV[O +XayaO +Xa!aO +XU#aO $rame#aO
MW!raroga
DOSE G 16G26 ml o/ !#e drg in Ii.e /orm
*G4 o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm&


192
31& T@a: ():&)
T'A+ ()ar:)
T@a: i% !#e dried inner -ar: (de@oid o/ .or: and .or!e() o/ !#e .o""i.ed %#oo!% o/
%!em o/ Cinnamomm Aeylani.m )lme& (Fam& Lara.eae)O a modera!e %iAed e@ergreen
!ree %ally a!!aining a #eig#! o/ 4G3 &1 mO .l!i@a!ed on !#e ;e%!ern G#a!% and adIoining
#ill%O -ar: .olle.!ed dring A"rilGJly and O.!o-erGDe.em-er&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S DQr%i!Q
A%%ame%e S Dal.#iniO Dal.#eni
)engali S Dar.#iniO Dar.#ini
Engli%# S Cinnamon -ar:
GIra!i S Dal.#ini
Hindi S Dal.#ini
+annada S Dal.#ini C#a::e
+a%#miri S Dal.#iniO Dal.#in
Malayalam S +ar@a"a!!aO <la@arnga!#ely
Mara!#i S Dal.#ini
Oriya S Dale.#iniO Gda !7a:
$nIa-i S Dal.#iniO Dar.#ini
Tamil S La@anga"a!!aiO +ar@a"a!!ai
Telg S La@anga"a!!aO Dal.#ini .#e::a
?rd S Dar.#ini
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
)ar: "ie.e% a-o! 6&1 mm !#i.:O -ri!!leO o..r% a% %ingle or do-leO .lo%ely
"a.:ed .om"ond Lill%O "!o a me!re or more in leng!# and "!o a-o! 1 .m in
diame!erO o!er %r/a.eO dll yello7i%#G-ro7nO mar:ed 7i!# "ale 7a@y longi!dinal line%
7i!# o..a%ional %mall %.ar% or #ole%O inner %r/a.e dar:er in .olorO %!ria!ed 7i!#
193
longi!dinally elonga!ed re!i.la!ionO /ra.!reO %"lin!eryO /ree /rom all -! !ra.e% o/ .or:O
odorO /ragran!O !a%!eO %7ee!O aroma!i. 7i!# %en%a!ion o/ 7arm!#&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ -ar: (de@oid o/ .or: and .&or!e() %#o7% e(.e"! a! .er!ain
"la.e% "eri.y.li. %.leren.#ymaO * or 0 ro7% o/ i%odiame!ri. .ell%O %ome!ime% !angen!ially
elonga!edO inner and radial 7all% o/!en -eing !#i.:er !#an !#e o!erO %ome .on!aining
%!ar.# grain%O %mall gro"% o/ "eri.yli. /i-re% em-edded a! in!er@al% in !#e %.leren.#ymaO
"#loem o/ !angen!ial -and% o/ %ie@e !i%%e al!erna!ing 7i!# "aren.#ymaO and .on!aining
a(ially elonga!ed %e.re!ing .ell% .on!aining @ola!ile oil or m.ilageO "#loem /i-re% 7i!#
@ery !#i.: 7all%O "!o *6 in diame!erO i%ola!ed or in %#or! !angen!ial ro7%O %ie@e !-e%
narro7 7i!# !ran%@er%e %ie@e "la!e%O .olla"%ed in o!er "eri"#eryO medllary ray% o/
i%odiame!ri. .ell%O mo%!ly 2 .ell% 7ideO .or!i.al "aren.#yma and medllary ray%
.on!aining %mall %!ar.# grain% mo%!ly -elo7 16 in diame!erO min!e a.i.lar .ry%!al% o/
.al.im o(ala!e "re%en!&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&
'ola!ile oil No! le%% !#an 1 "er .en!O @\7O A""endi(2&2&16&

CONST<T?ENTS G E%%en!ial oilO !annin and m.ilage


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aUO Ti:!aO Mad#ra
GVa S 2W:XaO Lag#O TY:XVa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
194
+arma S +a"#a@Q!a#araO 'iXag#naO +aVU#aTdd#i:araO 2.ya
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G Si!o"alQdi CWrVaO Ca!rIQ!a CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G M:#aToXaO TZXVQO +aVU#am:#arogaO $Yna%aO +ZmirogaO
'a%!irogaO ArTaO HZdroga
DOSE G 1G* g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm&


195
32& T@a:"a!ra (L/&)
T'A+$AT2A (Lea/)
T@a:"a!ra .on%i%!% o/ dried ma!re lea@e% o/ Cinnamomm !amala ().#& Ham&)
Nee% P E-erm& (Fam& Lara.eae)S a %mall e@ergreen !ree "!o 3&1 m #ig# and o..r% in
!ro"i.alO %-G !ro"i.al Himalaya% -e!7een 866G2*66 mO o/!en rai%ed /rom %eed%O %o7n in
nr%eryO lea@e% .olle.!ed in dry 7ea!#er /rom a-o! !en year% old "lan! dring O.!o-erG
Mar.#&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S $a!raO 'arQ]gaO Co.a
A%%ame%e S TeI"a!O Ma#"a!
)engali S TeI"a!raO TeI"a!a
Engli%# S <ndian Cinnamon
GIra!i S Tamala "a!raO De@elee
Hindi S TeI"a!ra
+annada S Tamala"a!raO Dal.#ini Ele
+a%#miri S Dal.#ini "anO TaI"a!ra
Malayalam S +ar@a"a!!a "a!ram
Mara!#i S Tamal"a!ra
Oriya S TeIa"a!ra
$nIa-i S TaI"a!er
Tamil S La@anga"a!ri
Telg S A:"a!ri
?rd S TeA"a!
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Lea@e%G12&1G26 .m longO 1G3&1 .m 7ide a! !#e .en!reO * .on@erging ner@e% /rom
-a%e !o a"e( yong lea@e% "in:O "e!iole 3&1G1* mm longO margin en!ireO a"e( a.!e or
a..mina!eO -o!# %r/a.e% %moo!#O %!oma!a "ara.y!i. odorO aroma!i.O !a%!eO %lig#!ly
%7ee!O m.ilagino% and aroma!i.&
196

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
$e!iole and midri-G!ran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ "e!iole and midri- %#o7% e"idermi%
e(!ernally .o@ered 7i!# .!i.leO ni%eria!eO ml!i.elllar (1 !o * .ell%)O !ri.#ome% "re%en!O
oil .ell% %ingle or in gro"O i%ola!ed large %!one .ell%O m.# ligni/ied %#o7ing %!ria!ion%
/ond %.a!!eredO mo%! o/ !#e "aren.#yma!o% .ell% o/ .or!e( 7i!# reddi%#G-ro7n
.on!en!%O "eri.y.le re"re%en!ed -y a /e7 layer% o/ %.leren.#yma!o% .ell%O %!ele more or
le%% "lano.on@e( a% in !#e midri- o/ lea/O (ylem on ""er and "#loem on lo7er %ide
.on%i%!ing o/ %al elemen!%O "re%en!&
LaminaG!ran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ lamina %#o7% dor%i@en!ral %!r.!reO re"re%en!ed -y
"ali%ade !i%%e on ""er and %"ongy "aren.#yma on lo7er %ideO e"idermi% %ame a% in
midri-O e(!ernally .o@ered 7i!# .!i.leO -elo7 ""er e"idermi% %ingle ro7 o/ .lo%ely
"a.:ed "ali%ade layer /ollo7ed -y ml!ilayeredO irreglarO !#inG7alled .ell% o/ %"ongy
"aren.#yma 7i!#o! in!er.elllar %"a.e%O idio-la%!% .on!aining oil glo-le% "re%en! in
me%o"#yll and al%o in "ali%adeO lo7er e"idermi% .o@ered e(!ernally 7i!# .!i.leO lamina
in!er@ened -y %e@eral %mall @einle!%S @a%.lar -ndle% .o@ered 7i!# !#i.:G7alled /i-re%
on -o!# %ide&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 4 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 8 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&
'ola!ile oil No! le%% !#an 1 "er .en!O @\7O A""endi( 2&2&16&

CONST<T?ENTS G E%%en!ial oil% (dG "#ellandrene and egenol)


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aUO Mad#ra
GVa S Lag#O $i..#ilaO TY:XVa
197
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S 2.yaO +a"#a@Q!a#araO ArTog#na
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G Ci!ra:Qdi TailaO +Q%Y%Qdi TailaO 'aIra:a Taila
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G Ar.iO HZllQ%aO ArTaO $Yna%a
DOSE G 1G* g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm&


198
3*& ?dm-ara ():)
?D?M)A2A ()ar:)
?dm-ara .on%i%!% o/ dried -ar: o/ Fi.% ra.emo%a Linn& Syn& Fi.% glomera!a
2o(-& (Fam& Mora.eae)O a large de.ido% !ree di%!ri-!ed all o@er indiaO /ond !#rog#o!
!#e yearO gro7% in e@ergreen /ore%!%O moi%! lo.ali!ie% and -an: o/ %!ream% !o !#e ele@a!ion
o/ 1566 mO o/!en .l!i@a!ed in @illage% /or %#ade and i!% edi-le /ri!%&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S SadQ"#ala
A%%ame%e S JangedmrO Bagyadimr
)engali S JagnadmrO Bagnadmr
Engli%# S Con!ry /igO Cl%!er Fig
GIra!i S ?m-roO ?merdoO ?mardoO ?marado
Hindi S GlaraO Glar
+annada S A!!i#anninamaraO Odm-araO A!#imaraO A!!igida
+a%#miri S 2m-al
Malayalam S A!#i
Mara!#i S A!!iO GlarO ?m-er
Oriya S JaInadim-riO Dim-iri
$nIa-i S +a!# GlarO Glar
Tamil S A!!i
Telg S A!!iO Medi
?rd S Glar
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
)ar: greyi%#GgreenO %r/a.e %o/! and ne@enO 6&1G1&5 .m !#i.:O on r--ing 7#i!e
"a"ery /la:e% .ome o! /rom o!er %r/a.eO inner %r/a.e lig#! -ro7nO /ra.!re /i-ro%O
!a%!eO m.ilagino% 7i!#o! any .#ara.!eri%!i. odor&

199
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ -ar: %#o7% .or:O *G4 layer% o/ !#inG7alled .ell% /illed 7i!#
-ro7ni%# .on!en!O .or: .am-im %ingle layeredO %e.ondary .or!e( 4G12 layeredO
.om"o%ed o/ !#inG7alled re.!anglar .ell% arranged reglarlyO a nm-er o/ %e.ondary
.or!e( .ell% .on!ain %!ar.# grain% and %ome .on!ain r#om-oidal .ry%!al% o/ .al.im
o(ala!eO mo%! o/ !#e .ell% /illed 7i!# .#loro"la%! gi@ing green a""earan.eO .or!e( a /airly
7ide Aone .om"o%ed o/ .ir.lar !o o-longO !#inG7alled .ell%O .on!aining orangeG-ro7n
.on!en!O mo%! o/ !#e .ell% /illed 7i!# %im"le and .om"ond %!ar.# grain%O a nm-er o/
.ell% al%o .on!ain .-i.al and r#om-oidal .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!eO %ome .or!i.al .ell%
ge! ligni/ied 7i!# "i!!ed 7all% /ond %.a!!ered %ingly or in large gro"% !#rog#o!
.or!i.al regionO %e.ondary "#loem a @ery 7ide Aone .om"o%ed o/ "aren.#yma 7i!#
"a!.#e% o/ %ie@e !-e%O .om"anion .ell% -y medllary ray%O "#loem "aren.#yma .ir.lar
!o o@al and !#inG7alledO "#loem /i-re% m.# elonga!edO ligni/iedO @ery #ea@ily !#i.:ened
and "o%%e%% a @ery narro7 lmenS medllary ray% ni !o "en!a%eria!e 7iden !o7ard%
"eri"#eral region O a nm-er o/ ray .ell% al%o ge! ligni/ied and %#o7 "i!!ed 7all a%
de%.ri-ed a-o@eO la!i.i/ero% .ell% al%o /ond in "#loem region %imilar !o "aren.#yma
-! /illed 7i!# %mall granlar ma%%e%O %!ar.# grain% and r#om-oidal .ry%!al% o/ .al.im
o(ala!e al%o /ond in mo%! o/ "#loem "aren.#yma and ray .ell%O .am-imO 7#en "re%en!O
2G* layeredO o/ !angen!ially elonga!ed !#inG7alled .ell%&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 10 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 3 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 8 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G Tannin%


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aXQya
GVa S 2W:XaO Gr
'Yrya S 9Y!a
'i"Q:a S +aU
200
+arma S MW!ra%a_gra#aVYyaO 'raVaTod#a:aO 'raVaro"a:aO Medo#araO
+a"#a"i!!aTQma:aO 2a:!a%!am-#ana
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G Nyagrod#Qdi +@Q!#a CWrVaO MW!ra%a_gra#aVYya
+aXQya CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G 2a:!a"i!!aO DQ#aO MedorogaO BonidoXa
DOSE G *G4 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm
26G*6 g o/ !#e drg /or de.o.!ion&


201
30& ?"a:n.#i:a (Sd&)
?$A+?EC<+ (Seed)
?"a:a.i:Q .on%i%!% o/ %eed% o/ Nigella %a!i@a Linn& (Fam& 2ann.la.eae)O a %mall
#er-O 01 G46 .m #ig#O mo%!ly .l!i@a!ed in $nIa-O Hima.#al $rade%#O )i#ar and A%%am&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S S!#WlaIYra:aO ?"a:a.YO SXa@Y
A%%ame%e S GG
)engali S Mo!a +alaIiraO +alaIira
Engli%# S Small FennelO Nigella Seed
GIra!i S +alonIi IeerO +alonIi
Hindi S +alanIiO Mangaraila
+annada S +ariIirige
Malayalam S +arinIira:am
Mara!#i S +alanIi IireO +aleIire
Oriya S GG
$nIa-i S +al@anIi
Tamil S +arnIeera:amO +arnIiragam
Telg S $eddaIila:arra
?rd S +alongi
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Seed%O /la!!enedO o-longO anglarO rglo%e !-er.larO %mallO /nnel %#a"edO 6&2
.m& long and 6&1 .m& 7ideO -la.:O odorO %lig#!ly aroma!i.O !a%!eO -i!!er&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ %eed %#o7% %ingle layer o/ e"idermi% .on%i%!ing o/
elli"!i.alO !#i.:G7alled .ell% .o@ered e(!ernally -y a "a"illo%e .!i.leO /illed 7i!#
reddi%#G-ro7n .on!en!O e"idermi% /ollo7ed -y 2G0 layer% o/ !#i.:G7alledO !angen!ially
elonga!edO "aren.#yma!o% .ell%O /ollo7ed -y a "igmen!ed layer .om"o%ed o/
!angen!ially elonga!edO .ylindri.al !#i.:G7alled .ell% /illed 7i!# reddi%#G-ro7n "igmen!O
202
-elo7 "igmen!ed layerO "aren.#yma .om"o%ed o/ !#i.:G7alled re.!anglarO radially
elonga!ed .ell%O "re%en! in a layerO endo%"erm .on%i%!% o/ modera!ely !#i.:G7alledO
re.!anglar !o "olygonal .ell%O a /e7 /illed 7i!# oil glo-le%O em-ryo em-edded in
endo%"erm&
$o7derG)la.:O oily !o !o.#O nder mi.ro%.o"e %#o7O gro"% o/ "aren.#ymaO endo%"erm
.ell% and oil glo-le%&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 4 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 6&2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 26 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G E%%en!ial oilO /i(ed oilO re%inO %a"onin and !annin


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aUO Ti:!a
GVa S Lag#O 2W:Xa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S 2.yaO Sa_grQ#YO Ca:XXyaO Gar-#QTaya@iTod#anaO $i!!alaO DY"anaO
$Q.anaO Med#yaO HZdyaO 'Q!a:a"#Q"a#aO +Zmig#na
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G NQrQyaVa CWrVaO +Q]:Qyana GUi:Q
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G GlmaO d#mQnaO A!Y%QraO +Zmiroga
DOSE G 1G* g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm&


203
31& 'arna (S!&):&)
'A2?CA (S!em -ar:)
'arVa .on%i%!% o/ dried %!em -ar: o/ Cra!ae@a nr@ala ).#GHam (Fam&
Ca""arida.eae)O a %mall 7ild or .l!i@a!ed !ree /ond !#rog#o! !#e year in <ndiaO o/!en
/ond along %!ream%O al%o in dryO dee" -older /orma!ion in S-GHimalayan !ra.!%&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S 'araVa
A%%ame%e S GG
)engali S 'arna
Engli%# S T#ree lea@ed .a"er
GIra!i S 'ay@arnoO 'arano
Hindi S )arnaO )arna
+annada S )i"a!riO Ma!!ama@O Neer@alamara
Malayalam S Neerma!alam
Mara!#i S 'aya@arnaO Hara@arnaO 'arn
Oriya S )aryno
$nIa-i S )arnaO )arna#i
Tamil S Maralingam
Telg S )il@arani
?rd S GG
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
T#i.:ne%% or -ar: @arie%O %ally 1G1&1 .m a..ording !o !#e age and "or!ion o/ !#e
"lan! /rom 7#ere !#e -ar: i% remo@edO o!er %r/a.eO greyi%# !o greyi%#G-ro7n 7i!# a%#G
grey "a!.#e%O a! "la.e%O %r/a.e rog# de !o a nm-er o/ len!i.el%O %#allo7 /i%%re% and a
/e7 @er!i.al or longi!dinal ridge%O inner mo%! %r/a.e %moo!# and .ream 7#i!e in .olorO
/ra.!re !og# and %#or!O odorO indi%!in.!O !a%!eO %lig#!ly -i!!er&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
204
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ ma!re %!em -ar: %#o7%O an o!er .or: .om"o%ed o/ !#inG
7alledO re.!anglar and !angen!ially elonga!ed .ell%O "#ellogen %ingle layeredO !#inG
7alledO !angen!ially elonga!ed .ell% /ollo7ed -y a 7ide %e.ondary .or!e(O .on%i%!ing o/
!#inG7alledO "olygonal !o !angen!ially elonga!ed .ell% 7i!# a nm-er o/ %!ar.# grain%O
%!ar.# grain% mo%!ly %im"leO o..a%ionally .om"ond 7i!# 2G* .om"onen!% al%o "re%en!^O
large nm-er o/ %!one .ell% in gro"% o/ !7o or moreO /ond %.a!!ered in %e.ondary
.or!e(O %ingle %!one .ell% no! @ery .ommonO %!one .ell% @ary in %iAe and %#a"eO -eing
.ir.lar !o re.!anglar or elonga!ed 7i!# "i!% and %!ria!ion% on !#eir 7all%O %!one .ell%
di%!ri-!ed %ome7#a! in .on.en!ri. -and% in "#loem region e(.e"! in inner region o/
"#loem 7#i.# i% de@oid o/ %!one .ell%O %e.ondary "#loem .om"ara!i@ely a 7ide AoneO
.on%i%!ing o/ %ie@e !-e%O .om"anion .ell%O "aren.#yma and gro"% o/ %!one .ell%O
al!erna!ing 7i!# medllary ray%O %ie@e elemen!% /ond .om"re%%ed /orming .era!en.#yma
in o!er "#loem regionO 7#erea% in inner region o/ "#loemO in!a.!O medllary ray% mo%!ly
ml!i%eria!e .om"o%ed o/ !#inG7alledO radially elonga!ed .ell%O !angen!ially elonga!ed
!o7ard% o!er "eri"#eryO a nm-er o/ %!ar.# grain% %imilar !o %e.ondary .or!e( al%o
"re%en! in "#loem and ray .ell%O /e7 r#om-oidal .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!e al%o /ond
in !#i% regionO inner mo%! layer i% .am-im&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 1* "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 5 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G Sa"onin and !annin


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Ti:!aO +aXQya
GVa S Lag#O 2W:Xa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S DY"anaO )#edYO 'Q!aTleXma#ara
205
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G 'arVQdi +@Q!#a CWrVa
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G ATmarYO MW!ra:Z..#raO GlmaO 'idrad#i
DOSE G 26G*6 g o/ !#e drg /or de.o.!ion&


206
34& 'a%a (L/&)
'S (Lea/)
'Q%Q .on%i%!% o/ /re%#O driedO ma!re lea@e% o/ Ad#a!oda @a%i.a Nee% (Fam&
A.an!#a.eae)O a %-G#er-a.eo% -%#O /ond !#rog#o! !#e year in "lain% and %-G
Himalayan !ra.!% in <ndiaO a%.ending "!o 1266mO /lo7er% dring Fe-raryGMar.# and al%o
a! !#e end o/ rainy %ea%onO lea@e% %!ri""ed o// /rom older %!em% and dried in drying %#ed%&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S 'ZXaO UarWXaO 'Q%a:a
A%%ame%e S Ti!a-a#a:O )a#a:O 'a.#a:a
)engali S )a:%aO 'a%a:a
Engli%# S 'a%a:a
GIra!i S Ad%oO Ard%iO Adl%o
Hindi S Ad%%O Ar%a
+annada S Ad%aleO Ad%ogeO A!ar%#aO Ad%oleO Ada%ale
+a%#miri S 'a%a
Malayalam S A!!ala!a:amO A!alo!a:am
Mara!#i S 'a%aO Adl%a
Oriya S )a%anga
$nIa-i S )#e:arO 'an%aO Ar%a
Tamil S 'a%am-O Ada!#odai
Telg S Adda%aram
?rd S Ad%aO )a%a
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Lea@e%O 16G*6 .m long and *G16 .m -roadO lan.eola!e !o o@a!eGlan.eola!eO
%lig#!ly a.mina!eO -a%e !a"eringO "e!iola!eO "e!iole% 2G5 .m longO e(%!i"li!eO
gla-re%.en!O 5G16 "air% o/ la!eral @ein -earing /e7 #air%O dried lea@e% dll -ro7n a-o@eO
lig#! greyi%# -ro7n -elo7O odorO .#ara.!eri%!i.O !a%!eO -i!!er&

207
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ lea/ %#o7%O dor%i@en!ral %r/a.e 7i!# 2 layer% o/ "ali%ade
.ell%O in %r/a.e @ie7O e"idermal .ell% %ino% 7i!# anomo.y!i. %!oma!a on -o!# %r/a.e%O
more nmero% on !#e lo7erO .lo!#ing !ri.#ome% /e7O 1G*O rarely "!o 1 .elledO !#inG
7alledO ni%eria!eO "!o 166 and glandlar !ri.#ome% 7i!# ni.elllar %!al: and 0 .elled
#ead mea%ringO 21G*4 in diame!er in %r/a.e @ie7O .y%!oli!#% in me%o"#yll layer%O
elonga!ed and .igar %#a"edO a.i.lar and "ri%ma!i. /orm% o/ .al.im o(ala!e .ry%!al%
"re%en! in me%o"#yll O "ali%ade ra!ioO 1G4O 1G5&1O %!oma!al inde(O 16&5G10&2G15&1 /or lo7er
%r/a.e&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 21 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an * "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 22 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G Al:aloid% and e%%en!ial oil


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Ti:!aO +aXQya
GVa S Lag#
'Yrya S 9Y!a
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S +a"#a"i!!a#araO 2a:!a%a_grQ#i:QO +Q%ag#naO HZdya
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G 'Q%a:Q%a@aO 'Q%Q@ale#a
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G +Q%aO 9@Q%aO +XayaO 2a:!a"i!!aO $rame#aO +QmalQO +XU#a
DOSE G 16G26 ml o/ !#e Ii.e o/ /re%# lea@e% \"ar16G26 g o/ !#e dried drg /or de.o.!ion&

208
33& 'idanga (Fr!&)
'<DAFGA (Fri!))
'i[a]ga .on%i%!% o/ dried ma!re /ri!% o/ Em-elia ri-e% )rm& F& (Fam&
Myr%ina.eae)O large %.anden! %#r- 7i!# long %lenderO /le(i-le -ran.#e%O di%!ri-!ed
!#rog#o! #illy "ar!% o/ <ndia "!o 1466 mO
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S Jan!g#naO +Zmig#naO 'ellaO +Zmi#araO +Zmiri"
A%%ame%e S 'idang
)engali S 'idang
Engli%# S GG
GIra!i S 'a@dingO 'a@adingO 'aya@adang
Hindi S 'aya@idangaO )#a-#irangaO )a-erang
+annada S 'ay@ilangaO 'ay@idanga
+a%#miri S )a-ading
Malayalam S 'iA#alariO 'iAalari
Mara!#i S 'a@adingO 'a@ding
Oriya S )idangaO 'idanga
$nIa-i S )a-rngO 'a@aring
Tamil S 'ay@ilangamO 'ay@idangam
Telg S 'ay@idangal
?rd S )ao-arangO )a-rang
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Fri! -ro7ni%#G-la.:O glo-lar 2G0 mm in diame!erO 7ar!y %r/a.e 7i!# a -ea:
li:e "roIe.!ion a! a"e(O o/!en %#or!O !#in "edi.el and "er%i%!an! .aly( 7i!# %al1y * or 1
%e"al% "re%en!O "eri.ar" -ri!!le en.lo%ing a %ingle %eed .o@ered -y a !#in mem-raneO
en!ire %eedO reddi%# and .o@ered 7i!# yello7i%# %"o!% (.#i!ra !andla)O odor %lig#!ly
aroma!i.O !a%!eO a%!ringen!&

209
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ /ri! %#o7% e"i.ar" .on%i%!ing o/ %ingle ro7 o/ !a-lar .ell%
o/ e"idermi%O %ally o-li!era!edO in %r/a.e @ie7 .ell% ronded 7i!# 7rin:led .!i.leO
me%o.ar" .on%i%!% o/ a nm-er o/ layer% o/ reddi%#G-ro7n .olored .ell% and nmero%
/i-ro@a%.lar -ndle% and rarely a /e7 "ri%ma!i. .ry%!al% o/ .al.im o(ala!eO inner "ar!
o/ me%o.ar" and endodenni% .om"o%ed o/ %!one .ell%O endodermi% .on%i%!ing o/ %ingle
layeredO !#i.:G7alledO largeO "ali%adeGli:e %!one .ell%O %eed .oa! .om"o%ed o/ 2G* layered
reddi%#G-ro7n .olored .ell%O endo%"erm .ell% irreglar in %#a"eO !#i.:G7alledO
.on!aining /i(ed oil and "ro!eino% ma%%e%O em-ryo %mall 7#en "re%en! o!#er7i%e mo%!
o/ !#e %eed% %!erile&
$o7derG2eddi%#O nder mi.ro%.o"e %#o7% reddi%# "aren.#yma and %!one .ell%&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTHG
<den!i/i.a!ion SG
(<) S#a:e 1 g o/ !#e "o7dered %eed% 7i!# 26ml o/ Sol@en! E!#er /or /i@e min!e% and
/il!er& To a "or!ion o/ !#e /il!ra!e add 1 "er .en! @l@ %ol!ion o/ Sodim Hydro(ideO a
dee" @iole! .olor i% de@elo"ed in !#e aLeo% layer& To !#e o!#er "or!ion add 2 dro"% o/
Dil!e Ammonia %ol!ionO a -li%# @iole! "re.i"i!a!e i% o-!ained&
(<<) )oil 1 g o/ !#e "o7dered %eed% S7i!# 21 ml al.o#ol and /il!er& Di@ide !#e dee" red
.olored /il!ra!e in!o !7o "or!ion%& To one "or!ionO add %ol!ion o/ lead A.e!a!eO a dir!y
green "re.i"i!a!e i% "rod.ed& To !#e o!#er "or!ion add %ol!ion o/ /erri. .#loride a
reddi%#G-ro7n "re.i"i!a!e i% "rod.ed&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 4 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1&1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 16 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 8 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

ASSAB
A%%aySGCon!ain% no! le%% !#an 2 "er .en! 7\7 o/ em-elin (limi!% 1&51 !o 2&11) 7#en
a%%ayed a% /ollo7%SG
;eig# a..ra!ely a-o! 16 g o/ "o7der (06 me%#) and !ran%/er !o a 166 ml gla%%
%!o""ered /la%: S#a:e o..a%ionally /or !#ir!y min!e% 7i!# 116 ml o/ Sol@en! E!#er& $a.:
210
!#e 7#ole ma%% in a "er.ola!orO allo7 !o ma.era!e /or !#ir!y min!e% and e(!ra.! 7i!#
Sol@en! E!#er !ill !#e e!#ereal %ol!ion .ea%e% !o gi@e a "in: .olor 7i!# a dro" o/ Dil!e
Ammonia Sol!ion& Di%!il o// !#e E!#erO !rea! !#e re%ide 7i!# %mall Lan!i!y o/ lig#!
$e!rolem (-&"& 06 C !o 46 C) .ool in i.eO /il!er !#rog# a ).#ner /nnel nder
%.!ion and reIe.! !#e /il!ra!e& ;a%# !#e re%ide 7i!# /r!#er %mall Lan!i!ie% o/ .ooled
E!#er (-& "& 06 C !o 46 C)& Tran%/er !#e re%ide !o a !ared -ea:er 7i!# %//i.ien!
Lan!i!y o/ Sol@en! E!#erO remo@e !#e Lig#! $e!rolem and dry !#e re%ide o/ em-elin !o
.on%!an! 7eig#! a! 56& T#e mel!ing range o/ !#e re%ide i% 102 C !o 100 C &

CONST<T?ENTS G )enAoLinone%O al:aloid (C#ri%!em-ine)O !annin and e%%en!ial oil


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aUO Ti:!a
GVa S 2W:XaO Lag#O TY:XVa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S +ZminQTanaO DY"anaO AnlomanaO 'Q!a:a"#Q"a#a
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G 'i[a]gQriXUaO 'i[a]ga La#aO 'i[a]gQdi La#a
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G +ZmirogaO d#mQnaO 9WlaO ?dararoga
DOSE G 1G16 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm&


211
35& 'iIaya (L/&)
'<JAB (Lea/)
'iIayQ .on%i%!% o/ dried lea@e% o/ .l!i@a!ed or 7ild "lan!% o/ Canna-i% %a!i@a Linn&
(Fam& Canna-ina.eae) O an annalO ere.!O dioe.io% #er-O one !o !7o m #ig#O /ond almo%!
!#rog#o! !#e yearO "ra.!i.ally na!rali%ed in !#e S-GHimalayan !ra.!% in <ndia and
a-ndan!ly /ond in 7a%!e land% /rom $nIa- ea%!7ard% !o )engal and e(!ending
So!#7ard%&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S )#a]gaO MQdanY
A%%ame%e S )#anO )#ang
)engali S )#angO Sid#i
Engli%# S <ndian Hem"
GIra!i S )#ang
Hindi S )#aangO )#anga
+annada S )#angigidaO GanIagida
+a%#miri S $angO )angi
Malayalam S +an.#a@
Mara!#i S )#angO GanIa
Oriya S )#angaO GanIei
$nIa-i S )#ang
Tamil S GanIa
Telg S GanIayi
?rd S cinaa-O )#ang
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Lea@e% "alma!ely .om"ondO lea/le!% linearO lan.eola!e 7i!# %erra!e margin%O
1G26 .m longO "oin!edO narro7 a! -a%eO ""er %r/a.e dar: green and rog#O lo7er "aleO
do7nyO lea@e% o/ /emale "lan!% longer !#an !#e maleO odorO %!rong and .#ara.!eri%!i.O
!a%!eO %lig#!ly a.rid&

212
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ lea@e% and -ra.!%O %#o7% dor%i@en!ral %r/a.eO ""er
e"idermi% 7i!# ni.elllarO "oin!edO .r@edO .oni.al !ri.#ome% 7i!# enlarged -a%e%
.on!aining .y%!oli!#% o/ .al.im .ar-ona!eO me%o"#yll .on!ain% .l%!er .ry%!al% o/
.al.im o(ala!e in many .ell% .on%i%!ing o/ %ally one layer o/ "ali%ade .ell and %"ongy
!i%%eO !ri.#ome% on lo7er e"idermi% .oni.alO longerO *06G166 -! 7i!#o! .y%!oli!#%O
nmero% glandlar !ri.#ome%O %e%%ile or 7i!# a ml!i.elllar %!al: and a #ead o/ a-o!
eig#! radia!ingO .l-G%#a"ed .ell% %e.re!ing oleoGre%inO "re%en! in !#e lo7er e"idermi%
e%"e.ially on midGri-O -ra.!eole% 7i!# ndi//eren!ia!ed me%o"#yll and on lo7er %r/a.e
-ear nmero% glandlar !ri.#ome%&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 11 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 16 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 1* "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G 2e%in (Canna-inol%O "ar!i.larly !e!ra#ydro.anna-inol)


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Ti:!a
GVa S Lag#O TY:XVa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S DY"anaO $Q.anaO GrQ#YO +a"#a#araO 'QIY:araO 'Q:@ard#anaO
NidrQIananaO 'ya@QyYO ($ra-#Q@aS Mada:Qri)
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G JQ!Y"#alQdi CWrVaO MadanQnanda Moda:a
213
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G AgnimQndyaO A!Y%QraO Gra#aVYrogaO +lai-yaO AnidrQ
DOSE G 121G216 mg o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm& \"ar No!eSGSod#ana o/ !#i% drg !o -e done
-e/ore %e a% de%.ri-ed in !#e a""endi(


214
38& Ba%#!i (S!mP 2T&)
BA=J, (S!em P2oo!)
BaXUY .on%i%!% o/ driedO n"eeledO %!olon and roo! o/ Gly.yrr#iAa gla-ra LinnO
(Fam& Legmino%ae) O a !all "erennial #er-O "!o 2 m #ig# /ond .l!i@a!ed in Ero"e&
$er%iaO A/g#ani%!an and !o li!!le e(!en! in %ome "ar!% o/ <ndia&
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S BaXUYmad#W:aO BaXUi:QO Mad#:aO Mad#yaXUYO BaXUyQ#@Q
A%%ame%e S Je%!#imad#O Be%#!mad#
)engali S Ba%#!imad#
Engli%# S LiLori.e roo!
GIra!i S Je!#imad#aO Je!#imardO Je!#imad#
Hindi S Mle!#iO Mla!#iO Mle!iO Je!#imad#O Je!#imad#
+annada S Je%!amadO Mad#:aO Jye%#!amad#O A!imad#ra
+a%#miri S Ml!#i
Malayalam S <ra!!imad#ram
Mara!#i S Je%!#amad#
Oriya S Ja!imad#O Ja%!imad#
$nIa-i S Je!#imad#O Mla!#i
Tamil S A!#imad#ram
Telg S A!imad#ram
?rd S Mle!#iO A%lG%G%%
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
S!olon .on%i%!% o/ yello7i%# -ro7n or dar: -ro7n o!er layerO e(!ernally
longi!dinally 7rin:ledO 7i!# o..a%ional %mall -d% and en.ir.ling %.ale lea@e%O
%moo!#ed !ran%@er%elyO .! %r/a.e %#o7% a .am-im ring a-o! oneG!#ird o/ radi% /rom
o!er %r/a.e and a %mall .en!ral "i!#O roo! %imilar 7i!#o! a "i!#O /ra.!reO .oar%ely
/i-ro% in -ar: and %"lin!ery in 7oodO odorO /ain! and .#ara.!eri%!i.O !a%!eO %7ee!i%#&

215
-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
S!olonG !ran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ %!olon %#o7% .or: o/ 16G26 or more layer% o/ !a-lar
.ell%O o!er layer% 7i!# reddi%#G-ro7n amor"#o% .on!en!%O inner * or 0 ro7% #a@ing
!#i.:erO .olorle%% 7all%O %e.ondary .or!e( %ally o/ 1G* layer% o/ radially arranged
"aren.#yma!o% .ell% .on!aining i%ola!ed "ri%m% o/ .al.im o(ala!eO %e.ondary "#loem a
-road -andO .ell% o/ inner "ar! .elllo%i. and o!er ligni/iedO radially arranged gro"% o/
a-o! 16G16 /i-re%O %rronded -y a %#ea!# o/ "aren.#yma .ell%O ea.# %ally .on!aining
a "ri%m o/ .al.im o(ala!e a-o! 16G*1 longO .am-im /orm !i%%e o/ * or more layer%
o/ .ell%O %e.ondary (ylem di%!in.!ly radia!e 7i!# medllary ray%O *G1 .ell% 7ideO @e%%el%
a-o! 56G266 in diame!er 7i!# !#i.:O yello7O "i!!edO re!i.la!ely !#i.:end 7all%O
gro"% o/ ligni/ied /i-re% 7i!# .ry%!al %#ea!#% %imilar !o !#o%e o/ "#loemO (ylem
"aren.#yma o/ !7o :ind%O !#o%e -e!7een !#e @e%%el% #a@ing !#i.: "i!!ed 7all% 7i!#o!
in!erG.elllar %"a.e%O !#e remaining 7i!# !#in 7all%O "i!# o/ "aren.#yma!o% .ell% in
longi!dinal ro7%O 7i!# in!erG.elllar %"a.e%&
2oo!G!ran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ roo! %#o7% %!r.!re .lo%ely re%em-ling !#a! o/ %!olon e(.e"!
!#a! no medlla i% "re%en!O (ylem !e!rar.# O %ally /or "rin.i"al medllary ray% a! rig#!
angle% !o ea.# o!#erO in "eeled drg .or: %#o7% "#elloderm and %ome!ime% 7i!#o!
%e.ondary "#loem all "aren.#yrna!o% !i%%e% .on!aining a-ndan!O %im"leO o@al or
ronded %!ar.# grain%O 2G26 in leng!#&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH


To!al A%# No! more !#an 16 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 2&1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 16 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 26 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&

CONST<T?ENTS G Gly.yrr#iAinO gly.yrr#iAi. a.idO gly.yrr#e!ini. a.idO a%"aragineO
%gar%O re%in and %!ar.#


$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S Mad#ra
GVa S GrO Snigd#a
'Yrya S 9Y!a
216
'i"Q:a S Mad#ra
+arma S 'Q!a"i!!aIi!O 2a:!a"ra%QdanaO )alyaO 'arVyaO 'ZXyaO Ca:XXya
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G ElQdi GUi:QO BaXUYmad#:a TailaO Mad#yaXUyQdi
Taila
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G +Q%aO S@ara-#edaO +XayaO 'raVaO 'Q!ara:!a
DOSE G 2G0 g o/ !#e drg in "o7der /orm&


217
56& Ba@ani (Fr!&)
BA'N, (Fri!)
Ba@QnY .on%i%!% o/ dried /ri! o/ Tra.#y%"ermm ammi (Linn&) S"rage e( Trril
Syn& Carm .o"!i.m )en!# P Hoo:& /& $!y.#o!i% aI7an DC& (Fam& ?m-elli/erae)O an
annalO ere.! #er-O "!o 86 .m !allO .l!i@a!ed almo%! !#rog#o! <ndiaO "roo!ed and
!#ra%#ed /or .olle.!ing !#e /ri!%
SBNONBMS
San%:ri! S DY"ya:aO BamQniO BamQni:QO Ba@Qni:Q
A%%ame%e S Jain
)engali S BamaniO Ba@anO Ba@anO Ja@anO Ba@aniO Boyana
Engli%# S )i%#o"^% 7eed
GIra!i S AImaO AImoO Ba@anO Ja@ain
Hindi S AI7ainO Je@ain
+annada S OmaO BomO Om
Malayalam S OmanO Ayanoda:an
Mara!#i S On@a
Oriya S Jani
Tamil S Omam
Telg S 'am
?rd S GG
DESC2<$T<ON
a) Ma.ro%.o"i.
Fri!O .on%i%!% o/ !7o meri.a"r%O greyi%# -ro7nO o@oidO .om"re%%edO a-o! 2 mm long
and 1 mm 7ide 7i!# "ale .olored "ro!-eran.e%O 1 ridge% and 4 @i!!ae in ea.# meri.ar"O
%ally %e"ara!eO 1 "rimary ridge% "ale in .olorO odorO .#ara.!eri%!i.O !#ymoli.O !a%!eO
"ngen!&

-) Mi.ro%.o"i.
Tran%@er%e %e.!ion o/ /ri! %#o7% !7o #e(agonal %!r.!re% a!!a.#ed 7i!# ea.#
218
o!#er -y a .ar"o"#oreO e"i.a" .on%i%!% o/ a %ingle layer o/ !angeni!ially elonga!ed !a-lar
.ell%O e(!ernally .o@ered 7i!# .!i.le a! %ome "la.e% #a@ing !#i.:G7alledO ni.elllar
!ri.#ome% a% "ro!-eran.e% 7i!# %erra!e 7allO me%o.ar" .on%i%!% o/ modera!ely !#i.:G
7alledO re.!anglar !o "olygonal !angen!ially elonga!ed .ell% #a@ing %ome @a%.lar
-ndle% and @i!!aeO .ar"o"#ore "re%en! a% gro"% o/ !#i.:G7alled radially elonga!ed .ell%O
in!egmen!O -arrel %#a"ed o/ !angen!ially elonga!ed .ell%O endo%"erm .on%i%!% o/ !#inG
7alled .ell% /illed 7i!# oil glo-le%O em-ryoO %mall and .ir.larO .om"o%ed o/ "olygonal
!#in 7alled .ell%&
$o7derGOilyO greyi%#G-ro7nO nder mi.ro%.o"eO "re%en.e o/ Oil glo-le% and gro"% o/
endo%"erm .ell%O .#ara.!eri%ed&
<DENT<TBO $?2<TB AND ST2ENGTH

Foreign ma!!er No! more !#an 1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&2&
To!al A%# No! more !#an 8 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&*&
A.idGin%ol-le a%# No! more !#an 6&2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&0&
Al.o#olG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 2 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&4&
;a!erG%ol-le e(!ra.!i@e No! le%% !#an 1* "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&3&
'ola!ile Oil No! le%% !#an 2&1 "er .en!O A""endi( 2&2&16&

CONST<T?ENTS G E%%en!ial oil and /i(ed oil

$2O$E2T<ES AND ACT<ON
2a%a S +aUO Ti:!a
GVa S 2W:XaO Lag#O TY:XVa
'Yrya S ?XVa
'i"Q:a S +aU
+arma S DY"anaO $Q.anaO 2.yaO AnlomanaO 9Wla#araO +Zmig#na
<M$O2TANT FO2M?LAT<ONS G Ba@QnY =Q[a@a
THE2A$E?T<C ?SES G d#mQnaO nQ#aO ?dararogaO GlmaO +ZmirogaO 9Wla
DOSE G *G4 g o/ !#e drg in "o7er /orm

219
220
THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA
OF INDIA
PART- I
VOLUME II
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE
DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices
Legal Notices | General Notices
i
CONTENTS
Legal Notices
General Notices
MONOGRAPHS
S No. Plant Name Botanical Name
Page No.
(as per book)
1 KRAKARABHA (Root) Anacyclus pyrethrum DC 1
AK!O"A (Cotyle#on) $u%lans re%&a '&nn (
( )RTA (Stem Bar*) Spon#&as p&nnata '&nn+,+Kur-+ .
/ A0)R1A (2hole 0lant) Achyranthes aspera '&nn+ 3
. A0AR$4T (Root) Cl&tor&a ternatea '&nn 15
6 RDRAKA (Rh&-ome) 7&n%&8er o,,&c&nale Rosc 1
3 AR4)EDA (Stem Bar*) Acac&a leucophloea 2&ll#+ 1.
9 AR$:NA (Stem Bar*) Term&nal&a ar;una 2< A+ 13
= BHA''TAKA (>ru&t) Semecarpus anacar#&um '&nn 1=
15 BH?@1AR$A (2hole 0lant) Ecl&pta al8a Hass* 1
11 BRH)A (2hole 0lant) Bacopa monn&er& ('&nn+) 2ettst+ .
1 B?HATA (Root) Solanum &n#&cum '&nn 3
1( CABCA (Stem) 0&per retro,ractum Bahl+ =
1/ D"4)A (See#) 0un&ca %ranatum '&nn (1
1. DR:HAR4DR (Stem) Ber8er&s ar&stata DC ((
16 DRODA0:!0A (2hole 0lant) 'eucas cephalotes Spren%+ (.
13 ERBR: (See#) Cucum&s melo Ear utl&ss&mus Duth&e
< >uller
(9
19 1A$A0400A'A (>ru&t) Sc&n#apsus o,,&c&nal&s Schooott /5
1= 1A)BHRA (>ru&t) 1mel&na ar8orea RoF8 /
5 1@1ER: (Stem 8ar*) 1reG&a tenaF (>ors*+) Aschers <
SchG,+
//
1 1:H$ (Root) A8rus precator&us '&nn /6
ii
4K!: (Stem) Saccharum o,,&cnarum '&nn /9
( 4NDRABR:DA (Root) C&trullus colocynthus Schra# .5
/ 4NDRABR:DA ('ea,) C&trullus colocynthus Schra# .
. $A)BI (See#) Sy-y%&um cum&n&& ('&nn) S*eels ./
6 $A)BI (Stem Bar*) Sy-y%&um cum&n&& ('&nn) S*eels .6
3 $ACA0'A (See#) Croton t&%l&um '&nn .9
9 $ACANJA ('ea,) Ses8an&a ses8an ('&nn) )err 65
= $COT4!)ATA (See#) Celastrus pan&culatus 2&ll#+ 6
(5 KADA)BA (Stem Bar*) Anthocephalus ca#am8a )&- 6/
(1 KKA)CA (2hole 0lant) Solanum n&%rum '&nn 66
( KA)A'A (>loGer) Nelum8o nuc&,era 1aertn 6=
(( KA04TTHA (>ru&t 0ulp) >eron&a l&non&a ('&nn+) SG&n%le 31
(/ KARA)ARDA (Stem Bar*) Car&ssa caran#as '&nn 3(
(. KARAH$A (Root Bar*) 0on%am&a p&nnata ('&nn) )err+ 3.
(6 KARAH$A (Root) 0on%am&a p&nnata ('&nn) )err+ 33
(3 KARAH$A (Stem Bar*) 0on%am&a p&nnata ('&nn) )err+ 3=
(9 KARAH$A ('ea,) 0on%am&a p&nnata ('&nn) )err+ 91
(= KRABA''AKA (>resh >ru&t) )omor#&ca charant&a '&nn 9(
/5 KAJ:K (Rh&-ome) 0&crorh&-a *urroa Royle eF Benth+ 9.
/1 KOK4'K! (2hole 0lant) Asteracantha lon%&,ol&a Nees 99
/ KOK4'K! (Root) Asteracantha lon%&,ol&a Nees =1
/( KOK4'K! (See#) Asteracantha lon%&,ol&a Nees =(
// KO7:00 (2hole 0lant) 0ortulaca oleracea '&nn+ =.
/. 'A$$': (2hole 0lant) )&mosa pu#&ca '&nn =9
/6 )ADHIKA (>loGer) )a#huca &n#&ca $+>+1mel 15
/3 )ATSCK!A (2hole 0lant) Alternanthera sess&l&s ('&lnn+) R+Br 15/
/9 )ETHA (See#)
Tr&%onella ,oenum %raecum '&nn
153
/= )I'AKA (2hole 0lant) Raphanus sat&Eus '&nn 15=
ii
.5 )I'AKA (Root) Raphanus sat&Eus '&nn 11(
.1 ):R (Root) Sel&num can#olle& DC 11/
. )IRB (Root) )ars#en&a tenac&ss&ma 2&%ht < ARn 116
.( N1AKEKARA (Stamen) )esua ,errea '&nn 119
./ NA'A ('ea,) 4n#&%o,era t&nctor&a '&nn 15
.. NA'A (Root) 4n#&%o,era t&nctor&a '&nn 1
.6 N4)BA ('ea,) A-a#&rachta &n#&ca A+ $uss 1/
.3 N4)BA (Stem Bar*) A-a#&rachta &n#&ca A+ $uss 16
.9 0A'KA (Stem Bar*) Butea monosperma ('am) Kunt-e 19
.= 0R4BHADRA (Stem Bar*) Erythr&na &n#&ca 'am 1(.
65 0400A'A)I'A (Stem) 0&per lon%um '&nn 1((
61 0'AK!A (Stem Bar*) >&cus lacor Buch+ Ham 1(3
6 0RASR4DA (2hole 0lant) 0ae#ar&a ,oet&#a '&nn 1(3
6( 0R4C'A (See#) Buchnan&a lan-an Spren%+ 1/(
6/ 0R4CA@1: (4n,lorescence) Cal&carpa macrophylla Bahl 1/(
6. K'A (Root) Ory-a sat&Ea '&nn 1/.
66 KA@KHA0:!0A (2hole 0lant) ConEolEulEus plur&caul&s Cho&sy 1/3
63 SA0TA' (2hole 0lant) Euphor8&a #racunculo&#es 'am 1.5
69 KATHB (>ru&t) Anethum soGa RoF8+eF >lem + 1.(
6= K41R: ('ea,) )or&n%a ole&,era 'am 1..
35 STHI'A4' (See#) Amomum su8ulatum RoF8 1.9
31 TE$OBATA (Stem Bar*) 7anthoFylum armatum DC 165
3 T:'ASA (2hole 0lant) Oc&mum sanctum '&nn 16
3( T:'ASA ('ea,) Oc&mum sanctum '&nn 16.
3/ BAC (Rh&-ome) Acorus calamus '&nn 169
3. BATSANBHA (Root) Acon&tum chasmanthum Staph EF
Holmes
131
36 B4DRA (Tu8erous Root) 0urar&a tu8erose DC 13(
iv
33 CABA (>ru&t) Hor#eum Eul%are '&nn 13.
39 CABSAKA (2hole 0lant) Alha%h& pseu#alha%& (B&e8+) DesE 133
v
'E1A' NOT4CES
In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs
which follow. hese monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed
b! these laws wherever the! are applicable.
It is e"pedient that en#uir! be made in each case in order to ensure that the
provisions of the law are being complied with.
In general$ the %rugs & Cosmetics Act$ '()* +subse#uentl! amended in '(,)
and '(-./$ the %angerous %rugs Act$ '(0* and the 1oisons Act$ '('( and the rules
framed thereunder should be consulted.
2nder the %rugs & Cosmetics Act$ the A!urvedic 1harmacopoeia of India
+A.1.I./$ 1art3I$ 4ol. II$ is the boo5 of standards for single drugs included therein and
the standards prescribed in the A!urvedic 1harmacopoeia of India$ 1art3I$ 4ol. II
would be official. If considered necessar! these standards can be amended and the
Chairman of the A!urvedic 1harmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such
amendments. 6henever such amendments are issued the A!urvedic
1harmacopoeia of India$ 1art3I$ 4ol. II$ would be deemed to have been amended
accordingl!.
vi
1ENERA' NOT4CES
Title - The title of the book is Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of
Name of the Drugs - The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in
Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of
India Part-I and Part-II !ill be considered official" These names have been arranged in
#nglish alphabetical order" The $atin name %ta&onomical nomenclature' of each drug as
found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the
introductory paragraph" The official name !ill be the main title of the drug and its
scientific name !ill also be considered as legal name"
Introductory Para - #ach monograph begins !ith an introductory paragraph indicating
the part scientific name of the drug in $atin !ith short description about its habit
distribution and method of collection if any"
Synonyms - Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit #nglish
(indi )rdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the
classical te&ts Ayurvedic Formulary of India Part-I and Part-II as procured from the
e&perts scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states"
Italics - Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the
introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents
substances or processes described in Appendi&"
Odour and Taste - *herever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned
but the description as +odourless, or +no odour, has in many cases been avoided in the
description as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour" The odour- is
e&amined by directly smelling ./ g of the po!dered drug contained in a package or
freshly po!dered" If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open
container and re-e&amined after 0/ minutes" If the odour persists to be discernible it is
described as having odour"
The Taste- of a drug is e&amined by taking a small 1uantity of 2/ mesh po!der
by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed !ith !ater" This
may not be done in case if poisonous drugs indicated in monograph"
Mesh Number - *herever the po!dering of the drug has been re1uired the sieve 3esh
4umber 2/- has been used" This !ill not apply for drugs containing much oily substance"
Weights and Measures - The metric system of !eights and measures is employed"
*eights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme %g' or of a milligram %mg'" Fluid
measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre %ml'"
*hen the term drop- is used the measurement is to be made by means of a
tube !hich delivers in .5 drops 0 gram of distilled !ater at 0/
o
6"
3etric measures are re1uired by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at .5
o
6 and
all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are
intended unless other!ise stated to be made at that temperature"
Identity, Purity and Strength - )nder the heading Identification- tests are provided
as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs"
vi
The term Foreign 3atter- is used to designate any matter !hich does not form
part of the drug as defined in the monograph" 7egetable drugs used as such or in
formulations should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects
pests fungi micro-organisms pesticides and other animal matter including animal
e&creta be !ithin the permitted and specified limits for lead arsenic and heavy metals
and sho! no abnormal odour colour sliminess mould or other evidence of
deterioration"
The 1uantitative tests e"g" total ash acid-insoluble ash !ater-soluble ash
alcohol-soluble e&tractive !ater- soluble e&tractive ether-soluble e&tractive moisture
content volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon !hich the standards of
Pharmacopoeia depend" The methods for assays are described in their respective
monographs and for other 1uantitative tests methods are not repeated in the te&t of
monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendi& is given" The
analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is
satisfied that the method !hich he uses !ill give the same result as the
Pharmacopoeial 3ethod" In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis if of
e1uivalent accuracy may be substituted for the tests and assays described" (o!ever in
the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone
authoritative"
Limits for ea!y Metals 8 All Ayurvedic 9rugs %Single/6ompound formulation' must
comply !ith the limits for (eavy 3etals prescribed in individual 3onograph and !herever
limit is not given then they must comply !ith the limits given in *(: publication
;uality 6ontrol 3ethods for 3edicinal Plants and 3aterial-"
Standards - For statutory purpose statements appearing in the API Part-I 7ol" 7
under 9escription those of definition of the part and source plants and Identity Purity
and Strength shall constitute standards"
Thin Layer "hromatogra#hy $T%L%"%& - )nder this head !herever given the number
of spots and <f values of the spots !ith their colour have been mentioned as a guide for
identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial re1uirement" (o!ever the analyst
may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied
that the method !hich he uses even by applying kno!n reference standards !ill give
better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to
be present in the drug"
'uantities to be (eighed for )ssays and Tests - In all description 1uantity of the
substance to be taken for testing is indicated" The amount stated is appro&imate but the
1uantity actually used must be accurately !eighed and must not deviate by more than
05 per cent from the one stated"
"onstant Weight - the term 6onstant *eight- !hen it refers to drying or ignition
means that t!o consecutive !eighings do not differ by more than 0"5 mg per g of the
substance taken for the determination the second !eighing follo!ing an additional hour
of drying on further ignition"
"onstituents - )nder this head only the names of important chemical constituents
groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide
and not as pharmacopoeial re1uirement"
Percentage of Solutions - In defining standards the e&pression per cent %=' is used
according to circumstances !ith one of the four meanings given belo!"
Per cent !/! %percentage !eight in !eight' e&presses the number of grammes of
active substance in 055 grammes of product"
vi
Per cent !/v %Percentage !eight in volume' e&presses the number of grammes of
active substance in 055 millilitres of product"
Per cent v/v %percentage volume in volume' e&presses the number of millilitres of
active substance in 055 millilitres of product"
Per cent v/! %percentage volume in !eight' e&presses the number of millilitres of
active substance in 055 grammes of product"
Percentage of alcohol - All statements of percentage of alcohol %6.(/:(' refer to
percentage by volume at 0/"/>
o
6"
Tem#erature - )nless other!ise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade %celsius'
thermometric scale"
Solutions - )nless other!ise specified in the individual monograph all solutions are
prepared !ith purified !ater"
*eagents and Solutions - The chemicals and reagents re1uired for the test in
Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices"
Solubility - *hen stating the solubilities of 6hemical substances the term Soluble- is
necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical
changes"
Statements of solubilities !hich are e&pressed as a precise relation of !eights of
dissolved substance of volume of solvent at a stated temperature are intended to apply
at that temperature" Statements of appro&imate solubilities for !hich no figures are
given are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature"
Pharmacopoeial chemicals !hen dissolved may sho! slight physical impurities
such as fragment of filter papers fibres and dust particles unless e&cluded by definite
tests in the individual monographs"
*hen the e&pression parts- is used in defining the solubility of a substance it is
to be understood to mean that 0 gramme of a solid or 0 millilitre of a li1uid is soluble in
that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts"
*hen the e&act solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not kno!n a
descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility"
The follo!ing table indicates the meaning of such terms ?-
Descri#ti!e terms *elati!e +uantities of sol!ent
7ery soluble $ess than 0 part
Freely soluble From 0 to 05 parts
Soluble From 05 to @5 parts
Sparingly soluble From @5 to 055 parts
Slightly soluble From 055 to 0555 parts
7ery slightly soluble From 0555 to 05555 parts
Practically insoluble 3ore than 05555 parts
ix
Thera#eutic uses and im#ortant formulations 8Therapeutic uses and important
formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are as provided in the recognised
Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India Part 8I and Part-II"
Doses 8 The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of !eights
!hich are the appro&imate conversions from classical !eights mentioned in Ayurvedic
te&ts" A conversion table is appended giving classical !eights of Ayurvedic System of
3edicine !ith their metric e1uivalents" 9oses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia
of India %A"P"I"' are intended merely for general guidance and represent unless
other!ise stated the average range of 1uantities per dose !hich is generally regarded
suitable by clinicians for adults only !hen administered orally"
It is to be noted that the relation bet!een doses in metric and Ayurvedic
systems set forth in the te&t is of appro&imate e1uivalence" These 1uantities are for
convenience of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes"
The abbreviations commonly employed are as follo!s?

)bbre!iations of technical terms
m 3etre
l $itre
mm 3illimetre
cm 6entimetre
A 3icron %5"550 mm'
kg Bilogram
g Cramme
mg 3illigram
ml 3illilitre
in 4ormal solution
5"/ 4 (alf-normal solution
5"0 4 9ecinormal solution
03 3olar solution
Fam" Family
PS Primary Standards
TS Transverse Section
x
)bbre!iations used for Languages
Sansk" Sanskrit
Assam" Assamese
Deng" Dengali
#ng" #nglish
CuE" CuErati
Ban" Bannada
Bash" Bashmiri
3al" 3alayalam
3ar" 3arathi
:ri" :riya
PunE" PunEabi
Tam" Tamil
Tel" Telugu
),,*-.I)TIONS /O* P)*TS O/ PL)NTS
6otyledon 6otldn"
Flo!er Fl"
Fruit Fr"
(eart *ood (t" *d"
$eaf $f"
Pseudo-bulb Pseudo-bulb
<oot Dark <t" Dk"
<oot <t"
<hiFome <F"
Seed Sd"
Stem Dark St" Dk"
Stem St"
Tuberous <oot Tub" <t"
*ood *d"
*hole Plant *h" Pl"
xi
1+ A*ara*ara8ha (R)t+)
KRAKARABHA (Root)
*Lra*ara8ha cons&sts o, #r&e# roots o, Anacyclus pyrethrum DC+ (>am+ Asteraceae)M
an annualN ha&ry her8 G&th numerous sprea#&n% prostrate or ascen#&n% 8ranche# stems+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O *alla*a
Assamese O Kule*hara
Ben%al& O A*ara*ara
En%l&sh O 0ell&tory
1u;rat& O A**al*aroN A**al%aro
H&n#& O A*al*ara
Kanna#a O A**alla*araN A*alla*araN A*ala*ara8haN A**alla*a Hommu%ulu
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O A*&*aru*aN A*raEu
)arath& O A**ala*araN A**ala*a#a
Or&ya O A*ara*ara
0un;a8& O A*ara*ara8hN A*ara*ara
Tam&l O A**ara*aN A**ara*aram
Telu%u O A**ala*arra
:r#u O AQaraQarha
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Roots tou%hN cyl&n#r&calN 3P1. cm &n len%thN taper&n% sl&%htly at 8oth en#sN G&th a ,eG
ha&ry rootlets an# occas&onally toppe# 8y 8r&stly rema&ns o, leaEesN eFternal sur,ace rou%hN
8roGnN shr&Eelle#N 8ar* upto ( mm th&c*N not eas&ly separa8leN o#ourN sl&%htly aromat&cN
12
tasteN character&st&cally astr&n%ent an# pun%entN on cheG&n% %&Ees t&n%l&n% sensat&on to
ton%ue an# l&ps an# causes eFcess&Ee ,loG o, sal&Ea+

8) )&croscop&c
Root P )ature root shoGs cor* cons&st&n% o, ta8ular cellsN many o, Gh&ch #eEelope#
as sclerenchymaM a ,eG &nnercor* cells conta&n rosette crystals o, calc&um oFalateM
secon#ary corteF cons&st&n% o, &so#&ametr&c or tan%ent&allyN elon%ate#N th&nPGalle#N
parenchymatous cellsM a ,eG sclerenchymatous cells also ,oun# scattere# &n secon#ary
corteFM secon#ary phloem cons&st&n% o, usual elementsN cam8&um P. layere#N secon#ary
Fylem Eery G&#e cons&st&n% o, Fylem EesselsN trache&#s an# Fylem parenchymaM Eessels
p&tte#N more or less &n %roups #&str&8ute# throu%hout FylemN more an# G&#er Eessels ,oun#
toGar#s per&peryN Fylem ,&8res th&c*PGalle#N 1+(3P9+9 &n G&#thN .(+ P (1 &n len%th
haE&n% narroG lumenN me#ullary rays numerousN runn&n% stra&%htN 8& to tr& an# mult&ser&ateN
un&ser&ate rays Eery rareN start&n% ,rom pr&mary Fylem an# reach&n% upto secon#ary corteFM
ray cells th&c*PGalle#N ra#&ally elon%ate#N &nul&n present &n cells o, secon#ary corteFN
secon#ary phloem an# me#ullary raysM oleoPres&nous sch&-o%enous %lan#s ,oun# scattere# &n
secon#ary corteFN secon#ary phloem an# me#ullary raysM calc&um oFalate crystals &n rosette
,orm present &n secon#ary corteFN secon#ary phloemN secon#ary Fylem an# me#ullary ray
cells+
0oG#er P Ash coloure#M shoGs Eessels haE&n% scalar&,orm th&c*en&n%N rosette crystals o,
calc&um oFalate an# ,ra%ments o, sclerenchymaM also %&Ees pos&t&Ee tests ,or &nul&n+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than percentN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 15 percentN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than percentN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 9 percentN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not )ore than percentN Appen#&F ++3+

CONST4T:ENTS P Bolat&le o&l an# Al*alo&# (0yrethr&n)+

0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
13
Rasa O KaRu
1uSa O RT*UaN TV*USa
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN 0&ttaharaN KaphaharaN Ku*ralaN BL;&*araN SEe#a*araN DVpanaN
Bu##h&Ear#ha*aN Bala*Lra*a
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P KumLryLsaEaN KastTryL#& (BLyu) 1uR&*LN NL%aEalla8ha
Rasa
THERA0E:T4C :SES P 0rat&WyLyaN KothaN A;VrSaN KLsaN KELsaN 1X#hrasVN 0a*UL%hLtaN
:#araro%aN NaURLrtaEaN KTlaro%aN DantaWTla
DOSE P 5+. P1 % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


14
+ A*sho#a (Cotl#n+)
AK!O"A (Cotyle#on)
A*UoYa cons&sts o, #r&e# cotyle#ons o, $u%lans re%&a '&nn+ (>am+ $u%lan#aceae)M a
lar%e #ec&#uousN monoec&ous tree G&th tomentose shootsN ,oun# throu%hout the H&malayas
upto an alt&tu#e o, =55P((55 m+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O A*UoRaN Sa&la8haEaN Karparala
Assamese O A*al8as&n%
Ben%al& O Aa*harotu
En%l&sh O 2alnut
1u;rat& O A*haro#a
H&n#& O A*harot
Kanna#a O A*ro# pappu
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O A*rottu
)arath& O A*ro#
Or&ya O A*hrot
0un;a8& O A*harota
Tam&l O A*rotu
Telu%u O A*rotu
:r#u O A*hrot
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Cotyle#ons aEa&la8le &n P( cm lon%N sl&%htly curEe#N cor&aceousN &rre%ularly
corru%ate#N 8ro*en p&ecesN cream&shP8roGnN o#ourN not #&st&nctM tasteN o&ly sGeet+

15
8) )&croscop&c
Cotyle#on P ShoGs 1P layere#N ra#&ally elon%ate#N th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous
cellsN ra&se# stomata G&th more or less curEe# %uar# cellsN ,olloGe# 8y more or less
compresse#N collapse#N paranchymatous cells haE&n% Eascular 8un#lesM un#er th&sN &n#&st&nct
tan%ent&ally elon%ate# cells presentM en#osperm mostly s&n%le layere#M cotyle#ons cons&st&n%
o, a G&#e -one o, oEal to poly%onalN th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cellsN small aleurone
%ra&ns an# ,at present &n en#osperm an# cotyle#ons+
0oG#er P Cream coloure#N shoGs %roups o, cells o, cotyle#onN a8un#ance o, roun# o&l
%lo8ules an# rarely Eessels+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than . percentN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than percentN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 5+. percentN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 15+5 percentN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 3+5 percentN Appen#&F ++3+

CONST4T:ENTS P 2alnut o&l an# Tann&n+

0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O )a#hura
1uSa O 1uruN Sn&%#haN Sara
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O )a#hura
Karma O BLtaharaN Kapha*araN BXZhaSaN Ku*ralaN BalyaN BXUyaN B&URam8h&N HX#ya
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P AmXtaprLWa 1hXta
THERA0E:T4C :SES P KUataN KUayaN BLtaro%a
DOSE P 15 P . %
16
(+ Amrata (St+B*+)
)RTA (Stem Bar*)
mrLta cons&sts o, #r&e# stem 8ar* o, Spon#&as p&nnata '&nn+ ,+ Kur-+ Syn+ S+
man%&,era 2&ll#+M S+ acum&nata RoF8+ non 1am8le (>am+ Anacar#&aceae)M a small aromat&cN
#ec&#uous treeN upto 3 m h&%h an# +. m &n %&rthN ,oun# G&l# or cult&Eate# almost throu%hout
the country an# &n the An#amans ascen#&n% upto an alt&tu#e o, 1.55 m &n the H&malayas+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O mrLta*aN )ar*aRLmra
Assamese O PP
Ben%al& O Ama#aN Amra
En%l&sh O 4n#&an Ho% 0lumN 2&l# )an%o
1u;rat& O Am8e#aN Am8a#oN Ranam8aN $an%al& Am8oN Ranam8o
H&n#& O Am8a#aN AmraN $an%l& Aam
Kanna#a O Am8ateN AmEara
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O )ampusl&N Am8alamN Am8a-hamN )ampu&t&N Ampo-ham N;ett&*u-h&yan
maEu+
)arath& O Am8a#o
Or&ya O PP
0un;a8& O Ama#a
Tam&l O )am8ul&ch& Amputta&N Am8a#am
Telu%u O Amrata*amuN An8alamuN A#aE&mam&#&
:r#u O $an%l& Aam
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
17
Dru% occurs &n the ,orm o, P3 cm lon% cut p&ecesN curEe#N th&nN eFternal sur,ace
smoothN %rey haE&n% lent&celsN &nternal sur,ace re##&shPyelloGM ,ractureN lam&nate#+

8) )&croscop&c
Stem Bar*P )ature 8ar* shoGs cor* as a G&#e -one o, 1.P. roGsN cons&st&n% o,
tan%ent&ally elon%ate#N ra#&ally arran%e#N th&nPGalle# cellsN a ,eG outer cells eF,ol&ate#M
secon#ary corteF cons&st&n% o, tan%ent&ally elon%ate#N parenchymatous cellsN Gh&ch are
th&c*PGalle# toGar#s per&pheryN ,&rst ,olloGe# 8y a -one o, compactly arran%e# cells ,&lle#
G&th rosette an# pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalate an# neFt 8y another G&#er -one o,
compactly arran%e# stone cellsM rest o, the cells ,olloG&n% the stone cell -one are th&nP
Galle#N tan%ent&ally elon%ate#N parenchymatousN G&th re##&shP8roGn contentsN an# also
rosette crystals o, calc&um oFalateM s&mpleN roun# to oEal starch %ra&ns measur&n% +3.P1/
&n #&a+N a ,eG pr&smat&c crystals present &n th&s -oneM secon#ary phloem cons&st&n% o, usual
elementsN phloem ,&8res arran%e# &n tan%ent&al 8an#sN th&c*PGalle#N l&%n&,&e#N alternat&n%
G&th the patches o, phloem ,&8resN prom&nent lyso%enous caE&t&es are presentN surroun#e# 8y
a num8er o, tann&n sacsM phloem parenchyma cons&st&n% o, th&n Galle# cellsN conta&n&n%
rosette crystals an# starch %ra&nsN s&m&lar to those ,oun# scattere# &n secon#ary corteF+
0oG#er P '&%ht 8roGnM shoGs cor* cellsN stone cellsN phloem ,&8res measur&n% 955P1555
&n len%th an# 1/P9 &n G&#thN rosette an# pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalate an#
numerous roun#e# to oEal starch %ra&nsN measur&n% (P1/ &n #&ameter+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 1( per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 5+. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than ( per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 3 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
18
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca 1el [1[ us&n% nPButanol O Acet&c ac&#O
2ater (/O1 O.) shoGs three spots at R,+ 5+((N 5+/5 an# 5+93 (all %rey&sh 8roGn)+ :n#er :+B+
((66 nm) one ,luorescent -one &s E&s&8le at R,+ 5+=6+ On spray&n% G&th .\ )ethanol&cP
0hosphomoly8#&c ac&# rea%ent an# heat&n% the plate ,or a8out ten m&nutes at 115C three
spots appear at R,+ 5+((+(%rey&sh 8roGn)N 5+93 (8lue) an# 5+=6 (8lue)+


CONST4T:ENTS P Tann&n an# Starch


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaULyaN Amla
1uSa O 1uruN Sara
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O PP
Karma O BLtaharaN 0&tta*araN Kapha*araN Ruc&*XtN KaSRhyaN ma#oUaharaN HX#yaN
Bahn&*ara
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P DL#h&*a 1hXta
THERA0E:T4C :SES P Ra*tap&ttaN KUayaN KUataN DLha
DOSE P .P15 % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm ,or #ecoct&on+

19
/+ Apamar%a (2+0+)
A0)R1A (2hole 0lant)
ApLmLr%a cons&sts o, #r&e# Ghole plant o, Achyranthes aspera '&nn+ (>am+
Amaranthaceae)M a st&,,N erectN 5+(P5+= m h&%h her8N ,oun# commonly as a Gee# throu%hout
4n#&a up to =55 m+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O )ayTraN )ayTra*aN 0ratya*puUpaN Kharama];arN K&*har&
Assamese O PP
Ben%al& O Apam%
En%l&sh O 0r&c*ly Cha,, >loGer
1u;rat& O A%he#o
H&n#& O Ch&rch&taN 'at;&ra
Kanna#a O :ttaran&
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Katalat&
)arath& O A%ha#a
Or&ya O PP
0un;a8& O 0utha*an#a
Tam&l O NayuruE&
Telu%u O :ttarenu
:r#u O Ch&rch&ta
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Root P Cyl&n#r&cal tap rootN sl&%htly r&88e#N 5+1P1+5 cm &n th&c*nessN %ra#ually
taper&n%N rou%h #ue to presence o, some root scarsN secon#ary an# tert&ary roots presentN
yelloG&shP8roGnM o#ourN not #&st&nct+
20
Stem P 5+( P 5+. cm &n cut p&ecesN yelloG&shP8roGnN erectN 8ranche#N cyl&n#r&calN ha&ryN sol&#N
holloG Ghen #ry+
'ea, P S&mpleN su8sess&leN eFst&pulateN oppos&teN #ecussateN GaEy mar%&nN o8oEateN sl&%htly
acum&nate an# pu8escent #ue to the presence o, th&c* coat o, lon% s&mple ha&rs+
>loGer P Arran%e# &n &n,lorescence o, lon% sp&*esN %reen&shPGh&teN numerousN sess&leN
8racteate G&th tGo 8racteolesN one sp&ne l&ppe#N 8&seFualN act&nomorph&cN hypo%ynousM
per&anth se%ments .N,reeN mem8ranousN contorte# or Qu&ncunc&alN stamens .N oppos&teN the
per&anth lo8esN connate ,orm&n% a mem8ranous tu8ePl&*e structureN alternat&n% G&th truncate
an# ,&m8r&ate stam&no#esN ,&lament shortM antherN tGo celle#N #ors&,&Fe#M %ynoec&um
8&carpellaryN syncarpousM oEary super&orN un&locular G&th s&n%le oEuleM styleN s&n%leM st&%maN
cap&tate+
>ru&t P An &n#eh&scent #ry utr&cle enclose# G&th&n pers&stentN per&anth an# 8racteolesN
See# P Su8Pcyl&n#r&cN truncate at the apeFN roun# at the 8aseN en#osperm&cN 8roGn+

8) )&croscop&c
Root P )ature root shoGs (P9 layere#N rectan%ularN tan%ent&ally elon%ate#N th&nP
Galle# cor* cellsM secon#ary corteF cons&st&n% o, 6P= layersN oEal to rectan%ularN th&nP
Galle#N parenchymatous cells haE&n% a ,eG scattere# s&n%le or %roups o, stone cellsM
,olloGe# 8y /P6 #&scont&nuous r&n%s o, anomalous secon#ary th&c*en&n% compose# o,
Eascular t&ssuesM small patches o, s&eEe tu8es #&st&nct &n phloem parenchymaN #emarcat&n%
the Fylem r&n%sM Fylem compose# o, usual elementsM Eessels s&mple p&tte#M me#ullary rays
1P( cells G&#eM small pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalate present &n cort&cal re%&on an#
numerous &n me#ullary rays+
21
Stem P Coun% stem shoGs 6P15 prom&nent r&#%esN Gh&ch #&m&n&sh #oGnGar#s upto the 8ase
Ghere &t 8ecomes almost cyl&n#r&calM ep&#erm&s s&n%le layere#N coEere# 8y th&c* cut&cle
haE&n% un&ser&ateN P. celle#N coEer&n% tr&chomes an# %lan#ular G&th %lo8ular hea#N (P/
celle# stal*M corteF 6P15 layere#N compose# o, parenchymatous cellsN most o, them
conta&n&n% rosette crystals o, calc&um oFalateM &n the r&#%es corteF collenchymatousM
Eascular 8un#les l&e ,ac&n% each r&#%e cappe# 8y per&cycl&c ,&8resM transEerse sect&on o,
mature stem shoGs l&%n&,&e#N th&nPGalle# cor* cellsM per&cycle a #&scont&nuous r&n% o,
l&%n&,&e# ,&8resM Eascular t&ssues shoG anomalous secon#ary %roGth haE&n% /P6 &ncomplete
r&n%s o, Fylem an# phloemM secon#ary phloem cons&st&n% o, usual elements ,orm &ncomplete
r&n%sM cam8&al str&p present 8etGeen secon#ary Fylem an# phloemM secon#ary Fylem
cons&st&n% o, usual elementsN ,&8res 8e&n% a8sentM Eessels annularN sp&ralN scalar&,orm an#
p&tte#N ,&8res p&tte#N elon%ate#N l&%n&,&e#M p&th G&#e cons&st&n% o, oEal to poly%onalN
parenchymatous cellsM tGo me#ullary 8un#lesN e&ther separate throu%hout or ,oun# &n some
casesN present &n p&thM m&croPspheno&#al s&l&ca crystals present &n some ep&#ermalN cort&cal
an# p&th cells+
'ea,P
0et&ole P ShoGs crescentPshape# outl&neN haE&n% s&n%lePlayere# ep&#erm&s G&th th&c*cut&cleM
%roun# t&ssues cons&st&n% o, th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cells conta&n&n% rosette crystals o,
calc&um oFalateM /P. Eascular 8un#le s&tuate# &n m&# re%&on+
)&#r&8 P ShoGs a s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&sN on 8oth sur,acesM ep&#erm&s ,olloGe# 8y /P.
layere# collenchyma on upper s&#e an# P( layere# on loGer s&#eM %roun# t&ssue cons&st&n%
o, th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cells haE&n% a num8er o, Eascular 8un#lesM each Eascular
8un#le shoGs 8eloG the Fylem EesselsN th&n layers o, cam8&umN ,olloGe# 8y phloem an# a
per&cycle represente# 8y P( layers o, th&c*PGalle#N nonPl&%n&,&e# cellsM rosette crystals o,
calc&um oFalate ,oun# scattere# &n %roun# t&ssues+
22
'am&na P ShoGs s&n%le layere#N tan%ent&ally elon%ate# ep&#erm&s cells coEere# G&th th&c*
cut&cle haE&n% coEer&n% tr&chomes Gh&ch are s&m&lar to those o, stem ,oun# on 8oth sur,acesM
mesophyll #&,,erent&ate# &nto pal&sa#e an# spon%y parenchymaM pal&sa#e P/ layere# o, th&c*
parenchyma lar%erN sl&%htly elon%ate# &n upperN Gh&le smaller an# rectan%ular &n loGer
sur,aceM spon%y parenchyma (P. layers th&c*N more or less &so#&amet&c parenchymatous
cellsM &#&o8last conta&n&n% lar%e rosette crystals o, calc&um oFalate #&str&8ute# &n pal&sa#e
an# spon%y parenchyma cellsM stomata an&socyt&c an# anomoacyt&c &n 8oth sur,aceM stomatal
&n#eF /+.P=+5 on upper sur,aceN =+5P5+5 on loGer sur,aceM pal&sa#e rat&o 3+5P11M Ee&n &slet
num8er 3P1( per sQ+ mm+
0oG#er P '&%ht yelloGM shoGs ,ra%ments o, elon%ate#N rectan%ularN th&nPGalle# ep&#ermal
cellsN aseptate ,&8resN Eessels G&th annularN sp&ralN scalar&,orm an# p&tte# th&c*en&n%N
un&ser&ate ha&r G&th 8ul8ous 8aseN rosette an# pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalate+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 13 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than . per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

CONST4T:ENTS P Sapon&ns

0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaRuN T&*ta
1uSa O TV*USaN Sara
BVrya O :USa
23
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O KaphaharaN BLtaharaN )e#oharaN Che#anaN DVpanaN 0LcanaN BLma*aN
K&roE&recana
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P ApLmLr%a*ULraN ApLmLr%a*ULra Ta&laN A8hayL 'aEaSaN
1uYap&ppal&N $yot&UmatV Ta&la
THERA0E:T4C :SES P KTlaN :#ara Ro%aN ApacVN ArWaN KaSYTN )e#oro%a
DOSE P 5P.5 % o, the #ru% ,or #ecoct&on+

24
.+ Apara;&ta (Rt+)
A0AR$4T (Root)
AparL;&tL cons&sts o, #r&e# root o, Cl&tor&a ternatea '&nn+ (>am+ >a8aceae)M a perenn&al
cl&m8er G&th slen#er #oGny stemN ,oun# throu%hout the trop&cal re%&ons o, the country 8e&n%
cult&Eate# &n %ar#ens eEery Ghere an# o,ten also ,oun# %roG&n% oEer he#%es an# th&c*ets+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O 1&r&*arS&*LN B&USu*rLntL
Assamese O Apara;&ta
Ben%al& O Apara;&ta
En%l&sh O Cl&tor&a
1u;rat& O 1o*arn&
H&n#& O Apara;&ta
Kanna#a O 1&r&*arn&*a Ball&N 1&r&*arn&*a
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Shan*hapushapam
)arath& O 1o*arnaN Apara;&ta
Or&ya O Apara;&ta
0un;a8& O Koyal
Tam&l O Ka**anam
Telu%u O D&ntena
:r#u O PP
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Dru% cons&st&n% o, a stout tap root G&th a ,eG tortuous 8ranchesN cyl&n#r&calN 1P. mm
&n th&c*nessN a ,eG places shoG crac*s #ue to presence o, lent&celsN colourN l&%htP8roGnN
,ractureN ,&8rousM tasteN 8&tter+
25
8) )&croscop&c
Root P ShoGs 15P5 or more layers o, rectan%ularN th&nPGalle#N tan%ent&ally
elon%ate# eF,ol&at&n% cor* cellsM secon#ary corteF cons&sts o, 15P1 roGs o, lar%eN
poly%onalN th&n Galle# cells ,&lle# G&th starch %ra&nsN a ,eG cells conta&n pr&smat&c crystals
o, calc&um oFalate &n th&s re%&onM s&n%le or %roups o, P15 l&%n&,&e# cort&cal ,&8resN
#&str&8ute# &n the loGer hal, o, the corteFM secon#ary phloem cons&sts o, usual elementsM
phloem ,&8res P9 &n %roupsN a ,eG sol&tary ,&8res also presentN Eery lon%N th&nPGalle# G&th
narroG lumen an# po&nte# t&psM secon#ary Fylem cons&sts o, usual elementsM Eessels p&tte#
G&th o8lon%N 8or#ere# p&ts an# haEe short con&cal ta&l at one en#N mostly occur or ( &n
%roupsM Fylem ,&8res s&m&lar to those o, phloem ,&8resN a ,eG shoG&n% sl&tPl&*e p&tsM
me#ullary rays 1P. cells G&#eN o8lon% an# p&tte#M Fylem parenchyma &rre%ular &n shape an#
p&tte# GallsM
starch %ra&ns s&mple as Gell as compoun# haE&n% P6 componentsN s&n%le %ra&ns measur&n%
(P1( &n #&a+N ,oun# &n secon#ary corteFN phloem an# Fylem parenchyma+
0oG#er P CelloG&shP8roGnM shoGs s&mple an# compoun# starch %ra&nsN measur&n% (P1(
&n #&a+N Eessels G&th o8lon% 8or#ere# p&ts an# ,ra%ments o, ,&8res+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than . per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than . per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 9 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ us&n% Chloro,ormO
Ethylacetate O >orm&c Ac&# (.O/O1) E^E shoGs one spot at R,+ 5+3= (#ull yelloG) &n E&s&8le l&%ht+
:n#er :+B+ ((66 nm) a spot &s seen at R,+ 5+3= (8lue)+ On eFposure to 4o#&ne Eapour tGo spots
appear at R,+ 5+./ an# 5+3= (8oth yelloG)+ On spray&n% G&th 15\ aQueous solut&on o, >err&c
26
Chlor&#e an# heat&n% the plate at 15. C ,or a8out ,&,teen m&nutes one spots appears at R,+
5+3= (%rey)+

CONST4T:ENTS P Tann&nN StarchN Res&nN TaraFerol < TaraFerone+

0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O T&*taN KaULyaN KaRu
1uSa O PP
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN 0&ttaharaN KaphaharaN KaSRhyaN )e#hyaN Ca*UuUyaN B&UaharaN
Bu##h&pra#a
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P )&Wra*a SnehaN BLtara*tLnta*a Rasa
THERA0E:T4C :SES P )Ttraro%aN KuURhaN KothaN BraSaN KTla
DOSE P 1 P ( % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


27
6+ Ar#ra*a (R-+)
RDRAKA (Rh&-ome)
r#ra*a cons&sts o, ,resh rh&-ome o, 7&n%&8er o,,&c&nale Rosc+ (>am+ 7&n%&8eraceae)M a
her8aceous rh&-omatous perenn&alN reach&n% up to =5 cm &n he&%htN G&#ely cult&Eate# &n 4n#&a+
Rh&-omes are #u% &n $anuaryP>e8ruaryN 8u#s an# roots are remoEe# an# Gashe# Gell+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O KaRu8ha#raN KX_%aEera
Assamese O Kule*hara
Ben%al& O A#a
En%l&sh O 1&n%er
1u;rat& O A#u
H&n#& O A#ara*ha
Kanna#a O AllaN Has&shunt&
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O 4nch&
)arath& O Ar#ra*N Ale
Or&ya O PP
0un;a8& O A#&N A#ra*
Tam&l O 4n;eeN AllamN la*otta&N 4n;&
Telu%u O AllamuN Allam
:r#u O A#ra*
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Dru% occurs as ent&re rh&-ome or &n p&ecesN rh&-ome laterally compresse# 8ear&n%
,latt&sh oEateN o8l&Que 8ranches on upper s&#eN each haE&n% a #epresse# scar at &ts apeFN
p&eces .P1. cm lon%N 1+.P6+. cm G&#e (usually (P/ cm) an# 1P1+. cm th&c*N ,ractureN short
28
G&th pro;ect&n% ,&8resN transEersely cut sur,ace shoGs a G&#e central stele haE&n% numerous
%rey&sh cut en#s o, ,&8res an# yelloG secret&n% cellsM o#ourN %&n%eryM tasteN pun%ent+

8) )&croscop&c
Rh&-ome P ShoGs a ,eG layere#N &rre%ularly arran%e#N tan%ent&ally elon%ate#N 8roGn
cells o, outer cor* an# 6P1 roGs o, th&nPGalle#N colourlessN ra#&ally arran%e# cells o, &nner
cor*M secon#ary corteF cons&st&n% o, heFa%onal to poly%onalN &so#&ametr&cN th&nPGalle#N
parenchymatous cells conta&n&n% numerous c&rcular to oEal starch %ra&ns G&th str&at&ons an#
h&lum at one en# G&th clear concentr&c str&at&onsN measur&n% .P. &n #&a+N &#&o8lasts
conta&n&n% lar%e yelloG&sh to 8roGn&sh %lo8ules o, oleoPres&nM Galls o, o&l cells su8er&se#M
numerous close#N con;o&ntN collateralN cort&cal ,&8roPEascular 8un#les scattere# throu%hout
cort&cal -oneN %reater num8er occurr&n% &n &nner cort&cal re%&onN lar%er 8un#les cons&sts o, P
3 EesselsN small cells o, s&eEe tu8eN poly%onal cells o, parenchyma an# %roup o, ,&8resM
Eessels shoG&n% ret&culateN scalar&,orrn an# sp&ral th&c*en&n%M ,&8res septate G&th a ,eG
o8l&Que pores on the&r GallsM en#o#erm&s s&n%le layere#N ,ree ,rom starchM per&cycle s&n%le
layere# enclos&n% central steleM stele cons&st&n% o, th&nPGalle# poly%onalN &so#&ametr&c cells
o, parenchymaN ,&lle# G&th a8un#ant starch %ra&nsN oleoPres&n cells s&m&lar to those present &n
corteFM ,&8roEascular 8un#les o, tGo typesN those arran%e# alon% per&cycle &n a #e,&n&te r&n%
are smaller &n s&-e an# #eEo&# o, ,&8resN Eessels P. &n num8erN lar%er 8un#les ,oun#
scattere# throu%hout steleN compose# o, FylemN phloemN parenchyma an# sheath o,
sclerenchyma+
0oG#er P'&%ht yelloGM shoGs th&nPGalle# parenchymatous cellsN septate ,&8res G&th o8l&QueN
elon%ate# p&ts on the&r GallsN ret&culate an# sp&ral EesselsN oleoPres&n cells a8un#entN s&n%le
starch %ra&ns o, Eary&n% shapes G&th eccentr&c h&lumN measur&n% .P. &n #&ameter+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than 5+. per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 9 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than . per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than per centN Appen#&F ++3+
)o&sture content Not more than =5 per centN Appen#&F ++=
29
T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n% Ben-eneO Ethyl acetate
(=O 1) &n E&s&8le l&%ht ,our spots are seen at R, 5+16N 5+(.N 5+6( < 5+6= (all l&%ht yelloG)+ :n#er
:+B+ ((66 nm) three ,luorescent -ones appear at R,+ 5+16 (8lue)N 5+6( (%rey) < 5+6= (%rey)+ On
eFposure to 4o#&ne Eapour eleEen spots appear at R,+ 5+5(N 5+59N 5+1(N 5+16N 5+(.N 5+/3N 5+6(N
5+6=N 5+36N 5+9( < 5+= (all yelloG)+ On spray&n% G&th Ban&ll&n Sulphur&c ac&# rea%ent <
heat&n% the plate ,or ten m&nutes at 115C e&%ht spots appear at R,+ 5+59 (E&olet)N 5+l6
(8roGn&sh E&olet)N 5+(. (l&%ht E&olet)N 5+/3 (l&%ht E&olet)N 5+6( (l&%ht E&olet)N 5+6= (l&%ht E&olet)N
5+36 (E&olet) < 5+= (E&olet)+


CONST4T:ENTS P Bolat&le O&l conta&n&n% C&neole -&n%&8erolN an# sesQu&terpene l&*e
-&n%&8ereneN 8&so8olene an# sesQu& phellan#reneN %&n%erosol &n the oleoPres&n+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaRu
1uSa O TV*USaN RT*UaN 1uru
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O )a#hura
Karma O BLtaharaN KaphaharaN RocanaN DVpanaN Bhe#anaN SEaryaN HX#yaN BXUya
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P r#ra*a KhaSYLEalehaN SLrasEatLr&URa
THERA0E:T4C :SES P B&8an#haN nLhaN KTlaN KophaN KaSRharo%a
DOSE P P( ml o, the #ru% &n ;u&ce ,orm G&th honey+


30
3+ Ar&me#a (St+B*+)
AR4)EDA (Stem Bar*)
Ar&me#a cons&sts o, #r&e# stem 8ar* o, Acac&a leucophloea 2&ll#+ (>am+ >a8aceae)M a
mo#eratePs&-e# #ec&#uous treeN upto ( m &n he&%htN character&st&c o, #ry re%&onsN ,oun# &n the
pla&ns o, 0un;a8 an# &n the #ry ,orest tracts throu%hout the country+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O 4r&me#aN B&Y*ha#&r
Assamese O PP
Ben%al& O 1uya8a8laN Sa#a8ala
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O Haram&8aEalN 0&lo8aEalN Har&8aEal
H&n#& O Ar&me#a
Kanna#a O PP
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Kar&EelamN BelEelamN BelEela*am
)arath& O 0an#al Ba8al
Or&ya O Ar&me#a
0un;a8& O PP
Tam&l O BelEelam
Telu%u O PP
:r#u O 1uar 8a8ool
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
)ature 8ar* 5+.P1 cm th&c*N har#N rou%hN &ncurEe#N eF,ol&at&n% &n &rre%ular scalesN
eFternally yelloG&shP%rey or almost 8lac* an# lon%&tu#&nally ,&ssure#N &nternally l&%ht 8roGn
31
to re##&shP8roGnN &nternal sur,ace lon%&tu#&nally str&ate# an# ,&8rousN ,ractureN ,&8rousM
o#our an# tasteN not #&st&nct+

8) )&croscop&c
Stem Bar* P)ature 8ar* shoGs #ea# t&ssues o, rhyt&#oma cons&st&n% o, cor* cellsN
th&nPGalle# cort&cal cellsN stone cells an# phloem cellsN traEerse# 8y mult&ser&ate me#ullary
raysM cor* cons&st&n% o, /P9 layers o, th&nPGalle#N sQuare to rectan%ular cellsN ,olloGe# 8y
numerous %roups o, sclere&#s o, Ear&ous shapes an# s&-esM secon#ary phloem G&#eN
cons&st&n% o, s&eEe elementsN parenchymaN ,&8res an# crystal ,&8resN all traEerse# 8y
me#ullary raysM s&eEe elements %et collapse# &n outer an# m&##le re%&on ,orm&n% tan%ent&al
8an#s o, ceratenchymaM phloem parenchyma th&nPGalle# some cells conta&n pr&smat&c
crystals o, calc&um oFalateM phloem ,&8res th&nPGalle#N l&%n&,&e#N G&th taper&n% en#sN
arran%e# &n more or less concentr&c 8an#s ,orm&n% tan%ent&al str&ps alternat&n% G&thP
th&nGalle# phloem elementsM crystal ,&8res elon%ate#N th&c*PGalle# haE&n% numerous
cham8ers conta&n&n% a pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalate &n each cham8erM me#ullary
rays mult&ser&ate #&lat&n% toGar#s outer s&#eN compose# o, th&nPGalle#N ra#&ally elon%ate#
cells+
0oG#er P Re##&shP8roGnM shoGs %roups o, cor* cellsN sclere&#N ,&8resN crystal ,&8res an#
pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalate+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 11 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1/ per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1( per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
T+'C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n% Chloro,ormO
Ethylacetate O >orm&c Ac&# (. O/O1) only one spot at R, 5+6= (%rey) &s seen &n E&s&8le l&%ht+
:n#er :+B+ ((66 nm) tGo ,luorescent -ones appear at R,+5+39 an# 5+=1 (8oth 8lue)+On
eFposure to 4o#&ne Eapour a yelloG coloure# ta&l&n% appears ,rom R,+5 to 5+(= an# a spot at
32
R,+ 5+=1 (yelloG)+ On spray&n% G&th 15\ aQueous >err&c Chlor&#e solut&on a 8lu&sh %rey
coloure# ta&l&n% appears ,rom R,+ 5 to 5+(= an# a spot at R,+ 5+=1 (8lu&sh %rey)


CONST4T:ENTS P nPHeFacosanolN PAmyr&nN PS&tosterol an# Tann&n+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaULyaN T&*ta
1uSa O :USa
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O KaphaWoUa*aN )e#oWoUa*aN B&UanLWana
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P Kha#&rL#& 1uR&*L ()u*haro%a)N Ar&me#L#& Ta&la (>or
eFternal use &+e+ KaEala%raha an# Nasya)
THERA0E:T4C :SES P KuURhaN )ehaN )u*haro%aN KaSYTN B&Ua;aEraSaN KophaN AtVsLraN
B&sarpaN 0LSYuN Dantaro%aN KLsaN KXm&N :#ar#apraWamana
DOSE P /5 % ,or #ecoct&on+(P. % &n poG#er ,orm+


33
9+ Ar;una (St+B*+)
AR$:NA (Stem Bar*)
Ar;una cons&sts o, the stem 8ar* o, Term&nal&a ar;una 2+< A+ (>am+ Com8retaceae)M a
lar%e #ec&#uous treeN commonly ,oun# throu%hout the %reater parts o, the country+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O Ka*u8haN 0LrthaN KEetaELha
Assamese O Ar;un
Ben%al& O Ar;una
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O Sa#a#N Ar;unaN Sa;a#a
H&n#& O Ar;una
Kanna#a O )att&N B&l&matt&N Neermatt&N )ath&cha**eN Ku#are K&E&mase
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O N&rmasuthuN Bellamaruth&N KellemasuthuN )att&moraN Torematt&
)arath& O Ar;unaN Sa#a#a
Or&ya O Ar;una
0un;a8& O Ar;on
Tam&l O )aru#am
Telu%u O )a##&
:r#u O Ar;un
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Bar* aEa&la8le &n p&ecesN ,latN curEe#N recurEe#N channelle# to hal, Qu&lle#N 5+P1+. cm
th&c*N mar*et samples upto 15 cm &n len%th an# upto 3 cm &n G&#thN outer sur,ace someGhat
smooth an# %reyN &nner sur,ace someGhat ,&8rous an# p&n*&shN transEersely cut smoothene#
34
8ar* shoGs p&n*&sh sur,aceN ,ractureN short &n &nner an# lam&nate# &n outer partM tasteN 8&tter
an# astr&n%ent+

8) )&croscop&c
Stem Bar* P)ature 8ar* shoGs cor* cons&st&n% o, =P15 layers o, tan%ent&ally
elon%ate# cellsN a ,eG outer layers ,&lle# G&th 8roGn colour&n% matterM cor* cam8&um an#
secon#ary corteF not #&st&nct an# me#ullary rays o8serEe# traEers&n% almost upto outer
8ar*M secon#ary phloem occup&es a G&#e -oneN cons&st&n% o, s&eEe tu8esN compan&on cellsN
phloem parenchyma an# phloem ,&8resN traEerse# 8y phloem raysN usually un&ser&ate 8ut
8&ser&ate rays also occas&onally seenM &n the m&##le an# outer phloem re%&onN s&eEe tu8es %et
collapse# an# ,orm ceratenchymaM phloem ,&8res #&str&8ute# &n roGs an# present &n %roups
o, P15M rosette crystals o, calc&um oFalate measur&n% 95P195 &n #&a+N present &n most o,
the phloem parenchymaN alternat&n% G&th ,&8resM &#&o8lasts cons&st&n% o, lar%e cells haE&n%
a%%re%ates o, pr&smat&c an# rhom8o&#al crystals o, calc&um oFalate &n roG throu%hout the
-oneN measur&n% 65P655 &n #&a+N starch %ra&nsN mostly s&mpleN compoun# o, P(
componentsN somet&mes upto . componentsN roun# to oEalN ell&pt&calN measur&n% .P1( &n
#&a+N #&str&8ute# throu%hout the t&ssue (a8sent &n T+ alata)M &n a tan%ent&al sect&on the
un&ser&ate phloem rays P15 cells h&%h an# 8&ser&ateN /P1 cells h&%hM &n lon%&tu#&nal sect&on
rosette crystals o, calc&um oFalate ,oun# &n the ,orm o, stran#s &n phloem parenchyma+
0oG#er P Re##&shP8roGnM shoGs ,ra%ments o, cor* cellsN un&ser&ate phloem raysN ,&8resN a
num8er o, rosette crystals o, calc&um oFalateN a ,eG rhom8o&#al crystalsN starch %ra&ns
s&mple an# compoun#N roun# to oEalN ell&pt&cN haE&n% P( components G&th concentr&c
str&at&ons an# small narroG h&lumN measur&n% .P1( &n #&ameter+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
35
Total Ash Not more than . per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 5 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 5 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

CONST4T:ENTS P Tann&ns

0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaULya
1uSa O RT*Ua
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O KaphaharaN 0&ttaharaN HX#yaN BraSanLWanaN Bha%nasan#hLna*araN Bya
_%ahara
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P 0LrthL#yar&URaN NL%Lr;unL8hra RasaN Ar;una 1hXta
THERA0E:T4C :SES P HX#ro%aN KUata*UayaN )e#oro%aN 0ramehaN BraSaN TXUSLN Bya_%a
DOSE P (P6 % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


36
=+ Bhallata*a (>r+)
BHA''TAKA (>ru&t)
BhallLta*a cons&sts o, mature ,ru&t o, Semecarpus anacar#&um '&nn+ (>am+
Anacar#&aceae)N a me#&um s&-e# tree ,oun# &n mo&st #ec&#uous ,orests all oEer the country+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O AruU*araN BhallLta
Assamese O Bhela%ut&
Ben%al& O Bhela
En%l&sh O )ar*&n% Nut
1u;rat& O Bh&lam
H&n#& O Bh&laGa
Kanna#a O Bhallata*a
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Chera
)arath& O B&88a
Or&ya O Bhollata*&N Bhola&
0un;a8& O Bh&laGa
Tam&l O Tatam*otta&N Scram*otat&
Telu%u O Nalla;&#&N Nalla;&#&%&n%a
:r#u O Bala#urN Bh&laEan
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
>ru&t laterally ,lattene#N #rupaceousN #ar* 8roGnN nut +.P( cm lon%N o8l&Quely
oEo&#N smoothN sh&n&n% G&th res&#ual receptacle+

37
8) )&croscop&c
>ru&t P 0er&carp #&,,erent&ate# &nto ep&carpN mesocarp an# en#ocarpM &n lon%&tu#&nal
sect&on per&carp shoGs outer ep&carp cons&st&n% o, s&n%le layer o, ep&#ermal cells Gh&ch are
elon%ate# ra#&ally an# l&%n&,&e#N character&st&c %lan#s ,oun# &n per&carp Gh&ch eFu#e o&l
%lo8ules an# ar&se as small protu8erances &n ep&carp an# #ue to pressure eFerte# 8y cells o,
mesocarpN some o, ep&#ermal cells an# cut&cle rupture an# o&l %lo8ules eFu#e ,rom o&l
%lan#sM mesocarp a Eery 8roa# -oneN (5P/5 layers th&c*N compose# mostly o,
parenchymatous cells haE&n% lys&%enous caE&t&es an# ,&8roPEascular 8un#lesN 8eloG
ep&#erm&s a ,eG outer cells o, parenchyma smaller as compare# to restM rosette crystals o,
calc&um oFalate ,oun# scattere# &n parenchymatous cellsN some cells %et #&ssolEe# an# ,orm
lys&%enous caE&t&es Gh&ch &ncrease &n s&-e G&th matur&ty o, ,ru&tN caE&t&es #o not haEe any
spec&al l&n&n% an# conta&n an acr&# an# &rr&tant yelloG&sh o&ly secret&onM en#ocarp cons&sts o,
tGo #&st&nct layersN &nnermost pr&smat&cN Eery much elon%ate# ra#&al GallsN 8e&n% h&%hly
th&c*ene#N outer layer shorter an# th&nner than pr&smat&c layer 8ut cells s&m&lar to the
,ormerM num8er o, mesocarp parenchyma conta&n rosette crystals o, calc&um oFalate an# o&l
#rops &n o&l %lan#sM lys&%enous caE&t&es o, mesocarp conta&n o&ly Ees&cat&n% su8stanceN
&nsolu8le &n Gater an# solu8le &n alcoholN etherN chloro,orm+
0oG#er P Dar*P8roGnM shoGs rosette crystals o, calc&um oFalate an# o&l %lo8ules+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than / per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 5+. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 11 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than . per centN Appen#&F ++3+

CONST4T:ENTS P A Tarry O&l conta&n&n% Anacar#&c Ac&#N NonPBolat&le Alcohol (Car#ol)+

0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O )a#huraN KaRuN T&*taN KaULya
1uSa O 'a%huN TV*USaN Sn&%#ha
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O )a#hura
38
Karma O BLtaharaN KaphaharaN DVpanaN 0LcanaN Che#&N Bhe#&N )e#hya
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P BhallLta*a RasLyanaN BhallLta*L#& )o#a*aN AmXta
BhallLta*a 'ehaN Sa];VEanV BaRV
THERA0E:T4C :SES P nLhaN 1rahaSVN 1ulmaN ArWaN KXm&N KuURha
DOSE P 1+ % o, the #ru% &n Ks&rapa*a ,orm+ Note P >or BhallLta*a Uo#han see A+>+4+N 0artP4


39
15+ Bhr&n%ara;a (2+0+)
BH?@1AR$A (2hole 0lant)
BhX_%arL;a cons&sts o, Ghole plant o, Ecl&pta al8a Hass*+ (>am+ Asteraceae)M a
her8aceous annualN (5 P .5 cm h&%hN erect or prostrateN much 8ranche#N str&%osely h&rsuteN
o,ten root&n% at no#esN a common Gee# o, mo&st places ,oun# throu%hout 4n#&a ascen#&n% upto
1355 m+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O KeWarL;aN Te*arL;aN BhX_%aN )Lr*aEaN BhX_%a;a
Assamese O Bhrn%ara;a
Ben%al& O Bheemra;aN Kesur&yaN Kesar&
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O Bhan%aroN Bhan%ro
H&n#& O Bhan%araN Bhan%ara&ya
Kanna#a O 1aru;aluN 1uru%a#aN SoppuN KeshaEar#hanaN Ko#&%ara;u
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Kayyonn&N Knnunn&
)arath& O Bhan%raN Bhr&n%&ra;aN )a*a
Or&ya O PP
0un;a8& O Bhan%ra
Tam&l O Kar&salan*ann&N Kar&salan%ann&N Kar&sala&
Telu%u O 1unta*ala%araN 1unta%ala%ara
:r#u O Bhan%ra
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Root P 2ell #eEelope#N a num8er o, secon#ary 8ranches ar&se ,rom ma&n rootN upto
a8out 3 mm &n #&a+N cyl&n#r&calN %rey&sh+
40
Stem P Her8aceousN 8ranche#N occas&onally root&n% at no#esN cyl&n#r&cal or ,latN rou%h #ue to
oppresse# Gh&te ha&rsN no#e #&st&nctN %reen&shN occas&onally 8roGn&sh+
'ea, P Oppos&teN sess&le to su8sess&leN + P 9+. cm lon%N 1+ P +( cm G&#eN usually o8lon%N
lanceolateN su8Pent&reN su8Pacute or acuteN str&%ose G&th appresse# ha&rs on 8oth sur,aces+
>loGer P Sol&tary or N to%ether on uneQual aF&llary pe#unclesM &nEolucral 8racts a8out 9N
oEateN o8tuse or acuteN her8aceousN str&%ose G&th oppresse# ha&rsM ray ,loGers l&%ulateN l&%ule
smallN sprea#&n%N scarcely as lon% as 8ractsN not toothe#N Gh&teM #&sc ,loGers tu8ularN corolla
o,ten / toothe#M pappus a8sentN eFcept occas&onally Eery m&nute teeth on the top o, acheneM
stamen .N ,&laments ep&petalousN ,reeN anthers un&te# &nto a tu8e G&th 8ase o8tuseM p&st&l
8&carpellaryM oEary &n,er&orN un&locular G&th one 8asal oEule+
>ru&t P Achen&al cypsellaN one see#e#N cuneateN G&th a narroG G&n%N coEere# G&th Garty
eFcrescencesN 8roGn+
See# P 5+ P 5+. cm lon%N 5+1 cm G&#eN #ar* 8roGnN ha&ry an# non en#osperm&c+

8) )&croscop&c
Root P )ature root shoGs poorly #eEelope# cor*N cons&st&n% o, (P. roGs o, th&nP
Galle#N tan%ent&ally elon%ate# cellsM secon#ary corteF cons&sts o, outer one or tGo roGs o,
tan%ent&ally elon%ate# or roun#e# cells G&th a&r caE&t&esN &nner secon#ary corteF o,
tan%ent&ally elon%ate# to &rre%ular shape#N parenchymatous cells G&th consp&cuous a&r
caE&t&esM stone cells ,oun# scattere# &n secon#ary corteF an# cor*N &n s&n%les or &n %roups o,
Ear&ous shape an# s&-eM per&cycl&c ,&8res &n tan%ent&ally arran%e# 8an#s o, many cells or &n
s&n%lesM secon#ary phloem cons&sts o, s&eEe elements &nclu#&n% phloem ,&8res traEerse# 8y
mult&ser&ate phloem raysM phloem rays 8roa#er toGar#s per&pheryN cons&st&n% o, roun#e#
cellsM Fylem compose# o, EesselsN ,&8re trache&#sN ,&8res an# Fylem parenchymaN traEerse#
8y Fylem raysM Eessels numerousN ,oun# scattere# throu%hout Goo#N &n macerate#
preparat&on Eessels smallN #rumPshape#N cyl&n#r&cal elon%ate# G&th p&tte# Galls an#
per,orat&onsN s&mpleN rarely sl&%htly o8l&QueM ,&8re trache&#sN p&tte#N G&th Eery po&nte# t&psN
Fylem ,&8res lon% G&th po&nte# taper&n% en#s an# short lumenN a ,eG ,&8res shoG pe%Pl&*e
out%roGths toGar#s the taper&n% en#sM Fylem parenchyma sparse usually sQuar&sh to
rectan%ular haE&n% s&mple p&ts on the&r GallsN Fylem ray #&st&nctN run stra&%ht &n tan%ent&al
sect&onN %enerally .P( cells &n he&%ht an# (P. cells &n G&#th althou%h Eery rarely un&ser&ate
an# 8&ser&ate rays also ,oun#N ray cells p&tte#+
'ea,P
0et&ole P shoGs s&n%le layere# upper an# loGer ep&#erm&s cons&st&n% o, tu8ular cellsN
coEere# G&th str&ate# cut&cleM tr&chomes o, tGo typesN nonP%lan#ularN un&ser&ateN 1P. celle#N
41
GartyN an# G&th po&nte# ap&cal cellM ep&#erm&s ,olloGe# 8y G&#e corteFN cons&st&n% o, P.
layere# collenchyma on 8othN upper ar&# loGer s&#e G&th #&st&nct an%ular th&c*en&n%M
parenchyma /P6 layere# on upper s&#e an# .P9 layere# on loGer s&#e cons&st&n% o,
&so#&ametr&cN th&nPGalle# cells G&th &ntercellular spacesM ,&Ee Eascular 8un#les central one
lar%est Gh&le ,our others small ,lan*&n% to e&ther s&#e o, central 8un#leN cons&sts o, Fylem
on #orsal s&#e an# phloem on Eentral s&#eM Fylem Eessels arran%e# &n ra#&al roGs traEerse#
8y Fylem rays+
)&#r&8 P cut at 8asal re%&on shoGs 8oth upper an# loGer s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&sN
eFternally coEere# G&th cut&cleN a ,eG ep&#ermal cells elon%ate outGar#s to ,orm un&ser&ate
ha&rsM ep&#erm&s ,olloGe# 8y corteFN cons&st&n% o, (P. layere# collenehymatous cells on
8oth s&#esM sect&on cut at m&##le re%&on shoGs (P/ layere# collenchymatous cells on #orsal
an# 1P( layere# on Eentral s&#eN Gh&le the sect&on cut at ap&cal re%&onN shoGs layere#
collenchymatous cells on 8oth s&#esN s&m&larly transEerse sect&on cut at a 8asalN m&##le an#
ap&cal re%&ons shoGs /P6 layere# parenchymatous cells on #orsal s&#e an# 6P= layere#
parenchyma on Eentral s&#eN &n sect&on cut at 8asal re%&on /P6 layere# parenchyma on 8oth
the s&#es &n the m&##le re%&on G&th th&nPGalle# cells an# &ntercellular spacesN P( layere#
parenchymatous cells on 8oth s&#e &n the ap&cal re%&onM &n the 8asal re%&on sect&on shoGs
Eascular 8un#le s&m&lar to that o, pet&ole Gh&le &n the sect&on cut at m&##le an# ap&cal re%&on
sect&on shoGs / smaller 8un#les sh&,t&n% toGar#s lam&na+
'am&na P shoGs a #ors& Eentral structureN ep&#erm&s s&n%le layere#N eFternally coEere# G&th
cut&cleN ,olloGe# 8y s&n%le layere# pal&sa#e parenchyma conta&n&n% chlorophyll contentsM
spon%y parenchyma &rre%ularly arran%e# G&th #&st&nct &ntercellular spaces an# ,&lle# G&th
chlorophyll contentsM mesophyll traEerse# 8y num8er o, Ee&nsM an&socyt&c an# anomocyt&c
stomata present on 8oth sur,aceN more a8un#ant on loGer sur,acesM stomatal &n#eF 5+5P+.
on upper an# (+. P6+5 on loGer sur,aceM pal&sa#e rat&o (+9 P/+.M ha&rs st&,,N po&nte#N G&#e
at the 8aseN a8out ( celle#N un&ser&ateN m&##le cells lon%estN uppermost %enerally not
eFcee#&n% the 8asal cell &n len%thN septa th&c*PGalle#+
Stem P )ature stem shoGs s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&sN eFternally coEere# G&th cut&cleN a ,eG
ep&#ermal cells elon%ate to ,orm character&st&c nonP%lan#ular tr&chomesN the cor* Ghere
,orme#N poorly #eEelope# cons&sts&n% o, rectan%ular cellsM secon#ary corteF compose# o,
lar%eN roun#e# or &rre%ular shape# parenchymatous cells haE&n% G&#e a&r spacesM en#o#erm&s
s&n%le layere# cons&sts o, tan%ent&ally elon%ate# cellsM per&cycl&c ,&8res #&st&nctN arran%e# &n
tan%ent&al stran#sM Eascular 8un#les &n a r&n%N collateralN en#archN o, Eary&n% s&-es traEerse#
8y me#ullary raysM phloem a narroG str&p compose# o, s&eEe elements an# phloem
parenchymaM Fylem cons&sts o, lar%e num8er o, EesselsN Fylem ,&8res an# Fylem
parenchymaM Fylem Eessels appear eEenly #&str&8ute# throu%hout the FylemM &n macerate#
preparat&on Eessels 8arrelPshape#N some elon%ate# G&th s&mple per,orat&onsN p&tte# G&th
sp&ral th&c*en&n%M Fylem ,&8res G&th G&#e lumenN po&nte# t&ps an# p&tte# GallsN a ,eG o,ten
8&,urcate an# a ,eG other lar%eN pe%Pl&*e out%roGthM Fylem parenchyma rectan%ular G&th
p&tte# th&c*en&n%M Fylem rays tr&ser&ate to pentaser&ateN normally 8&ser&ate an# un&ser&ateN
9P1. cells &n he&%ht an# (P. cells &n G&#thM centre occup&e# 8y a G&#e p&th cons&st&n% o,
&so#&ametr&c cells o, parenchyma+
42
0oG#er P Dar* %reenM shoGs Eessels &n lar%e %roups or s&n%le 8ro*en p&eces G&th p&tte#
GallsN numerous ,&8res ent&re or &n p&ecesN tr&chomes ent&re or &n p&ecesN GartyN a ,eG
attache# G&th ep&#ermal an# su8s&#&ary cellsN anomocyt&c an# an&socyt&c stomata+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 11 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than . per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1. per centN Appen#&F ++3+

CONST4T:ENTS P Al*alo&#sN Ecl&pt&ne an# N&cot&ne+

0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaRuN T&*ta
1uSa O RT*UaN TV*USa
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN KaphaharaN maharaN BalyaN RasLyanaN KeWyaN TEacyaN DantyaN
Ca*UuUyaN B&Uahara
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P BhX_%Lmala*L#& Ta&laN BhX_%arL;a Ta&laN NVlV BhX_%L#&
Ta&la (>or eFternal use only)N BhX_%arL;LsaEaN Te*arL;a mar&ca
THERA0E:T4C :SES P Ca*X#ro%aN KXm&ro%aN KothaN 0LSYuN KELsaN KLsaN K&ra` KTlaN
HX#ro%a
DOSE P ( P 6 ml o, the #ru% &n ;u&ce ,orm+ 1 P (6 % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm ,or #ecoct&on+


43
11+ Brahm& (2+0+)
BRH)A (2hole 0lant)
abrt,1bans&b#e,,5ab,ontt8lab,5b,n&lb,charset5 AS1PTTB&#&shaMcc
bE&eG*&n#/buc1bpar#blan%15((b,5b,s/1 Brb[a1hmb[a cons&sts o, #r&e# Ghole plant o, b& Bacopa
monn&er& b&5 ('&nn+) 2ettst+N Syn+ b& Herpest&s monn&er&a b&5 ('&nn+) H+B+< K+ (>am+
Scrophular&aceae)M a %la8rousN succulentN smallN prostrate or creep&n% annual her8N ,oun#
throu%hout 4n#&a &n Get an# #amp places+
bpar c
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O SarasEatVN KapotaEa_*a
Assamese O Brahm&
Ben%al& O PP
En%l&sh O Thyme 'eaEe# 1rat&ola
1u;rat& O Neer8rahm&N BamaneEar&
H&n#& O )an#u*a 0arn&
Kanna#a O N&ru8rahm&N Bala8rahm&N On#ela%aN )an#u*aparn&
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Bhahm&
)arath& O $alnamN Brahm&N B&ram&
Or&ya O Brahm&
0un;a8& O Brahm&8ut&
Tam&l O N&ra8rahm&N Brahm& Ea-hu**a&
Telu%u O Sam8arenuN Sam8ran&
:r#u O Brahm&
DESCR40T4ON
44
a) )acroscop&c
Root P Th&nN G&ryN smallN 8ranche# cream&shPyelloG+
Stem P Th&nN %reen or purpl&sh %reenN a8out 1P mm th&c*N so,tN no#es an# &nterno#es
prom&nentN %la8rousM tasteN sl&%htly 8&tter+
'ea, P S&mpleN oppos&teN #ecussateN %reenN sess&leN 1P cm lon%N o8oEatePo8lon%M tasteN
sl&%htly 8&tter+
>loGer P SmallN aF&llary an# sol&taryN pe#&cels 6P(5 mm lon%N 8racteoles shorter than
pe#&cels+
>ru&t P Capsules upto . mm lon%N oEo&# an# %la8rous+

8) )&croscop&c
Root P ShoGs a s&n%le layer o, ep&#erm&sN corteF haE&n% lar%e a&r caE&t&esM
en#o#erm&s s&n%le layere#M per&cycle not #&st&nctM stele cons&sts o, a th&n layer o, phloem
G&th a ,eG s&eEe elements an# &solate# mater&al ,rom Fylem shoGs Eessels G&th ret&culate
th&c*en&n%s+
Stem P ShoGs s&n%le layer o, ep&#erm&s ,olloGe# 8y a G&#e corteF o, th&nPGalle# cells G&th
Eery lar%e &ntercellular spacesM en#o#erm&s s&n%le layere#M per&cycle ( cons&st&n% o, 1P
layersM Eascular r&n% cont&nuousN compose# o, a narroG -one o, phloem toGar#s per&phery
an# a G&#e r&n% o, Fylem toGar#s centreM centre occup&e# 8y a small p&th G&th #&st&nct
&ntercellular spacesM starch %ra&ns s&mpleN roun# to oEalN present &n a ,eG cells o, corteF an#
en#o#erm&sN measur&n% /P1/ &n #&a+N an# 9+5P1/+5 F +.P=+5 &n #&a+ respect&Eely+
'ea, PShoGs a s&n%le layer o, upper an# loGer ep&#erm&s coEere# G&th th&n cut&cleM %lanP
#ular ha&rs sess&leN su8s&#&ary cells present on 8oth sur,acesM a ,eG pr&smat&c crystals o,
calc&um oFalate occas&onally ,oun# #&str&8ute# &n mesophyll cellsM mesophyll traEerse# 8y
small Ee&ns surroun#e# 8y 8un#le sheathM no #&st&nct m&#r&8 present+
0oG#er P CelloG&shP8roGnM shoGs Fylem Eessels G&th ret&culate th&c*en&n%N %lan#ular ha&rsN
s&mpleN roun# an# oEal starch %ra&nsN measur&n% /P1/ &n #&ameter+
45
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 19 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 6 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 6 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1. per centN Appen#&F ++3+

CONST4T:ENTS P Al*alo&#s

0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O T&*taN KaULyaN )a#hura
1uSa O 'a%huN Sara
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O )a#hura
Karma O BLtaharaN KaphaharaN RasLyanaN yuUyaN )e#hyaN )at&pra#aN SEaryaN
0ra;LsthLpanaN B&UaharaN )ohahara
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P SLrasEatLr&URaN BrLhmV 1hXtaN Ratna%&r& RasaN BrLhmV
BaRVN SLrasEata CTrSaN SmXt&sL%ara Rasa
THERA0E:T4C :SES P KuURhaN $EaraN KophaN 0LSYuN 0ramehaN )LnasaE&*Lra
DOSE P 1P( % &n poG#er ,orm+


46
1+ Br&hat& (Rt+)
B?HATA (Root)
BXhatV cons&sts o, #r&e# root o, Solanum &n#&cum '&nn+ (>am+ Solanaceae)M a
Eery pr&c*lyN much 8ranche# perenn&al un#er shru8N upto 1+9 m h&%hN mostly ,oun# throu%hout
Garmer parts o, the country upto an eleEat&on o, 1.55 m+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O Kanh&*a
Assamese O T&la8ha*ur&
Ben%al& O Bya*u#
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O :m&muyar&n%an&N :8h&8har&n%an&N :8h&8huyar&n%a
H&n#& O Bana8harataN Ba#&*ater&
Kanna#a O K&ru%ull&aN He%%ullaN 1ulla
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Cheru Ba-huth&naN 0ut&r&chun#a
)arath& O Dorl&N Ch&chur&t&N Dorale
Or&ya O Den%a8he;&
0un;a8& O Kan#&ar&Ea##&
Tam&l O Ch&ru Ea-huthala&N 0apparamull&N )ullam*att&
Telu%u O Tella )ula*a
:r#u O Katel&
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Root Gell #eEelope#N lon%N r&88e#N Goo#yN cyl&n#r&calN pale yelloG&shP8roGnN 1P+.
cm &n #&a+N a num8er o, secon#ary roots an# the&r 8ranches presentN sur,ace rou%h #ue to
47
presence o, lon%&tu#&nal str&at&ons an# root scarsN ,ractureN short an# spl&nteryM no #&st&nct
o#our an# taste+

8) )&croscop&c
Root P ShoGs th&n cor* compose# o, . P 1. layers o, th&nPGalle#N tan%ent&ally
elon%ate#N rectan%ular cells ,&lle# G&th yelloG&shP8roGn contentM cor* cam8&um s&n%le
layere#M secon#ary corteF compose# o, . P = layers o, th&nPGalle#N oEal an# tan%ent&ally
elon%ate# cellsM stone cells present &n s&n%les or &n %roups o, P. or more &n th&s re%&onM
secon#ary phloem compose# o, s&eEe elementsN parenchyma an# stone cellsN traEerse# 8y
phloem raysM phloem parenchyma much a8un#antN th&nPGalle#M stone cells present &n outer
phloem re%&on &n s&n%les or &n %roups o, P.N Eary&n% %reatly &n shape an# s&-eM phloem rays
1P( cells G&#eN &so#&ametr&c to sl&%htly ra#&ally elon%ate# &n &nner phloem re%&on an#
ra#&ally elon%ate# &n outer phloem re%&onN occas&onally stone cells also ,oun# &n me#ullary
raysM Goo# occup&es 8ul* o, root an# compose# o, EesselsN trache&#sN ,&8res an# Fylem
parenchymaN traEerse# 8y Fylem raysN all elements 8e&n% l&%n&,&e#N Eessels occur s&n%ly or &n
%roups o, P. G&th s&mple p&tsM Fylem ,&8res mo#erately th&c*PGalle# G&th s&mple p&ts an#
po&nte# en#s ,oun# &n a#un#anceM Fylem parenchyma haEe s&mple p&ts or ret&culate
th&c*en&n%M Fylem rays un& to 8&ser&ateN th&c*PGalle#N cells ra#&ally elon%ate# an# p&tte#N
m&crospheno&#al crystals o, calc&um oFalate as san#y masses an# s&mple starch %ra&ns
present &n some cells o, secon#ary corteFN phloem an# me#ullary raysM s&mple an# roun#e#
to oEal starch %ra&nsN measur&n% .+. P11+6 &n #&ameter+
0oG#er P Cream coloure#M shoGs %roups o, th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cellsN aseptate
,&8resN Eessels G&th s&mple p&tsN oEal to elon%ate# stone cells an# s&mpleN roun#e# to oEal
starch %ra&nsN measur&n% .+. P 11+6 &n #&ameter+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 6+. per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than ( per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than / per centN Appen#&F ++3+

48
T+'+C+
P

CONST4T:ENTS P Stero&#al Al*alo&#s an# Stero&#s

0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaRuN T&*ta
1uSa O 'a%hu
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN KaphaharaN DVpanaN 0LcanaN HX#yaN 1rLhV
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P DaWamTla 1hXtaN DaWamTlLr&URa
THERA0E:T4C :SES P HX#ro%aN $EaraN KELsaN KTlaN A%n&mLn#ya
DOSE P 15P5 % o, the #ru% ,or #ecoct&on+


49
1(+ ChaEya (St+)
CABCA (Stem)
CaEya cons&sts o, #r&e# stem o, 0&per retro,ractum Bahl+ Syn+ 0+ cha8a Hunter non
Blume+N 0+ o,,&c&narum DC+ (>am+ 0&peraceae)M a %la8rousN ,leshy cl&m8erN cult&Eate# ma&nly
&n Southern 4n#&a+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O CaE&*a
Assamese O Chepaan
Ben%al& O Che&
En%l&sh O Cu8e8
1u;rat& O ChaE*aN ChaEa*a
H&n#& O ChaEya
Kanna#a O Ka#umenas&na8all&N ChaEya
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Kattumula*uN Kattumula*unEeru
)arath& O ChaEa*a
Or&ya O Cha&n*ath
0un;a8& O Cha8a*
Tam&l O ChaEyamN CheEuyam
Telu%u O CheEyamu
:r#u O 0eepal Cha8N Ka8a8ah
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Dru% cons&sts o, #r&e# cut p&eces o, stem o, Ear&a8le len%th an# usually
5+.P+5 cm &n G&#thN cyl&n#r&cal an# someGhat tG&ste#N %rey&shP8roGnN sur,ace smooth G&th
50
a ,eG lon%&tu#&nal Gr&n*lesN no#es an# &nterno#es #&st&nctN ,ractureN shortM o#ourN pepperyM
tasteN acr&#+

8) )&croscop&c
Stem P ShoGs a th&n cor* cons&st&n% o, (P/ layers o, rectan%ularN 8roGn&sh cellsM
cor* cam8&um not #&st&nctM secon#ary corteF a G&#e -oneN cons&st&n% o, roun#N oEal to
rectan%ularN th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cells G&th prom&nent &ntercellular spacesM plenty
o, s&mple starch %ranules presentM en#o#erm&s s&n%le layere#M stelar re%&on compose# o,
,&Ee Ge#%ePshape# Eascular 8un#les alternat&n% G&th G&#e me#ullary raysM phloem l&es
toGar#s outer s&#e an# compose# o, s&eEe elementsN parenchyma an# phloem ,&8res
occurr&n% s&n%ly or &n %roupsM Fylem l&es toGar#s centre an# compose# o, EesselsN trache&#N
,&8res an# Fylem parenchymaM &solate# Eessels 8arrelPshape# G&th p&tte# an# ret&culate
th&c*en&n%sM ,&8res nee#le an# sp&n#lePshape#N me#ullary rays mult& ser&ateN cells th&n
Galle#N ,&lle# G&th s&mpleN roun# to oEalN starch %ra&nsN measur&n% ( P 1/ &n #&ameter+
0oG#er P 1rey&shP8roGnM shoGs ,ra%ments o, EesselsN ,&8res an# s&mpleN roun# to oEal
starch %ra&nsN measur&n% (P1/ &n #&ameter+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 15 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1+. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than ( per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 6 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
P

CONST4T:ENTS P Al*alo&#sN 1lycos&#es an# Stero&#s+

51
0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaRu
1uSa O 'a%huN RT*UaN TV*USa
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN KaphaharaN DVpanaN 0LcanaN RecanaN Bhe#ana
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P Can#rLmXta RasaN 0rLSa#L 1uR&*L
THERA0E:T4C :SES P ArWaN KXm&N 0lVhL Ro%aN 1ulmaN nLhaN :#ara Ro%aN KTla
DOSE P 1P %+ o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


52
1/+ Da#&ma (S#+)
D"4)A (See#)
DLY&ma cons&sts o, #r&e# see# o, 0un&ca %ranatum '&nn+ (>am+ 0un&caceae)M a lar%e
#ec&#uous shru8 or a small treeN ,oun# %roG&n% G&l# &n the Garm EalleyN outer h&lls o,
H&malayas 8etGeen =55P 1955 m an# cult&Eate# &n many parts o, the country+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O DLY&mLccha#aN 'oh&tapuUpaN Danta8V;a
Assamese O Kule*hara
Ben%al& O D#&ma
En%l&sh O 0ome%ranate
1u;rat& O Da#ama
H&n#& O Anar
Kanna#a O Dal&m8a
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O )atalam
)arath& O Da#&m8a
Or&ya O PP
0un;a8& O Anar
Tam&l O )a#ala&N )aa#ala&+ )a#alam
Telu%u O Dan&mma
:r#u O AnarN Rumman
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
See#s 8roGnN an%ularN Ge#%ePshape#N 5+.P5+6 cm lon%N 5+1P5+ cm G&#eM
tasteN sGeet&shPsour+

53
8) )&croscop&c
See# P ShoGs testa cons&st&n% o, th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cells ,olloGe# 8y
stony te%men cons&st&n% o, l&%n&,&e#N roun#N oEalN tr&an%ular an# rectan%ularN th&c*PGalle#
stone cells haE&n% narroG an# G&#e lumenM 8eneath th&sN re##&shP8roGn p&%mente# layer
presentM en#osperm a8sentM cotyle#ons co&le#N cons&st&n% o, oEal to poly%onalN th&n Galle#N
parenchymatous cellsN conta&n&n% a ,eG o&l %lo8ulesM starch %ra&ns present &n testaN roun# to
oEalN s&mpleN measur&n% (P13 &n #&ameter+
0oG#er P Re##&shP8roGnM shoGs stone cellsN o&l %lo8ulesN an# a ,eG s&mple roun# to oEal
starch %ra&ns measur&n% (P13 &n #&ameter+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than / per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 5+. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 5 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than (. per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n%
Chloro,ormOEthylacetate O >orm&c ac&# (.O/O1) E^E three spots at R,+ 5+6N 5+93 (8oth %rey) an#
5+=3 (p&n*) are seen &n E&s&8le l&%ht+ :n#er :+B+ ((66 nm) ,our ,luorescent -ones are E&s&8le at
R,+ 5+1 (s*y 8lue)N 5+/. (s*y 8lue)N 5+6 (8lue) < 5+93 (8lue)+ On eFposure to 4o#&ne Eapour
three spots appear at R,+ 5+6N 5+93 < 5+=3 (all yelloG)+ On spray&n% G&th .\ )ethanol&cP
Sulphur&c ac&# rea%ent an# heat&n% the plate ,or a8out ten m&nutes at 115 C three spots appear
at R,+ 5+6N 5+93 (8oth E&olet) < 5+=3 (%rey&sh 8lue)+

54

CONST4T:ENTS P Su%arsN B&tam&n CN S&tosterolN :rsol&c ac&#N 0rote&nN >at an# )&neral
mattersN N&cot&n&c ac&#N 0ect&nN R&8o,laE&nN Th&am&neN Delph&n&#&n #&%lycos&#eN Aspart&cN C&tr&cN
Ella%&cN 1all&c an# )al&c ac&#sN 1lutam&neN 4soQuercet&nN Estrone an# 0un&c&c ac&#+

0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O )a#hura (KaULyLnurasa) ^ ,or )a#hura Amla ,ru&tO )a#huraN Amla
1uSa O 'a%huN Sn&%#haN ^ ,or )a#hura Amla ,ru&tO 'a%hu
BVrya O :USaN ^ PP
B&pL*a O )a#huraN ^ PP
Karma O BLtaharaN 0&ttaharaN KaphaharaN TarpaSaN Ku*ralaN HX#yaN KaSRhyaN
)u*ha%an#haharaN 1rLhVN )e#hyaN Balya
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P DLY&mLURa*a CTrSaN DLY&ma 1hXtaN DL#h&*a 1hXtaN
BhLU*ara 'aEaSaN Ku*ra )LtX*a BaRV
THERA0E:T4C :SES P TXUSLN DLhaN $Eara
DOSE P . to 15 % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


55
1.+ Daruhar&#ra (St+)
DR:HAR4DR (Stem)
DLruhar&#rL cons&sts o, #r&e# stem o, Ber8er&s ar&stata DC+ (>am+
Ber8er&#aceae)M an erectN sp&nousN #ec&#uous shru8N usually 1+9P(+6 m &n he&%ht ,oun# &n the
H&malayan ran%es at an eleEat&on o, 1555P(555 mN an# &n the N&l%&r& h&lls &n South 4n#&a+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O Katam*ater&N DLrE&
Assamese O Kule*hara
Ben%al& O Daruhar&#ra
En%l&sh O 4n#&an Ber8erry
1u;rat& O Daruhar&#raN Tal&m*hana
H&n#& O Talma*hanaN Darhal#
Kanna#a O N&rmull&N KolaEal&*eN KolaEan*ae
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Bayalchull&N )araman;al
)arath& O Tal&ma*hana
Or&ya O Ko&lre*haN Ko&lle*ha
0un;a8& O PPP
Tam&l O N&rmulleN Barat&u man;al
Telu%u O N&ru%o88&
:r#u O Talma*hana
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Dru% aEa&la8le &n p&eces o, Ear&a8le len%th an# th&c*nessN 8ar* a8out 5+/ P 5+9
cm th&c*N pale yelloG&shP8roGnN so,tN closely an# rather #eeply ,urroGe#N rou%hN 8r&ttleN
Fylem port&on yelloGN more or less har#N ra#&ate G&th Fylem raysN p&th mostly a8sentN Ghen
56
present smallN yelloG&shP8roGn Ghen #r&e#N ,racture short &n 8ar* re%&onN spl&ntery &n
FylemM tasteN 8&tter+

8) )&croscop&c
Stem PShoGs rhyt&#oma G&th cor* cons&st&n% o, (P/. rectan%ular an# sQuar&shN
yelloG coloure#N th&nPGalle# cellsN arran%e# ra#&allyM s&eEe elements &rre%ular &n shapeN th&n
Galle#N a ,eG cells conta&n&n% yelloG&shP8roGn contentsM phloem ,&8res arran%e# &n
tan%ent&al roGsN cons&st&n% o, 1P/ cellsN each ,&8re short th&c*PGalle#N sp&n#lePshape#N
l&%n&,&e# haE&n% G&#e lumenM hal, &nner port&on o, rhyt&#oma traEerse# 8y secon#ary phloem
raysM phloem rays run o8l&Quely cons&st&n% o, ra#&ally elon%ate# parenchymatous cellsN
almost all phloem ray cells haE&n% s&n%le pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalateN a ,eG cells
o, rhyt&#oma also conta&n pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalateM stone cells also ,oun#
scattere# &n phloem ray cells &n %roupsN rarely s&n%leN mostly elon%ate#N a ,eG roun#e#N
arran%e# ra#&allyN some o, Gh&ch conta&n a s&n%le pr&sm o, calc&um oFalate crystalsM
secon#ary phloemN a 8roa# -oneN cons&st&n% o, s&eEe elements an# phloem ,&8resN traEerse#
8y mult& ser&ate phloem raysM s&eEe elements arran%e# &n tan%ent&al 8an#s an# tan%ent&ally
compresse# cells alternat&n% G&th s&n%le to ,&Ee roGs o, phloem ,&8resN phloem ,&8res shortN
l&%n&,&e#N th&c*PGalle# haE&n% po&nte# en#sM secon#ary Fylem 8roa# cons&st&n% o, Fylem
EesselsN trache&#sN Fylem ,&8res an# traEerse# 8y mult& ser&ate Fylem raysM Fylem Eessels
numerousN small to me#&um s&-e#N #&str&8ute# throu%hout Fylem re%&on &n %roups or &n
s&n%lesN %roups o, Eessels usually arran%e# ra#&allyM &solate# Eessels cyl&n#r&cal G&th
roun#e# or pro;ecte# at one or 8oth en#s G&th sp&ral th&c*en&n%M Fylem ,&8res numerousN
l&%n&,&e#N lar%eN th&c*PGalle# G&th G&#e lumenN an# po&nte# t&psM Fylem rays Qu&te #&st&nctN
stra&%htN mult&ser&ateN cons&st&n% o, ra#&ally arran%e# rectan%ular cellsN each ray (5P.( cells
h&%hN 9P1 cells G&#eN a ,eG ray cells conta&n&n% 8roGn contents+
0oG#er P CelloGM shoGs mostly ,ra%ments o, cor* cellsN s&eEe elementsN yelloG coloure#
phloem ,&8res ent&re or &n p&ecesN stone cells &n s&n%les or &n %roupsN numerous pr&smat&c
crystals o, calc&um oFalateN Fylem Eessels haE&n% sp&ral th&c*en&n%N th&c*PGalle#N l&%n&,&e#
Fylem ,&8res an# ray cells+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 1/ per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than . per centN Appen#&F ++/+
57
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 6 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 9 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
P

CONST4T:ENTS P Al*alo&#s

0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O T&*ta
1uSa O RT*Ua
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O PP
Karma O Stanya Ko#hanaN Stanya DoUaharaN DoUa 0Lcana
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P AWEa%an#hL#yar&URaN BhX_%arL;a Ta&laN Kha#&rL#& 1uR&*L
()u*haro%a)N Kha#&rLr&URaN $LtyL#& Ta&laN Tr&phalL 1hXta
THERA0E:T4C :SES P mLt&sLraN )e#oro%aN :rustam8haN Kapharo%aN KarSaro%aN
)u*haro%aN Netraro%aN KaSYTN BraSaN )eha
DOSE P .P15 ml o, the #ru% &n KEatha ,orm+

58
16+ Dronapushp& (2+0+)+)
DRODA0:!0A (2hole 0lant)
DroSapuUpV cons&sts o, #r&e# Ghole plant o, 'eucas cephalotes Spren%+ (>am+
'am&aceae)N an annualN erectN sca8erulousN stout her8N a8out 5+6P5+= m &n h&%hN ,oun# on the
H&malayas at an alt&tu#e o, 655P1955 m an# on Gaste lan#s throu%hout the country+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O Katum8a
Assamese O Dronaphool
Ben%al& O Bhol%has&ya
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O Ku8o
H&n#& O 1uma
Kanna#a O Tum8e
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Tum8a
)arath& O Tum8a
Or&ya O 1a&sha
0un;a8& O 1omo8at&N 1ummaN )alP8he#a
Tam&l O Tum8a&
Telu%u O Tumm&
:r#u O PP
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Root P Cyl&n#r&calN -&%P-a%N smoothN lon% G&th numerous G&ryN ,&ne rootletsN s&-e
Ear&a8leN ,ractureN ,&8rousM tasteN character&st&c+
Stem P '&%ht %reen&shPyelloGN sur,ace rou%hN ha&ryN Qua#ran%ular G&th ,our prom&nent
59
,urroGsN upto / mm th&c*N no#es an# &nterno#es #&st&nctM tasteN sl&%htly 8&tter+
'ea, P CelloG&shP%reenN (P= cm lon%N 1P+. cm G&#eN oEate or oEateP lanceolateN su8acuteN
more or less pu8escentN crenateN serrateM tasteN pun%ent+
4n,lorescence P Sess&leN Gh&teN croG#e# &n #enseN %lo8oseN a8out P(+. cm acrossN
surroun#e# 8y numerous ,ol&aceous 8ractsN th&nN lanceolateN acuteN c&l&ateN 1+P1+. cm lon%
an# 5+(P5+(. cm G&#eM calyFN tu8ularN sl&%htly curEe#N 1P+. cm lon%N %la8rous &n loGer
partN ha&ry on upper partN 15 #entate G&th a E&llous throatM corollaN Gh&teN 1+3P cm lon%N
8&l&ppe#N upper l&p a8out / mm lon%N GoolyN loGer l&p nearly tG&ce as lon% as upper oneM
lateral lo8es small+
>ru&t P Sch&-ocarp&c carceruleN nutlets ( mm smoothN 8roGn+
See# P 5+( cm lon% an# 5+1 cm G&#eN o8lon%N tr&%onousN smoothN #ar* 8roGn+

8) )&croscop&c
Root P ShoGs a s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s compose# o, rectan%ularN th&nPGalle# cellsM
secon#ary corteF cons&sts o, th&nPGalle#Ntan%ent&ally elon%ate#N parenchymatous cellsM
secon#ary phloem cons&sts o, s&eEe elements an# phloem parenchymaM secon#ary Fylem
cons&sts o, EesselsN trache&#sN ,&8res an# Fylem parenchymaM Eessels lon% G&th spursN
Eessels an# trache&#s haEe s&mple p&tsN Fylem ,&8res much elon%ate# G&th po&nte# en#s an#
haEe mo#erately th&c* GallsN some haE&n% s&mple p&tsM me#ullary rays 1P ser&ateN upto 9
cells h&%h+
Stem P ShoGs sQuar&sh outl&ne G&th ,our r&#%es an# ,urroGsN cons&sts o, a s&n%le layere#
ep&#erm&sN compose# o, oEal to rectan%ularN th&nPGalle# cells haE&n% a num8er o, un& to
tr&cellular tr&chomesM secon#ary corteF .P= layere#N cons&st&n% o, (P. layers o, c&rcularN
oEal or &rre%ular collenchymatous cells at the r&#%e an# P/ layers o, th&nPGalle#N
tan%ent&ally elon%ate#N parenchymatous cellsM en#o#erm &s s&n%le layere#N cons&st&n% o,
8arrel shape#N th&nPGalle# cellsM per&cycle s&n%le layere# o, th&nPGalle# cells comparat&Eely
smaller than the cells o, en#o#erm&sN a ,eG per&cycl&c cells conEerte# &nto per&cycl&c ,&8resM
phloem Eery narroG cons&st&n% o, usual elementsM Fylem cons&sts o, EesselsN trache&#sN
,&8res an# lar%e amount o, Fylem parenchymaM Eessels mostly cyl&n#r&cal G&th s&mple p&ts
an# sp&ral th&c*en&n%M trache&#s an# Fylem parenchyma haEe s&mple p&ts on the&r GallsM p&th
G&#e cons&st&n% o, c&rcular to oEalN th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cells+
60
'ea,P
0et&ole P shoGs a s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&sN un& to tr&cellular tr&chomes G&th po&nte# en#sN
corteF cons&st&n% o, s&n%le layere#N roun# to an%ular collenchymaM parenchyma cons&sts o,
th&nPGalle# cells conta&n&n% pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalateN Eascular 8un#les /N
smaller locate# toGar#s each comer an# lar%er &n centre+
)&#r&8 P shoGs ep&#erm&s on e&ther s&#e G&th un& to tr&cellular tr&chomesN ,olloGe# 8y 1P
layers collenchyma toGar#s loGer sur,aceN (P/ layers toGar#s upper sur,aceN ,olloGe# 8y
roun# to oEal parenchymaN / P 3 layere#MEascular 8un#le arcPshape#N present &n centre+
'am&na P shoGs ep&#erm&s on e&ther s&#e G&th un& to tr&cellular tr&chomes rarely on upper
sur,aceM pal&sa#e s&n%le layere#M spon%y parenchyma (P. layere#N &rre%ularN th&nPGalle#
cellsM a ,eG Ee&ns present &n th&s re%&onM stomata #&acyt&cN present on 8oth sur,acesM stomatal
&n#eF 16+6P/5+. on loGer sur,aceN 16+6P(5+3 on upper sur,aceM pal&sa#e rat&o 3P=+
0oG#er P Dull yelloGM shoGs %roups o, roun# to poly%onal parenchymatous cellsN p&tte# an#
sp&ral EesselsN aseptate ,&8resN un& to tr&cellular tr&chomes an# #&acyt&c stomata+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 13 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 6 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than . per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1/ per centN Appen#&F ++3+

CONST4T:ENTS P Al*alo&#N 1lycos&#eN PS&tosterol an# >laEono&#+

0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O )a#huraN 'aEaSaN KaRu
1uSa O 1uruN RT*UaN TV*USa
61
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O )a#hura
Karma O BLta*araN 0&tta*araN KaphaharaN Bhe#an&N Rucya
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P 0lVhLr& BaR&*LN 1orocanL#& BaRV+
THERA0E:T4C :SES P KLmalLN KothaN Tama*a KELsaN KLsaN A%n&mLn#yaN B&Uama;Eara
DOSE P 1P( % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+.P15 ml o, the #ru% &n ;u&ce ,orm+


62
13+ ErEaru (S#+)
ERBR: (See#)
ErELru cons&sts o, see#s o, Cucum&s melo Ear+ ut&l&ss&mus Duth&e < >uller Syn+ C+
ut&l&ss&mus RoF8+ (>am+ Cucur8&taceae)N an annual creep&n% her8N cult&Eate# &n many parts o,
the countryN espec&ally &n upper 4n#&a an# part&cularly &n :ttar 0ra#esh an# 0un;a8+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O Bahu*an#aN BXhatphalaN Hast&pan&+ Hast&pan&N Kar*aRV+
Assamese O Kule*hara
Ben%al& O Ka*urN Kar&*u#a
En%l&sh O Sna*e Cucum8er
1u;rat& O Ka*a#&
H&n#& O Kar*r&N Ka*a#&
Kanna#a O Saute
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Kam*a#&N Bellar&*a
)arath& O Ka*a#&N Baln*a
Or&ya O PP
0un;a8& O Ka*r&
Tam&l O Ka**ar&**ayN Bellar&**a&
Telu%u O Dosa*aya
:r#u O Ka*ar&
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
See# compresse#N more or less ell&pso&#N 5+3P15 cm lon%N 5+(P5+/ cm G&#eN
sur,ace smoothN %lossyN cream&shPyelloGM tasteN sGeet&sh o&ly+

63
8) )&croscop&c
See# PShoGs see# coat cons&st&n% o, a layer o, roun# to oEal stone cellsN l&%n&,&e#
G&th #&st&nct lumen an# str&at&onsN ,olloGe# 8y a narroG -one o, en#osperm cons&st&n% o,
cellulos&cN th&nPGalle#N roun#e# an# tan%ent&ally elon%ate#N parenchymatous cellsN
conta&n&n% a ,eG o&l %lo8ules an# aleurone %ra&nsM cotyle#ons tGoN stra&%htN cons&st&n% o,
s&n%le layere# ep&#ermal cellsN coEere# G&th th&c* cut&cleN mesophyll cells th&nPGalle#N
ra#&ally elon%ate# to sQuar&shN parenchymatousN conta&n&n% numerous o&l %lo8ules an#
aleurone %ra&ns+
0oG#er d Cream&shPyelloG an# o&lyM shoGs stone cellsN mesophyll cells an# numerous o&l
%lo8ules an# aleurone %ra&ns+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than / per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 5+. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 15 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than . per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n% Toluene O
Ethylacetate (=5O15) shoGs one ,luorescent -one at R,+5+=1 (8lue) un#er :+B+ ((66 mm)+ On
eFposure to 4o#&ne Eapour ten spots appear at R,+ 5+1=N 5+6N 5+(.N 5+.1N 5+.9N 5+6/N
5+33N5+9(N5+=1 an# 5+=3 (all yelloG) +On spray&n% G&th .\ )ethanol&c 0hosphomoly8#&c ac&#
rea%ent an# on heat&n% the plate ,or ,&,teen m&nutes at 15.C ten spots appear at R,+ 5+1=N
5+6N 5+(.N 5+.1N 5+.9N 5+6/N 5+33N 5+9(N 5+=1 an# 5+=3 (all %rey)+

64
CONST4T:ENTS P O&l < Su%ars+

0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O )a#huraN T&*ta
1uSa O 1uruN RT*Ua
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O )a#hura
Karma O BLta*araN Kapha*araN 0&ttaharaN RucyaN DVpanaN Bhe#&N Ra*ta#oUa*araN
1XLhV
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P DL#h&*a 1hXta
THERA0E:T4C :SES P AWmarVN )Ttra*XcchraN 1ulmaN Ra*tap&ttaN TXUSLN DLhaN $Eara
DOSE P (P6 % o, see#s+


65
19+ 1a;ap&ppal& (>r+)
1A$A0400A'A (>ru&t)
1a;ap&ppalV cons&sts o, #r&e#N transEersely cut p&eces o, mature ,emale spa#&F o,
Sc&n#apsus o,,&c&nal&s Schoott+ (>am+ Araceae)M a lar%e ep&phyt&c cl&m8erN ,oun# all alon% the
su8PH&malayan tract 8etGeen an alt&tu#e o, ((5P1555 m &n 2est Ben%alN Or&ssaN An#hra
0ra#esh an# the An#aman 4slan#s+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O 1a;a*XUSaN Hast&p&palV
Assamese O Kule*hara
Ben%al& O 1a;apeepal
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O )otopeepar
H&n#& O 1a;apeepal
Kanna#a O A#*e8eeluEall&
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Att&pal&
)arath& O 1a;ap&palee
Or&ya O PP
0un;a8& O 1a;apeepal
Tam&l O Ana&t&ppalee
Telu%u O Enu%op&ppal
:r#u O PP
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
>ru&t P Occurs &n transEersely cut c&rcular p&eces o, a8out +5P(+5 cm &n #&ameter an#
+5P(+. cm th&c*N 8roGn&shP%reyN rou%h an# scalyN cut sur,ace has a central coreN surroun#e#
8y ,ru&ts enclos&n% the see# coEere# partly 8y ar&lM o#our an# taste not #&st&nct+
66
See# P K&#neyPshape#N 5+(P5+/ cm G&#eN 5+/P5+6 cm lon%N smoothN sh&nyN %rey&shP8roGn G&th
a #entN o#our an# taste not #&st&cnt+

8) )&croscop&c
>ru&t P ShoGs more or less loosely arran%e#N th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cells
haE&n% more or less &so#&ametr&c cells ,&lle# G&th 8roGn content an# numerous ac&cular
crystals o, calc&um oFalate+
See# P ShoGs a s&n%le layere#N oEal to poly%onalN th&nPGalle# testa ,olloGe# 8y P( layere#N
th&c*PGalle#N oEal to poly%onalN nonPl&%n&,&e#N sclere&#Pl&*e cells haE&n% G&#e lumen an#
concentr&c str&at&onsM P/ layere#N oEal to poly%onalN th&c*PGalle#N l&%n&,&e# stone cells
haE&n% Eery narroG lumenN p&tte# an# G&th concentr&c str&at&onsM th&nPGalle#N &rre%ular
parenchymatous cells conta&n&n% o&l %lo8ules an# aleurone %ra&ns+
0oG#er P Dar* 8roGnM shoGs l&%n&,&e#N oEal to poly%onal stone cells haE&n% lumen an#
str&at&onsM numerous nee#lePl&*e ac&cular crystals o, calc&um oFalateN measur&n% 15P1(5
&n len%th an# o&l %lo8ules+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 1/ per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1+. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than ( per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 11 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n% Chloro,orm O )ethanol
(1O1) shoGs tGo spots at R,+ 5+6. an# 5+3( (8oth l&%ht yelloG) &n E&s&8le l&%ht :n#er :+B+ ((66
67
nm) ,our ,luorescent -ones at R,+ 5+3N 5+6.N 5+3( an# 5+=( (all 8lue) are E&s&8le+ On eFposure
to 4o#&ne Eapour ,&Ee spots appear at R,+ 5+5N 5+3N 5+6.N 5+3( an# 5+=( (all yelloG)+ On
spray&n% G&th .\ )ethanol&cPSulphur&c ac&# rea%ent an# heat&n% the plate ,or ten m&nutes at
1l5C+ Three spots appear at R,+ 5+6.N 5+3( (8oth l&%ht 8roGn) an# 5+=( (8roGn)+


CONST4T:ENTS P 1lucos&#es E&-+ Sc&n#aps&n A < Sc&n#aps&n BN Su%ars < >&Fe# O&l+

0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaRu
1uSa O RT*Ua
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN KaphaharaN A%n&Ear#ha*aN KaSRhyaN DVpanaN )alaE&WoUanaN
StanyaN BaXSya
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P 0unarnaELsaEaN K&EL%uR&*LN )ahLyo%arL;a 1u%%uluN
0rasLr&S& Ta&laN Can#rapra8hL EaRV
THERA0E:T4C :SES P KELsaN KXm&ro%aN AtVsLraN KaSRha Ro%a
DOSE P P( % &n eFtract (0hant) ,orm+


68
1=+ 1am8har& (>r+)
1A)BHRA (>ru&t)
1am8har& cons&sts o, #r&e# ,ru&t o, 1mel&na ar8orea RoF8+ (>am+ Ber8enaceae)N an
unarme# treeN ,oun# scattere# &n #ec&#uous ,orests throu%hout the %reater part o, the country
upto an alt&tu#e o, .55 mN plante# &n %ar#ens an# also as an aEenue tree+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O KLWmarVN KLWmaryaN 0Vta*aroh&SVN SrVparSVN Bha#raparSV
Assamese O 1omar&
Ben%al& O 1amar%achhaN 1am8ar
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O SeeEan
H&n#& O 1am8har&
Kanna#a O SeeEan&N Sh&Ean&N Hannu
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Kum8&lN Kum&-hu
)arath& O S&Ean
Or&ya O 1am8har&N Bho#roparnn&
0un;a8& O Kham8har&
Tam&l O 0erun*urm&-hN Kom&-hpa-ham
Telu%u O 1uma#&te*u
:r#u O 1am8har&
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
>ru&t P A #rupeN oEo&#N cr&n*le#N 8lac*N 1+.P+5 cm lon%N somet&mes G&th port&on o,
attache# pe#&celN tGo see#e#N somet&mes one see#e#M tasteN sGeet&sh sour+
See# P See# oEateN 5+.P1 cm lon%N 5+/P5+6 cm G&#eN l&%ht yelloGN sur,ace smoothN see# coat
69
th&nN paperyM tasteN o&ly+

8) )&croscop&c
>ru&t P ShoGs per&carp #&,,erent&ate# &nto s&n%le layere# ep&carpN mult&layere#N
,leshy mesocarpN har# an# stony en#ocarpO ep&carp cons&st&n% o, s&n%le layere#N th&nPGalle#
cellsM mesocarp a G&#e -one cons&st&n% o, &so#&ametr&cN th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cellsM
en#ocarp cons&st&n% o, mult&layere# sclerenchymatous cells+
See# P ShoGs outer &nte%ument cons&st&n% o, (P. roGs o, crushe#N parenchymatous cells
,olloGe# 8y &nner &nte%ument cons&st&n% o, P( roGs o, th&nPGalle#N tan%ent&ally elon%ate#N
parenchymatous cellsM cotyle#ons cons&st&n% o, s&n%le layere#N ra#&ally elon%ate# ep&#ermal
cellsM mesophyll cons&st&n% o, th&nPGalle# cellsN ,&lle# G&th o&l %lo8ules an# aleurone %ra&ns+
0oG#er P Blac*&shP8roGnM shoGs stone cellsN o&l %lo8ules an# aleurone %ra&ns+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 6 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 5+/ per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 9 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than . per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n% Chloro,orm O
)ethanol (/ O 1) shoGs one spot at R,+ 5+=9 (yelloG) &n E&s&8le l&%ht+ :n#er :+B+ ((66 nm)
,&Ee ,luorescent -ones appear at R,+ 5+5(N 5+1N 5+N 5+=/ an# 5+=9 (all 8lue)+ On eFposure to
4o#&ne Eapour e&%ht spots appear at R,+ 5+5(N 5+59N 5+19N 5+6N 5+/N 5+.N 5+=( an# 5+=9 (all
70
yelloG)+ On spray&n% G&th Dra%en#or,, rea%ent ,olloGe# 8y .\ Ethanol&c PSulphur&c ac&#
rea%ent one spot appears at R,+ 5+=9 (oran%e)+


CONST4T:ENTS P Butyr&c ac&#N Tartar&c ac&#N Al*alo&#N Res&n an# Sacchar&ne+

0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O )a#huraN AmlaN KaULya
1uSa O 1uruN Sn&%#haN Sara
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O )a#hura
Karma O BLtaharaN 0&ttaharaN RasLyanaN BXZhaSaN KeWyaN )e#hyaN Ku*ralaN HX#ya
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P AraE&n#LsaEaN DrL*UL#& KELtha CTrna
THERA0E:T4C :SES P Ra*ta 0&ttaN DLhaN TXUSLN KUataN KUayaN )Ttra*XcchraN HX#ro%a
DOSE P 1P( % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


71
5+ 1an%eru (St+B*+)
1@1ER: (Stem 8ar*)
1L_%eru cons&sts o, #r&e# stem 8ar* o, 1reG&a tenaF (>ors*+) Aschers < SchG,+N Syn+
1reG&a popul&,ol&a BahlN (>am+ T&l&aceae)N a shru8 5+6P1+5 m h&%hN occurr&n% &n North 2estern
an# central part o, the country an# &n Deccan 0en&nsula+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O 1L_%eru*&
Assamese O Kule*hara
Ben%al& O 1ara*shacha*ule
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O 1an%et&
H&n#& O 1an%eran
Kanna#a O TuruEe
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Oora*am
)arath& O 1an%et&
Or&ya O 1ho#a%ul&
0un;a8& O 1an%er
Tam&l O Achchu
Telu%u O 1an%eru*&
:r#u O 1an%eran
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Dru% occurs as cut p&ecesM 1+.P. cm lon%N l&%ht yelloGN channelle#N ,&8rousM
eFternal sur,ace smoothM ,ractureN ,&8rousM tasteN muc&la%&nous+

72
8) )&croscop&c
Stem Bar* P ShoGs a G&#e cor*N cons&st&n% o, 1P5 layere#N rectan%ularN ra#&ally
arran%e# cellsN a ,eG &nner cells conta&n rectan%ular crystals o, calc&um oFalateM secon#ary
corteF G&#eN cons&st&n% o, tan%ent&ally elon%ate#N th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cellsN a ,eG
cort&cal cells toGar#s cor* also conta&n pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalateM oEalN
ell&pt&calN th&c*PGalle#N l&%n&,&e# cells G&th G&#e lumen an# clear p&t canalsN mo#erately
lar%e &n s&-eN a ,eG stone cellsN ,oun# scattere# &n %roups throu%hout secon#ary corteF an#
&n a roG toGar#s &nner cort&cal re%&onM secon#ary phloem compose# o, s&eEe elementsN
parenchyma an# numerous th&c*PGalle#N cellulos&c ,&8res G&th G&#e lumenN 8lunt t&ps an#
mo#erately lon% &n s&-eN arran%e# &n ra#&al %roupsN traEerse# 8y G&#e phloem raysM a ,eG ray
cells conta&n pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalate+
0oG#er P '&%ht yelloG an# ,&8rousM un#er m&croscope shoGs phloem ,&8res &n %roups or
s&n%lesN stone cells an# pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalate+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than = per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 6 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 9 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n% TolueneO Ethylacetate
(=5 O15)+ TGo spots are seen at R,+ 5+13N 5+(. (8oth l&%ht yelloG) &n E&s&8le l&%ht+ :n#er :+B+
((66 nm) s&F ,luorescent -ones E&s&8le at R,+ 5+59 (8lue) 5+1( (8lue)N 5+= (8lue)N 5+(. (#ar*
8lue)N 5+.. (8lue) < 5+6/ (8lue)+ On eFposure to 4o#&ne Eapour ten spots appear at R,+ 5+59N 5+13N
5+3N 5+(.N 5+/1N 5+/9N 5+..N 5+61N 5+69 < 5+99 (all yelloG)+ On spray&n% G&th An&sal#ehy#eP
Sulphur&c ac&# rea%ent seEen spots appear at R,+ 5+59 (E&olet)+ 5+13 (l&%ht E&olet)N 5+3 (l&%ht
E&olet)N 5+(. (E&olet)N 5+/9 (E&olet)N 5+69 (l&%ht E&olet) < 5+99 (l&%ht E&olet)+

73
CONST4T:ENTS P Su%arN Tann&n an# Sterols (Tr&acontanPlPolN Pamyr&nN Pamyr&n etc+)+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O )a#huraN AmlaN KaRuN T&*taN KaULya
1uSa O 1uru
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O Tr&#oUaharaN Sa_%rLha*a
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P $Vra*L#& )o#a*a+
THERA0E:T4C :SES P BraSaN 0&ttaE&*Lra
DOSE P P( % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


74
1+ 1un;a (Rt+)
1:H$ (Root)
1u];L cons&sts o, #r&e# root o, A8rus precator&us '&nn+ (>am+ >a8aceae)M a cl&m8erN all
alon% H&malayas ascen#&n% to =55 mN sprea#&n% throu%hout the pla&nsM ,loGer&n% &n Au%ustP
Septem8erN ,ru&ts r&pen #ur&n% G&nter+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O Ra*t&*LN Ka*anant&
Assamese O Rat&
Ben%al& O KunchN Shon*a&nh
En%l&sh O $eQu&r&ty
1u;rat& O Rat&N ChanotheeN Chonotee
H&n#& O Ratt&N 1hun%ch&
Kanna#a O 1ulu%an;&N %ula%un;a
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Kunn&N CuEanna Kunn&
)arath& O 1un;a
Or&ya O Ka&nch
0un;a8& O Ratt&
Tam&l O Kunr&man&N Kun#uman&
Telu%u O 1ur&%&n%aN 1ur&E&n#a
:r#u O 1hon%ch&N Ratt&
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
RootN s&mple or 8ranche#N cyl&n#r&calN most o,ten &rre%ularly curEe#N l&%ht
8roGnN sur,ace pro,usely Garty an# someGhat rou%h on account o, erupt&Ee #eEelopment o,
numerous small lent&celsM 8ar* th&nN sl&%htly cor*yN so,tN eF,ol&at&n% &n small ,la*esN eFposP
&n% &nternally 8oth cream or yelloG&shPGh&teM &nternal 8ar* yelloG G&th a leathery ,&8rous
75
teFtureM Goo# har# l&%htPyelloG&sh or cream coloure#M o#ourlessM tasteN ,ee8ly sGeet&shN
8ecom&n% m&l#ly 8&tter+

8) )&croscop&c
Root P ShoGs th&n cor* o, (P. layers o, narroGN tan%ent&ally elon%ate# cellsN some
G&th 8roGn&sh contentM cor* cam8&umN Ghen #&st&nctN compose# o, 1P cells G&#eN th&nP
Galle#N comparat&Eely lar%er an# sl&%htly tan%ent&ally elon%ate# cellsN ,olloGe# 8y P/ roGs
o, spher&cal oEo&# or sl&%htly elon%ate# stone cells G&th th&c*N p&tte# GallsN small %roups o,
/P15 sclerenchymatous cellsN smaller than stone cellsN present at short &nterEalsM secon#ary
phloem cons&sts o, usual elements traEerse# 8y me#ullary rays #&Eer%&n% toGar#s per&pheryM
parenchyma th&nPGalle#N mostly tan%ent&ally elon%ate# G&th occas&onal patches o, s&eEe
elements &n someGhat collapse# ,ormM small %roups o, sclerenchymaN s&m&lar to those
occurr&n% &n corteF are also presentM cells &n &nner phloem re%&on appear c&rcular to
polyhe#ralM &n ol#er samples phloem elements usually ,oun# &n compresse# con#&t&on
,orm&n% o8l&Quely an# tan%ent&ally arran%e# &rre%ular patchesM me#ullary rays #&st&nct an#
1P6 cells G&#eN th&nPGalle# an# rectan%ularN tan%ent&ally elon%ate# toGar#s #&stal en# o, ray
an# ra#&ally elon%ate# &n Fylem parts an# 8ast re%&onN mostly conta&n&n% starch %ra&ns o,
Ear&ous s&-esM cam8&um ,orms a complete r&n% o, 1P roGs o, Eery narroG cells outs&#e the
Goo#M Goo# compose# o, narroG concentr&cN annular 8an#s o, Eery th&c*PGalle# Goo#
,&8res alternat&n% G&th s&m&lar 8ut G&#er -one o, th&c*PGalle# parenchymaM Eessels o,
Eary&n% s&-es G&th th&c*N p&tte# GallsM me#ullary rays usually un& or 8&ser&ate 8ut a ,eG
8roa#er raysN .P15 or more roGs o, cells occas&onally presentM parenchyma cells o, Goo#
an# 8ast ,&lle# G&th s&mpleN roun#e# to oEal starch %ra&ns measur&n% .+.P1(+3. &n
#&ameter+
0oG#er P 1rey&shP8roGnM shoGs ,ra%ments o, cor*N stone cellsN %roups o, sclerenchymatous
cellsN numerous Fylem ,&8resN Fylem Eessels G&th p&tte# GallsN roun#e# to oEal s&mple starch
%ra&ns measur&n% .+. P1(+3. &n #&ameter+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than = per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than +. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than / per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 15 per centN Appen#&F ++3+
76

T+'+C+
P

CONST4T:ENTS P 1lucos&#e (1lycyrrh&-&n)+

0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O )a#huraN T&*ta
1uSa O RT*UaN KVta
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O )a#hura
Karma O BLtaharaN 0&ttaharaN KeWya
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P NVlV BhX_%L#& Ta&la
THERA0E:T4C :SES P 4n#raluptaN )u*haWoUaN Kula
DOSE P 1 P ( % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


77
+ 4*shu (St+)
4K!: (Stem)
4*Uu cons&sts o, the #r&e# stem o, Saccharum o,,&c&narum '&nn+ (>am+ 0oaceae)N a
shru8N %roGn an# %enerally cult&Eate# &n all hotter parts an# &n Garm cl&mate throu%hout 4n#&a+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O 4*Uu
Assamese O Kus&yar
Ben%al& O 1anna
En%l&sh O Su%arcane
1u;rat& O Sher#&N Ser#&
H&n#& O 4*haN 1anna
Kanna#a O Ka88u
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Karum8uN Kar&mpu
)arath& O :sh
Or&ya O A*hu
0un;a8& O 1anna
Tam&l O Karum8u
Telu%u O 1hera*u
:r#u O 1annaN Na&sh*ar
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Stem upto 6 m h&%hN cyl&n#r&calN sol&#N G&thN #&st&nct no#e an# &nterno#eN
(P9P1 cm lon% an# P/ cm &n #&aM smoothN sh&n&n% an# pol&she# pale or #ar* %reen to #ar*
yelloGN re# E&olet an# o,ten str&pe# haE&n% a 8u# at each no#eM o#ourN character&st&cM tasteN
;u&cy an# sGeet+
78

8) )&croscop&c
Stem P ShoGs a s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s cons&st&n% o, th&c*PGalle#N l&%n&,&e#N
rectan%ular cells ,olloGe# 8y P( layers o, sclerenchymatous hypo#erm&sM %roun# t&ssue
cons&st&n% o, th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cells haE&n% a num8er o, collateralN con;o&ntN
close# type o, Eascular 8un#lesN scattere# throu%hout the %roun# t&ssueN more numerous an#
closer toGar#s per&pheryM each Eascular 8un#le surroun#e# 8y a ,&8rous sheath o,
sclerenchymaN th&c*ness o, the sheath %ra#ually #ecreas&n% &n the 8un#les toGar#s the
centreM 8es&#es the Fylem an# phloem elementsN each 8un#le surroun#s a Gater conta&n&n%
caE&ty+
0oG#er P 0oG#er l&%ht 8r&c* re#M shoGs p&eces o, ep&#erm&sN %roun# t&ssueN Eessels an#
sclerenchyma+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 6 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than +. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1. per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 13 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
P

CONST4T:ENTS P Sucrose+

0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O )a#hura
1uSa O SaraN Sn&%#haN 1uru
79
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O )a#hura
Karma O BLtaharaN 0&ttaharaN KaphaharaN )TtralaN BalyaN BXUyaN BXZhaSa
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P BalL Ta&laN NaEaratnarL;ame%L_*a Rasa
THERA0E:T4C :SES P Ra*tap&ttaN )Ttra KUaya
DOSE P 55 P /55 ml &n the ;u&ce ,orm+


80
(+ 4n#raEarun& (Rt+)
4NDRABR:DA (Root)
4n#raELruSV cons&sts o, #r&e# root o, C&trullus colocynth&s Schra#+ (>am+
Cucur8&taceae)M an annual or perenn&alN G&l# her8 G&th prostrate or cl&m8&n% stemN occurr&n%
throu%hout the country+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O 4n#raEallVN 4n#raELruS&*LN 1aEL*UVN Kata*ratulatLN En#rV
Assamese O Kule*hara
Ben%al& O Ra*hal Sasa )ul
En%l&sh O ColocynthN B&tter apple
1u;rat& O 4n#raEaranN 4n#rayanN 4n#ramanoaN 4n#arEaranoEa
H&n#& O 4n#rayan
Kanna#a O HaEume**eN HaEuma**eN 4n#raEarun&N Tunt&*a&N Ka#u*aEa#&
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Bal&ya*attuEellN Bal&ya 0e**umatt&N Chee&ya*attuEellar&
)arath& O En#rayanaN 4n#raEarana
Or&ya O 1otha*a*uct&N 4n#rayanalataN 1aru*h&ya
0un;a8& O Kau#atummaN Tum8&
Tam&l O 0a&*amatt&N 0aythumatt&N Bar&thummat&N Aruthununatt&
Telu%u O Che#u 0uchcha
:r#u O Han-alN 4n#rayan
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Root aEa&la8le &n cut p&eces o, P3 cm lon%N 5+P+. cm th&c*N cyl&n#r&calN sl&%htly
tG&ste#M #ull yelloGM lon%&tu#&nal ,&ssures presentM ,ractureN shortM tasteN &ntens&Eely 8&tter+
81

8) )&croscop&c
Root P )ature root shoGs GaEy outl&ne cons&st&n% o, 6P15 layers o, rectan%ularN th&c*
Galle#N tan%ent&ally elon%ate# cor* cellsN a ,eG ,&lle# G&th #ar* 8roGn contentsM secon#ary
corteF cons&sts o, 15P1. layers o, ell&pt&calN tan%ent&ally elon%ate#N th&n Galle#N
parenchymatous cellsM secon#ary phloem a narroGP-oneN compose# o, s&eEe elementsN
parenchyma an# me#ullary raysM Fylem ,orms 8ul* o, rootN cons&st&n% o, EesselsN ,&8resN
parenchyma an# me#ullary raysM Eessels mostly sol&tary or &n %roups o, tGo to ,our haE&n%
ret&culate an# sp&ral th&c*en&n%sM ,&8res aseptateN th&c*PGalle#N p&tte#N elon%ate# G&th
po&nte# en#sN ly&n% aroun# EesselsM me#ullary rays poorly #eEelope# an# un&ser&ateM starch
%ra&ns oEal to roun# &n shape N.P3+. &n #&a+ mostly s&mple or rarely compoun# haE&n% P(
componentsN ,oun# scattere# throu%hout 8ut more a8un#antly &n phloem parenchyma+
0oG#er P D&rty yelloGM shoGs aseptate ,&8resN ret&culate an# sp&ral EesselsN starch %ra&ns
s&mple or occas&onally compoun# measur&n% +. P 3+. &n #&a+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 9 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 6+. per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 5 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n%
Chloro,ormO)ethanol (9.O1.) shoGs un#er :+B+ ((66 nm) tGo ,luorescent spots at R,+ 5+16
an# 5+(5 (8oth 8lue)+ On spray&n% G&th Ban&ll&nPSulphur&c ac&# rea%ent an# heat&n% the plate
,or a8out ten m&nutes at 15.C tGo spots appear at R,+ 5+16 an# 5+(5 (8oth %rey&sh 8lue)+


82
CONST4T:ENTS P Sapon&n an# traces o, Al*alo&#+

0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O T&*taN KaRu
1uSa O 'a%huN Sara
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O 0&ttaharaN KaphaharaN Recana
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P A8hayLr&URaN Ro#hrLsaEaN )Xtasa];VEanV SurLN
BXhatma];&URhL#& KELtha CTrSaN NLrLyaSa CTrSaN )&Wra*a SnehaN Tr&phalL#& Ta&laN
)ahLE&Ua%ar8ha Ta&la
THERA0E:T4C :SES P KLmalLN 0lVhLro%aN KELsaN KLsaN KuURhaN 1ulmaN KXm&ro%aN
0ramehaN B&UaE&*LraN BraSaN ApacVN 1aSYamLlL
DOSE P 1P( % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


83
/+ 4n#raEarun& (', +)
4NDRABR:DA ('ea,)
4n#raELruSV cons&sts o, #r&e# leaEes o, C&trullus colocynth&s Schra#+ (>am+
Cucur8&taceae)M an annual or perenn&alN G&l# her8 G&th prostrate or cl&m8&n% stemN occurr&n%
throu%hout the country+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O Kata*ratulatLN Ean#rVN 1aEL*UVN 4n#raELruS&*LN 4n#raEallV
Assamese O Nant&yah
Ben%al& O RahhalasaN )a*hal
En%l&sh O ColocynthN B&tter Apple
1u;rat& O 4n#rayanaN 4n#rayanoaN 4ns8a*
H&n#& O 4n#rayana
Kanna#a O HaEume**e Kay&N HaEam&**e
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Kattu Eellar&N Ka#u 4n#rayanN 0ey*ommut&
)arath& O 4n#rayanaN Ko#u &n#rayan
Or&ya O 1oth*a*u#&N )aha*al
0un;a8& O TummaN $amtumma
Tam&l O 0eya**umutt&N 0eytumatt&N 0eyththumatt&N 0ey*humutt&N Ber&ttumatt&
Telu%u O Che#upuchcha
:r#u O Han-alN 4n#rayan
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
'eaEes Eery Ear&a8leN (+6P6+( cm lon%N +.P.+5 cm G&#eN p&nnately lo8e# &n
outl&neN %enerally ( lo8e#N somet&mes (P3 lo8e#N m&##le lo8e lar%estN each lo8e #eeply
p&nnat&,&#M pet&ole 1+(P+. cm lon%N ent&re lea, #ensely h&rsuteM tasteN Eery 8&tter+
84

8) )&croscop&c
'ea,P
0et&ole P shoGs r&#%e# outl&neM ep&#erm&s s&n%le layere# cons&st&n% o, oEal to roun#e# cellsN
coEere# G&th th&c* cut&cleM ha&rs un&ser&ateN P/ celle#N present on 8oth sur,acesM corteF
cons&st&n% o, (P3 layersN roun# collenchymatous cellsN ,olloGe# 8y a s&n%le layere#
en#o#erm&sM p&th cons&st&n% o, th&nPGalle#N &so#&ametr&cN parenchymatous cellsM Eascular
8un#les %enerally e&%htN arran%e# &n #&scont&nuous r&n%N 8&collateralN each 8un#le
surroun#e# 8y sem&lunar patches o, sclerenchymatous cells toGar#s en#o#erm&s+
)&#r&8 P shoGs s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&sN coEere# G&th cut&cle on 8oth sur,aceM ha&r present
on 8oth sur,acesN un&ser&ateN cons&st&n% o, P( cellsN ap&cal cells 8e&n% po&nte# or 8luntM
corteF cons&st&n% o, P( layers o, collenchymatous cells on #orsal s&#eN ,olloGe# 8y th&nP
Galle#N parenchymatous cellsM Eascular 8un#les presentN tGo Gell #eEelope#N one smaller
an# other lar%erN con;o&ntN 8&collateralN compose# o, Fylem an# phloem+
'am&na PshoGs s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s coEere# G&th cut&cleN ha&rs s&m&lar to those o,
m&#r&8 an# present on 8oth sur,acesN 8ut more a8un#ant on loGer sur,aceM pal&sa#e s&n%le
layere#N spon%y parenchyma %enerally .P9 layere#N compose# o, th&n Galle#N almost
&so#&ametr&c cellsN ,&lle# G&th chlorophyll contents an# traEerse# 8y a num8er o, Ee&nsN Ee&n
&slet num8er =P(9 per sQ+ mmM pal&sa#e rat&o +3.P(+3.M stomata anomocyt&c present on
8oth sur,acesN stomatal &n#eF on upper sur,ace 1+.P9+. an# on loGer sur,ace .+5 P(1++
0oG#er P CoarseN ol&Ee %reenM shoGs ent&re or 8ro*en p&eces o, ha&rsM ep&#ermal cells
poly%onalN mo#erately th&c*PGalle#N 3+.P/=+. lon% an# 1=P3 G&#eM spon%y
parenchyma cellsN anomocyt&c type o, stomata an# Fylem Eessels+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 19 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 6 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 3 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 19 per centN Appen#&F ++3+
85

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n% nPButanol OAcet&c
ac&#O 2ater (/O1O.) shoGs un#er :+B+ ((66 nm) ,&Ee ,luorescent -ones at R,+ 5+/6N 5+61N 5+3.N
5+=/ (all %reen) an# 5+=3 (re#)+ On spray&n% G&th .\ )ethanol&cPSulphur&c ac&# rea%ent an#
on heat&n% the plate ,or ten m&nutes at 15.C ,our spots appear at R,+ 5+61 (%reen)N 5+3.
(%reen)N 5+9( (%rey) an# 5+=/ (%rey)+


CONST4T:ENTS P Colocynth&nN traces o, an Al*alo&# an# >laEono&#s+

0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaRuN T&*ta
1uSa O 'a%huN Sara
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O 0&ttaharaN KaphaharaN Recana
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P NVlV BhX_%L#& Ta&la (>or eFternal use only)
THERA0E:T4C :SES P KeWapLtaN 0al&taN KuURharo%a
DOSE P >or eFternal use only


86
.+ $am8u (S#+)
$A)BI (See#)
$am8T cons&sts o, #r&e# see#s o, Sy-y%&um cum&n&& ('&nn+) S*eels Syn+ Eu%en&a
;am8olana 'am+M E+ cum&n&& Druce+ (>am+ )yrtaceae)M a lar%e eEer%reen treeN atta&n&n% a
he&%ht o, (5 m an# a %&rth o, (+6 m G&th a 8ole up to 1. mN ,oun# throu%hout 4n#&a upto an
alt&tu#e o, 1N955 m+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O PP
Assamese O Kule*hara
Ben%al& O Ba#;amN Kala;am
En%l&sh O $am8ul tree
1u;rat& O 1am8uN $amun
H&n#& O $amuna
Kanna#a O Nerale Bee;aN $am8u Nerale
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O N;aEal
)arath& O $am8ul
Or&ya O $am KolN $amu Kol
0un;a8& O $aamun
Tam&l O NaEal
Telu%u O Alla Nere#uchettuN Nere#u chettu
:r#u O $amun
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
P. see#sN compresse# to%ether &nto a mass resem8l&n% a s&n%le see#N the
Ghole see# enclose# &n a cream coloure#N cor&aceous coEer&n%N smoothN oEal or roun#&shN 1
cm lon%N 1 cm G&#eN 8roGn&shP8lac*M tasteN astr&n%ent+
87

8) )&croscop&c
See# P ShoGs cotyle#ons cons&st&n% o, s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&sN mesophyll
compose# o, &so#&ametr&cN th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cells ,ully pac*e# G&th s&mple
starch %ra&nsN oEalN roun#e# measur&n% 3P9 &n #&a+N a ,eG sch&-o%enous caE&t&es are also
,oun#+
0oG#er P BroGn coloure#M shoGs a ,eG parenchymatous cells an# numerous oEalN roun#e#
starch %ra&nsN measur&n% 3P9 &n #&ameter+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than . per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 6 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1. per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n% TolueneOEthylaceate
(=5O 15) shoGs un#er :+B+ l&%ht ((66 nm) one ,luorescent -one at R,+ 5+(5 (8lue)+ On eFposure
to 4o#&ne Eapour ,our spots appear at R,+ 5+1N 5+5N 5+(5 an# 5+=. (all yelloG)+ On spray&n%
G&th Ban&ll&nPSulphur&c ac&# rea%ent an# heat&n% the plate ,or ten m&nutes at 15.CN three
spots appear at R,+ 5+5N 5+(5 an# 5+=. an# 5+=. (all E&olet)+


CONST4T:ENTS P 1lycos&#e ($am8ol&ne)N Tann&nN Ella%&c ac&# an# 1all&c ac&#+

88
0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O )a#huraN AmlaN KaULya
1uSa O 1uruN RT*Ua
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtalaN 0&ttaharaN KaphaharaN B&URam8h&N 1rLhV
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P 0uUyLnu%a CTrSa
THERA0E:T4C :SES P )a#humehaN :#a*ameha
DOSE P (P6 % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


89
6+ $am8u (St+B*+)
$A)BI (Stem Bar*)
$am8T cons&sts o, #r&e# stem 8ar* o, Sy-y%&um cum&n&& ('&nn+) S*eels Syn+ Eu%en&a
;am8olana 'am+M E+ cum&n&& Druce+ (>am+ )yrtaceae)M a lar%e eEer%reen treeN atta&n&n% a
he&%ht o, (5 m an# a %&rth o, (+6 m G&th a 8ole up to 1. mN ,oun# throu%hout 4n#&a upto an
alt&tu#e o, 1N955 m+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O )aha;am8uN Ksu#ra;am8u
Assamese O $am
Ben%al& O $aam
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O $am8uN $am8u#a
H&n#& O $omunaN Ra;a $am8u
Kanna#a O )eraleN $amneralaeN $am8uN Neralamara
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O N;aEalN NaEal
)arath& O $am8hool
Or&ya O $amu*ol&N $amuN $am
0un;a8& O $ammu
Tam&l O NaaEalN NaEEal Sam8uN )ahamaramN Na%al
Telu%u O Nese#u
:r#u O $amun
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Dru% occurs &n sl&%htly curEe# or ,lat p&ecesN 5+.P+. cm th&c*N youn%er 8ar*
90
mostly channelle#N eFternal sur,ace more or less rou%h an# ru%%e# #ue to eF,ol&at&on an#
Eert&cal crac*sN l&%ht %rey to ash coloure#N &nternal sur,ace ,&8rousN rou%hN an# re##&sh
8roGnN ,ractureN short an# spl&nteryM tasteN astr&n%ent+

8) )&croscop&c
Stem Bar* P)ature 8ar* shoGs a G&#e -one o, cor* #&,,erent&ate# &nto upper an# loGer
cor* -onesN ,orm&n% a rhyt&#omaM cor* cons&st&n% o, tan%ent&ally elon%ate# rectan%ular cellsN
upper ,eG layers th&c*N strat&,&e# an# re##&shP8roGnN haE&n% %roups o, P/ stone cells an#
crushe# elements o, phloemM loGer cor* th&n an# colourlessM cor* cam8&um not #&st&nctM
secon#ary phloem compose# o, s&eEe elementsN an# phloem raysM phloem parenchyma th&nP
Galle# an# polyhe#ral &n shapeM stone cellsN oEal to an%ularN elon%ate#M ,&8res aseptateM 8oth
stone cells an# ,&8res s&n%le or &n %roups present throu%hout th&s re%&onM phloem rays 1P/
cells G&#eM re##&shP8roGn contentN rosette crystals o, calc&um oFalate an# s&mpleN roun# to
oEal starch %ra&nsN measur&n% .P11 &n #&ameter
0oG#er P '&%ht 8roGnM shoGs ,ra%ments o, th&nPGalle# cor* cellsN aseptate ,&8resM s&n%le or
&n %roupsN oEal to an%ularN elon%ate#N stone cellsM rosette an# pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um
oFalate an# s&mpleN roun# to oEal starch %ra&nsN measur&n% .P11 &n #&ameter+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 11 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than = per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 11 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

91
T+'+C+
P

CONST4T:ENTS P Tann&ns

0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaULya
1uSa O RT*Ua
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O KaphaharaN 0&ttaharaN BLtalaN 1rLhVN Stam8ha*aN KXm&#oUa%hna
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P :WVrLsaEa
THERA0E:T4C :SES P AtVsLraN Ra*tap&tta
DOSE P 15P5 % o, the #ru% ,or #ecoct&on+


92
3+ $ayapala (S#+)
$ACA0'A (See#)
$ayapLla cons&sts o, #r&e# see# o, Croton t&%l&um '&nn+ (>am+ Euphor8&aceae)M a small
eEer%reen treeN .P3 m h&%hN ,oun# throu%hout trop&cal 4n#&a+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O )u*ulaN T&nt&YVphala+
Assamese O Kan&8&sh
Ben%al& O $a&pala
En%l&sh O Croton
1u;rat& O NepaloN $amala%ota
H&n#& O $amal%ota
Kanna#a O NepalN $apal 8ee;N $apalaN NerEala
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O NerEalamN NeerEalam
)arath& O $epalN $apal
Or&ya O PP
0un;a8& O $apolota
Tam&l O NerEalamN NeerEalamN Balam
Telu%u O Nepalamu
:r#u O $amal%ota
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
See# al8um&nousN oEateN o8lon%N sl&%htly Qua#ran%ularN conEeF on #orsal an#
someGhat ,lattene# on Eentral sur,aceN a8out 1 mm &n len%th an# resem8le castor see# &n
shapeN #ull c&nnamonP8roGnN o,ten mottle# G&th 8lac* #ue to a8ras&on &n testaN caruncle
eas&ly #etatche# an# usually a8sentN h&lum on Eentral s&#e less #&st&nct than that o, castor
see#N raphe runs alon% Eentral sur,ace o, see#N term&nat&n% &n a #ar* chala-a at oppos&te
eFtrem&tyN *ernel yelloG&sh an# o&lyN cons&st&n% o, a lar%e en#ospermN enclos&n% papery
93
cotyle#ons an# a small ra#&cleN no mar*e# o#ourM *ernel %&Ees at ,&rst o&ly taste ,olloGe# 8y
an unpleasant acr&#&ty+

8) )&croscop&c
See# P ShoGs a har# testaN cons&st&n% o, an ep&#ermal layerN coEere# eFternally G&th
a th&c* cut&cle an# compose# o, oEal an# tan%ent&ally elon%ate# cellsN ,&lle# G&th 8roGn&sh
contentM ep&#erm&s ,olloGe# 8y a layer o, ra#&ally elon%ate# cellsN sl&%htly 8ent at m&##leN
upper hal, port&on ,&lle# G&th re##&shP8roGn an# loGer hal, ,&lle# G&th yelloG contentsM
&nner most -one cons&sts o, tan%ent&ally elon%ate#N th&nPGalle# cellsM en#osperm cons&sts o,
poly%onal parenchymatous cells ,&lle# G&th o&l %lo8ulesN a ,eG cells haE&n% rosette crystals
o, calc&Gn oFalateM central re%&on o, en#osperm shoGs a #&cotyle#onous em8ryo cons&st&n%
o, th&nPGalle# parenchymatous cells+
0oG#er P 2h&te G&th 8lac* part&cles o, testaM un#er m&croscope shoGs elon%ate# cells
conta&n&n% re##&shP8roGn an# yelloG contentsN o&l %lo8ules an# a ,eG rosette crystals o,
calc&um oFalate+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than ( per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 5+. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1. per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 3 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

ASSAC

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el '1' plate us&n% nPButanol O Acet&c
ac&# O 2ater (/O 1 O.) shoGs un#er :+B+ ((66 nm) three spots at R,+ 5+(/N 5+./ an# 5+9/ (all
E&olet)+ On eFposure to 4o#&ne Eapour s&F spots appear at R,+ 5+15N 5+=N 5+(=N 5+/=N 5+6( an#
5+=5 (all yelloG)+ On spray&n% G&th .\ )ethanol&cPSulphur&c ac&# rea%ent an# heat&n% the
plate at 15.C ,or ten m&nutes three spots appear at R,+ 5+(/ (%rey)N 5+./ (yelloG)N 5+9/
(8roGn)+
94


CONST4T:ENTS P >&Fe# o&lN Res&ns < 0hor8ol esters+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O )a#hura
1uSa O 1uruN Sn&%#ha
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O )a#hura
Karma O 0&ttaharaN KaphaharaN Recana
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P 4cchL8he#V RasaN AWEa*a]cu*V Rasa+
THERA0E:T4C :SES P :#araro%aN B&8an#haN $Eara
DOSE P 6P1 m% o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


95
9+ $ayant& (',+)
$ACANJA ('ea,)
$ayanRVcons&sts o, ,resh an# #r&e# lea, o, Ses8an&a ses8an ('&nn+) )err+NSyn+ S+
ae%ypt&aca 0ers+ (>am+ >a8aceae)M a Qu&c* %roG&n%N short l&Ee# shru8N 1+9P6 m h&%hN ,oun#
cult&Eate# throu%hout pla&ns o, the country upto an alt&tu#e o, 155 m+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O $ayantVN $ayLN KT*Uma patraN
Assamese O Kule*hara
Ben%al& O $ayant&
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O Ra;ash&n%aneeN $ayant&
H&n#& O $a&taN ;ayata
Kanna#a O Ar&n&nta;&nam%&N Kar&;&man%a&N Ar&sh&ma;&n%a&N
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O SempN Att&N 4tth&**ann&
)arath& O $a&t
Or&ya O $ayant&patra
0un;a8& O $a&nta
Tam&l O KarumPsempa&
Telu%u O Som&ntaN $alu%uN Nel&chettu
:r#u O PP
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
'eaEes p&nnately compoun#N 3+.P1.+. cm lon%N rach&s shortly pro#uce# a8oEe
last pa&r o, lea,letM par&p&nnateN lea,lets 6P16 pa&rsN oppos&teN l&nearN o8lon%N %la8rousN ent&reN
mucronate to acum&nateN Eery shortly stal*e#N 1+5P(+( cm lon%N 5+(P5+9 cm G&#e+
96

8) )&croscop&c
'ea,let
Rach&s P shoGs s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&sN ,olloGe# 8y P( layere# collenchymatous an# /P 3
layere# roun#N th&nPGalle# parenchymatous cellsM Eascular 8un#les arran%e# &n a r&n%N
haE&n% secretory caE&t&es &n phloemN each 8un#le coEere# eFternally G&th sclerenchymatous
sheathN one smaller Eascular 8un#le present &n 8oth the G&n%sM p&th smallN cons&st&n% o, th&nP
Galle#N poly%onalN parenchymatous cells+
'am&na P shoGs s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s on 8oth sur,acesN stomata an&socyt&cN present on
8oth sur,acesN pal&sa#e s&n%le layere#N spon%y parenchyma cons&st&n% o, roun# cellsN small
Ee&ns s&tuate# 8etGeen pal&sa#e an# spon%y parenchyma cellsN stomatal &n#eF on upper
sur,ace 11P5 an# on loGer sur,ace 11P.N pal&sa#e rat&o (+.P/+.5 an# Ee&n &slet num8er
3P(6 per sQuare mm+
0oG#er P Dull %reenM shoGs spon%y parenchymaN pal&sa#e cellsM Fylem Eessels G&th
scalar&,orm th&c*en&n% an# stomata+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 11 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 3 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than . per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n% Toluene O
Ethylacetate (=5O 15) shoGs un#er :+B+ ((66 nm) s&F ,luorescent -ones at R,+ 5+5.N 5+11N
5+1=N 5+=N 5+.6 (all p&n*) an# 5+=3 (yelloG)+ On eFposure to 4o#&ne Eapour ten spots appear
at R,+ 5+5.N 5+11N 5+1=N 5+=N 5+(3N 5+/9N 5+.6N 5+6=N 5+=1 an# 5+=3 (all yelloG)+ On spray&n%
G&th . \ )ethanol&cP0hosphomoly8#&c ac&# rea%ent an# heat&n% the plate at 15.C ,or ten
m&nutes n&ne spots appear at R,+ 5+5.N 5+11N 5+1=N 5+=N 5+(3N 5+/9N 5+.6N 5+=1 an# 5+=3 (all
%rey)+
97


CONST4T:ENTS P 0rote&nN Calc&um an# 0hosphorus+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaRuN T&*ta
1uSa O 'a%hu
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN 0&ttaharaN KaphaharaN KaSRhaWo#hanaN RasLyana
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P Ratna%&r& RasaN Ba;ra*apLRa Rasa+
THERA0E:T4C :SES P 1ala%aSYaN )Ttra*XcchraN B&Uaro%a
DOSE P (P6 % &n poG#er ,orm+


98
=+ $yot&shmat& (S#+)
$COT4!)ATA (See#)
$yot&UmatV cons&sts o, #r&e#N 8roGn&shPoran%eN r&pe see#sN #eEo&# o, capsule Gall o,
Celastrus pan&culatus 2&ll#+ (>am+ Celastraceae)M a lar%e cl&m8&n% shru8N mostly ,oun# all
oEer the h&lly parts o, the country upto an alt&tu#e o, 155 m+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O PP
Assamese O Kapalphotla
Ben%al& O PP
En%l&sh O Sta,, tree
1u;rat& O )al*an%an&
H&n#& O )al*an%an&
Kanna#a O Do##a%anu%aeN 1an%un%e 8ee;aN 1an%un%e humpuN Kan%on#&8all&
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Ceruppunnar&N :-h&n;a
)arath& O )al*an%on&
Or&ya O )al*an%un&N lyot&shmat&
0un;a8& O )al*an%on&
Tam&l O BaluluEa&
Telu%u O )al*an%an&N 0e##amaEeru
:r#u O )al*an%an&
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Dr&e# r&pe see#s more or less coEere# 8y oran%ePre# crusty ar&lN see# G&thout
ar&l also prescentN measur&n% .P6 mm &n len%th an# +.P(+(. mm &n 8rea#thN a ,eG rou%hly
three s&#e# 8e&n% conEeF on the s&#es an# a ,eG tGo s&#e# G&th one conEeF an# other more
or less ,lat s&#eN one e#%e o, many see#s shoG a ,a&nt r&#%e or raphe on the Ghole mar%&nM
99
sur,ace %enerally smooth an#P har#M colourN l&%ht to #ar* 8roGnM o#ourN unpleasantM tasteN
8&tter+

8) )&croscop&c
See# P ShoGs s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s coEere# eFternally G&th th&c* cut&cle an#
,&lle# G&th tann&nN ,olloGe# 8y /P6 layers o, th&nPGalle#N collapse#N parenchymatous cells
an# layer o, ra#&ally elon%ate# stone cellsM parenchyma o, top one or tGo layers lon%er than
o, the 8eloG G&th tr&an%ular &ntercellular spacesM &nner most layer o, parenchyma
conta&n&n% pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalateM 8eneath stone cells layer Qua#ran%ular to
octa%onalN tan%ent&ally elon%ate# cells ,&lle# G&th 8roGn&sh contentsM en#osperm compose#
o, poly%onalN th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cells haE&n% o&l %lou8les an# aleurone %ra&nsM
em8ryo spathulate &n ,leshy en#osperm conta&n&n% o&l %lo8ules an# aleurone %ra&ns+
0oG#er P O&lyN #ar* 8roGnM un#er m&croscope shoGs %roups o, en#osperm&c parenchymaN
stone cellsN o&l %lo8ules an# aleurone %ra&ns an# shoGs ,luorescence un#er :+B+ l&%ht as
,olloG&n% OP
0oG#er as such O 1ren&sh P8roGn
0oG#er f 1 N NaOH &n
)ethanol O '&%ht %reen
0oG#er f N&trocellulose &n
Amyl Acetate O CelloG&shP%reen
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 6 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1+. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 5 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than = per centN Appen#&F ++3+
O&l contents Not less than /. per centN Appen#&F ++9

100
ASSAC

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n% Toluene O
Ethylacetate (=5 O 15) shoGs tGo spots at R,+ 5+9 (p&n*) < 5+=/ (yelloG) &n E&s&8le l&%ht+
:n#er :+B+ ((66 nm) ,our ,luorescent -ones E&s&8le at R,+ 5+./N 5+9N 5+9=N (all 8lue) < 5+=/
(yelloG)+ On eFposure to 4o#&ne Eapour e&%ht spots appear at R,+ 5+5/N 5+1.N 5+5N 5+(.N 5+./N
5+6(N 5+9 < 5+9= (all yelloG)+ On spray&n% G&th Ban&ll&nPSulphur&c ac&# rea%ent an#
heat&n% the plate at 15.C ,or ten m&nutes ,our spots appear at R,+ 5+(.N 5+./ (8oth 8lue)N
5+9N 5+9= (8oth %reen&sh 8lue)+


CONST4T:ENTS P Al*alo&#sN O&l an# Tann&ns+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaRuN T&*ta
1uSa O SaraN :USaN TV*USa
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN KaphaharaN BLma*aN B&reca*aN K&roE&recanopa%aN DVpanaN
(0ra8hLEa O )e#hya)
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P SmXt&sL%ara RasaN $yot&UmatV Ta&la
THERA0E:T4C :SES P BLtaEyL#h&N SmXt&#aur8alyaN KE&tra
DOSE P See#O 1P %O&l O .P1. #rops+


101
(5+ Ka#am8a (St+B*+)
KADA)BA (Stem Bar*)
Ka#am8a cons&sts o, #r&e# stem 8ar* o, Anthocephalus ca#am8a )&Q+N Syn+ A+ &n#&cus
A+ R&ch+ (>am+ Ru8&aceae)N a #ec&#uousN lar%e treeN atta&n&n% a he&%ht o, 19 m G&th a %&rth o,
a8out mN ,oun# all oEer 4n#&a on the slopes o, eEer%reen ,orests upto .55 m an# plante# &n
par*s an# near temples etc+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O BXtta 0uUpaN 0r&y*a
Assamese O Ro%huN Ka#am
Ben%al& O Ka#am
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O Ka#am8N Ka#am
H&n#& O Ka#amN Ka#am8a
Kanna#a O Ka#am8aN Ka#am8a maraN Ka#aEalaN Ne&rumaE&namara
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Attute**aN Katampu
)arath& O Ka#am8
Or&ya O Hol&pt&yaN Ka#am8a N&poN Ka#am8al
0un;a8& O Ka#am8
Tam&l O ArattamN 4n#ulamN Ka#appa&N Bella& Ka#am8amN Bella&*ha#am8uN
Ka#am8u Nee#amN Bella& Ka#am8u
Telu%u O Ka#am8amuN Ka#&m& Chettu
:r#u O PP
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Bar* eFternally %rey&shP%reen G&th shalloG ,&ssuresN eF,ol&at&n% &n small
&rre%ular Goo#y scalesN &nternally l&%ht re##&sh to re##&shP8roGnN eas&ly separates ,rom
102
&nner 8ar* &nto tan%ent&al str&psM tasteN 8&tter+

8) )&croscop&c
Stem Bar* POuter most -one o, the 8ar* shoGs rhyt&#oma G&th cor* /P6 layers G&#eN
compose# o, th&nPGalle#N rectan%ular cellsM phloem ,&8res same &n structure as ,oun# &n
&nner 8ar*M m&##le 8ar* compose# o, rectan%ular or tan%ent&ally elon%ate# cells G&thout
&ntercellular spacesN some cells conta&n chlorophyllN most cells th&c*PGalle# 8ut a ,eG th&nP
Galle# conta&n&n% pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalateN a ,eG cells G&th 8roGn contentsM
&nner 8ar* cons&sts o, %roups o, ,&8res alternat&n% G&th phloemN traEerse# 8y un& to
tr&ser&ateN elon%ate# cells o, phloem raysM phloem compose# o, s&eEe tu8esN phloem ,&8resN
compan&on cells an# phloem parenchymaM cells o, phloem parenchyma th&nGalle# an#
poly%onalM phloem ,&8res l&%n&,&e# G&th narroG lumen an# po&nte# en#sM outer re%&on o,
&nner 8ar* an# phloem t&ssues th&nPGalle#N comparat&Eely lar%e an# cons&st&n% o, roun#e#
to poly%onal cells a ,eG phloem cells &n th&s re%&on compresse#M phloem rays un&Pto
tr&ser&ate an# arran%e# close to one anotherN cells #&st&nct an# sl&%htly elon%ate#N some cells
at the per&phery o, &nner 8ar* t&lle# G&th chlorophyll contents+
0oG#er P BroGnM shoGs ,ra%ments o, cor* cellsN phloem cellsN ,&8resN an# a ,eG pr&smat&c
crystals o, calc&um oFalate
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than = per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1+. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than ( per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than . per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
T+ ' C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n% Ethylacetate O
)ethanol O 2ater (155O1(+.O15) shoGs un#er :+B ((66 nm) n&ne ,luorescent -ones at R,+
5+5(N 5+1(N 5+1N 5+(1N 5+.3N 5+6/N 5+3=N 5+9( an# 5+=5 (all yelloG) On spray&n% G&th .\
)ethanol&c Sulphur&c ac&# rea%ent on heat&n% the plate at 115C ,or ten m&nutes ,our spots
appear at R,+ 5+6( (yelloG&sh %rey)N 5+35 (oran%e yelloG)N 5+3= (%rey) an# 5+=5 (%rey)+
103


CONST4T:ENTS P Al*alo&#sN Stero&#sN >ats an# Re#uc&n% Su%ars


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaULyaN )a#huraN 'aEaSa
1uSa O RT*Ua
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN 0&ttaharaN BraSaropaSaN Be#anLsthLpana
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P Ny%ro#hL#& KELtha CTrSaN 1rahaSVm&h&ra Ta&la
THERA0E:T4C :SES P DLhaN Con&#oUaN BraSaN Ra*tap&ttaN B&UaEraSa (DaZUa;a BraSa)
DOSE P 5+. P 1+. % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


104
(1+ Ka*amach& (2+0+)
KKA)CA (2hole 0lant)
KL*amLcV cons&sts o, the #r&e# Ghole plant o, Solanum n&%rum '&nn+ (>am+
Solanaceae)M a her8aceous annual Gee#N (5P/. cm h&%hN ,oun# throu%hout the country &n #ry
partsN Qu&te common &n cult&Eate# lan#sN roa# s&#es an# %ar#ens+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O DhEan*UamLcV
Assamese O Ka*amach&N 0&*ach&aN Dat*achu
Ben%al& O 1u#a*ama&
En%l&sh O 1ar#en N&%ht Sha#e
1u;rat& O 0&lu#&
H&n#& O )a*oya
Kanna#a O 1an&*ayea%&#aN 1an&*e%&#aN %an&*eN 1an&*esopuN Ka%e hann&na%&#s
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Kar&ntha**al&N )anata**al&N )an;atha**al&
)arath& O Kamon&
Or&ya O 'unlun&aN 'un&lun&*a
0un;a8& O )a*o
Tam&l O )anartha**al&N )anaththa**al&N )an&ta**al&N )an&ththa**al&
Telu%u O Kamanch&
:r#u O )a*oh
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Root P Tap root G&th a ,eG 8ranches an# numerous small lateral rootsN eFternally
smoothN pale 8roGnM 8ar* th&nN eas&ly peele# o,, eFpos&n% pale yelloG Goo#+
Stem P ErectN %la8rous or pu8escentN %reenN roun#e# at the 8asal re%&on an# an%ular at the
105
ap&cal re%&onN sl&%htly Goo#y an# 8ranche#+
'ea, P S&mpleN +.P9+. cm lon% an# +. cm G&#eN oEate or o8lon%N s&nuateN toothe# or lo8e#N
narroGe# at 8oth en#sM pet&olateN th&n+
>loGer P SmallN eFtraPaF&llaryN su8Pum8ellateN (P9 ,loGere# cymesN pe#uncles 6P5 mm
lon%N slen#erM pe#&cels 6P15 mm lon%N Eery slen#erM calyF P( mm lon%N %la8rousN ,&Ee
lo8e#N o8lon%N o8tuseN 1+. mm lon%M corolla /P9 mm lon%N #&E&#e# more than hal, Gay
#oGn &nto . o8lon% su8Pacute lo8esN Gh&te or pale E&oletM ,&laments shortN ,lattene#N ha&ry at
8aseM anther 1+P+. mm lon%N yelloG&shN o8lon%N o8tuse notche# at apeFM oEary %lo8oseN
%la8rousM style cyl&n#r&cN ha&ry &n loGer part+
>ru&t P A 8erryN 6mm &n #&a+N o8tuseN usually purpl&shP8lac* 8ut somet&mes re#N yelloG or
8lac*M smooth sh&n&n%
See# P D&sco&#N 1+. mm &n #&a+N smoothN m&nutely p&tte#N yelloG+

8) )&croscop&c
Root PShoGs cor* cons&st&n% o, P/ roGs o, tan%ent&ally elon%ate# cellsM corteF o,
lar%eN sl&%htly elon%ate#N th&nPGalle# cells haE&n% patches o, l&%n&,&e# sclerenchyma ,&8resN
most o, the cort&cal cells conta&n oEal to roun#N starch %ra&nsN measur&n% +.P11 &n #&a+N
s&n%le or G&th tGo or rarely ( componentsM a ,eG parenchyma cells conta&n
m&crospheno&#al crystals o, calc&um oFalateM phloem cons&sts o, th&nPGalle#N poly%onal
cellsN phloem rays un&ser&ateN ,&lle# G&th starch %ra&nsM Fylem compose# o, Eessels an#
parenchymaM Eessels arran%e# &n %roups o, P/ &n ra#&al roGsM parenchyma th&c*PGalle#
conta&n&n% m&crospheno&#al crystals o, calc&um oFalateM rays compose# o, th&nPGalle#N
ra#&ally elon%ate# cells+
Stem P ShoGs s&n%le layere#N ep&#erm&s o, cu8&cal to 8arrelPshape# cellsN coEere# G&th
th&c*N sl&%htly str&ate# cut&cleM tr&chomes mult&cellularN un&ser&ateM secon#ary corteF
compose# o, P/ layere# collenchymaN 8ut /P 15 layere# &n an%ular partsM tan%ent&ally
elon%ate#N[ oEal parenchymatous cellsN some conta&n&n% numerous m&crospheno&#al crystals
o, calc&um oFalate an# s&mpleN oEal to roun# starch %ra&nsN measur&n% +.P9+. &n #&a+N
en#o#errn&s s&n%le layere#M per&cycle cons&sts o, &nterm&ttent r&n% o, patches o, ,&8res e&ther
&solate# or &n %roups o, P/M Eascular 8un#lesPcollateralN con;o&nt an# openM cam8&um P/
layere#M Fylem Eessels arran%e# ra#&ally smaller 8e&n% toGar#s centreN shoG&n% sp&ral
th&c*en&n% an# s&mple per,orat&onsM trache&#s po&nte# t&ppe# an# G&th p&tte# GallsM Fylem
rays homo%enousN un&ser&ateM &nternal phloemN &n small or lar%e patchesN usually
accompan&e# 8y ,&8resN em8e##e# &n per&me#ullary -onesM p&th lar%eN compose# o, th&nP
Galle#N parenchymatous cells G&th small &ntercellular spacesN a ,eG cells conta&n&n%
m&crospheno&#al crystals o, calc&um oFalate+
106
'ea,P
0et&ole P shoGs s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s o, oEal or tan%ent&ally elon%ate# cellsN coEere#
G&th str&ate# cut&cleM coEer&n% tr&chomesN un&ser&ateN (P. celle# haE&n% po&nte# t&ps an#
Garty GallsN %lan#ular ha&rs G&th 1P celle# stal* an# P3 celle# hea#M ep&#erm&s s&n%le
layere#M chlorenchyma P( layere#N compactly arran%e#M .P9 layere# parenchyma
cons&st&n% o, roun#N th&nPGalle# cells G&th smaller &ntercellular spacesN a ,eG conta&n&n%
m&crospheno&#al crystals o, calc&um oFalateM central Eascular 8un#le shalloGN arcPshape#N
8&collateralM tGo smaller 8un#les present laterally on e&ther s&#e o, ma&n Eascular 8un#les
one &n each lateral G&n% o, the pet&ole+
)&#r&8 P shoGs upper an# loGer ep&#erm&s o, roun# to oEal cellsN coEere# G&th str&ate#
cut&cleN tr&chomes s&m&lar to those ,oun# on pet&oleM collenchyma P( layere# on 8oth
sur,acesM parenchyma /P6 layere#N th&nPGalle# G&th small &ntercellular spacesM arcPshape#
8&collateral Eascular 8un#le place# centrally+
'am&na P #ors&EentralN 8oth upper an# loGer ep&#erm&s s&n%le layere#N compose# o, oEal to
tan%ent&ally elon%ate# cells coEere# G&th th&c* cut&cleM pal&sa#e s&n%le layere#M spon%y
parenchyma /P6 layere# conta&n&n% chloroplasts G&th &ntercellular spacesM a ,eG Eessels
G&th sp&ral th&c*en&n%sN present 8eneath pal&sa#e parenchymaM &n sur,ace preparat&on a
lar%e num8er o, mult&cellularN Garty ha&rs G&th po&nte# t&ps an# %lan#ular ha&rs are presentM
ep&#erm&s G&th &rre%ular outl&neN stomata an&socyt&cN scattere# on 8oth sur,aces 8ut more
a8un#ant &n loGer sur,aceM pal&sa#e rat&o P/M Ee&n &slet num8er 3P15M stomatal &n#eF 1.P13
on upper ep&#erm&s an# P( on loGer ep&#erm&s+
>ru&t P ShoGs th&nN papery ep&carpN pulpy mesocarp an# eF&le placentat&onM see#s at ,&rst
rema&n attache# to the placenta 8ut a,terGar#s separate ,rom &t an# l&e ,ree &n pulp o, ,ru&t+
0oG#er P Cream&shP%reenM shoGs ,ra%ments o, Eessels G&th sp&ral th&c*en&n%M a ,eG 8ro*en
p&eces o, po&nte#N un&cellular ha&rsM s&n%leN oEal to roun# an# compoun# G&th three
components o, starch %ra&nsN measur&n% +. P 11 &n #&ameter+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 16 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 3 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than / per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1. per centN Appen#&F ++3+
107

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n% Toluene O
Ethylacetate (=5 O 15) shoGs tGo spots at R,+ 5+56 < 5+(/ (8oth 8roGn) &n E&s&8le l&%ht+
:n#er :+B+ l&%ht ((66 nm) tGo ,luorescent -ones are E&s&8le at R,+ 5+56 < 5+(/ (8oth p&n*)+
On eFposure to 4o#&ne Eapour three spots appear at R,+ 5+56N 5(/ an# 5+=3 (all yelloG)+


CONST4T:ENTS P Al*alo&#s an# Sapon&ns+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O T&*taN KaRu
1uSa O SaraN Sn&%#haN 'a%hu
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN 0&ttaharaN KaphaharaN Bhe#anaN RasLyanaN BXUyaN SEaryaN
HX#ya
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P HX#ayLrSaEa RasaN )ahL B&Ua%ar8ha Ta&laN RasarL;a Rasa
THERA0E:T4C :SES P KuURhaN KaSYTN ArWaN 0ramehaN KothaN HX#ro%aN $EaraN H&**LN
Char#&N Netraro%a
DOSE P . P15 ml o, the #ru% &n ;u&ce ,orm+


108
(+ Kamala (>l+)
KA)A'A (>loGer)
Kamala cons&sts o, #r&e# ,loGers (#eEo&# o, stal*) o, Nelum8o nuc&,era 1aertn+ Syn+
Nelum8&um spec&osum 2&ll#+ (>am+ Nymphaeaceae)M a lar%eN aQuat&c her8 G&th creep&n% stemN
occurr&n% throu%hout Garmer parts o, the country upto an alt&tu#e o, 1555 m+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O A8;aN AraE&n#aN 0a#maN KalhLraN S&topalaN 0an*a;a
Assamese O 0o#um
Ben%al& O 0a#ma 0hoolN Salaphool
En%l&sh O 'otus
1u;rat& O KamalN
H&n#& O KamalN KanGal
Kanna#a O KamalN TaEareN Na&#&leN TaEare%e##
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O TamaraN BenthamaraN ChenthamaraN Senthamara
)arath& O Komala
Or&ya O 0a#ma
0un;a8& O KanGalN 0amposh
Tam&l O Tamara&N Thamara&pooN AraE&n#anN 0a#umanN KamalamN Saro;am
Telu%u O KaluEaN TamarapuEoG
:r#u O Kamal
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Dru% occurs as ent&re or p&eces o, ,loGersN compr&s&n% o, calyFN corollaN
an#roec&umN %ynoec&um an# thalamusM ent&re ,loGer 15P1. cm &n #&a+N yelloG&shP8roGnM
sepals lea,Pl&*eN cr&mple#N (P. cm lon%N 1+(P cm G&#eN #ar* 8roGnN 8ro*en p&eces also
occurM petals numerousN cr&mp le#N ell&pt&cN o8tuseN mem8ranousN ,&nely Ee&ne#N P/ cm
109
lon%N 1+P cm G&#e yelloG&shP8roGnM antherN erectN l&near 1+/P cm lon%N eFten#e# &nto
claEate appen#a%esM %ynoce&um apocarpousM carpels manyN ,reeN em8e##e# &n a creamyN top
shape# ,leshy thalamus (torus) (P. cm lon% an# +.P( cm G&#eM ,ru&t an etaer&o o, achenesN
8ecom&n% loose &n the&r soc*ets Ghen r&peM see# har#N 8lac*N starchy an# lar%e+

8) )&croscop&c
>loGer
0etal P shoGs s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s on 8oth sur,acesN cons&st&n% o, rectan%ular cells
coEere# G&th str&ate# cut&cleM %roun# t&ssue cons&st&n% o, poly%onalN parenchymatous cells
G&th G&#e a&rPsacs+
Stamen
>&lament P ,&lament appears c&rcular &n outl&neN cons&st&n% o, s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s
coEere# G&th str&ate# cut&cleM ,olloGe# 8y %roun# t&ssue o, oEalN an%ularN parenchymatous
cellM Eascular 8un#le s&n%leN present &n centre cons&st&n% o, usual elements o, Fylem an#
phloem t&ssues+
Anther P shoGs ,our cham8ere# antherN tGo on e&ther s&#esN connecte# 8y parenchymatous
cells conta&n&n% Eascular 8un#leM anther cons&sts o, a s&n%le layer o, ep&#erm&sN compose# o,
th&nPGalle#N rectan%ularN parenchymatous cells ,olloGe# 8y s&n%le layer o, en#othec&um
cons&st&n% o, th&nPGalle#N columnarN parenchymatous cellsM spore sac conta&ns yelloGN
spher&cal pollen %ra&ns G&th smooth eF&ne an# &nt&ne GallsN measur&n% .5P61 &n #&ameter+
0oG#er P Dusty 8roGnM shoGs ,ra%ments o, Eessels G&th sp&ral th&c*en&n%N spher&calN yelloG
pollen %ra&nsN measur&n% .5P61 &n #&a+ haE&n% smooth eF&ne an# &nt&ne+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than ( per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 6 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1/ per centN Appen#&F ++3+
110

CONST4T:ENTS P Al*alo&# (Nelum8&ne)+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O )a#huraN T&*taN KaULya
1uSa O KVtaN 'a%hu
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O )a#hura
Karma O KaphaharaN 0&ttaharaN SantLpaharaN BarSyaN )Ttra B&ra;anVya
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P AraE&n#LsaEaN Catura KaEala 1hXta
THERA0E:T4C :SES P TXUnLN DLhaN Ra*tap&ttaN B&sarpaN B&UaE&*Lra
DOSE P 1 P/ % o, the #ru% ,or #ecoct&on+


111
((+ Kap&ttha (>r+ 0ulp+)
KA04TTHA (>ru&t 0ulp)
Kap&ttha cons&sts o, #r&e# pulp o, mature ,ru&t o, >eron&a l&mon&a ('&nn+) SG&n%le+ Syn+
>+ elephantum Correa (>aro+ Rutaceae)M a #ec&#uousN %la8rous tree G&th stron%N sharpN stra&%htN
aF&llary thornsN ,oun# throu%hout the pla&ns o, 4n#&aN S&Gal&* ran%e an# ,orestsN at 8ase o,
H&malayas upto an eleEat&on o, /.5 mM o,ten cult&Eate# &n many parts o, 4n#&aM ,ru&t r&n# &s
remoEe# an# the pulp &s 8ru&se# an# #r&e#+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O Danta KathaN Kap&pr&ya
Assamese O Kule*hara
Ben%al& O Kayet BaelN KaEatalealN KaE&ta
En%l&sh O 2oo# apple
1u;rat& O KothaN Kon#hu
H&n#& O Ka&tha
Kanna#a O Be*aluN Bela#a hannuN B&lEaraN BelaluN Bala#aN Ham&namara
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O B&lar maramN B&llan%a Kaaya
)arath& O KaEatha
Or&ya O PP
0un;a8& O Ka&nth
Tam&l O B&lamaramN B&lan%a&
Telu%u O Bela%a
:r#u O Ka&th
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
>ru&t pulp occurs mostly &n 8ro*en p&eces an# somet&mes ent&reN measur&n% a8out
112
/P. cm &n #&aM sem&c&rcularN rou%hN har#N haE&n% lon%&tu#&nal r&#%es an# ,urroGsM re##&sh
8roGnM o#ourN aromat&cM tasteN sour+

8) )&croscop&c
>ru&t 0ulp P shoGs &rre%ularN th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cellsM numerous &#&o8last
cells ,&lle# G&th re##&shP8roGn contentM stone cellsN sl&%htly tr&an%ular an# oEalN G&th
concentr&c str&at&ons an# narroG lumenN ,oun# &n %roupsM a ,eG ,&8roPEascular 8un#les
#&str&8ute# &n the pulpM Fylem Eessels haE&n% sp&ral th&c*en&n%s+
0oG#er P Re##&shP8roGnM shoGs ,ra%ments o, ,&8roPEascular 8un#lesN stone cellsN tr&an%ular
to oEal G&th concentr&c str&at&ons an# narroG lumenN Eessels an# &#&o8last ,&lle# G&th cell
content+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 6 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than . per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n%
Chloro,orm OEthylacetate O >orm&c ac&# (.O/O1) shoGs one spot at R,+ 5+=1 (%rey) &n
E&s&8le l&%ht+ :n#er :+B+ ((66 nm) three ,luorescent -ones appear at R, 5+1/ (s*y
8lue)N 5+=1 (8lue) an# 5+=. (8lue)+ On eFposure to 4o#&ne Eapour s&F spots appear at
R,+ 5+56N 5+1N 5+(3N 5+.5N 6+=1 an# 5+=. (all yelloG)+ On spray&n% G&th .\
)ethanol&cPSulphur&c ac&# rea%ent an# heat&n% the plate at 115C ,or ten m&nutes
,&Ee spots appear at R,+ 5+1 (8roGn)N 5+(3 (8roGn)N 5+.5 (E&olet)N 5+=1 (E&olet) an#
5+=. (E&olet) +


113
CONST4T:ENTS P C&tr&c ac&# an# )uc&la%e+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O )a#huraN AmlaN KaULyaN ^ :nr&pe 0ulpO AmlaN KaULya
1uSa O 'a%huN ^ :nr&pe 0ulpO 1uru
BVrya O KVtaN ^ :nr&pe 0ulpO :Una
B&pL*a O )a#huraN ^ :nr&pe 0ulpO Amla
Karma O BXUyaN 0&ttaELtaharaN Sa_%rLhVN BraSanLWa*aN ^ :nr&pe 0ulpO Kapha%hnaN
'e*hanaN 1rLhVN BLtala
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P Kap&tthLURa*a CTrSaN CaELnyL#& CTrSa
THERA0E:T4C :SES P R&peP TXUSLN H&**LN KELsaN Bam&N :nr&peP 1rahaSV Ro%aN
A%n&mLn#ya
DOSE P 1P( % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


114
(/+ Karamar#a (St+B*+)
KARA)ARDA (Stem Bar*)
Karamar#a cons&sts o, #r&e# stem 8ar* o, Car&ssa caran#as '&nn+ (>am + Apocynaceae)M
a #&chotomously 8ranche# lar%e shru8 or small treeN met throu%hout 4n#&a &n G&l# stateN
somet&mes cult&Eate#+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O Krsnapa*phala
Assamese O Kule*hara
Ben%al& O Karamach
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O Karama#an
H&n#& O Kar&;&%e
Kanna#a O Kar&m*ar
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Kar&m*ar
)arath& O Karaman#a
Or&ya O PP
0un;a8& O 1arna
Tam&l O Kala**e
Telu%u O PP
:r#u O Karaun#a
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Bar* occurs &n small an# th&nN ,lat or sl&%htly curEe# p&ecesN rou%h #ue to
lon%&tu#&nal str&at&onsM eFternal sur,ace 8roGn&shP%reyN &nternal sur,ace %rey an# smoothN
l&%ht &n Ge&%htM ,ractureN short+
115

8) )&croscop&c
Stem Bar* P)ature 8ar* shoGs a G&#e -one o, strat&,&e# cor* haE&n% lent&cels at a
,eG placesM secon#ary corteF compose# o, th&nPGalle#N tu8ularN parenchymatous cells
haE&n% %roups o, stone cellsM cort&cal ,&8res &n s&n%le or %roups o, P(N a ,eG stone cells
attache# G&th cort&cal ,&8resM secon#ary phloem cons&st&n% o, usual elementsM pr&smat&c
crystals o, calc&um oFalate ,oun# scattere# &n cort&cal cells an# phloem parenchymaM starch
%ra&ns s&mpleN measur&n% (P3 &n #&a+ an# compoun# haE&n% P( componentsN ,oun#
scattere# &n cort&cal an# phloem parenchyma cells+
0oG#er P 1rey&shP8roGnN shoGs s&n%le an# %roups o, stone cellsN pr&smat&c crystals o,
calc&um oFalateN s&mple an# compoun# starch %ra&nsN measur&n% (P3 &n #&a+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than ( per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than / per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 9 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca 1el [1[ plate us&n% TolueneM
Ethylacetate (= O 1) shoGs un#er :+B+ ((66 nm) one ,luorescent -one at R,+ 5+. (l&%ht s*y
8lue)+ On spray&n% G&th An&sal#ehy#ePSulphur&c ac&# rea%ent an# heat&n% the plate ,or a8out
,&,teen m&nutes at 15.
5
C ,our spots appear at R,+ 5+(.N 5+.9 (8oth l&%ht %rey)N 5+=5 (p&n*)
an# 5+=3 (E&olet)+


CONST4T:ENTS P 1lycos&#es an# PS&tosterol+

116

0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O Amla
1uSa O 1uruN Sara
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN 0&tta*araN Kaphahara
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P )arma 1uRV*L
THERA0E:T4C :SES P KuURhahara
DOSE P /9 % o, the #ru% ,or #ecoct&on+


117
(.+ Karan;a (Rt+ B*+)
KARAH$A (Root Bar*)
Kara];a cons&sts o, #r&e# root 8ar* o, 0on%am&a p&nnata ('&nn+) )err+N Syn+ 0+ %la8ra
Bent+ (>am+ >a8aceae)N a %la8rous treeN upto 19 m or somet&mes more &n he&%htN ,oun# almost
throu%hout the country upto an alt&tu#e o, 155 m+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O Kara];a*aN Na*tamLlaN Na*tLhELN 1hXta*ara];a
Assamese O Korach
Ben%al& O Nata*aran;aN Dahara *aran;a
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O Kana;&
H&n#& O Karan;
Kanna#a O Hon%e Beru
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O 0un%uN :n%u
)arath& O Karan;a
Or&ya O Karan;a
0un;a8& O Karan;
Tam&l O 0un%a&
Telu%u O 1anu%a
:r#u O Karan;
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Dru% occurs &n p&eces o, Eary&n% s&-esM re##&shP8roGn eFternally an#
yelloG&shGh&teN &nternallyM eFternal sur,ace rou%hN #ue to peel&n% o,,N o, outer th&n s*&n an#
presence o, numerous &rre%ularly scattere# an# transEersely arran%e# roGs o, lent&celsM
,ractureN ,&8rousM tasteN Eery 8&tter+
118

8) )&croscop&c
Root Bar* PShoGs cor* cons&st&n% or .P1. or more roGs o, rectan%ularN tan%ent&ally
elon%ate#N th&nPGalle#N cellsM secon#ary corteF G&#e compose# o, poly%onalN tan%ent&ally
elon%ate# cellsN most o, the cells conta&n&n% 8oth s&mple an# compoun# starch %ra&ns haE&n%
P. components roun# to oEal &n shapeN (P11 &n #&a+N a ,eG cells conta&n yelloG&shP8roGn
contents an# pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalateM stone cells ,oun# scattere# &n th&s re%&on
&n s&n%les an# %roupsN s&n%le cells o, Eary&n% shape an# s&-eM secon#ary phloem Eery G&#eN
compose# o, tan%ent&ally arran%e# ,&8res alternat&n% G&th s&eEe tu8es an# phloem
parenchymaN traEerse# 8y phloem raysM most o, phloem parenchyma cells conta&n starch
%ra&ns an# crystalsN s&m&lar to those present &n secon#ary corteFM phloem rays manyN mostly
stra&%htN 1P ser&ateN cons&st&n% o, th&nPGalle#N ra#&ally elon%ate# cells toGar#s &nner re%&on
an# tan%ent&ally elon%ate# toGar#s per&pheryM most o, ray cells conta&n starch %ra&nN s&m&lar
to those present &n secon#ary corteF+
0oG#er PCream&shPyelloGM shoGs th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cellsN cor* cellsN phloem
,&8resN stone cells an# s&mple an# compoun# starch %ra&ns measur&n% (P11 &n #&ameter+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 11 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than (+. per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 13 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca 1el [1[ plate us&n%
TolueneOEthylacetate (=O1) shoGs un#er :+B+ ((66 nm) eleEen ,luorescent -ones at
R,+ 5+5/ (8lue)N 5+59 (%reen&sh 8lue)N 5+1( (S*y 8lue)N 5+19 (8lue) 5+. (s*y 8lue)N
5+(1 (s*y 8lue)N 5+(3 (%reen&sh yelloG)N 5+/ (s*y 8lue)N 5+/3 (%reen&sh yelloG)N 5+.1
(l&%ht 8lue)N 5+95 (l&%ht 8lue)+ On eFposure to 4o#&ne Eapour n&ne spots appear at R,+
5+5=N 5+19N 5+(1N 5+(3N 5+/3N 5+/3N 5+.1N 5+95 an# 5+=9 (all yelloG)+
119


CONST4T:ENTS P >laEones Kanu%&nN DemethoFyP*anu%&n


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaRuN T&*taN KaULya
1uSa O TV*USa
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O KaphaharaN BLtaharaN 0&ttaharaN KaSYT%hnaN B&Ua%hnaN BraSaWo#hana
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P 0ra8ha];ana B&mar#ana Ta&la
THERA0E:T4C :SES P KuURhaN KaSYTN DuURaEraSaN 0ramehaN Con&ro%aN KXm&ro%aN
ntraE&#ra#h&
DOSE P 1P( % o, the #ru% ,or #ecoct&on+


120
(6+ Karan;a (Rt+)
KARAH$A (Root)
Kara];a cons&sts o, #r&e# root o, 0on%am&a p&nnata ('&nn+) )err+N Syn+ 0+ %la8ra Bent+
(>am+ >a8aceae)M a %la8rous treeN upto 19 m or somet&mes more &n he&%htN ,oun# almost
throu%hout the country upto an alt&tu#e o, 155 m+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O 1hXta*ara];aN Kara];a*aN Na*tLhELN Na*tamLla
Assamese O Korach
Ben%al& O Dahara *aran;aN Nata*aran;a
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O Kana;&
H&n#& O Karan;
Kanna#a O Hon%e Beru
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O 0un%uN :n%u
)arath& O Karan;a
Or&ya O Karan;a
0un;a8& O Karan;
Tam&l O 0un%a&
Telu%u O 1anu%aN Kanu%a
:r#u O Karan;
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Dru% occurs &n p&eces o, Eary&n% s&-esN 8ar*N re##&shP8roGn or #ull 8roGnN
rou%h #ue to the presence o, numerousN &rre%ularly #&str&8ute#N an# also transEersely
arran%e# roGs o, lent&celsN 8ar* #oes not eas&ly separate ,rom FylemN &nternally l&%ht
yelloGN l&%ht &n Ge&%htN ,ractureN ,&8rous &n 8ar* port&on an# har# to 8rea* &n Fylem port&on
Ghere the root &s th&c* Ghen &n p&eces spl&ts lon%&tu#&nallyM tasteN 8&tter+
121

8) )&croscop&c
Root PShoGs cor* cons&st&n% o, .P1. or more roGs o, rectan%ularN tan%ent&ally
elon%ate#N th&nPGalle#N cellsM secon#ary corteF G&#e compose# o, poly%onalN tan%ent&ally
elon%ate# cellsN most o, the cells conta&n&n% 8oth s&mple an# compoun# starch %ra&ns
cons&st&n% o, P( componentsN roun#e# to oEal &n shapeN (P11 &n #&a+N some cells
conta&n&n% yelloG&shP8roGn contents an# pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalateM stone cells
,oun# &n s&n%le as Gell as &n %roups o, Eary&n% shapes an# s&-eM secon#ary phloem a Eery
G&#e -oneN cons&st&n% o, tan%ent&ally arran%e# ,&8resN alternat&n% G&th s&eEe elements an#
phloem parenchyma traEerse# 8y phloem rays mostly stra&%htN 1P ser&ateN cons&st&n% o,
ra#&ally elon%ate#N th&nPGane# cells toGar#s &nner re%&onN tan%ent&ally elon%ate# toGar#s
outer re%&onM starch %ra&nsN an# crystals s&m&lar to those o, cort&cal cellsN also present &n
phloem parenchyma an# phloem raysM secon#ary Fylem cons&st&n% o, EesselsN trache&#sN
,&8res an# parenchymaM Eessels ,oun# scattere# throu%hout secon#ary Fylem re%&on &n
s&n%les or %roups o, P/ or rarelyN moreM ,&8res th&c*PGalle# arran%e# &n tan%ent&al 8an#s
traEerse# 8y Fylem raysM Fylem parenchyma cells th&nPGalle#N roun#e# to oEal &n shapeM
Fylem rays un& to tr&ser&ate cons&st&n% o, ra#&ally elon%ate# cellsM starch %ra&ns an# calc&um
oFalate crystals are s&m&lar to those present &n cort&cal cells an# also ,oun# scattere# &n
Fylem parenchyma an# Fylem ray cells+
0oG#er P'&%ht yelloGM shoGs ,&8res &n s&n%les or %roupsM Fylem Eessels ent&re or &n p&eces
G&th ret&culate th&c*en&n%sM starch %ra&ns &n a8un#ance 8oth s&mple an# compoun#N
cons&st&n% o, P( componentsN measur&n% (P11 &n #&a+N stone cells an# a ,eG pr&smat&c
crystals o, calc&um oFalate+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 9 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 3 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

CONST4T:ENTS P Karan;&nN Kanu%&nN DemethoFyP*anu%&nN 0on%achromene <
TetraPOP )ethyl,&set&n+
122


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaRuN T&*taN KaULya
1uSa O TV*USa
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O KaphaharaN BLtaharaN 0&ttaharaN KaSYT%hnaN B&Ua%hnaN BraSaWo#hana
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P DhLnEantara 1hXta
THERA0E:T4C :SES P KuURhaN KaSYTN DuURaEraSaN 0ramehaN Con&ro%aN KXm&ro%aN
ntrarE&#ra#h&N B&#ra#hV
DOSE P 1P % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


123
(3+ Karan;a (St+B*+)
KARAH$A (Stem Bar*)
Kara];a cons&sts o, #r&e# stem 8ar* o, 0on%am&a p&nnata ('&nn+) )err+N Syn+ 0+ %la8ra
Bent+ (>am+ >a8aceae)M a %la8rous treeN upto 19 m or somet&mes more &n he&%htN ,oun# almost
throu%hout the country upto an alt&tu#e o, 155 m+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O 1hXta*ara];aN Kara];a*aN Na*tLhELN Na*tamLla
Assamese O Korach
Ben%al& O Dahara *aran;aN Karan;aN Nata*aran;a
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O Kana;&
H&n#& O Karan;
Kanna#a O Hon%e Beru
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O 0un%uN :n%u
)arath& O Karan;a
Or&ya O Karan;a
0un;a8& O Karan;
Tam&l O 0un%a&
Telu%u O 1anu%aN Kanu%a
:r#u O Karan;
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Bar* aEa&la8le &n channelle#N recurEe#N sl&%htly Qu&lle#N usually 5+P1 cm th&c*N
lent&cellate p&ecesN more or less smoothM outer sur,ace ashP%rey to %rey&shP8roGn an#
&nternal sur,ace yelloG&shPGh&te to cream coloure#M ,ractureN short an# ,&8rousN o#ourN
unpleasantM tasteN 8&tter+
124

8) )&croscop&c
Bar* P ShoGs .P5 or more layers o, cor*N compose# o, rectan%ularN th&c*PGalle#
cellsN ,&lle# G&th re##&shP8roGn contentN at some places lent&cels also appearM secon#ary
corteF 15P1. layere# haE&n% oEal to poly%onalN tan%ent&ally elon%ate#N th&nPGalle#N
parenchymatous cellsM 8eneath secon#ary corteF a lar%e %roup o, oEal to elon%ate# stone
cellsN arran%e# &n a tan%ent&al mannerN ,orm&n% a cont&nuous or #&scont&nuous 8an#M
secon#ary phloem compose# o, s&eEe elementsN phloem parenchymaN phloem ,&8re an# stone
cellsN traEerse# 8y me#ullary raysM s&eEe elements an# parenchyma compose# o, rectan%ular
to poly%onal th&nPGalle# cellsN alternat&n% G&th stone cellsM ,&8re smallN poly%onalN th&nP
Galle# an# aseptateN a ,eG assoc&ate# G&th stone cells an# arran%e# ra#&allyM me#ullary rays
GaEyN usually P/ cells G&#eN ra#&ally elon%ate# an# roun#e# to oEal &n shapeN a ,eG stone
cells scattere# &n secon#ary corteF as &n secon#ary phloemM rhom8o&#al crystals o, calc&um
oFalate ,oun# &n secon#ary corteFM starch %ra&ns s&mpleN roun#e# to oEal an# compoun#
haE&n% P/ componentsN present &n secon#ary corteFN phloem parenchyma an# rays cellsM o&l
%lo8ules ,oun# &n secon#ary phloem only+
0oG#er PCelloG&shPcreamM shoGs %roups o, rectan%ular to poly%onalN elon%ate#N th&n Galle#
parenchymatous s&eEe tu8eM aseptate ,&8re an# stone cellsM rhom8o&#al crystals o, calc&um
oFalateM roun#e# to oEalN s&mple an# compoun# starch %ra&nsN measur&n% (P1/ &n #&aN an#
rarelyN o&l %lo8ules+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 1( per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1+. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than ( per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 19 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

CONST4T:ENTS P >laEones an# >urano,laEones l&*e Karan;&nN 0on%ap&nN DemethoFyP
*anu%&nN Kanu%&nN 0&nnat&nN TetraPoP)ethyl,&set&nN 1amat&nN .P
)ethoFy,urano (gN (g 3 O 9)N ,laEone an# .P)ethoFyP([/[ )ethylene
#&oFy,urano (gN (gN 3 O 9) ,laEone < tGo neG >urano compoun#s
1la8raP4 an# 1la8raP44+ 4t also conta&ns al*alo&#s an# Tr&terpeno&#
sapon&n+
125


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaRuN T&*taN KaULya
1uSa O TV*USa
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O KaphaharaN BLtaharaN 0&ttaharaN KaSYT%hnaN B&Ua%hnaN BraSaWo#hana
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P BXhanma];&URhL#& KELtha CTrSaN )ustL*ara];L#& KELtha
CTrSa
THERA0E:T4C :SES P KuURhaN KaSYTN DuURaEraSaN 0ramehaN Con&ro%aN KXm&ro%aN
ntrarE&#ra#h&N B&#ra#hV
DOSE P 1P % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


126
(9+ Karan;a (',+)
KARAH$A ('ea,)
Kara];a cons&sts o, #r&e# lea, o, 0on%am&a p&nnata ('&nn+) )err+N Syn+ 0+ %la8ra Bent+
(>am+ >a8aceae)M a %la8rous treeN upto 19 m or somet&mes more &n he&%htN ,oun# almost
throu%hout the country upto an alt&tu#e o, 155 m+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O 1hXta*ara];aN Kara];a*aN Na*tLhELN Na*tamLla
Assamese O Korach
Ben%al& O Dahara *aran;aN Karan;aN Nata*aran;a
En%l&sh O Smooth leaEe# pon%am&a
1u;rat& O Kana;&N Kana;o
H&n#& O Karua&n&N D&thour&
Kanna#a O Hon%e BeruN Hula%&lu
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O 0un%uN :n%uN :nuN AE&ttal
)arath& O Karan;a
Or&ya O Karan;a
0un;a8& O Karan;
Tam&l O 0un%a&N 0on%ana
Telu%u O 1anu%aN Kanu%u
:r#u O Karan;
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
'eaEes &mpar&p&nnateN lea,lets P( pa&rsN oEate or ell&pt&c G&th smooth mar%&nsN 6+ P
11+. cm lon% an# (+=P9+( cm G&#eN #ar* %reenN pet&olule shortN 5+.P5+9 cm+
127

8) )&croscop&c
'ea,P
0et&olule P c&rcular &n outl&neN coEere# G&th cut&cleN ep&#erm&s s&n%le layere#N cons&st&% o,
ta8ular cellsM corteF cons&st&n% o, an%ularN &so#&ametr&cN parenchymatous cells G&thout
&ntercellular spacesN a ,eG cells conta&n&n% pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalateM per&cyc1e
present &n the ,orm o, sclerenchymatous sheathM Eascular 8un#le s&n%leN arcPshape#N
cons&st&n% o, Fylem an# phloemM Fylem Eessels arran%e# ra#&allyN traEerse# 8y Fylem raysM a
,eG sch&-o%enous caE&t&es ,oun# scattere# &n corteF+
)&# r&8 P shoGs s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&sN cons&st&n% o, ta8ular cellsN coEere# G&th th&c*
cut&cleN ,olloGe# 8y (P/ layere# collenchymatous hypo#erm&sM corteF cons&sts o, roun# to
oEalN th&nPGalle# parenchymatous cellsM per&cycle present &n the ,orm o, sclerenchymatous
sheathM Eascular 8un#leN collateralN con;o&nt an# arran%e# &n #&scont&nuous r&n%M central
port&on occup&e# 8y oEal to poly%onal th&nPGalle# parenchymatous p&thM pr&smat&c crystals
o, calc&um oFalate present &n corteFN phloem an# p&th+
'am&na PshoGs s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s coEere# G&th th&c* cut&cleM pal&sa#e tGo layere#M
spon%y parenchyma (P. layere#N a ,eG conta&n&n% pr&smat&c crystals s&m&lar to m&#r&8N
occas&onally a ,eG spon%y parenchyma cells %et elon%ate# an# loo* l&*e pal&sa#e cellsN
pal&sa#e rat&o (+.P.5M Ee&n &slet num8er 19P. per mm sQuareM stomata an&socyt&cN present &n
loGer sur,aceM stomatal &n#eF 1+.P5+
0oG#er P1reenM shoGs sp&ral Fylem EesselsN mesophyll cellsN ep&#ermal cells an# a ,eG
pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalate
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 11 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than (+. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 15 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 16 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

128
CONST4T:ENTS P A neG >urano,laEone P([ P methoFy pon%ap&n &n a##&t&on to Karan;&nN
Kan;one an# &ts tGo &somers 3P)ethoFy,uranoP(/gN.gN6N.) P ,laEone
an# 9P)ethoFy,uranoP(/gN .gN P 6N .)P,laEone an# 9 methoFy,uranoP
(/gN .g P 6N 3) P,laEone+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaRuN T&*taN KaULya
1uSa O TV*USa
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN KaphaharaN 0&ttaEar#ha*aN Bhe#anaN KaSYT%hnaN KXm&haraN
Kothahara
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P $LtyL#& Ta&la
THERA0E:T4C :SES P KuURhaN KXm&ro%aN BraSaN KaSYT
DOSE P >or eFternal use only+


129
(=+ KaraEalla*a (>resh+>r+)
KRABA''AKA (>resh >ru&t)
KLraEalla*a cons&sts o, ,resh ,ru&t o, )omor#&ca charant&a '&nn+ (>am+
Cucur8&taceae)M a monoec&ous cl&m8er ,oun# throu%hout the country o,ten un#er cult&Eat&onN
upto an alt&tu#e o, 1.55 m+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O KLraEellaN Kath&llaN Bar&EallVN KLraEallV+
Assamese O Ka*&ralN Ka*ral
Ben%al& O Karolla
En%l&sh O B&tter %our#
1u;rat& O Karela
H&n#& O Karela
Kanna#a O Ha%ala*a&
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Ka&ppaN 0aEac**a&
)arath& O Karla
Or&ya O KalaraN Salara
0un;a8& O Karela
Tam&l O 0ahar*a&
Telu%u O Kaa*ara Kaaya
:r#u O Karela
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
>ru&t +. P . cm lon%N o8lon%N pen#ulousN ,us&,ormN usually po&nte# or 8ea*e#N
r&88e# an# 8ear&n% numerous tr&an%ular tu8erclesN ( EalEe# at the apeF Ghen matureN
sur,ace rou%hM l&%ht %reen to %reen &n colour conta&n&n% numerous see#sM tasteN eFtremely
8&tter+
130
8) )&croscop&c
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter N&l Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 9+. per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 5+6 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 6 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 9 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n%
Chloro,ormO )ethanol (=5 O 15) shoGs un#er :+B+ ((66 nm) ,our ,luorescent -ones
at R,+ 5+( (re#)N 5+61 (l&%ht s*y 8lue)N 5+=6 (s*y 8lue)N 5+=9 (re# < s*y 8lue)+ On
eFposure to 4o#&ne Eapour ,our spots appear at R,+ 5+13N 5+/6N 5+63 an# 5+=9 (all
yelloG)+ On spray&n% G&th .\ )ethanol&c 0hosphomoly8#&c ac&# rea%ent n&ne spots
appear at R,+ 5+5(N 5+16N 5+(/N 5+/(N 5+.5N 5+65N 5+3.N 5+91 an# 5+=9 (all 8lue)+


CONST4T:ENTS P Al*alo&# ()omor&#&c&ne) an# 1lycos&#es+

0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O T&*taN KaRu
1uSa O 'a%hu
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN KaphaharaN Ra*ta#oUaharaN DVpanaN HX#yaN Bhe#&
131
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P )ahLE&Ua%ar8ha Ta&la
THERA0E:T4C :SES P KuURhaN 0ramehaN KLmalLN 0LSYuN KXm&ro%aN Ra*taE&*LraN $EaraN
KELsaN KLsaN Aruc&
DOSE P 15 P 1. ml ;u&ce o, ,resh #ru%+


132
/5+ Katu*a (R-+)
KAJ:K (Rh&-ome)
Kau*L cons&sts o, the #r&e# rh&-ome G&th root o, 0&crorh&-a *urroa Royle eF Benth+
(>am+ Scrophular&aceae)M a perenn&alN more or less ha&ry her8 common on the northPGestern
H&malayas ,rom Kashm&r to S&**&m+ Rh&-ome &s cut &nto small p&eces+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O T&*tLN T&*taroh&SVN KaRuroh&SVN KaEVN Sut&*ta*aN KaRu*aN Roh&SV+
Assamese O Kat*&N Kut*&
Ben%al& O PP
En%l&sh O Helle8ore
1u;rat& O Ka#uN Katu
H&n#& O Kut*&
Kanna#a O Katu*a roh&n&N *atu*a roh&n&
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Ka#u* roh&n&N Katu*a roh&n&
)arath& O Kut*&N Kal&*ut*&
Or&ya O Katu*&
0un;a8& O KarruN *aur
Tam&l O Katu*a roh&n&N Katu*u roh&n&N Ka#u%uroh&n&
Telu%u O Karu*aroh&n&
:r#u O Kut*&
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Rh&-ome P +.P9 cm lon% an# /P9 mm th&c*N su8cyl&n#r&calN stra&%ht or sl&%htly
curEe#N eFternally %rey&shP8roGnN sur,ace rou%h #ue to lon%&tu#&nal Gr&n*lesN c&rcular scars
o, roots an# 8u# scales an# somet&mes roots attache#N t&p en#s &n a %roG&n% 8u# surroun#e#
8y tu,te# croGn o, leaEesN at places cor* eF,ol&ates eFpos&n% #ar* corteFM ,ractureN shortM
133
o#ourN pleasantM tasteN 8&tter+ +
Root P Th&nN cyl&n#r&calN .P15 cm lon%N 5+5.P5+1 cm &n #&ameterN stra&%ht or sl&%htly curEe#
G&th a ,eG lon%&tu#&nal Gr&n*les an# #otte# scarsN mostly attache# G&th rh&-omesN #usty
%reyN ,ractureN shortN &nner sur,ace 8lac* G&th Gh&t&sh FylemM o#ourN pleasantM tasteN 8&tter+

8) )&croscop&c
Rh&-ome P ShoGs 5P. layers o, cor* cons&st&n% o, tan%ent&ally elon%ate#N
su8er&se# cellsM cor* cam8&um 1P layere#M corteF s&n%le layere# or a8sentN pr&mary corteF
pers&sts &n some casesN one or tGo small Eascular 8un#les present &n corteFM Eascular
8un#les surroun#e# 8y s&n%le layere# en#o#erm&s o, th&c*PGalle# cellsM secon#ary phloem
compose# o, phloem parenchyma an# a ,eG scattere# ,&8resM cam8&um P/ layere#M
secon#ary Fylem cons&sts o, EesselsN trache&#sN Fylem ,&8res an# Fylem parenchymaN Eessels
Eary &n shape an# s&-e haE&n% transEerse o8l&Que art&culat&onM trache&#s lon%N th&c*PGalle#N
l&%n&,&e#N more or less cyl&n#r&cal G&th 8lunt taper&n% en#sM Fylem parenchyma th&nPGalle#
an# poly%onal &n shapeM centre occup&e# 8y a small p&th cons&st&n% o, th&nPGalle# cellsM
s&mple roun# to oEalN starch %ra&nsN measur&n% .P15/ &n #&a+N a8un#antly ,oun# &n all
cells+
Root PCoun% root shoGs s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&sN some ep&#ermal cells elon%ate ,orm&n%
un&cellular ha&rsM hypo#erm&s s&n%le layere#M corteF 9P1/ layere#M cons&st&n% o, oEal to
poly%onalN th&c*PGalle#N parenchymatous cellsM pr&mary stele tetrach to heptarchN enclose#
8y s&n%le layere# per&cycle an# s&n%le layere#N th&c*PGalle# cells o, en#o#erm&sM mature
root shoGs /P1. layers o, cor*N 1P layers o, cor* cam8&umM secon#ary phloem poorly
#eEelope#M secon#ary Fylem cons&st&n% o, EesselsN trache&#sN parenchyma an# ,&8resM Eessels
haEe Eary&n% shape an# s&-eN some cyl&n#r&cal G&th ta&lPl&*eN taper&n% en#sN some #rum
shape# G&th per,orat&on on en# Galls or lateral GallsM trache&#s cyl&n#r&cal G&th taper&n%
po&nte# en#sM ,&8res aseptateN th&c*PGalle#N l&%n&,&e# G&th taper&n% 8lunt ch&selPl&*e po&nte#
en#s+
0oG#er P Dusty %reyM shoGs %roups o, ,ra%ments o, cor* cellsN th&c*PGalle#N parenchymaN
p&tte# Eessels an# aseptate ,&8resN s&mple roun# to oEalN starch %ra&nsN measur&n% . P 15/
&n #&ameter+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 3 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
134
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 15 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 5 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n%
Chloro,ormO )ethanol (=. O .) shoGs un#er :+B+ l&%ht ((66 nm) three ,luorescent
-ones at R,+ 5+5. (8lue)N 5+(5 (8lue) an# 5+(. (%reen)+ On eFposure to 4o#&ne Eapour
n&ne spots appear at R,+ 5+15N 5+13N 5+1N 5+(5N 5+(3N 5+/1N 5+6N 5+3 an# 5+9/ (all
yelloG)+ On spray&n% G&th .\ methanol&c sulphur&c ac&# rea%ent an# heat&n% the
plate ,or a8out ten m&nutes at 15.C seEen spots appear at R,+ 5+5.N 5+15N 5+13N 5+1N
5+(5N 5+/1 an# 5+9/ (all 8roGn&sh %rey)+


CONST4T:ENTS P 1lucos&#e (0&crorh&-&n)+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O T&*taN KaRu
1uSa O 'a%hu
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O 0&ttaharaN DVpanVN Bhe#&nVN HX#yaN $Earahara
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P ro%yaEar#h&nV 1uR&*LN T&*ta*a 1hXtaN SarEa;Earahara
'auhaN )ahLt&*ta*a 1hXta
THERA0E:T4C :SES P KLmalLN KELsaN DLhaN $EaraN KuURhaN B&Uama;EaraN Aroca*a
DOSE P 1 P ( % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


135
/1+ Ko*&la*sha (2+0+)
KOK4'K! (2hole 0lant)
Ko*&lL*UL cons&sts o, #r&e# Ghole plant o, Asteracantha lon%&,olla Nees+ Syn+
Hy%roph&la sp&nosa T+An#ers (>am+Acanthaceae)M a sp&nyN stoutN annual her8N common &n
Gater lo%%e# places throu%hout the country+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O 4*UuraN 4*Uura*aN Ko*&lL*UV
Assamese O Kule*hara
Ben%al& O Kul&ya*haraN Kule*ha#e
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O E*haro
H&n#& O Talma*hana
Kanna#a O KolaEal&N Kolar&n#N KolaEan*al
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O PPN Cull&N N&rchull&N Bayalcull&
)arath& O Tal&*hanaN Kalsun#a
Or&ya O PP
0un;a8& O PP
Tam&l O 1olm&#&N KettuN N&r%uE&reruN Neru%o88&
Telu%u O PP
:r#u O Talma*hana
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Root P )ostly a#Eent&t&ousN Gh&t&sh to 8roGnM no character&st&c o#our an# taste+
Stem P :sually un8ranche#N ,asc&culateN su8PQua#ran%ularN sGollen at no#esN coEere# G&th
lon% ha&rs Gh&ch are numerous at the no#esN eFternally %rey&shP8roGnN cream&sh8roGn &n
136
cut sur,acesM no character&st&c o#our an# taste+
'ea, P 1reen&shP8roGnN 1P3 cm lon% N 5+.P1 cm G&#eN su8sess&leN lanceolateN acuteN ent&re
an# ha&ry+
>loGer P CelloG&shP8roGnN usually occurr&n% &n apparent Ghorls o, e&%ht (&n / pa&rs) at each
no#eM 8racts a8out +. cm lon%N G&th lon% Gh&te ha&rsM calyF /Ppart&teN upper sepal 1+6P cm
lon%N 8roa#er than the other threeN Gh&ch are 1+( cm lon%N all l&nearPlanceolateN coarsely
ha&ry on the 8ac* an# G&th hyal&ne c&l&ate mar%&nsM corolla (+ cm lon%N G&#ely l&ppe#N
tu8e 1+6 cm lon%N a8ruptly sGollen at topM stamens /N #&#ynamousN secon# pa&r lar%erM
,&lament Qu&te %la8rousM anthers tGo celle#N su8eQualN %la8rousM oEary tGo celle# G&th /
oEules &n each cellM style ,&l&,ormN pu8escentM st&%ma s&mpleN &nEolute G&th a ,&ssure on
upper s&#e+
>ru&t P TGo celle#N l&nearPo8lon%N compresse#N capsule a8out 5+9 cm lon%N po&nte#N /P
see#e#+
See# P OEateN ,lat or compresse#N truncate at the 8aseN 5+P5+. cm lon% an# 5+1 P 5+1. cm
G&#eN ha&ry 8ut appear&n% smoothM Ghen soa*e# &n Gater &mme#&ately %et coate# G&th
muc&la%eN l&%ht 8roGnM taste sl&%htly 8&tter an# o#our not #&st&nct+

8) )&croscop&c
Root P Root shoGs a s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s o, th&nPGalle#N rectan%ular to cu8&calN
parenchymatous cells haE&n% un&cellular ha&rsM secon#ary corteF compose# o, roun# to oEal
or o8lon%N th&nPGalle# cells haE&n% lar%e &ntercellular spacesM most o, these cells #&E&#e#
lon%&tu#&nally an# transEersely G&th Galls ,orm&n% /P6 or more cham8ersM s&-e o, these cells
an# &ntercellular spaces %ra#ually re#uce toGar#s the &nner re%&onN Ghere these cells are
mostly ra#&ally elon%ate#N arran%e# &n ra#&al roGsN a ,eG th&c*PGalle# cells ,oun# scattere#
s&n%ly throu%hout secon#ary corteFM secon#ary phloem narroG cons&st&n% o, smallN th&nP
Galle#N poly%onal cellsM phloem ,&8res th&c*PGalle#N occur &n %roups o, P6 or s&n%lesN
scattere# throu%hout the phloem re%&onM secon#ary Fylem ,orms cont&nuous r&n%M Eessels
an%ularN 8roa#er toGar#s centreN arran%e# ra#&ally haE&n% sp&ral th&c*en&n%sN surroun#e# 8y
th&c*PGalle# parenchyma an# Fylem ,&8resM ,&8re Galls un&,ormly th&c*ene#M mult& an#
un&ser&ate me#ullary rays occur ,rom pr&mary Fylem re%&on upto secon#ary corteFM ray cells
th&n Galle#N ra#&ally elon%ate# &n Fylem re%&onN c&rcular to transEersely elon%ate# &n phloem
re%&on+
Stem P ShoGs someGhat su8PQua#ran%ular outl&neM cor* cons&sts o, .P15 roGs o,
rectan%ularN ra#&ally arran%e#N mo#erately th&c*PGalle#N 8roGn&sh cellsM collenchyma /P9
137
layere# cons&st&n% o, &so#&ametr&c cellsM a ,eG th&c*PGalle#N &solate# cells ,oun# scattere# &n
th&s -oneM cort&cal cells th&nPGalle#N roun#N o8lon%N Ear&a8le &n s&-eN G&th a num8er o, lar%e
a&r caE&t&esM a spec&al ,eature o, these cells &s the ,ormat&on o, tan%ent&al an# ra#&al Galls
G&th&n the cell #&E&#&n% &t &nto /P. or more partsM most o, cells conta&n numerous ac&cular
crystals o, calc&um oFalateM en#o#erm&s s&n%le layere#N compose# o, transEersely elon%ateN
th&nPGalle# cellsM phloem narroGN cons&st&n% o, roun# to poly%onal cellsN per&pheral ones
lar%erN &nner cells smallerM ,&8res th&c*PGalle#N s&n%le or &n %roups o, P(N some cells conta&n
calc&um oFalate crystals s&m&lar to those ,oun# &n cort&cal cellsM Fylem present &n a r&n%M
Eessels G&th sp&ral th&c*en&n%sN arran%e# ra#&allyM ,&8res elon%ate# G&th G&#e lumen an#
po&nte# t&psN me#ullary rays un& to mult& ser&ate eFten# upto secon#ary corteFM ray cells
th&nPGalle#N ra#&ally elon%ate# &n secon#ary FylemN transEersely elon%ate# &n secon#ary
phloemM p&th lar%eN compose# o, poly%onalN th&nPGalle# parenchymatous cellsN haE&n% small
&ntercellular spacesM a ,eG cells conta&n calc&um oFalate crystals s&m&lar to those ,oun# &n
secon#ary corteF+
'ea,P
)&#r&8 P ShoGs concaEoPconEeF outl&neM ep&#erm&s on e&ther sur,ace coEere# G&th th&c*
cut&cleM collenchyma P. layere#M stele compose# o, small stran#s o, Fylem an# phloem
haE&n% some %roups o, ,&8reM rest o, t&ssues compose# o, th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cellsN
a ,eG o, them conta&n&n% ac&cular crystals o, calc&um oFalate M cystol&th present 8eneath
upper an# a8oEe the loGer ep&#ermal cells+
'am&na P ShoGs ep&#erm&s s&n%le layere# on e&ther sur,aceN compose# o, th&nPGalle#N
parenchymatousN tan%ent&ally elon%ate# cellsN coEere# G&th th&c* cut&cleM stomata #&acyt&cN
1P. celle# ha&rs present on 8oth sur,acesM pal&sa#e 1P layere#M spon%y parenchyma
compose# o, (P. layere#N loosely arran%e# cells traEerse# 8y a num8er o, Ee&nsM pal&sa#e
rat&o 6+.P1.+3.M stomatal &n#eF 13+/P(5+39M Ee&n &slet num8er 13P/+
>ru&t P ShoGs s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s coEere# G&th str&ate# cut&cle ,olloGe# 8y .P15
layere#N th&c*PGalle#N oEal to heFa%onalN l&%n&,&e#N sclerenchymatous cells+
See# P ShoGs ha&ry testa compose# o, th&nPGalle#N tan%ent&ally elon%ate# cells coEere# G&th
p&%mente# cut&cleM em8ryo compose# o, oEal to poly%onalN th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous
cells conta&n&n% o&l %lo8ules+
0oG#er P '&%ht 8roGnM shoGs aseptateN elon%ate# ,&8resM Eessels G&th s&mple p&ts an# sp&ral
th&c*en&n%M pal&sa#eN ac&cular crystals o, calc&um oFalateN un&cellular ha&rs an# %lo8ules+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
138
Total Ash Not more than = per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than / per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 5 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

CONST4T:ENTS P Al*alo&#s


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O )a#huraN AmlaN T&*ta
1uSa O 0&cch&laN Sn&%#ha
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O )a#hura
Karma O BalyaN BXUyaN )TtralaN BL;&*araN SantarpaSaN Rucya
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P 0LnaE&ralL#& Bhasma (KULra)
THERA0E:T4C :SES P maELtaN KothaN TXUSLN BLtara*ta
DOSE P ( P6 % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


139
/+ Ko*&la*sha (Rt+)
KOK4'K! (Root)
Ko*&lL*UL cons&sts o, #r&e# root o, Asteracantha lon%&,ol&a Nees+ Syn+ Hy%roph&la
sp&nosa T+ An#ers (>am+Acanthaceae)M a sp&nyN stoutN annual her8N common &n Gater lo%%e#
places throu%hout the country+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O 4*UuraN 4*Uura*aN Ko*&lL*UVN Cull&
Assamese O PPN Kule*hara
Ben%al& O PP
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O E*haro
H&n#& O Talma*hana
Kanna#a O N&rmull&N KolaEul&*eN KolaEan*ae
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Bayalcull&N N&rchull&
)arath& O Tal&ma*hana
Or&ya O Ko&lle*haN Ko&lre*ha
0un;a8& O PPP
Tam&l O N&rmulle
Telu%u O Talma*hanaN Neru%o88&N 1olm&#&
:r#u O Talma*hana
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Roots mostly a#Eent&t&onsN 8ranches on no#esN Gh&t&sh to 8roGn&shM no character&st&c
o#our an# taste+

140
8) )&croscop&c
RootPAppears c&rcular &n outl&neN ep&#erm&s cons&sts o, rectan%ular to cu8&calN th&nP
Galle# cellsM a ,eG ep&#ermal cells elon%ate# to ,orm un&cellular ha&rsN 8eloG ep&#erm&s (P/
compactly arran%e# roGs o, th&nPGalle# poly%onal cells o, secon#ary corteFM seco#nary
corteF compose# o,Proun#e# to oEal or o8lon%N th&nPGalle# cells haE&n% consp&cuously lar%e
&ntercellular spacesN most o, these cells #&E&#e# lon%&tu#&nally an# transEersely G&th Galls
,orm&n% /P6 or more cham8ersN the s&-e o, these cellsN an# the &ntercellular spaces %ra#ually
re#uce toGar#s &nner re%&on o, secon#ary corteFM a ,eG th&c*PGalle# cells ,oun# scattere#
s&n%ly throu%hout secon#ary corteFN &nner most roG o, th&nPGalle# cells o, seco#nary corteF
comparat&Eely smaller &n s&-eN sl&%htly transEersely elon%ate#M secon#ary phloem narroGN
cons&st&n% o, smallN th&nPGalle#N poly%onal cellsN phloem ,&8res th&c*PGalle# occur &n %roups
or as s&n%le cellsN scattere# throu%hout the phloem re%&onN each %roup compose# o, P6
cellsM secon#ary Fylem ,orms cont&nuous r&n%M Fylem Eessels usually arran%e# &n ra#&al
roGsN an%ularN 8roa#er toGar#s centreN haE&n% sp&ral th&c*en&n%N surroun#e# 8y th&c*PGalle#
Fylem parenchyma an# Fylem ,&8resM ,&8re Galls un&,ormly th&c*ene#M mult&ser&ate
me#ullary rays occur ,rom pr&mary Fylem re%&on upto secon#ary corteFM un&ser&ate rays also
present &n Fylem an# eFten# upto the secon#ary corteFM ray cells th&nPGalle#N ra#&ally
elon%ate# &n the Fylem re%&onN roun#e# to transEersely elon%ate# &n phloem re%&on+
0oG#er P '&%ht 8roGn to ash coloure#M shoGs ,ra%ments o, p&tte#N l&%n&,&e# ,&8resM Eessels
G&th sp&ral th&c*en&n%N un&cellular ha&rs an# a ,eG %roups o, parenchymatous cells+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than / per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 9 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

CONST4T:ENTS P Essent&al o&l

0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O )a#huraN AmlaN T&*ta
1uSa O 0&cch&laN Sn&%#ha
141
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O )a#hura
Karma O BLtaharaN KaphaharaN )TtralaN BXUya
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P RLsna&raSYL#& KELtha CTrSaN BastyLmayLnta*a 1hXta
THERA0E:T4C :SES P maELtaN KothaN AWmaXVN BLtara*taN 0&ttat&sLra
DOSE P ( P6 % o, the #ru% ,or #ecoct&on+


142
/(+ Ko*&la*sha (S#+)
KOK4'K! (See#)
Ko*&lL*UL cons&sts o, #r&e# see# o, Asteracantha lon%&,ol&a Nees+ Syn+ Hy%roph&la
sp&nosa T+ An#ers+ (>am+ Acanthaceae)M a sp&nyN stoutN annual her8N common &n Gater lo%%e#
places throu%hout the country+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O 4*UuraN 4*Uura*aN Ko*&lL*UVN Cull&
Assamese O Kule*hara
Ben%al& O PPP
En%l&sh O PPP
1u;rat& O Tal&m*hana
H&n#& O Talma*hana
Kanna#a O KolaEan*aeN N&rmull&N KolaEal&*e
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Bayalchull&N N&rchull&
)arath& O Tal&ma*hana
Or&ya O Ko&lle*haN Ko&lre*ha
0un;a8& O PPP
Tam&l O N&rmulle
Telu%u O N&te 1o88&N N&ru%o88&
:r#u O Talma*hana
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
OEateN ,lat or compresse#N truncate at the 8aseN P( mm lon% an# 1P mm G&#eN
Gh&teN ha&ry 8ut appear&n% smoothN Ghen soa*e# &n Gater &mme#&ately %et coate# G&th
muc&la%eN l&%ht yelloG&shP8roGnM tasteN sl&%htly 8&tter an# o#our not #&st&nct+
143

8) )&croscop&c
See# P ShoGs ha&ry testa compose# o, th&nPGalle#N tan%ent&ally elon%ate# cells
coEere# eFternally G&th p&%mente# cut&cle layerM em8ryo compose# o, oEal to poly%onalN
th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cellsM o&l %lo8ules present &n th&s re%&on+
0oG#er P 1rey&shP8roGnM shoGs ha&rs an# o&l %lo8ules+
SGell&n% 4n#eF P 9 P15+
4ntro#uce the accurately Ge&%he# see#s &nto a . ml %lassPstoppere# measur&n% cyl&n#er+
The len%th o, the %ra#uate# port&on o, the cyl&n#er shoul# 8e 1. mmM the &nternal #&ameter
16 mm su8#&E&#e# &n 5+ ml an# mar*e# ,rom 5 to . ml &n upGar#s #&rect&on+ A## . ml o,
GaterN an# sha*e the m&Fture thorou%hly at &nterEals o, eEery 15 m&nutes ,or 1 hour+ AlloG
to stan# ,or ( hours at room temperature+ )easure the Eolume &n ml occup&e# 8y the see#sN
&nclu#&n% any st&c*y muc&la%e+ Carry out s&multaneously not less than ( #eterm&nat&on an#
calculate the mean Ealue o, the &n#&E&#ual #eterm&nat&onsN relate# to 1 % o, see#s+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 1. per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 9 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 15 per centN Appen#&F ++6+


T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n% TolueneO
Ethylacetate (=. O .) shoGs un#er :+B+ ((66 nm) ,&Ee ,luorescent -ones at R,+ 5+/ (re#)N
5+/1 (l&%ht 8lue)N 5+.. (l&%ht 8lue)N 5+36 (s*y 8lue) an# 5+=( (s*y 8lue)+ On eFposure to
4o#&ne Eapour seEen spots appear at R,+ 5+5(N 5+13N 5+/N 5+(1N 5+(9N 5+. an# 5+3 (all
yelloG)+ On spray&n% G&th .\ Ethanol&cPSulphur&c ac&# rea%ent an# on heat&n% the plate ,or
,&,teen m&nutes at 15. C e&%ht spots appear at R,+ 5+5( (l&%ht 8roGn)N 5+15 (l&%ht 8roGn)N
144
5+13 (l&%ht 8roGn)N 5+/ (#ar* 8roGn)N 5+(1 (#ar* 8roGn)N 5+(9 (l&%ht 8roGn)N 5+. (#ar*
8roGn) an# 5+3 (#ar* 8roGn)+


CONST4T:ENTS P An yelloG sem&P#ry&n% o&lN en-ymes l&*e D&astaseN '&paseN 0rotease
an# an Al*alo&#+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O )a#hura
1uSa O Sn&%#haN 0&cch&la
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O )a#hura
Karma O KaphaharaN BXUyaN BalyaN RuchyaN SantarpaSa
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P BastyLmayLnta*a 1hXtaN Ca*Xt KulaE&nLW&nV BaR&*L
THERA0E:T4C :SES P BLtara*taN KothaN 0&ttLWmarV
DOSE P ( P6 % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


145
//+ Ku-uppa (2+0)
KO7:00 (2hole 0lant)
Ko-uppL cons&sts o, #r&e# Ghole plant o, 0ortulaca oleracea '&nn+ (>am+
0ortulacaceae)M an annual succulentN prostrate her8N .5 cm lon%N ,oun# throu%hout the countryN
ascen#&n% upto an alt&tu#e o, 1.55 m &n the H&malayas+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O 'on&*LN 'on&N 1hoR&*L+
Assamese O PP
Ben%al& O Baralon&yaN Ba#anun&N Baranun&a
En%l&sh O 1ar#en 0urslaneN Common 4n#&an 0urslane
1u;rat& O 'un&N 'on&N )ot& 'un&
H&n#& O KhursaN Kul,aN Ba#& 'ona
Kanna#a O Du#a%ora&N Do##a%on& SoppuN 'on&*aN 'on&
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Kor&cch&raN Ko-huppaN Ko-uppaN Ko-uppacc&ra
)arath& O Kur,ahN 1hola
Or&ya O PP
0un;a8& O 'ona*N Chhotalun&aN Khur,aN KG,a
Tam&l O 0asala&N 0ul&**&ra&N 0aruppu**eera&N Ko-huppu
Telu%u O 0appu*uraN 0e##apaE&la KuraN 0ay&l&*uraN 0aE&l&*ura
:r#u O Khur,a
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Root P Cyl&n#r&calN smallN o8l&QueN sur,ace smoothN 8roGn&shP%reyM secon#ary rootsN
less &n num8erN root ha&rs a8un#ant &n upper re%&onN ,ractureN short+
Stem P Almost cyl&n#r&calN sGollen at the no#esN r&88e#N 8ranche#N 5+1 to 5+ cm &n #&ameterN
,ractureN shortM o#ourN character&st&c+
146
'ea, P S&mpleN su8Psess&leN cune&,ormN roun#e# an# truncate at the apeFM 5+( to +. cm lon%
an# 5+1 to 5+6 cm G&#eN o8lon%N spathulateN smooth an# %reen&shP8roGn+
>loGer P A ,eGN 8r&%ht yelloGN at term&nal hea#sN somet&mes &n aF&llary clusters o, P6N
su8ten#e# 8y an &nEolucreN (P/ leaEesM sepal 5+.P5+/ cm lon%M petals o8oEateN 5+. cm lon%N
Eery #el&cate an# soon ,all&n% o,,M stamens 9P1M style .P6 ,&#N 5+(.P5+/ cm lon%+
>ru&t P An oEo&# capsuleN 5+( cm lon%N #eh&sc&n% a8oEe the 8ase+
See# PNumerousN ren&,ormN 8lac*N m&nuteN 5+56P5+53 cm acrossN #ar* 8roGn+

8) )&croscop&c
Root P ShoGs .P1. layers o, cor*N &nner hal, ,&lle# G&th re##&shP8roGn contentsM
secon#ary corteF compose# o, th&nPGalle#N oEal cellsN haE&n% &ntercellular spacesM per&cycle
,&8re present &n patchesM secon#ary phloem cons&sts o, s&eEe tu8es an# parenchymatous
cellsM secon#ary Fylem compose# o, EesselsN trache&#s an# parenchymaM EesselsN sol&tary or
&n %roups o, P.N arran%e# &n ra#&al roGsN haE&n% s&mple p&ts an# sp&ral th&c*en&n%M
trache&#sN th&c*PGalle# G&th G&#e lumenM parenchyma a8un#antM s&mple as Gell as
compoun# starch %ra&ns measur&n% 6P1/ &n #&a+N haE&n% P( components present &n
secon#ary corteFN phloemN Fylem parenchyma an# ray cells+
Stem P 2aEy &n outl&neN shoGs .P15 layers o, th&n Galle# cor*N G&th re##&shP8roGn content
&n a ,eG cellsM secon#ary corteF cons&sts o, P( layers o, collenchymatous an# (P/ layers o,
parenchymatous cells G&th &ntercellular spacesM per&cycle present as patches o, per&cycl&c
,&8resM secon#ary phloem mostly compose# o, s&eEe tu8es an# parenchyma cellsM secon#ary
Fylem cons&sts o, EesselsN trache&#s an# parenchymaM Eassels haE&n% s&mple p&ts an# sp&ral
th&c*en&n%M trache&#s th&c*PGalle# G&th G&#e lumenM parenchyma a8un#ant an# th&c*P
Galle#M rosette crystals o, calc&um oFalate an# starch %ra&ns present &n seco#nary corteFN
phloem an# Fylem parenchymaN ray cells an# p&th+
'ea,P
)&#r&8 P shoGs a collateral Eascular 8un#le surroun#e# 8y a sheath o, pal&sa#e cellsM rest o,
the t&ssues 8etGeen Eascular 8un#le an# ep&#ermal cells compose# o, th&n Galle#N oEalN
parenchymatous cellsM stomata paracyt&c typeM rosette crystals o, calc&um oFalate an# starch
%ra&ns s&mpleN as Gell as compoun#N measur&n% 6P1/ N present &n mesophyll cells+
'am&na P shoGs a s&n%le layere# upper an# loGer ep&#erm&sN coEere# eFternally G&th a th&c*
cut&cleM paracyt&c stomata present on 8oth sur,acesM pal&sa#e s&n%le layere#M spon%y
parenchyma cells more or less &so#&ametr&c an# loosely arran%e#+
147
0oG#er P 1rey&shP8roGnM shoGs %roups o, oEal to poly%onalN th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous
cellsN p&tte# an# sp&ral EesselsN ,ra%ments o, cor* cellsN rosette crystals o, calc&um oFalate
an# starch %ra&nsN s&mple as Gell as compoun#N measur&n% 6P1/ &n #&a+ haE&n% P(
components+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than . per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than (5 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than . per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than ( per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1= per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca 1el [1[ plate us&n% Toluene O
Ethylacetate (=O1) shoGs s&F spots at R,+ 5+59N 5+15N (8oth %reen)N 5+/1N 5+. (8oth
,a&nt %reen)N 5+69 (yelloG) an# 5+36 (%reen) &n E&s&8le l&%ht+ :n#er :+B+ ((66 nm) s&F
,luorescent -ones are E&s&8le at R,+ 5+59N 5+15N 5+/1N 5+.N 5+69 an# 5+36 (all p&n*&sh
re#)+ On eFposure to 4o#&ne Eapour s&F spots appear at R,+ 5+15N 5+.5N 5+61N 5+69N
5+36 an# 5+=9 (all yelloG)


CONST4T:ENTS P 0rote&nN Car8ohy#ratesN B&tam&n C an# )uc&la%e


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O Amla
1uSa O SaraN 1uruN RT*Ua
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O Amla
148
Karma O BLtaharaN 0&tta*araN KaphaharaN Ca*UuUyaN BLSV#oUahara
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P )arma 1uR&*L
THERA0E:T4C :SES P BraSaN 1ulmaN 0ramehaN KothaN ArWaN A%n&mLn#ya
DOSE P ( P 6 % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


149
/.+ 'a;;alu (2+0)
'A$$': (2hole 0lant)
'a;;Llu cons&sts o, #r&e# Ghole plant o, )&mosa pu#&ca '&nn+ (>am+ >a8aceae)M a
#&,,use# un#ershru8N sens&t&Ee to touchN .P.5 cm h&%hN ,oun# nearly throu%ht hotter an# mo&st
re%&ons o, the country+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O SaZan%LN BarL*rLntLN Namas*LrV
Assamese O 'a;u8&lataN A#amalat&
Ben%al& O 'a;a*aN 'a;;aEant&
En%l&sh O TouchPmePnot
1u;rat& O R&saman&N 'a;aEant&N 'a;aman&
H&n#& O Chhu&mu&N 'a;aun&
Kanna#a O )utt&#asenu&N )ach&*e%&#aN 'a;;aEat&
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Thotta Bat&
)arath& O 'a;alu
Or&ya O 'a;a*ur&
0un;a8& O 'a;an
Tam&l O ThottaEa#&N Tottalchurun%&
Telu%u O )u#u%u#amara
:r#u O Chhu&mu&
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Root P Cyl&n#r&calN taper&n%N repen#ant N G&th secon#ary an# tert&ary 8ranchesN
Eary&n% &n len%thN upto cm th&c*N sur,ace more or less rou%h or lon%&tu#&nally Gr&n*le#M
%rey&sh 8roGn to 8roGnN cut sur,ace o, p&eces pale yelloGM ,racture har#N Goo#yN 8ar*
,&8rousM o#ourN #&st&nctM tasteN sl&%htly astr&n%ent+
150
Stem P Cyl&n#r&calN upto +. cm &n #&aM sparsely pr&c*lyN coEere# G&th lon%NGee* 8r&stles
lon%&tu#&nally %rooEe#N eFternal sur,ace l&%ht 8roGnN &nternal cut sur,ace %reyN 8ar* ,&8rousM
eas&ly separa8le ,rom Goo#+
'ea, P D&%&tately compoun# G&th one or tGo pa&rs o, sess&leN ha&ry p&nnaeN alternateN
pet&olateN st&pulateN l&near lanceolateM lea,lets 15P5 pa&rsN 5+6P1+ cm lon%N 5+(P5+/ cm
8roa#N sess&leN o8l&Quely narroG or l&near o8lon%M o8l&Quely roun#e# at 8aseN acuteN nearly
%la8rousM yelloG&shP%reen+
>loGer P 0&n*N &n %lo8ose hea#N pe#uncles pr&c*lyM calyF Eery smallM corolla p&n*N lo8es /N
oEate o8lon%M stamens /N much eFserte#M oEary sess&leM oEules numerous+
>ru&t P 'omentumN s&mpleN #ryN 1P1+6 cm lon%N 5+/P5+. cm 8roa# G&th &n#eh&sce# se%ments
an# pers&stent sutures haE&n% P. see#s G&th yelloG&shN sprea#&n% 8r&stle at suturesN 5+( cm
lon%N %la8rousN straG coloure#+
See# P Compresse#N oEalPell&pt&cN 8roGn to %reyN 5+( lon%N +. mm 8roa# haE&n% a central
r&n% on each ,ace+

8) )&croscop&c
Root P )ature root shoGs cor* .P1 layere#N tan%ent&ally elon%ate# cellsN a ,eG outer
layers crushe# or eF,ol&ate#M secon#ary corteF cons&st&n% o, 6P15 layere#N tan%ent&ally
elon%ate# th&nPGalle# cellsM secon#ary phloem composse# o, s&eEes elementsN ,&8resN crystal
,&8res an# phloem parenchyma traEerse# 8y phloem raysN phloem ,&8res s&n%le or &n %roupsN
arran%e# &n tan%ent&al 8an#sM crystal ,&8res th&c*PGalle#N (P. cham8ere#N each G&th s&n%le
or P/ pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalateM phloem rays un& to mult&ser&ateN P( ser&ate
more commonM secon#ary Fylem cons&sts o, usual elements traEerse# 8y Fylem raysM Eessels
scattere# throu%hout secon#ary Fylem haE&n% 8or#ere# p&ts an# ret&culate th&c*en&n%sM
crystal ,&8res conta&n&n% one or rarely P/ pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalate &n each
cham8erM parenchymaN th&c*PGalle#N scattere# throu%hout secon#ary FylemM Fylem rays un&
to 8&Pser&ateN rarely mult&ser&ateN G&#er toGar#s secon#ary phloem an# narroGer toGar#s
centreM starch %ra&nsN pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalate an# tann&n present &n secon#ary
corteFN phloem an# Fylem rays an# parenchymaM starch %ra&ns 8oth s&mple an# compoun#
haE&n% P( componentsN roun#e# to oEal measur&n% 6P5 an# 16P9 &n #&a+
respect&Eely+
Stem P )ature stem shoGs /P9 layere#N eF,ol&ate# cor* o, tan%ent&ally elon%ate# cells ,&lle#
G&th re##&shP8roGn contentsM secon#ary corteF G&#eN cons&st&n% o, lar%eN mo#erately th&c*P
Galle#N tan%ent&ally elon%ate# to oEalN parenchymatous cellsN ,&lle# G&th re##&shP8roGn
contentsN a ,eG cells conta&n&n% pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalateN a num8er o, l&%n&,&e#N
151
,&8res s&n%le or &n %roupsN scattere# throu%houtM secon#ary phloem cons&st&n% o, usual
elementsN P. transEersely arran%e# str&ps o, ,&8res occur alternat&n% G&th narroG str&ps o,
s&eEe elements an# parenchymaN crystal ,&8res elon%ate#N th&c*PGalle#N conta&n&n% s&n%le
crystal o, calc&um oFalate &n each cham8erM phloem rays th&c*PGalle#N ra#&ally elon%ate#M
secon#ary Fylem compose# o, usual elements traEerse# 8y Fylem raysM Eessels #rumPshape#
G&th sp&ral th&c*en&n%sN trache&#s p&tte# G&th po&nte# en#sN ,&8res o, tGo typesN shorter G&th
G&#e lumen an# lon%er G&th narroG lumenM Fylem rays ra#&ally elon%ate#N th&c*PGalle#N 1P6
cells G&#e an# (P(5 cells h&%hM p&th cons&st&n% o, poly%onalN parenchymatous cells G&th
&ntercellular spaces+
'ea,P
0et&ole P shoGs s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s G&th th&c* cut&cleM corteF /P3 layere# o, th&n
Galle#N parenchymatous cellsM per&cycle arran%e# &n a r&n%M / central Eascular 8un#les
present G&th tGo smaller Eascular 8un#les arran%e# laterallyN one &n each G&n%+
)&#r&8 P shoGs s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&sN coEere# G&th th&nPcut&cleM upper ep&#erm&s
,olloGe# 8y a s&n%le layere# pal&sa#eN spon%y parenchyma s&n%le layere#N per&cycle same as
&n pet&oleM Eascular 8un#le s&n%le+
'am&na P shoGs ep&#erm&s on 8oth sur,acesN pal&sa#e s&n%le layere#M spon%y parenchymaN
(P. layers cons&st&n% o, c&rcular cellsM rosette crystals an# a ,eG Ee&ns present &n spon%y
parenchyma+
>ru&t P ShoGs s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s G&th a ,eG nonP%lan#ularN 8ranche#N sha%%y ha&rsM
mesocarp o, .P6 layers o, th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cellsM some amph&cr&8ral Eascular
8un#les ,oun# scattere# &n th&s re%&onM en#ocarp o, th&c*PGalle#N l&%n&,&e# cells ,olloGe# 8y
s&n%le layere#N th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cells
See# P ShoGs s&n%le layere# ra#&ally elon%ate# cellsM ,olloGe# 8y .P6 layere# an%ular cells
,&lle# G&th #ar* 8roGn contentsM en#osperm cons&sts o, an%ular or elon%ate# cellsN a ,eG
conta&n&n% pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalateM cotyle#ons cons&sts o, th&nPGalle# cellsN a
,eG cells conta&n&n% rosette crystals o, calc&um oFalateM em8ryo stra&%ht G&th short an#
th&c* ra#&cle+
0oG#er P Re##&shP8roGnM shoGsN ret&culateN p&tte# EesselsN pr&smat&c an# rosette crystals o,
calc&um oFalateN ,&8resN crystal ,&8resN yelloG or 8roGn parenchymatous cellsN pal&sa#e cells
non %lan#ularN 8ranche#N sha%%y ha&rsN s&n%le an# compoun# starch %ra&nsN measur&n% 6P.
&n #&a+ G&th P ( components
152
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 15 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than . per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than = per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than = per centN Appen#&F ++3+

ASSAC

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca 1el [1[ plate us&n% nP
Butanol O Acet&c ac&#O 2aterO (/O1O.) :n#er :+B+ ((66 nm) ,our ,luorescent -ones
appear at R,+ 5+(.N 5+6N 5+6= (all 8lue) an# 5+91 (8lu&shPp&n*)+ On eFposure to
4o#&ne Eapour tGo spots appear at R,+ 5+(. an# 5+=/ (8oth yelloG) On spray&n% G&th
Dra%en#or,, rea%ent ,olloGe# 8y .\ )ethanol&c Sulphur&c ac&# rea%ent one spot
appears at R,+ 5+(. (oran%e)+


CONST4T:ENTS P Al*alo&#


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O T&*taN KaULya
1uSa O 'a%huN RT*Ua
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O KaphaharaN 0&ttaharaN 1rLhV
153
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P Sama_%L#& CTrSaN KuRa;LEalehaN 0uUyLnu%a CTrSaN BXhat
1an%L#hara CTrSa+
THERA0E:T4C :SES P Ra*tap&ttaN AtVsLraN Con&ro%aN KophaN DLhaN KELsaN BraSaN KuURha
DOSE P 15P5 % o, the #ru% ,or #ecoct&on+


154
/6+ )a#hu*a (>l+)
)ADHIKA (>loGer)
)a#hT*a cons&sts o, ,loGer usually G&thout stal* or calyF o, )a#huca &n#&ca
$+>+1mel+ Syn+ )+ lat&,ol&a (RoF8+) )ac8r&#eN Bass&a lat&,ol&a RoF8+ (>am+ Sapotaceae) M a
me#&um s&-e# #ec&#uous tree occurs &n m&Fe# #ec&#uous ,orests throu%hout 4n#&aN an# also
cult&Eate#+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O 1uYapuUpL
Assamese O )ahuaN )ahuGa
Ben%al& O )ahuGa
En%l&sh O The 4n#&an Butter treeN )ahaGash tree
1u;rat& O )ahu#oN )ahuGa
H&n#& O )ahuGa
Kanna#a O H&ppe%&#aN Hal&ppeN H&ppeN H&ppenaraN )a#hu*aN 4ppaN Epp&mara
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O 4r&ppaN 4l&ppaN 4luppaN Eluppa
)arath& O )oh#a
Or&ya O )ahula
0un;a8& O )auaN )ahua
Tam&l O Kat&luppa&N Kattu 4luppa&N 4lupp&
Telu%u O lppa 0uEEu
:r#u O )ahuEa
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Dru% cons&sts o, mostly corolla an# an#roec&umM corolla ,leshyN re##&shP
8roGnN ta8ularN lo8es 3P1/ (usually 9P=)N oEate lanceolateN shortN erect 5+.P cm lon%M
stamen 5P(5 (usually /P6)N ep&petalous an# arran%e# &n tGo ser&esM anther su8Psess&leN
155
ep&petalousN 8as&,&Fe#N lanceolateN po&nte# at t&p an# ha&ry at the 8ac* G&th prom&nent #ar*
8roGn connect&Ee stran#M tasteN sGeet+

8) )&croscop&c
Corolla P 0etal shoGs a s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&sN ,olloGe# 8y th&nPGalle#N
&rre%ularly shape# parenchymatous cellsM Eascular 8un#les ,oun# scattere# &n
parenchymatous t&ssues+
An#roec&um P Anther shoGs / pollen cham8ers an# prom&nent cells o, connect&Ee t&ssue &n
the centre o, the cham8ersM ep&#erm&s s&n%le layere# coEere# G&th th&n cut&cleM a ,eG
un&cellular ha&rs present on one s&#eM en#othec&um compose# o, ra#&ally elon%ate#N oEal
shape#N l&%n&,&e# cellsM tapetum not #&st&nctM pollen %ra&ns s&n%le or &n %roupsN spher&calN
G&th clear eF&ne an# &nt&ne Galls scattere# &n the pollen sacN a ,eG cells o, the Eascular
8un#les are seen em8e##e# &n the connect&Ee t&ssues+
0oG#er P Dar* 8roGnM shoGs ,ra%ments o, ep&#ermal cellsN un&cellular ha&rsM roun#N 8roGn
pollen %ra&ns G&th clear eF&ne an# &nt&ne Galls+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than . per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 5+. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than . per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 35 per centN Appen#&F ++3+
)o&sture content Not more than 15 per centN Appen#&F ++=

CONST4T:ENTS P Su%ars

0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O )a#hura
1uSa O 1uru
156
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O )a#hura
Karma O BLtaharaN 0&tta*araN Ku*ralaN KramaharaN BalyaN AhX#ya
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P )a#hT*LsaEaN DrL*aUL#& KELtha CTrSaN ElL#& )o#a*a
THERA0E:T4C :SES P TXUSLN DLhaN KramaN KELsaN KUataN KUaya
DOSE P 15 P 1. % o, the #ru%+


157
/3+ )atshya*sh& (2+0+)
)ATSCK!A (2hole 0lant)
)atsyL*UV cons&sts o, #r&e# Ghole plant o, Alternanthera sess&l&s ('&nn+) R+ Br+N SynN
A+ tr&an#ra 'am+N A+ #ent&culata R+ Br+N A+ no#&,lora R+ Br+N A+ repens 1mel+N non '&n*+ (>am+
Amaranthaceae)M a small prostrate or ascen#&n% her8 G&th seEeral sprea#&n% 8ranches %roG&n%
throu%hout the Garmer parts o,the country an# ,reQuently ,oun# &n Get places espec&ally
aroun# tan*s an# pon#s+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O )atsya%an#hLN Bahl&N )atsyL#un&N 1an#alVN 1art*alam8u*L
Assamese O PP
Ben%al& O Sanchesa*N Sal&ncha Sa*
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O $ala;am8o
H&n#& O 1u#ar& Sa%
Kanna#a O Hona%onne soppu
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Ko-uppaN 0onnan*ann&
)arath& O Kanchar&
Or&ya O )atsa%an#haN Sal&ncha Saa%a
0un;a8& O PPP
Tam&l O 0onnan%*ann&
Telu%u O 0onna%ant& Koora
:r#u O PPPPP
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Root P Cyl&n#r&calN 5+1P5+6 cm #&ameterN cream to %reyN numerous roots ar&s&n% ,rom
the ma&n tap root as lateral rootletsM ,ractureN shortM no character&st&c o#our an# taste+
158
Stem P Her8aceousN Gea*N mostly cyl&n#r&cal occas&onally su8PQua#ran%ular at the ap&cal
re%&onN G&th sprea#&n% 8ranches ,rom the 8aseM yelloG&shP8roGn to l&%htP8roGnM no#es an#
&nterno#es #&st&nctN &nterno#es 5+.P. cm lon%N o,ten root&n% at loGer no#esM ,ractureN shortM
no character&st&c o#our an# taste+
'ea, P 1+(P3+. cm lon%N 5+(P cm G&#eN somet&mes reach&n% 15 cm lon%N +. cm G&#eN
sess&leN l&nearPo8lon%N or ell&pt&cN o8tuse or su8acuteM no character&st&c o#our an# taste+
>loGer P >loGer &n small aF&llary sess&le hea#sN Gh&te o,ten t&n%e# G&th p&n*N 8racteoles 1+
cm lon%N oEateN scar&ousM per&anth +.P( mm lon%N sepals oEateN acuteN th&nN oEary
o8cor#ateN compresse#N style Eery shortN cap&tellateM no character&st&c o#our an# taste+
>ru&t P :tr&cleN 1+. mm lon%N or8&cularN compresse# G&th th&c*ene# mar%&nsM no
character&st&c o#our an# taste+

8) )&croscop&c
Root P ShoGs c&rcular outl&ne cons&st&n% o, .P3 layere#N th&nPGalle# tan%ent&ally
elon%ate# an# sQuar&shN ra#&ally arran%e# cor* cellsM secon#ary corteF narroGN cons&st&% o,
th&nPGalle#N roun# or oEalN parenchymatous cellsM Eascualr 8un#les ra#&ally arran%e#N
numerousN cons&st&n% o, th&nPGalle# cellsM Fylem t&ssues l&%n&,&e#M con;unct&Ee t&ssue
8etGeen 8un#les cons&st&n% o, oEalN th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cellsM anomalous
secon#ary %roGth occurs &n the ,orm o, success&on o, r&n%s o, Eascular 8un#les Gh&ch are
8&collateralN open an# eFarchM &n the p&th there are tGo lar%er Eascular 8un#les compose# o,
Fylem an# phloemM p&th cons&st&n% o, th&nPGalle#N roun# to oEalN &so#&ametr&cN
parenchymatous cells+
Stem P ShoGs s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s cons&st&n% o, roun# or oEalN th&nPGalle# cells
coEere# G&th str&ate# cut&cleM corteF 6P15 layere# cons&st&n% o, th&nPGalle# oEal to roun#N
parenchymatous cells an# rosette crystals o, calc&um oFalate measur&n% ..P33 &n
#&ameterM Eascualr 8un#les arran%e# &n a r&n%N G&th anomalous secon#ary %roGthM G&th are
con;o&ntN 8&collateralN open an# en#arch phloem narroG cons&st&n% o, th&nPGalle# cells
traEerse# 8y phloem raysM Fylem cons&st&n% o, usual elements traEerse# 8y Fylem raysM
there are tGo Eascular 8un#les s&ttuate# &n the per&pheral re%&on o, p&thN each 8un#le
cons&st&n% o, Fylem an# phloemM p&th #&st&nctN compose# o, th&nPGalle#N roun# to oEal
parenchymatous cells G&th &ntercellular spacesN a ,eG parenchymatous cells conta&n rosette
crystals o, calc&um oFalate+
'ea,P
)&#r&8 P shoGs s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s on 8oth sur,acesN coEere# Gt&th str&ate# cut&cleM
159
collenchymatous cellsN P/ layere# toGar#s Eentral s&#e ,orm&n% 1P small patchesN 1P
layere# toGar#s #orsal s&#eM parenchymatous cellsN th&nPGalle# roun# or oEalN &so#&amet&c
cellsN a ,eG o, them conta&n&n% rosette crystals o, calc&um oFalateM Eascular 8un#les threeN
each cons&st&n% o, Fylem an# phloemN present &n the centre+
'am&na P #ors&EentralM shoGs GaEy or un#ulateN &rre%ularN s&n%le layere#N ta8ular ep&#erm&s
cells present on 8oth sur,acesM stomata paracyt&cN more on Eentral s&#e an# less on #orsal
s&#eM pal&sa#e P( layersM spon%y parenchyma (P/ layere# o, oEal or &rre%ular loosely
arran%e# cellsM a ,eG o, them conta&n&n% rosette crystals o, calc&um oFalateM stomatal &n#eF
P6 &n loGer sur,ace an# 1P5 upper sur,aceM pal&sa#e rat&o (P.M Ee&nP&slet num8er 6P1
an# Ee&nlet term&nat&on num8er 9P15+
0oG#er P Ol&Ee %reenM shoGs ,ra%ments o, parenchymatous cellsN GaEy or un#ulate &rre%ular
ep&#ermal cells &n sur,ace E&eGN paracyt&c stomataN pal&sa#e cells an# Fylem Eessels G&th
p&tte# an# ret&culate th&c*en&n% an# rosette crystals o, calc&um oFalate+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 15 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than /+. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than ( per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1= per centN Appen#&F ++3+

ASSAC

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca 1el [1[ plate us&n% Toluene O
Ethylacetate (=O1) shoGs &n E&s&8le l&%ht three spots at R,+ 5+16N 5+(( an# 5+// (all
%reen)+ :n#er :+B+ ((66 nm) ,&Ee ,luorescent -ones E&s&8le at R,+ 5+16N 5+((N 5+//N
5+./ an# 5+69 (all re#)+ On eFposure to 4o#&ne Eapour e&%ht spots appear at R,+ 5+19N
5+.N 5+(.N 5+//N 5+.=N 5+91N 5+=/ an# 5+=6 (all yelloG)+

160

CONST4T:ENTS P Su%arN Sapon&ns < Sterols


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O T&*taN KaULyaN )a#hura
1uSa O 'a%hu
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN 0&ttaharaN KaphaharaN 1rLhV
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P Tra&*aSRa*a 1hXta
THERA0E:T4C :SES P KuURhaN Ra*taE&*LraN 0&ttaE&*Lra
DOSE P P( % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


161
/9+ )eth& (S#+)
)ETHA (See#)
)ethV cons&sts o, see#s o, Tr&%onella ,oenumP%raecum '&nn+ (>am+ >a8aceae)M an
aromat&cN (5P65 cm tallN annual her8N cult&Eate# throu%hout the country+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O )eth&n&
Assamese O PP
Ben%al& O PP
En%l&sh O >enu%ree*
1u;rat& O )eth&
H&n#& O )eth&
Kanna#a O )entheN )ente
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O :luEa
)arath& O )eth&
Or&ya O PP
0un;a8& O )eth&
Tam&l O )en#&umN Benta&yam
Telu%u O )entulu
:r#u O )eth&
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
See# o8lon%N rhom8o&#al G&th #eep ,urroG runn&n% o8l&Quely ,rom one s&#eN #&E&#&n%
see# &nto a lar%er an# smaller partN 5+P5+. cm lon%N 5+1.P5+(. cm 8roa#N smoothN Eery har#M
#ull yelloGM see# 8ecomes muc&la%&nous Ghen soa*e# &n GaterM o#ourN pleasantM tasteN 8&tter+

162
8) )&croscop&c
See# P See# shoGs a layer o, th&c*P Galle#N columnar pal&sa#eN coEere# eFternally
G&th th&c* cut&cleM cells ,lat at 8aseN mostly po&nte# 8ut a ,eG ,lattene# at apeFN supporte#
&nternally 8y a tan%ent&ally G&#e 8earer cells haE&n% ra#&al r&8Pl&*e th&c*en&n%sM ,olloGe# 8y
/P. layers o, tan%ent&ally elon%ate#N th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cellsM en#osperm cons&sts
o, a layer o, th&c*PGalle# cells conta&n&n% aleurone %ra&nsN seEeral layers o, th&n Galle#N
muc&la%&nous cellsN Eary&n% &n s&-eN lon% aF&s ra#&ally elon%ate# &n outer re%&on an#
tan%ent&ally elon%ate# &n &nner re%&onM cotyle#ons cons&sts o, (P/ layers o, pal&sa#e cells
Eary&n% &n s&-e G&th lon% aF&s an# a ,eG layers o, ru#&mentary spon%y t&ssueM ru#&mentary
Eascular t&ssue s&tuate# &n spon%y mesophyllM cells o, cotyle#on conta&n aleurone %ra&ns an#
o&l %lo8ules+
0oG#er P CelloGM shoGs %roups o, pal&sa#e parenchymatous cellsN aleurone %ra&nsN o&l
%lo8ulesN en#osperm an# ep&#ermal cells o, testa+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than / per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 5+. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than . per centN Appen#&F ++6+


CONST4T:ENTS P Al*alo&#N Sapo%en&ns an# )uc&la%e+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O T&*ta
1uSa O Sn&%#ha
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN KaphaharaN DVpanaN Rucya
163
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P )usta*Lr&URaN )Xtasa];VEanV SurL
THERA0E:T4C :SES P ArucVN $EaraN 1rahaSVN 0rameha
DOSE P (P6 % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


164
/=+ )ula*a (2+0+)
)I'AKA (2hole 0lant)
)Tla*a cons&sts o, ,resh Ghole plant o, Raphanus sat&Eus '&nn+ (>am+ Brass&caceae)M
an annual or 8&enn&al 8r&stly her8N cult&Eate# throu%hout the country upto an alt&tu#e o, (N555
m &n the H&malayas an# other h&lly re%&ons+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O PP
Assamese O PP
Ben%al& O )ula
En%l&sh O Ra#&sh
1u;rat& O )ulo
H&n#& O )ul&
Kanna#a O )oolan%&
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O )ullan*&
)arath& O )ula
Or&ya O )ulaN Ra*hyasmula
0un;a8& O )ula*aN )ul&N )ula
Tam&l O )ullan%&
Telu%u O )ullan%&
:r#u O )ul&
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Root P Root cyl&n#r&calN Ear&a8le s&-e an# th&c*nessN haE&n% a ,eG lon%&tu#&nal
str&at&onsM l&%ht %rey&shP8roGn eFternally an# ,a&nt yelloG&sh &nternallyM o#ourN not #&st&nctM
tasteN sl&%htly pun%ent+
165
Stem P Slen#erN holloGN cyl&n#r&calN compresse#N smooth G&th 8ranches ar&s&n% at no#e an#
shoG lon%&tu#&nal str&at&ons on #ry&n%M 5+1P1+5 cm &n #&a+N yelloG&shP%reen+
'ea, P 'oGer leaEes ha&ryN pet&ole .P.+( cm lon%N lyrateN coarsely toothe#M upper most leaEes
s&mpleN su8Pl&near 8ut narroGe# at the 8aseM 8r&%ht %reen+
>loGer P >loGer &n lon% term&nal racemeN 8&seFualN re%ularN complete 1P cm lon%N pe#&cel
G&th scattere# ha&rsM seplas 6+.P15 cm lon%N o8lon%N somet&mes 8roGn re#M petals 1+3P+ cm
lon%N 8la#e o8oEateN su8Pmar%&nate at the apeFN Gh&te or l&lac G&th yelloG or purple Ee&nM
stamen 6 &n tGo GhorlsN tGo outer smaller an# ,our &nner lon%erM oEary super&orN %reen or
8roGnPpurpleN 15P1 oEule#M style a8out / mm lon%N 1P cham8ere#+
>ru&t P S&l&QuaN erectN cyl&n#r&calN (P= cm lon% an# 5+9P 1+/ cm th&c*N cont&nuous or more or
less constr&cte#N lon%&tu#&nally sulcatusN %reen&shPyelloGN occas&onally pale purple+
See# P Re##&shP8roGnM &rre%ularly %lo8oseN somet&mes ,lattene#N P/ mm lon%N mm G&#eM
sur,ace %enerally smooth an# somet&mes Gr&n*le# an# %rooEe# at m&cropylar en#M tasteN
o&ly+

8) )&croscop&c
Root P shoGs (P15 layere# tan%ent&ally elon%ate#N ra#&ally arran%e#N cor* cellsM
secon#ary corteF compose# o, G&#e -one o, oEal to poly%onalN ell&pt&calN th&nPGalle#N
parenchymatous cellsM secon#ary phloem mostly compose# o, s&eEe elements an#
parenchymaN traEerse# 8y phloem raysM secon#ary Fylem mostly cons&st&n% o, Eessels an#
parenchymaN traEerse# 8y Fylem raysM Eessels mostly sol&tary or P( &n %roupM me#ullary
rays ,our to many cells G&#eM starch %ra&ns s&mple an# compoun# haE&n% P/ componentsN
sol&tary or &n%roupsN roun# to oEalNmeasur&n% 6P1/ &n #&a+ present &n corteFN phloemN
Fylem parenchyma an# ray cells+
Stem P ShoGs s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s G&th th&c* cut&cleM corteF cons&sts o, .P1 layers
G&th &ntercellular spacesM en#o#erm&s at some placesN s&n%le layere#M per&cycle occurs as
crescent shape# %roups o, per& cycl&c ,&8resM Eessels sol&tary or P/ &n %roupsN &n macerate#
preparat&on shoG 8or#er# p&ts an# sp&ral th&c*en&n%M trache&#s an# ,&8res aseptate G&th
po&nte# en#sM me#ullary rays 1P( cells G&#eM p&th a G&#e -one o, poly%onalN
parenchymatous cellsM starch %ra&ns s&mpleN roun# to oEalN measur&n% (P6 &n #&a+ present
&n corteF an# phloem+
'ea,P
0et&ole P appears nearly c&rcular &n outl&ne G&th tGo lateral G&n%sM ep&#erm&s s&n%le layere#N
coEere# G&th th&c* cut&cleM ha&rs un&cellularN present only on upper s&#eM corteF 6P1 layers
o, oEal to poly%onalN th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cellsM collateral Eascular 8un#les
arran%e# &n a r&n%+
166
)&#r&8 P appears 8&conEeF &n outl&neM ep&#erm&s on 8oth s&#e coEere# G&th th&n cut&cleM
ep&#erm&s ,olloGe# 8y 6P 1 layers o, parenchymatous corteF on 8oth s&#esM Eascular
8un#le three &n num8erN one central an# tGo lateral+
'am&na P #ors&EentralM ep&#erm&s on e&ther sur,ace G&th th&nPcut&cleM pal&sa#e P( layersM
spon%y parenchyma /P. layersM an&socyt&c stomata present on 8oth sur,aces+
>ru&t P ShoGs a s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&sN coEere# G&th a th&nPcut&cleM ep&#erm&s ,olloGe#
8y a G&#e -one o, oEal to poly%onalN tan%ent&ally elon%ate#N parenchymatous cells &n Gh&ch
a ,eG Eascular 8un#les are em8e##e#+
See# P See# coat cons&sts o, s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s o, nearly rectan%lular cellsN coEere#
G&th th&nN stra&%ht cut&cleM ep&#erm&s ,olloGe# 8y &nte%ument o, ra#&ally elon%ate#N re##&shP
8roGnN o, columnar cellsM 8eneath &nte%ument P( layers o, compresse#N th&nGalle#N
parenchymatous cells presentM en#osperm an# em8ryo cons&sts o, oEal to poly%onalN th&nP
Galle#N parenchymatous cellsN conta&n&n% aleurone %ra&ns an# o&l %lo8ules+
0oG#er P CelloG&shP%reenM shoGs aseptate ,&8resN sp&ral EesselsN o&l %lo8ules an# roun# to
oEal starch %ra&nsN measur&n% (P1/ #&ameter+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 19 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than (5 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than per centN Appen#&F ++3+

CONST4T:ENTS P 1lucos&#eN Bolat&le o&l (conta&n&n% 8utyl crotonyl &soth&ocyanate
sulph&#e) G&th a typ&cal ra#&sh o#our


167
0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaRuN T&*ta
1uSa O 'a%huN TV*USa
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN 0&ttaharaN KaphaharaN DVpanaN 0LcanaN RucyaN SEaryaN HX#ya
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P )Tla*a*ULraN 1an#ha*a BaRVN Ha;arul yahT#a Bhasma
THERA0E:T4C :SES P 1ulmaN ArWaN A%n&mLn#yaN 0VnasaN :#LEarta
DOSE P 5 P /5 ml o, the #ru% &n ;u&ce ,orm+


168
.5+ )ula*a (Rt+)
)I'AKA (Root)
)Tla*a cons&sts o, ,resh root o, Raphanus sat&Eus '&nn+ (>am+ Brass&caceae)M an
annual or 8&enn&al 8r&stly her8N cult&Eate# throu%hout the country upto an alt&tu#e o, (N555 m
&n the H&malayas an# other h&lly re%&ons+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O Salamar*ata*aN B&sraN SaleyaN )arusam8haEa
Assamese O )ula
Ben%al& O )ula
En%l&sh O Ra#&sh
1u;rat& O )uloN )ula
H&n#& O )ul&
Kanna#a O )oolan%&N )oclan%& %a##eN )ullan%&N )u%un&%a##e
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O )ullan*&
)arath& O )ula
Or&ya O )ulaN Ra*hyasmula
0un;a8& O )ulaN )ula*aN )ul&
Tam&l O )ullan%&
Telu%u O )ullan%&
:r#u O )ul&
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Root ,leshyN ,us&,ormN cyl&n#r&calN haE&n% a ,eG lateral ,&8rous rootsN Ear&a8le &n s&-eN
usually .P/5 cm &n len%thN somet&me cult&Eate# spec&es 3.P=5 cm &n len%th an# .5P65 cm
&n %&rthM Gh&te &n colourM tasteN sl&%htly or stron%ly pun%entN rarely sGeet+
169

8) )&croscop&c
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than / per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than (6 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than (( per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
T+'C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n% Ben-eneO Ethylacetate
(=O 1) :n#er :+B+ ((66 nm) tGo ,luorescent -ones appear at R,+ 5+5/ < 5+5= (8oth 8lue)+ On
eFposure to 4o#&ne Eapour ,&Ee spots appear at R, 5+5/+ 5+5=N 5+(/N 5+/= < 5+6= (all yelloG)+
On spray&n% G&th Ban&ll&nPSulphur&c ac&# rea%ent an# heat&n% the plate ,or ten m&nutes at
115 C three spots appear at R,+ 5+5/N 5+5= < 5+/3 (all E&olet)


CONST4T:ENTS P 1lucos&#eN )ethylmercaptan an# Bolat&le O&l+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaRuN T&*ta
1uSa O 'a%huN TV*USa
170
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN 0&ttaharaN KaphaharaN DVpanaN 0LcanaN RucyaN SEaryaN HX#ya
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P Can#ana8alLlL*UL#& Ta&laN )Tla*a*ULra
THERA0E:T4C :SES P $EaraN KELsaN KLsaN 0VnasaN 1alaro%aN BraSaN Da#ruN Netraro%aN
1ulmaN ArWaN A%n&mLn#yaN :#LEarta
DOSE P 1.P(5 ml o, the #ru% &n the ;u&ce ,orm


171
.1+ )ura (Rt+)
):R (Root)
)urL cons&sts o, #r&e# root o, Sel&num can#olle& DC+ Syn+ S+ tenu&,ol&um 2all+ eF DC+
(>am+ Ap&aceae )M a perenn&al her8N 5+6 P +/ m tallN ,oun# commonly &n the H&malayas ,rom
Kashm&r to Nepal at an alt&tu#e o, 1955 P /555 m+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O Sura8h&N Da&tyaN 1an#ha*ut&N 1an#haEat&
Assamese O PP
Ben%al& O )usamans&
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O PP
H&n#& O )ura
Kanna#a O Halu*orat&%eN Ha%%orat&%e
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O )uramanch&
)arath& O )ura
Or&ya O )uramans&
0un;a8& O PP
Tam&l O )ural
Telu%u O )ura
:r#u O PP
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Roots occur &n 8ro*en an# cyl&n#r&cal p&ecesN 6P1 cm lon% an# 5+( P 1+. cm
th&c* G&th stem port&ons attache# an# coEere# G&th lea, sheathsN roots rou%h #ue to
lon%&tu#&nal str&at&ons an# root scarsM colourN #ull 8roGnM o#ourN aromat&cM tasteN sl&%htly
8&tter+
172

8) )&croscop&c
Root P ShoGs 15 P . layers o, cor* cells cons&st&n% o, ra#&ally elon%ate#N
rectan%ular cellsN outer cor* cells ,&lle# G&th #ar* 8roGn contentsN &nner cells th&nPGalle#N
tan%ent&ally elon%ate#M cor* cam8&um cons&st&n% o, 1P layere# tan%ent&ally elon%ate#N th&nP
Galle# cellsM secon#ary corteF compose# o, roun#e#N parenchymatous cells G&th
&ntercellular spacesM secon#ary phloem shoGs G&#e -oneN cons&st&n% o, s&eEe elements an#
parenchymaN traEerse# 8y phloem raysM cam8&um P/ layere#N cons&st&n% o, tan%ent&ally
elon%ate#N th&nPGalle# cellsM secon#ary Fylem cons&st&n% o, EesselsN ,&8res an# parenchymaN
traEerse# 8y Fylem raysM Eessels sol&tary or &n %roups o, P6 or more haE&n% sp&ral
th&c*en&n%sM ,&8res aseptateN short G&th 8lunt en#sM Fylem rays P. cells G&#eN compose# o,
ra#&ally arran%e#N someGhat oEal cellsM starch %ra&ns s&mpleN roun# to oEalN measur&n% 3P..
&n #&a+N present &n secon#ary corteFN secon#ary phloemN Fylem parenchymaN Fylem an#
phloem raysM secretory canals numerousN #&str&8ute# throu%hout secon#ary corteFN
secon#ary phloemN secon#ary Fylem an# me#ullary raysM secretory canals l&ne# 8y Eary&n%
num8er o, ep&thel&al cells an# ,&lle# G&th yelloG&sh contents+
0oG#er P BroGnM shoGs %roups o, cor* cellsN parenchymatous cellsN secretory canalsN o&l
%lo8ules an# s&mple starch %ra&nsN roun# to oEal measur&n% 3P.. &n #&ameter+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than = per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than (+. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than = per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 13 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

CONST4T:ENTS P D&hy#ropyranoPcoumar&nes (&#ent&,&e# as 4sopteryF&n an# Anomal&n)N
Sucrose an# )ann&tol+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaRuN T&*taN KaULyaN )a#hura
1uSa O 'a%hu
173
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O )a#hura
Karma O 0&ttaharaN BLtahara
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P AraE&n#LsaEaN KarpTrL#yar&URa
THERA0E:T4C :SES P $EaraN DLhaN BhramaN )TrchLN KELsaN TXUSL
DOSE P 1P( % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


174
.+ )urEa (Rt+)
)IRB (Root)
)urEL cons&sts o, #r&e# root o, )ars#en&a tenac&ss&ma 2&%ht+ < Am+ (>am+
Asclep&a#aceae)M a lar%e stoutN tG&n&n% shru8N %roG&n% throu%hout the country
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O )a#husraEaN )a#hurasa
Assamese O )urha
Ben%al& O PP
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O )oraEel
H&n#& O )urEaN $artor
Kanna#a O Korat&%e Ham8uN Kallu Sham8uN Korat&%eN Halu*arat&%eN Ka#aluhale8all&
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O 0erum*urum8a
)arath& O )orEel
Or&ya O )urEaN )ur%a
0un;a8& O PP
Tam&l O 0erun*ur&n;an
Telu%u O Cha%aEeru
:r#u O Tur8u# Sa,e#
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Root cyl&n#r&calN aEa&la8le &n cut p&eces o, Eary&n% len%th an# 5+.P( cm th&c*N
eFternally yelloG to 8u,, coloure# G&th #ar* 8roGn patches on the cor*M prom&nent
lon%&tu#&nal r&#%es an# ,urroGs an# transEerse crac*s presentM 8ar* eas&ly separa8le ,rom
175
Goo#M ,ractureN short an# %ranular &n 8ar* re%&on an# ,&8rous &n Goo#M tasteN sl&%htly 8&tterM
o#ourN &n#&st&nct+

8) )&croscop&c
Root P ShoGs a cor*N compose# o, 1.P. layers o, th&nPGalle#N tan%ent&ally
elon%ate#N rectan%ular cellsN some ,&lle# G&th re##&shP8roGn contentsM secon#ary corteF
compose# o, an outer re%&on o, 8ro*en r&n% o, stone cells o, Eary&n% th&c*nessN ,olloGe# 8y
G&#e -one o, oEal to poly%onal parenchymatous cellsM stone cells yelloG &n colour o,
Ear&a8le shapes an# s&-eM secon#ary phloem compose# o, mostly parenchyma G&th small
patches o, s&eEe elements an# small stran#s o, stone cellsN s&m&lar to those present &n
secon#ary corteFM res&n cells present &rre%ularly &n th&s re%&onM phloem ,&8res a8sentM phloem
rays 1 P ( cells G&#eM secon#ary Fylem se%mente# an# shoGs a Ge#%ePshape# structureN
cons&st&n% o, small tan%ent&alN concentr&c 8an#s o, unl&%n&,&e# masses o, parenchymatous
t&ssueN separate# 8y s&m&lar concentr&c 8an# o, l&%n&,&e# t&ssueN compose# o,
EesselsNtrache&#sN ,&8resN ,&8re trache&#s an# Fylem parenchymaM &n &solate# preparat&on
Fylem Eessels cyl&n#r&cal G&th transEerse art&culat&onsN Eary &n shape an# s&-e G&th 8or#er#
p&tsM ,&8res much elon%ate# G&th mostly taper&n% en#s an# p&tte# GallsM th&c*PGalle# an#
l&%n&,&e# parenchyma possess s&mple an# 8or#ere# p&ts an# scalar&,orm th&c*en&n%M Fylem
rays not #&st&nctly mar*e# Ghere a#;o&n&n% parenchyma &s #el&%n&,&e#M rosette an# a ,eG
pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalate an# a8un#ant starch %ra&nsN present &n parenchymatous
t&ssuesM starch %ra&ns s&mpleN ell&pt&cal to spher&cal G&th central h&lumN .+.P #&a+N
compoun# starch %ra&ns haE&n% P( or rarely upto 6 components+
0oG#er P '&%ht 8roGnM shoGs a num8er o, stone cellsN ,&8resN trache&#sN ,&8retrache&#sN
Eessels G&th p&tte# GallsN ,ra%ments o, cor*N rosette an# pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um
oFalateN s&mple an# compoun# starch %ra&nsN measur&n% .+. P &n #&ameter+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than . per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 5+. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 3 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1/ per centN Appen#&F ++3+

176
CONST4T:ENTS P Res&n


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O )a#huraN T&*ta
1uSa O 1uruN Sara
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O )a#hura
Karma O BLtaharaN 0&ttaharaN KaphaharaN B&Ua%hna
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P ra%Ea#hL#& KELtha CTrSaN 0aRolL#V KELtha CTrSaN
0rameha )&h&ra Ta&laN Su#arWana CTrSa
THERA0E:T4C :SES P $EaraN )e#oro%aN )ehaN )u*ha KoUaN KXm&ro%aN HX#ro%aN KaSYTN
ArWaN Ra*tap&ttaN TXUSL
DOSE P P6 % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+15P5 % o, the #ru% ,or #ecoct&on+


177
.(+ Na%a*esar (Stmn+)
N1AKEKARA (Stamen)
NL%a*eWara cons&sts o, #r&e# stamens o, )esua ,errea '&nn+ (>am+ 1utt&,erae)M an
eEer%reen treeN a8out 1.P19 m h&%h G&th short trun*N o,ten 8uttresse# at the 8aseN occurr&n% &n
the H&malayas ,rom Nepal eastGar#sN Ben%alN AssamN eEer%reen ra&n ,orests o, North KanaraN
Kon*anN ,orests o, 2estern 1hats an# An#hra 0ra#esh+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O KeWaraN NL%apuUpaN NL%aN HemLN 1a;a*eWara
Assamese O Ne%eshEarN Nahar
Ben%al& O Na%eshEaraN Na%esar
En%l&sh O Co8ras Sa,,ron
1u;rat& O Na%*esaraN Sachuna%*esharaN Na%champaN 0&luna%*esarN Tamrana%*esar
H&n#& O Na%*esaraN 0&la Na%*esara
Kanna#a O Na%samp&%eN Na%a*esar&
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Nan%aaN Nau%aN 0er&N BeluthapalaN Na%ppuN Na%appoEu
)arath& O Na%*esara
Or&ya O Na%esGar
0un;a8& O Na%esGar
Tam&l O Nau%uN Nau%al&ralN Na%achampa*amN S&runa%appu
Telu%u O Na%achampa*amu
:r#u O Narmush*N Na%*esar
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Stamen cons&sts o, antherN connect&Ee an# ,&lamentM coppery or %ol#en
8roGnM ,&lament un&te# at 8ase ,orm&n% a ,leshy r&n%M each stamen 5+=P1+= cm lon%M anther
a8out 5+. cm lon%N l&nearN 8as&,&Fe#N conta&n&n% pollen %ra&nsM ,&lament 5+9 P 1+5 cm lon%M
178
slen#erN ,&l&,ormN more or less tG&ste#N so,t to touchN Qu&te 8r&ttleM connect&Ee not E&s&8le
G&th na*e# eyeM o#ourN ,ra%rantM tasteN astr&n%ent+

8) )&croscop&c
An#roec&um P Anther shoGs %ol#enP8roGnN lon%&tu#&nally #eh&scent anther GallN
cons&st&n% o, th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cellsN pollen %ra&ns numerous &n %roups or &n
s&n%leN yelloG&sh an# th&nPGalle#N many pollen %ra&ns haE&n% 1P( m&nuteN #&st&nct
protu8erances on GallsN th&c*PGalle#N eF&ne an# &nt&ne #&st&nct+
0oG#er P BroGnM shoGs elon%ate# cells o, ,&lamentN connect&Ee an# numerous %ol#en
yelloG pollen %ra&ns haE&n% 1P( protu8erances+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 6 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than ( per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1. per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

CONST4T:ENTS P Essent&al o&l an# OleoPres&n+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O T&*taN KaRuN KaULya
1uSa O 'a%huN RT*Ua
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O KaphaharaN BarSyaN Bast&ELtLmaya%hnaN Ir#hEa;atru%ataro%ahara
179
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P Can#ana8alLlL*UL#& Ta&laN KumLryLsaEaN NL%a*esarL#&
CTrSa
THERA0E:T4C :SES P BLtara*taN Kopharo%aN Bast&ro%aN Ra*tap&tta
DOSE P 1P( % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


180
./+ N&l& (',+)
NA'A ('ea,)
NVlV (lea,) cons&sts o, #r&e# lea, o, 4n#&%o,era t&nctor&a '&nn+ (>am+ >a8aceae)M a
shru8N 1+P 1+9 m h&%hN ,oun# throu%hout an# G&#ely cult&Eate# &n many parts o, the country+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O NVlV*LN NVlVnVN Ran%apatrV
Assamese O N&l8am
Ben%al& O N&l
En%l&sh O 4n#&%o
1u;rat& O 1al&N 1al&parna
H&n#& O N&l&
Kanna#a O Karun&l&
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Neelamar
)arath& O Neel
Or&ya O N&l&N N&la
0un;a8& O Neel
Tam&l O AEur&
Telu%u O N&l& ChettuN N&l&
:r#u O Neel
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Dru% occurs mostly &n the ,orm o, lea,lets an# 8ro*en p&eces o, rach&sM lea,let 1P+.
cm lon% an# 5+(P1+ cm G&#eN o8lon% or o8lanceolate G&th Eery short mucronate t&pM pale
%reen to %reen&shP8lac*M no character&st&c o#our an# taste+

181
8) )&croscop&c
'ea,P
0et&ole P appears nearly c&rcular &n outl&ne haE&n% tGo lateral G&n%sM ep&#erm&s s&n%le
layere# coEere# eFternally G&th th&n cut&cle an# ,olloGe# &nternally 8y s&n%le layere#
collcnchymatous cellsM per&cycle present &n the ,orm o, cont&nuous or #&scont&nuous r&n%N
Eascular 8un#les collateral an# three &n num8erN lar%e one present &n central an# tGo
smaller &n lateral G&n%sM p&th compose# o, roun# to oEalN th&nPGalle# parenchymatous cellsN
a ,eG pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalate present &n phloem an# p&th re%&on+
)&#r&8 P shoGs ep&#erm&sN cut&cle an# ha&rN s&m&lar as &n pet&oleM 8eneath ep&#erm&s on loGer
s&#e s&n%le or P( layers o, col&enchyma on upper s&#e presentN 8oth ,olloGe# 8y P ( layers
o, th&nPGalle# parenchymaM Eascular 8un#le s&n%leN collateral an# crescent shape#+
'am&na P shoGs #ors&Eentral structureM ep&#erm&sN cut&cle an# ha&rN s&m&lar as &n pet&ole an#
m&#r&8M pal&sa#e P( layersM spon%y parenchyma P/ layere#N a ,eG patches o, Ee&ns
scattere# 8etGeen pal&sa#e an# spon%y parenchymaN pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalate
rarely present &n me sophyll cellsM paracyt&c stomata an# ha&r present on 8oth sur,aces 8ut
a8un#ant &n loGer sur,ace
0oG#er P 1reen&shP%reyM shoGs %roups o, mesophyll cellsN aseptate ,&8resN p&tte# EesselsN
un&cellular ha&rs an# rarely pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalate+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 15 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 3+. per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than . per centN Appen#&F ++3+

CONST4T:ENTS P 1lycos&#e (4n#&can)+


182
0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O T&*taN KaRu
1uSa O Sara
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN KaphaharaN RecanVN KeWya
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P NVlV BhX_%L#& Ta&la (>or eFternal use only)N
)ahLpa]ca%aEya 1hXta
THERA0E:T4C :SES P maELtaN BLtara*taN :#araro%aN :#LEartaN 0lVhLro%aN 1ulmaN $EaraN
KLsaN B&UaE&*LraN KXm&ro%a
DOSE P .5P155 % o, #ecoct&on+


183
..+ N&l& (Rt+)
NA'A (Root)
NVlV (Root) cons&sts o, #r&e# root o, 4n#&%o,era t&nctor&a '&nn+ (>am+ >a8aceae)M a
shru8N 1+P1+9 m h&%hN ,oun# throu%hout an# G&#ely cult&Eate# &n many parts o, the country+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O NVlV*LN Ran%apatrVN NVl&nV
Assamese O N&l8am
Ben%al& O N&l
En%l&sh O 4n#&%oN 4n#&an 4n#&%o
1u;rat& O 1al&N N&lN 1ar&
H&n#& O N&l&
Kanna#a O Ka#un&l&N Karun&l&N N&l&N Neel&%&#aN Olleneel&
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Amar&N N&la
)arath& O N&l&N N&la
Or&ya O PP
0un;a8& O Neel
Tam&l O AEur&N Neel&
Telu%u O N&l&N N&l& ChettuN AE&r&
:r#u O Neel
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Root mostly aEa&la8le &n p&ecesN har#N Goo#yN cyl&n#r&calN 5+1 P1+. cm th&c*N
sur,ace nearly smooth eFcept ,or a ,eG scattere# lent&celsM palePyelloG to l&%ht yelloG&shP
8roGnM o#our not #&st&nctM tasteN sl&%htly 8&tter+

184
8) )&croscop&c
Root PShoGs a narroG -one o, cor* cons&st&n% o, /P 15 layers o, tan%ent&ally
elon%ate#N rectan%ularN th&nPGalle# cellsN G&th lent&celsM secon#ary corteF a narroG -oneN
cons&st&n% o, rectan%ular to poly%onalN th&nPGalle# cellsN %roup o, ,&8resN measur&n% 11P13
&n #&a+N th&c*PGalle# an# l&%n&,&e# G&th G&#e lumenM secon#ary phloem compose# o, usual
elementsM Goo# occup&es 8ul* parts o, the rootN cons&st&n% o, usual elementsM Eessels
sol&tary or P/ &n %roups haE&n% s&mple p&tsM ,&8res present &n the ,orm o, alternat&n% 8an#s
o, parenchymaM parenchyma cells rectan%ular to poly%onal &n shape an# attache# on 8oth the
oppos&te s&#es o, EesselsM me#ullary rays 1 P/ cells G&#eM pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um
oFalate present &n secon#ary corteFN phloem an# Fylem parenchyma an# raysM o&l %lo8ules
present &n corteF an# phloem parenchymaM starch %ra&ns s&mpleN roun# to oEalN measur&n%
(P11 &n #&a+N present &n corteFN phloemN Fylem parenchyma an# rays+
0oG#er P Cream&shP8roGnM shoGs aseptate ,&8resN p&tte# EesselsN s&mple an# compoun#
starch %ra&nsN measur&n% (P11 &n #&a+N rarely o&l %lo8ules an# pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um
oFalate+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 6 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 5+3 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than ( per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than / per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1> ./ f S&l&ca %el [1[ (1O(
G^G) plate us&n% Chloro,orm O Ethylacetate (6O/) shoG un#er :+B+ ((66 nm) ten ,luorescent
-ones at R,+ 5+1/ (8lue)N 5+(5 (8lu&sh %reen)N 5+/5 (8lue)N 5+/3 (8lue)N 5+.9 (8lue)N 5+6(
(8lu&sh %reen)N 5+3. (8lue)N 5+91 (8lue)N 5+96 (%reen) an# 5+=1 (8lue)+ On eFposure to 4o#&ne
Eapour th&rteen spots appear at R,+ 5+56N 5+15N 5+1/N 5+3N 5+((N 5+/5N 5+.5N 5+.9N 5+6(N5+3.N
185
5+95N5+96 an# 5+=1 (all yelloG)+ On spray&n% G&th .\ )ethanol&c Sulphur&c ac&# rea%ent an#
heat&n% the plate at 115C ,or ten m&nutes ,ourteen spots appear at R,+ 5+56N 5+15N 5+1/N
5+1N 5+3N 5+((N 5+/5N 5+.5N 5+.9N 5+6(N 5+3.N 5+91N 5+96N an# 5+=1 (all %rey)+


CONST4T:ENTS P 1lycos&#e (4n#&can)


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaRuN T&*ta
1uSa O Sara
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN KaphaharaN RecanVN KeWyaN Bhrama )ohahara
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P AraE&n#LsaEaN Tr&phalL#& Ta&la
THERA0E:T4C :SES P BLtara*taN maELtaN :#LEartaN :#araro%aN 0lVhLro%aN B&UaE&*LraN
KLsaN 1ulmaN KXm&ro%a
DOSE P /9 % o, #ru% ,or #ecoct&on+


186
.6+ N&m8a (',+)
N4)BA ('ea,)
N&m8a ('ea,) cons&sts o, #r&e# lea, o, A-a#&rachta &n#&ca A+ $uss Syn+ )el&a
a-a#&rachta '&nn+ (>am+ )el&aceae)M a mo#erate s&-e# to ,a&rly lar%e eEer%reen treeN atta&n&n% a
he&%ht o, 1P1. m G&th stout trun* an# sprea#&n% 8ranchesN occurr&n% throu%hout the country
up to an eleEat&on o, =55 m+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O Ar&URaN 0&cumar#a
Assamese O )ahan&m
Ben%al& O N&mN N&m%ach
En%l&sh O )ar%osa Tree
1u;rat& O '&m8aN '&m8a#oN '&ma#oN Kohum8a
H&n#& O N&mN N&m8a
Kanna#a O N&m8aN BeEuN O&leEeEuN Kah&8eEuN BeE&nama
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O BeppuN AryaEeppuN N&m8amN Beppa
)arath& O Balantan&m8aN '&m8aN Ba*ayanN N&mN Ka#un&m8
Or&ya O N&m8a
0un;a8& O N&m8aN Ba*anN N&m
Tam&l O BemmuN BeppuN Arulun#&N Beppan
Telu%u O BemuN Bepa
:r#u O Neem
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
187
'eaEes P Compoun#N alternateN rach&s 1.P. cm lon%N 5+1 cm th&c*M lea,lets G&th
o8l&Que 8aseN oppos&teN eFst&pulateN lanceolateN acuteN serrateN 3P9+. cm lon% an# 1+5P1+3 cm
G&#eN sl&%htly yelloG&shP%reenM o#ourN &n#&st&nctM tasteN 8&tter

8) )&croscop&c
'ea,P
)&#r&8 Plea,let throu%h m&#r&8 shoGs a 8&conEeF outl&neM ep&#erm&s on e&ther s&#e coEere#
eFternally G&th th&c* cut&cleM 8eloG ep&#erm&s /P. layere# collenchyma presentM stele
compose# o, one crescentPshape# Eascular 8un#le toGar#s loGer an# tGo to three smaller
8un#le toGar#s upper sur,aceM rest o, t&ssues compose# o, th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous
cells haE&n% secretory cells an# rosette crystals o, calc&um oFalateM phloem surroun#e# 8y
nonPl&%n&,&e# ,&8re stran#M crystals also present &n phloem re%&on+
'am&na P shoGs #ors&Eentral structureM ep&#erm&s on e&ther sur,aceN compose# o, th&n
Galle#N tan%ent&ally elon%ate# cellsN coEere# eFternally G&th th&c* cut&cleM anomocyt&c
stomata present on loGer sur,ace onlyM pal&sa#e s&n%le layere#M spon%y parenchyma
compose# o, .P6 layere#N th&nPGalle# cellsN traEerse# 8y a num8er o, Ee&nsM rosette crystals
o, calc&um oFalate present &n a ,eG cellsM pal&sa#e rat&o (+5P/+.M stomatal &n#eF 1(+5P1/+. on
loGer sur,ace an# 9+5P11+. on upper sur,ace+
0oG#er P 1reenM shoGs EesselsN ,&8resN rosette crystals o, calc&um oFalateN ,ra%ments o,
spon%y an# pal&sa#e parenchyma+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 15 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1( per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1= per centN Appen#&F ++3+

188
CONST4T:ENTS P Tr&terpeno&#s an# Sterols+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O T&*ta
1uSa O RT*UaN 'a%hu
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtalLN 0&ttanLWa*aN 1rLhV
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P KLsVsL#& 1hXtaN $LtyL#& 1hXtaN ro%yaEar#h&nV 1uR&*LN
N&m8apatrL#& upanLhaN 0a]ca%uSa Ta&la
THERA0E:T4C :SES P $EaraN maWothaN BraSaN KuURhaN 0ramehaN Netraro%aN KXm&ro%aN
B&Uaro%a
DOSE P 1P( % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+ 15P5 ml o, the #ru% ,or #ecoct&on+


189
.3+ N&m8a (St+B*)
N4)BA (Stem Bar*)
N&m8a (stem 8ar*) cons&sts o, stem 8ar* o, A-a#&rachta &n#&ca A+ $uss+ Syn+ )el&a
a-a#&rachta '&nn+ (>am+ )el&aceae)M a mo#erate s&-e# to ,a&rly lar%eN eEer%reen treeN atta&n&n%
a he&%ht o, 1P1. m G&th stout trun* an# sprea#&n% 8ranchesN occurr&n% throu%hout the country
upto an eleEat&on o, =55 m+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O Ar&URaN 0&cumar#a
Assamese O )ahan&m
Ben%al& O N&mN N&m%acha
En%l&sh O )ar%osa Trees
1u;rat& O Ka#Eo '&m8#o
H&n#& O N&mN N&m8
Kanna#a O BeEuN Kah&8eEuN N&m8aN O&leEeEu
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O BeppuN AruEeppu
)arath& O Balantan&m8aN Ka#un&m8N '&m8a
Or&ya O N&m8a
0un;a8& O N&mN N&m8aN Ba*am
Tam&l O Beppa&N Bem8u
Telu%u O BemuN Bepa
:r#u O Neem
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
190
Bar* Ear&es much &n th&c*ness accor#&n% to a%e an# parts o, tree ,rom Ghere &t &s
ta*enM eFtemal sur,ace rou%hN ,&ssure# an# rustyP%reyM lam&nate# &nner sur,ace yelloG&sh an#
,ol&aceousN ,ractureN ,&8rousM o#ourN character&st&cM tasteN8&tter

8) )&croscop&c
Stem Bar* PShoGs outer eF,ol&at&n% p&eces har#N Goo#yN cons&#era8ly th&c* &n ol#er
8ar*sM almost ent&rely #ea# elements o, secon#ary phloemN alternat&n% G&th #&scont&nuous
tan%ent&al 8an#s o, compresse# cor* t&ssueN ,ormer compose# o, seEeral layers o, stone
cells occurr&n% &n re%ularly arran%e# %roups to%ether G&th collapse# phloem elements ,&lle#
G&th 8roGn contentsM &n 8etGeen the success&Ee -ones o, cor* t&ssue (P. layers o, ,&8re
%roups G&th &nterEen&n% th&nPGalle# an# o,ten collapse# phloem elements presentM each
-one o, cor* t&ssue cons&sts o, seEeral layers o, re%ularN th&nPGalle# cells occas&onally G&th
a ,eG compresse# roGs o, th&c*PGalle# cells toGar#s outer sur,aceM G&th&n eF,ol&at&n%
port&on a num8er o, layers o, neGly ,orme# cor* compose# o, th&n Galle#N rectan%ular cells
an# one or tGo layers o, cor* cam8&umN 8eloG Gh&ch a G&#e -one o, secon#ary phloem
presentM secon#ary corteF a8sent &n most casesM secon#ary phloem commonly compose# o,
GellP#eEelope# ,&8re 8un#les traEerse# 8y P/ ser&ate phloem rays an# transEersely
separate# 8y 8an#s o, parenchymatous t&ssue o, phloemM phloem elements o, outer 8ar*
mostly collapse#M a ,eG ,a&rly lar%e secretory caE&t&es also occur &n phloemM most o, phloem
parenchyma conta&n starch %ra&ns an# pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalateM starch %ra&nsN
s&mpleN roun# G&th central h&lumNmeasur&n% +3.P. structure o, 8ar* Ear&es cons&#era8ly
accor#&n% to %ra#ual ,ormat&on o, secon#ary cor* 8an#s+
0oG#er P Re##&shP8roGnM shoGs numerous pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalateN phloem
,&8res G&th narroG lumen an# po&nte# en#sM cor* cellsN stone cells mostly &n %roupsN
l&%n&,&e# rectan%ular to poly%onalN haE&n% G&#e lumen an# #&st&nct str&at&onsN s&mple starch
%ra&nsN measur&n% +3.P. &n #&ameter+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 3 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1+. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 6 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
191
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than . per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n% Chloro,orm O
EthylacetateM >orm&c ac&# (.O/O 1) shoGs un#er :+B+ ((66nm) three ,luorescent -ones at R,+
5+3 (8lue)N 5+96 (8lue)N an# 5+=5 (%reen)+ On spray&n% G&th .\ )ethanol&c
0hosphomoly8#&c ac&# rea%ent an# heat&n% the plate ,or a8out ten m&nutes at 15.C ,our
spots appear at R,+ 5+5N 5+/.N 5+6( an# 5+=5 (all 8lue)+


CONST4T:ENTS P B&tter pr&nc&ples N&m8&n an# N&m8&ol


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O T&*ta
1uSa O 'a%huN RT*Ua
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O KaphaharaN 0&ttaharaN B&Ua%hnaN KaSYT%hnaN BraSaWo#hana*araN
HX#ayaE&#LhaWLnt&*ara
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P N&m8L#& KELtha CTrSaN N&m8L#& CTrSaN 0a]can&m8a
CTrSaN 0a_cat&*ta 1u%%ulu 1hXtaN 0athyL#& KELtha (!aYa_%a) CTrSaN Su#arWana CTrSa
THERA0E:T4C :SES P BraSaN KuURhaN 0ramehaN KaSYTN KXm&ro%aN $EaraN DLhaN Ra*ta 0&tta
DOSE P P/ % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,ormN Decoct&on shoul# 8e use# eFternally+


192
.9+ 0alasha (St+B*)
0A'KA (Stem Bar*)
0alLsa cons&sts o, #r&e# stem 8ar* o, Butea monosperma ('am+) Kunt-e (>am+
>a8aceae)M a me#&um s&-e# tree G&th someGhat croo*e# trun*N 1 P 1. m h&%h G&th &rre%ular
8ranchesN commonly ,oun# throu%hout the %reater part o, the country upto a8out =1. mN
eFcept &n Eery ar&# parts+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O K&ZWu*aN Ra*tapuUpa*a
Assamese O Kule*hara
Ben%al& O 0alash 1achhaN 0alashN 0alas
En%l&sh O Bastar# pea*
1u;rat& O Kesu#oN Kha*haroN Kha*hapa#o
H&n#& O Dha*N Tesu
Kanna#a O )uttu%N )uttu%aN )uttala
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O 0lasuN CamataN 0lasN Chama Tha
)arath& O 0alas
Or&ya O PP
0un;a8& O 0alashN Dha*N Tesu
Tam&l O 0urasuN 0aras
Telu%u O )o#u%aN )o#u%uN Chettu
:r#u O Dha*N 0alaspap#a
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
)ature stem 8ar*N 5+. P 1 cm th&c*N %rey&sh to pale 8roGnN curEe#N rou%h #ue to
presence o, rhyt&#omaN an# scattere# #ar* 8roGn spots o, eFu#ateM rhyt&#oma 5+ cm th&c*
193
usually peels o,,N eFpos&n% l&%ht 8roGn sur,aceN eF,ol&at&on o, cor* an# presence o, shalloG
lon%&tu#&nal an# transEerse ,&ssuresM ,ractureN lam&nate# &n outer part an# ,&8rous &n &nner
partM &nternal sur,ace rou%hN pale 8roGnM tasteN sl&%htly astr&n%ent+

8) )&croscop&c
Stem Bar* P)ature 8ar* shoGs rhyt&#oma cons&st&n% o, alternat&n% layers o, cor*N
secon#ary corteF an# phloem t&ssueM cor* cellsN th&nPGalle#N .P15 or more layere#N
rectan%ularN #ar*P8roGnM secon#ary cort&cal cells roun# an# &rre%ular &n outl&neN #ar* 8roGnN
mo#erately th&c*PGalle#M tann&n&,erous cellsN o,ten &n %roupsN haE&n% 8roGn colourN
somet&mes conta&n&n% muc&la%e an# other mater&als ,oun# scattere# &n th&s -oneM 8eneath
th&s -one re%ular cor* cons&st&n% o, /P1 roGs o, ra#&ally arran%e#N rectan%ular cells
,olloGe# 8y a -one o, P / layers o, sclere&#sM secon#ary phloem cons&st&n% o, s&eEe tu8esN
compan&on cellsN phloem parenchymaN phloem ,&8resN crystal ,&8resN traEerse# 8y phloem
raysM &n outer an# m&##le phloem re%&ons phloem t&ssues %et crushe# an# ,orm tan%ent&al
8an#s o, ceratenchymaM phloem ,&8res arran%e# &n tan%ent&al 8an#s alternat&n% G&th s&eEe
tu8es an# phloem parenchymaM most o, ,&8re %roups conta&n pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um
oFalate ,orm&n% crystal sheathM &n macerate# preparat&on phloem ,&8res appear th&c*PGalle#
l&%n&,&e# elon%ate# G&th taper&n% or 8&,urcate# en#sM crystal ,&8res #&E&#e# &nto a num8er o,
cham8ers conta&n&n% a pr&smat&c crystal o, calc&um oFalate &n each cham8erM phloem rays
mult&ser&ate / P 1 cells G&#eN 3 P .5 cells &n he&%htN stra&%htM pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um
oFalate ,oun# scattere# &n the secon#ary phloem t&ssues an# phloem raysM starch %ra&ns
s&mple or compoun# haE&n% P ( componentsN measur&n% +3. P 1(+3. &n #&a+N ,oun#
scattere# &n phloem parenchyma an# phloem ray cells a8un#antlyM tann&n&,erous cells an#
secretory caE&t&es also occur &n secon#ary phloem+
0oG#er P Re##&shP8roGnM shoGs numerous pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalateN starch
%ra&ns s&mple an# compoun# G&th P ( components measur&n% (P1/ &n #&a+N #ar* 8roGn
coloure# cellsN sclere&#s mostly &n %roupsN th&nPGalle# cor* cellsN numerous crystal ,&8res &n
%roup or s&n%les
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1+. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
194
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 15 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1/ per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n% Toluene O
Ethylacetate (=5O 15) un#er :+B+ ((66 nm) shoGs ,our ,luorescent -ones at R,+ 5+15N
5+19N 5+/9N 5+6. (all 8lue)+ On eFposure to 4o#&ne Eapour three spots appear at R,+
5+15N 5+/9 an# 5+63 (all yelloG)+ On spray&n% G&th Ban&ll&nPSulphur&c ac&# rea%ent
an# heat&n% the plate ,or a8out ten m&nutes at 15.C three spots appear at R,+ 5+15N
5+/9 an# 5+63 (all E&olet)+


CONST4T:ENTS P K&notann&c ac&# an# 1all&c ac&#+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaULyaN KaRuN T&*ta
1uSa O SaraN Sn&%#ha
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O KaphaELtaWLma*aN A%n&#Vpa*aN SLra*aN BXUya
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P 0alLWa KULraN Nya%ro#hL#& KELtha CTrSaN )ahLnLrLyaSa
Ta&la
THERA0E:T4C :SES P 1rahaSVN 1ulmaN ArWaN BraSaN KXm&ro%a
DOSE P .P15 % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm ,or #ecoct&on+


195
.=+ 0ar&8ha#ra (St+B*)
0R4BHADRA (Stem Bar*)
0Lr&8ha#ra cons&sts o, the #r&e# stem 8ar* o, Erythr&na &n#&ca 'am+ (>am+ >a8aceae)M
me#&um s&-e#N Qu&c* %roG&n% treeN #&str&8ute# G&#ely &n #ec&#uous ,orests throu%hout 4n#&aN
also %roGn &n %ar#ens as an ornamental plant an# as a support ,or 8lac* pepper E&ne+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O 0Lr&8ha#ra*aN KaSta*&ZWu*a
Assamese O PP
Ben%al& O 0attema#ar
En%l&sh O Coral tree
1u;rat& O 0an#eraEo
H&n#& O 0haraha#aN 0an%ara
Kanna#a O Hon%arN Hal&Eana#amar
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O )urr&**u
)arath& O 0an%ara
Or&ya O PP
0un;a8& O PP
Tam&l O Kalyanamuron%a&N )ulmurum%a&
Telu%u O Ba#&saN Bar&,amu
:r#u O PP
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
)ature #r&e# stem 8ar* a8out 5+.P+5 cm th&c*N smoothN eF,ol&at&n% &n narroG str&psM
outer sur,ace yelloG&sh to yelloG&shP%reyN lent&cels ,oun# at short &nterEals lon%&tu#&nal
l&nes on the outer sur,aceN yelloG&sh to cream coloure#M Ghole 8ar* #&,,erent&ate# &nto outer
196
nonP,&8rous an# &nner ,&8rous -onesN outer 8ar* 8rea*s rea#&ly G&th a short ,ractureN &nner
8ar* ,&8rous+

8) )&croscop&c
Stem Bar* P )ature 8ar* shoGs strat&,&e# an# l&%n&,&e# cor* o, a8out P= or more
alternat&n% 8an#s o, narroG tan%ent&ally elon%ate# compresse#N yelloG&sh coloure# cells an#
o, G&#er cells &n (P. or more layersN tan%ent&ally elon%ate# to sQuar&shN ra#&ally arran%e#
an# th&nPGalle#M a ,eG cells conta&n pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalateM secon#ary corteF
cons&sts o, lar%eN someGhat tan%ent&ally elon%ate# to poly%onalN parenchymatous cellsN a
,eG cells conta&n pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalateN stone cells occur &n s&n%les or &n
%roups Gh&ch are c&rcularN elon%ate# or rectan%ular &n shapeN parenchymatous cells
surroun#&n% stone cells %roupsN conta&n lar%e crystals o, calc&um oFalateM secon#ary phloem
cons&st&n% o, s&eEe tu8es G&th the&r compan&on cellsN phloem ,&8res an# phloem parenchyma
traEerse# 8y phloem raysM phloem ,&8resN mostly arran%e# &n tan%ent&al str&ps alternat&n%
G&th the re%ular th&nPGalle# phloem elementsN s&eEe elements &n outer an# m&##le re%&ons o,
phloem mostly %et collapse# an# crushe# an# ,orm many tan%ent&al str&ps o, ceratenchyma
8etGeen the tan%ent&al %roups o, phloem ,&8resM,&8res lar%eN th&c*PGalle# G&th narroG
lumenM crystal ,&8res numerousN septate an# each cham8er conta&ns a s&n%le pr&smat&c
crystals o, calc&um oFalateM phloem parenchyma th&nPGalle#N a ,eG o, them conta&ns
crystals o, calc&um oFalate s&m&lar to those ,oun# &n the secon#ary corteF an# crystal ,&8resM
phloem rays numerous an# mostly mult&ser&ate runn&n% almost stra&%ht &n the &nner phloem
re%&on 8ut 8ent toGar#s le,t or r&%ht &n the outer phloem re%&onM ray cells th&nPGalle#N
ra#&ally elon%ate# &n the &nner re%&on an# sl&%htly tan%ent&ally elon%ate# toGar#s outer
re%&on &n transEerse sect&on+
0oG#er P Crearn&shPyelloGM shoGs strat&,&e# cor*N p&eces o, phloem ,&8resN stone cells an#
pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalate+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 1( per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than +. per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 3 per centN Appen#&F ++3+
197

CONST4T:ENTS P Al*alo&#s an# Res&ns


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O T&*taN KaRu
1uSa O Sara
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN KaphaharaN )e#oharaN KXm&%hna
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P Nya%ro#hL#& CTrSaN A8hayL 'aEaSaN NLrLyaSa Ta&la
THERA0E:T4C :SES P KXm&ro%aN KothaN KarSaro%a
DOSE P 6P1 % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+
1P/ % o, the #ru% ,or #ecoct&on+


198
65+ 0&ppal& mula (Stm+)
0400A'A)I'A (Stem)
0&ppalVmTla cons&sts o, #r&e#N cutN stem p&eces o, 0&per lon%um '&nn+ (>am+
0&peraceae)M a slen#erN aromat&cN creep&n% an# perenn&al her8M nat&Ee o, the hotter parts o, the
counrty an# ,oun# G&l# as Gell as cult&Eate# eFtens&Eely &n Ben%al an# southern states+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O )L%a#hVN 1ranth&*LN 0&ppal&*L
Assamese O Kule*hara
Ben%al& O 0&pulmul
En%l&sh O 0&per root
1u;rat& O 1anto#aN 1antho#a
H&n#& O 0&paramula
Kanna#a O )o#&*a##&N H&ppal&N T&ppal&N )o#&
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Kattuth&ppal&EerN T&ppal&Eeru
)arath& O 0&mpl&mula
Or&ya O 0&ppal&mulaN Bana 0&ppal&mula
0un;a8& O 0&ppal&mulaN )a%ha
Tam&l O Kan#a T&pp&l&N Am8&na#& DesaEaram
Telu%u O )o#&N )a#&*atta
:r#u O >&l,&l Dara-
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Dru% aEa&la8le &n cut p&ecesN haE&n% #&st&nct &nterno#es an# sGollen no#es G&th a
num8er o, small rootlets an# root scarsM stoutN cyl&n#r&calN 5+P5+6 cm th&c*N re##&sh 8roGn
to %reyM o#ourN aromat&cM tasteN pun%ent+
199

8) )&croscop&c
Stem P ShoGs a s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s ,olloGe# 8y a cont&nuous r&n% o,
collenchymatous an# roun# to oEal th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cellsM Eascular 8un#les
shoG per&pheral an# me#ullary arran%mentN separate# ,rom each other 8y a GaEy str&p o,
sclerenchyma ,orm&n% a r&n%N enclos&n% p&thM 8un#les collateral an# arran%e# &n r&n%sN
haE&n% sclerenchymatous sheath o, per&cycl&c cap oEer phloemM Fylem Ge#%ePshape#M starch
%ra&ns s&mple an# compoun# haE&n% P3 componentsN roun# to oEalN measur&n% (P1/ &n
#&a+N present a8un#antly throu%hout the sect&on+
0oG#er P Re##&shP8roGn to crearn&shP%reyM un#er m&croscope shoGs scalar&,orm EesselsN
aseptate ,&8resN s&mple an# compoun# starch %ra&ns measur&n% (P1/ &n #&ameter+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than .+. per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 5+ per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than /+5 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

ASSAC

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n% TolueneO
Ethylacetate (=O1) shoGs un#er :+B+ l&%ht e&%ht spots at R,+ 5+5/ (yelloG)N 5+1 (l&%ht
%reen)N 5+. (%reen)N 5+(1 (l&%ht %reen)N 5+(6 (l&%ht %reen)N5+.( (l&%ht %reen)N 5+6. (%reen)
an# 5+=3 (8lue)+ On eFposure to 4o#&ne Eapour ,&Ee spots appear at R,+ 5+1(N 5+.N 5+/5N 5+9=N
5+=( (all yelloG)+ On spray&n% G&th Dra%en#or,, rea%ent tGo oran%e coloure# spots appear
at R,+ 5+1( < 5+.+
200


CONST4T:ENTS P Al*alo&#s (0&per&neN 0&perlon%um&neN 0&perlon%um&n&ne etc)N Essent&al
O&ls+

0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaRu
1uSa O 'a%huN RT*Ua
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN KaphaharaN DVpanaN 0LcanaN BLtLnulomanaN KTlapraWamanaN
Rucya
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P 0a]ca*ola CTrSaN DaWamTla Ta&laN DaWamTlapa]ca*olL#&
KELtha CTrSaN DaWamTlaURapala*a 1hXta
THERA0E:T4C :SES P :#araro%aN nLhaN 1ulmaN KXm&ro%aN BLtaro%a
DOSE P 5+. P 1% o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


201
61+ 0la*sha (St+B*)
0'AK!A (Stem Bar*)
0la*Ua cons&sts o, #r&e# stem 8ar* o, >&cus lacor Buch+ P Ham+ h >+ lucescens Blume+N
Syn+ >+ &n,ector&a RoF8+ (>am+ )oraceae)M a lar%e sprea#&n% treeN G&th occas&onal aer&al rootsN
,oun# nearly throu%hout the country an# commonly plante# as an aEenue an# ornamental tree+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O 0ar*arVN 0ar*atVN $atV
Assamese O PP
Ben%al& O 0a*ur
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O 0aras p&paloN 0epl&
H&n#& O 0a*a#
Kanna#a O Kar&8asar&N Ka#u8asar&N $eeE&8asar&N Basar&N $uEEe8asar&
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O 4tt&N 4tt&ya#&N 4tthy
)arath& O PP
Or&ya O 0a*al&N 0a*al
0un;a8& O PP
Tam&l O 4cch&N 4tth&N Kallalnaram
Telu%u O PPP
:r#u O 0a*ha#
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Bar* rou%hN occurr&n% &n ,lat to curEe#N Qu&lle# p&ecesN measur&n% 5+/P5+3 cm &n
th&c*nessM eFternal sur,ace ash or Gh&t&shP%reyM numerous transEersely arran%e# lent&celsM
202
ran%&n% ,rom 5+1 cm P 1+( cm &n len%thN l&pPshape# an# eF,ol&at&n%M &nternal sur,ace rou%hN
,&8rousN lon%&tu#&nally str&ate#N re##&shP8roGnM ,ractureN ,&8rous+

8) )&croscop&c
ShoGs .P9 layere# cor* cons&st&n% o, th&nPGalle#N rectan%ular cellsN a ,eG eFternal
layers eF,ol&at&n%M secon#ary corteF Eery G&#e cons&st&n% o, compactly arran%e#N
rectan%ularN th&c*PGalle#N p&tte# cellsN patches o, c&rcular to elon%ate#N l&%n&,&e#N ell&pt&cal
stone cells G&th ra#&at&n% canalsN a ,eG G&th concentr&c str&at&onsM a ,eG pr&smat&c crystals
o, calc&um oFalate an# re##&shP8roGn contents ,oun# scattere# throu%hout the secon#ary
corteFM secon#ary phloem Eery G&#e cons&st&n% o, mostly strat&,&e# layers o, collapse# cells
,orm&n% ceratenchymaN %roups o, ,&8resN phloem parenchymaN lat&c&,erous cellsN traEerse# 8y
P. ser&ate phloem raysM phloem ,&8res l&%n&,&e# G&th G&#e lumen an# po&nte# t&psM th&nP
Galle#N rectan%ularN a ,eG phloem parenchyma conta&n&n% pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um
oFalate+
0oG#er P Re##&shP8roGnM shoGs th&c*PGalle# parenchyma G&th s&mple p&tsM stone cells &n
%roups an# s&n%lesN pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalateN elon%ate# phloem ,&8res G&th
G&#e lumen an# po&nte# t&ps+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 15 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1+. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than . per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 6 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

CONST4T:ENTS P SterolsN Su%arN Tann&nN Al*alo&# an# Sapon&n


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaRuN KaULya
203
1uSa O RT*Ua
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O 0&ttaharaN KaphaharaN )e#oharaN Stam8hanaN DLhaharaN KramaharaN Sa
_%rLhVN Bha%nasan#hLna*aN Con&#oUahara
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P Nya%ro#hL#& KELtha CTrSaN NLlpLmarL#& Ta&laN )arma
1uR&*L
THERA0E:T4C :SES P Ra*tap&ttaN )TrcchLN BraSaN Con&ro%aN KothaN B&sarpaN AtVsLra
DOSE P .5 % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm ,or #ecoct&on+


204
6+ 0rasar&n& (2+0+)
0RASR4DA (2hole 0lant)
0rasLr&SV cons&sts o, #r&e# Ghole plant o, 0ae#er&a ,oet&#a '&nn+ (>am+ Ru8&aceae)M an
eFtens&Ee ,oet&# smell&n% perenn&al cl&m8erN ,oun# &n most o, the parts o, country+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O SLraSVN 0rasLraSVN 1an#hapatra
Assamese O Bhe#&lata
Ben%al& O PP
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O 0rasar&n&
H&n#& O 1an#ha 0rasar&n&
Kanna#a O Hesaran&N 0rasar&n& 8a&l
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Tala n&l&
)arath& O H&ranEelN HaranEel
Or&ya O PP
0un;a8& O 0rasar&n&
Tam&l O )u#&yar Kun#al
Telu%u O 1ont&ma %oruPTee%a
:r#u O PPP
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Root P Tap root P/ cm lon%N 5+.P cm th&c*N cyl&n#r&cal or su8 cyl&n#r&calN tortuousN
haE&n% a num8er o, 8ranches an# rootletsM #ar* 8roGnM sur,ace rou%h #ue to lon%&tu#&nal
Gr&n*lesN r&#%es an# ,&ssuresM remnants o, rootletN th&n scars an# numerous hor&-ontal
lent&cels also presentM ,ractureN short &n 8ar* re%&on an# someGhat ,&8rous &n Goo#M o#ourN
#&sa%reea8le an# ,oet&# more mar*e# &n ,resh samplesM tasteN &n#&st&nct+
205
Stem P Slen#erN su8Perect G&th #&,,use 8ranch&n%N upto / cm th&c*M su8cyl&n#r&cal shoG&n% a
#um8P8ell shape# appearance &n transEerse E&eG #ue to presence o, tGo prom&nant ,urroGs
runn&n% oppos&te each other on 8oth sur,acesN eFternally #ar* 8roGnN lon%&tu#&nal
anastomos&n% Gr&n*lesN r&#%es an# a ,eG transEerse crac*s an# c&rcular lent&celsN ,ractureN
,&8rousM o#ourN ,oet&# more mar*e# &n ,resh samplesM tasteN &n#&st&nct+
'ea, P S&mpleN pet&olateN st&pulateM 15P1. cm lon%N .P6 cm 8roa#M someGhat %la8rousM oEateN
ent&reN 8ase narroG or 8roa#N apeF acute or cusp&#ateM st&pule oEateN lanceolateN 8&,&#N ent&reN
acuteN 8ase 8roa# G&th ha&ry sur,aceN teFtureN th&nM o#ourN ,oet&# more #&st&nct &n ,resh
samplesM tasteN &n#&st&nct+
>loGer P B&olet to p&n*M 8racteateN pe#&cellateN 8&seFualN calyF campanulateN acutelyN
toothe#M corolla ,unnelPshape#N usually pu8escentN someGhat %&88ous an# Gooly &ns&#eN
l&m8 narroGN #&E&#e# &nto ,&Ee cor#ate crenulate se%mentsN lo8es shortM ,&lament shortN
&nserte# &rre%ularly a8out the m&##le o, the tu8eN anther erect G&th&n the tu8eM oEary
tur8&nateN tGo celle# conta&n&n% one oEuleN each attache# to the 8ottom o, the cellM styleN
s&mpleM st&%ma tGo cle,t G&th lo8es 8ent amon%st the anther+
>ru&t P BerryN or8&cularN ell&pso&#N compresse#N smooth G&th ,&Ee l&nes on each s&#eN one
celle#N tGo see#e#N 1+1 cm acrossN re# or 8lac*+
See# P Compresse#N smoothN enlar%e# G&th someGhat mem8ranous r&n% all roun#+

8) )&croscop&c
Root P )ature root shoGs 6P1( layers o, cor*N compose# o, tan%ent&ally elon%ate#
cellsN &n outer ,eG layers someGhat collapse#N l&%n&,&e# an# ,&lle# G&th 8roGn contentM cor*
cam8&um 1P layersM secon#ary corteF .P16 layers o, th&nPGalle#M someGhat ra#&ally
arran%e# parenchymatous cellsM secon#ary phloem appears as Ge#%ePshape# con&cal masses
cons&st&n% o, s&eEe elements an# parenchyma traEerse# 8y phloem raysM ma;or port&on o,
phloem element th&c*PGalle#N s&eEe elements ,orm collapse# masses o, ceratenchyma &n
outer re%&on an# &ntact &n &nner most re%&onM un& to 8&ser&ate phloem rays compose# o,
usually th&c*PGalle# cells &n outer an# m&##le phloem re%&onM mult&ser&ate phloem rays
compose# o, th&nPGalle# parenchymatous cells shoG&n% ,unnelPshape# #&latat&on &n outer
phloem re%&onM &n tan%ent&al sect&on throu%h &nner phloem re%&on s&eEe cells shoGs 8ea#e#
th&c*en&n%M cam8&um 1P( layere#M secon#ary Fylem cons&sts o, G&#e -ope o, l&%n&,&e# an#
nonPl&%n&,&e# t&ssue traEerse# 8y Fylem raysM l&%n&,&e# t&ssue cons&sts o, EesselsN trache&#s
an# ,&8resM nonPl&%n&,&e# t&ssue cons&sts o, th&nPGalle# parenchymatous cellsM Fylem Eessels
#&str&8ute# s&n%ly or &n %roups o, tGo to three haE&n% Ear&a8le shape an# 8or#ere# p&tsM
trache&#s lon% an# narroG haE&n% 8or#ere# p&tsM ,&8res lon%N narroG haE&n% s&mple p&tsM
Fylem parenchyma haEe s&mple p&ts or ret&culate th&c*en&n%M Fylem ray cells th&nPGalle#N
c&rcular to someGhat ra#&ally elon%ate# &n nonPl&%n&,&e# -one an# th&c*PGalle#N l&%n&,&e#
an# ra#&ally elon%ate# &n l&%n&,&e# -one haE&n% s&mple p&tsM starch %ra&ns as %ranular massesN
o&l %lo8ules as small c&rcular 8o#&es an# raph&#es o, calc&um oFalate present &n a ,eG cells
o, secon#ary corteFN phloemN Fylem an# me#ullary rays+
206
Stem P )ature stem shoGs 3P11 layers o, cor* compose# o, rectan%ular cellsN a ,eG outer
layers l&%n&,&e#M secon#ary corteF 6P= layers cons&st&n% o, th&nPGalle# parenchymatous
cellsM per&cycl&c ,&8res present &n s&n%les or &n %roups o, tGo to threeN much elon%ate# an#
septate G&th Eery narroG lumenM secon#ary phloem much s&m&lar to that o, root haE&n%
th&c*PGalle# phloem elementsN arran%e# &n Ge#%e#Pshape# con&cal massesN G&th
ceratenchymaN tGo types o, phloem raysN s&eEe cells G&th 8ea#e# th&c*en&n%M cam8&um 1P
layersM secon#ary Fylem represente# 8y l&%n&,&e# an# nonPl&%n&,&e# t&ssuesM &nner most
Fylem compose# o, th&n compact 8an# o, 9P= layers o, l&%n&,&e# t&ssue G&th pr&mary Fylem
attache# toGar#s p&tsN Fylem Eessels assoc&ate# G&th trache&#sN ,&8res an# l&%n&,&e# or nonP
l&%n&,&e# parenchymaM a ,eG Fylem Eessels shoG tylosesM all elements haEe s&m&lar p&tt&n%s
as #escr&8e# &n case o, rootM un& an# 8&ser&ate rays th&nPGalle# 8ut l&%n&,&e#M &n l&%n&,&e#
re%&onN mult&ser&ate rays usually th&nPGalle#M centre o, stem occup&e# 8y small p&th an# a
,eG sclere&#sM a ,eG cells o, secon#ary corteFN phloemN FylemN me#ullary rays an# p&th
conta&n starch %ra&nsN o&l %lo8ules an# raph&#es o, calc&um oFalate+
'ea,P
0et&ole P shoGs s&m&lar structure as m&#r&8 8ut #&,,ers &n posses&n% tr&chomes comparat&Eely
smallerN as Gell as tGo more someGhat spher&cal accessory 8un#lesN one ,lan*&n% on each
s&#e o, me#&an Eascular 8un#le close to lateral eFtens&ons Ghere they ,urther spl&t a,ter
reach&n% #&stal en# o, pet&oleM starch %ra&nsN o&l %lo8ules an# raph&#es o, calc&um oFalate
s&m&lar to those o, root an# stem also present &n parenchymatous cells o, pet&oleN m&#r&8 an#
&n mesophyll cells o,lea,+
)&#r&8 P compose# o, s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s coEere# G&th cut&cleM %roun# t&ssue
cons&st&n% o, P. layere# o, collenchyma toGar#s upper an# loGer s&#e an# rest
parenchymaM a lar%er me#&an crescentPshape# Eascular 8un#le cons&st&n% usual elements
G&th Fylem toGar#s upper s&#e an# phloem toGar#s loGer s&#e+
'am&na P shoGs a #ors&Eentral structureM ep&#erm&s s&n%le layere# coEere# eFternally G&th
str&ate# cut&cleM un&ser&ate coEer&n% tr&chomes an# paracyt&c stomata present on 8oth
sur,acesM mesophyll compose# o, s&n%le layere# pal&sa#e cells an# (P/ layere# spon%y
t&ssueM &n mar%&n o, lea, mesophyll replace# 8y th&c*P Galle# cellsM Ee&ns usually surroun#e#
8y 8un#le sheathN lar%er Ee&ns transcurrent an# smaller ones em8e##e#M Ee&n &slet num8er
.P15 per sQ+ mm+N pal&sa#e rat&o 6+3.P1/+ +
0oG#er P Dar* %reenM shoGs ,ra%ments o, cor* cellsN pal&sa#e cellsN raph&#es o, calc&um
oFalateN o&l %lo8ules an# starch %ra&ns
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

207
>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 6 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than = per centN Appen#&F ++3+

CONST4T:ENTS P Al*alo&#sN Bolat&le O&l+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O T&*ta
1uSa O 1uruN Sara
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN BXUyaN Bala*XtN San#hLna*Xt
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P 0rasLr&SV Ta&laN DaWamTlLr&URa
THERA0E:T4C :SES P BLtaro%aN BLtara*ta
DOSE P P/ % o, #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


208
6(+ 0r&yala (S#+)
0R4C'A (See#)
0r&yLla cons&sts o, see# o, Buchanan&a lan-an Spren%+ Syn+ B+ lat&,ol&a RoF8+ (>arnN
Anacar#&aceae)M an eEer%reen tree upto 1. m h&%hN ,oun# throu%hout the country &n #ry
#ec&#uous ,orests+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O 0&yLla*aN BhaulaEal*ala
Assamese O PP
Ben%al& O Ch&ran%&N ChoGlN Sat#han
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O CharalN Shal&cho*ha
H&n#& O 0&yalN 0&yarN Ch&raun%&
Kanna#a O Nurlaal
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O )uralN 0r&yalamN )ural maram
)arath& O Charol&
Or&ya O PP
0un;a8& O PP
Tam&l O )uola&maN Kor*aN Saraparuppu
Telu%u O SaraN Sarapappu
:r#u O Ch&ron;&
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
See# laterally much compresse#N cream&shP8roGnN mottle# G&th #ar*er 8roGn
l&nesN 5+/P5+6 cm lon%N 5+(P5+. cm G&#eN occas&onally separate cotyle#ons also occurN
,un&cle stoutN m&cropyle super&orN l&nearN h&lum present at the apeF o, roun# e#%eM sl&%ht
pressure separates o&ly cotyle#onsM o#ourN pleasantM tasteN sGeet&shPo&ly+
209

8) )&croscop&c
See# P 'on%&tu#&nal sect&on o, see#Pcoat shoGs ep&#erm&s cons&st&n% o, poly%onal
cells G&th scattere#N lar%eN p&tte#N th&c*PGalle#N sclerenchymatous cellsN occurr&n% mostly &n
%roupsN ,olloGe# 8y remnants o, #&sor%an&se#N collapse# cells o, &nte%umentN Gh&ch are o,
Ear&ous s&-eN th&nPGalle# an# parenchymatous cells ,&lle# G&th 8roGn&sh content an# ,orm a
p&%ment layerN 8eloG Gh&ch a 8an# o, parenchymatous cells presentN cons&st&n% o, elon%ate#
or tu8ular cellsM cotyle#ons cons&st&n% o, ep&#erm&s an# th&nPGalle# parenchymatous cellsN
ep&#ermal cells o, cotyle#ons 8arrelPshape# an# the parenchymatous cells polyhe#ral an#
,&lle# G&th aleurone %ra&ns o, %lo8o&# typeNmeasur&n% +.P.+5 &n #&a+ an# o&l %lo8ulesM
procam8&um 8un#lesN runn&n% lon%&tu#&nally also occur amon% these parenchyma cells+
0oG#er P A cream&shP8roGn pasteM shoGs numerous mesophyll cellsN ,&lle# G&th o&l %lo8ules
an# aleurone %ra&ns o, %lo8o&# type measur&n% +.P.+5 &n #&a+ an# sclerenchymatous
cellsN &n sur,ace E&eG see# coat polyhe#ral &n shapeN th&c*PGalle# an# ,&lle# G&th 8roGn&sh
contents+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than / per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 5+. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 15 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 3 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca 1el [1[ plate us&n% Ben-ene O
Ethylacetate ((O1) shoGs un#er :+B+ (./ nm) tGo ,luorescent -ones at R,+ 5+3 an# 5+=/
(8lue)+ On eFposure to 4o#&ne Eapour seEen spots appear at R,+ 5+59N 5+3N 5+./N 5+3N 5+=1N
5+=/ an# 5+=9 (all yelloG)+ On spray&n% G&th Ban&ll&nPSulphur&c ac&# rea%ent an# on heat&n%
210
the plate ,or ten m&nutes at 15.c e&%ht spots appear at R,+ 5+59N 5+3N 5+./N 5+3N 5+9/N 5+=1N
5+=/ an# 5+=9 (all E&olet)+


CONST4T:ENTS P Al8um&no&#sN O&l an# Starch+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O )a#hura
1uSa O 1uruN Sn&%#haN Sara
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O )a#hura
Karma O BLtaharaN 0&ttaharaN Kapha*araN Ku*ra*araN Bha%nasan#hLna*aN
KramaharaN BXZhaSaN BXUyaN BalyaN HX#yaN maEar#ha*a
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P 0T%a*haSYaN 0r&yLla Ta&la
THERA0E:T4C :SES P Ra*tap&ttaN DLhaN KUataN KUaya
DOSE P 15 P 5 % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


211
6/+ 0r&yan%u (4n,l+)
0R4CA@1: (4n,lorescence)
0r&ya_%u cons&sts o, #r&e# &n,lorescence o, Call&carpa macrophylla Cahl+ (>am+
Ber8enaceae)M an erectN 1+P +/ m h&%h shru8N ,oun# throu%hout North an# East 4n#&a
ascen#&n% to 1955 m &n the 2est H&malayas ,rom Kashm&r to AssamN an# a8un#ant &n Ben%al
pla&ns+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O 0hal&nVN Ban&tL
Assamese O 0r&yan%u
Ben%al& O 0r&yan%u
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O 'ata 0r&yan%u
H&n#& O 0r&yan%u
Kanna#a O 0r&yan%uN 1an#hapr&yan%u
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O N;a-hal
)arath& O 0r&yan%uN 1aEhala
Or&ya O 0r&yan%u
0un;a8& O 0r&yan%u
Tam&l O 1na-halN 1na-alpoo
Telu%u O 0ra*hanamN 0ren*anamu
:r#u O PPP
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
4n,lorescence P CymoseN #ensely clothe# G&th Gooly ha&rsM +.P3+. cm acrossN
pe#uncle cyl&n#r&calN 1+. P ( mm &n #&aM #ensely ha&ry+
212
>loGer P 5+. cm lon%M 8roGnN calyFN 8ellPshape#N / toothe# coEere# G&th Gooly ha&rsM
corollaN 8roGnN tu8ularN / lo88e# sprea#&n%M stamens /N eQual &n s&-eN ep&petalousN anther
oEateN 8as&,&Fe#M ,&lament Eery lon%N ha&ryM oEary P/ celle#M styleN lon%M st&%ma m&nutely
cap&tate+

8) )&croscop&c
0e#uncle P ShoGs more or less GaEy outl&neN ep&#erm&s s&n%le layere# G&th stellate
ha&rsM corteF compose# o, 15P19 layers o, ell&pt&calN th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cellsN a
,eG upper layers ,&lle# G&th re##&shP8roGn contentsM per&cycle appears &n the ,orm o,
&nterrupte# r&n% o, per&cycl&c ,&8resM phloem compose# o, usual elements eFcept phloem
,&8resM Fylem cons&sts o, usual elementsM Eessels mostly sol&tary G&th sp&ral th&c*en&n%M
,&8res aseptate+
0oG#er P BroGnM shoGs a8un#ant num8ers o, stellate ha&rsN sp&ral EesselsN aseptate ,&8resN
%roups o, th&nPGalle#N ell&pt&calN oEal an# roun# pollen %ra&ns G&th clear eF&ne an#
yelloG&sh &n colour+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 9 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 15 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1/ per centN Appen#&F ++3+

CONST4T:ENTS P 1lycos&#esN TerpenesN 0henol&c compoun#N Res&n an# Sapon&n+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O T&*taN KaULya
1uSa O RT*Ua
213
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN 0&ttaharaN Ra*ta 0rasL#anaN Daur%an#hyaharaN 0urVUasa_%rahaS
VyaN )TtraE&ra;anVyaN San#hLnVyaN BraSaropaSaN P
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P Kha#&rL#& 1uR&*L()u*haro%a)N ElL#& CTrSaN Kana*a Ta&laN
Ku_*umL#& Ta&laN NVl&*L#ya Ta&la
THERA0E:T4C :SES P DLhaN $EaraN Ra*taP0&ttaN 0a*ELt&sLraN SEe#L#h&*ya
DOSE P 1P( % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


214
6.+ Sal& (Rt+)
K'A (Root)
KLlV cons&sts o, #r&e# root o, Ory-a sat&Ea '&nn+ (>am+ 0oaceae)M an annual her8N
cult&Eate# throu%hout 4n#&a+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O DhLnyaN BrVh&N N&Eara
Assamese O PP
Ben%al& O ChaEalN DhanaN CalaN ChaGlN Sal&N Dhan
En%l&sh O R&ceN 0a##y
1u;rat& O Shal&cho*haN BhataN CoraEaN Dam%araN Co*e
H&n#& O ChaEalN Dhana
Kanna#a O BhattoN NelluN BhattaN A**&
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Ar&N Nellu
)arath& O Tan#ulamulN DhanarmulN Bhata Chamul
Or&ya O PP
0un;a8& O DhanN $hona
Tam&l O Ar&sh&N NelEer
Telu%u O DhanyamuN O#aluN B&yyamu
:r#u O ChaEalN B&ran;
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Root ,&8rousN th&nN cyl&n#r&calN .P1. cm &n len%th an# 5+5.P5+1 cm th&c* G&th
a ,eG rootletsN so,tN smoothM cream&shP8roGn to %rey&shP8roGn+

215
8) )&croscop&c
Root P ShoGs s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s cons&st&n% o, th&nPGalle#N rectan%ular cells
G&th a ,eG un&cellular root ha&rsM eFo#erm&s 1P layere#N compose# o, th&c*PGalle#N
sclerenchymatous cellsM corteF #&,,erent&ate# &nto three -onesM outer .P9 an# &nner P(
layere#N 8oth cons&st&n% o, roun# to oEalN parenchymatous cells G&th &ntercellular spacesM
m&##le -one cons&st&n% o, ra#&ally elon%ate#N parenchymatous cells haE&n% Eery lar%e a&rP
spacesM en#o#erm&s an# per&cycle 8oth s&n%le layere#M Fylem an# phloem ,orm eQual
num8er o, 8un#les arran%e# alternately G&th each otherM centre occup&e# 8y a small p&th
compose# o, poly%onalN th&c*PGalle#N sclerenchymatous cells+
0oG#er P 1rey&shPcreamM shoGs %roups o, sclerenchymatous cellsN p&tte# Eessels an#
pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalate+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than . per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 16 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than ( per centN Appen#&F ++3+


CONST4T:ENTS P Su%ars


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O )a#huraN KaULya
1uSa O Sn&%#haN 1uruN 'a%hu
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O )a#hura
Karma O BLtaharaN 0&ttaharaN KaphaharaN Ku*ralaN Ba##hLlpaEarcasaN BXZhaSaN
)TtralaN BalyaN BarSa*XtN SEaryaN RucyaN Ca*UuUyaN HX#yaN Stanya;anana
216
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P BrLhma RasLyanaN Stanya;anana KaULya CTrSa
THERA0E:T4C :SES P Stanya*UayaN )Ttra*Xcchra
DOSE P .5 % o, the #ru% ,or #ecoct&on+


217
66+ San*hapushp& (2+0+)
KA@KHA0:!0A (2hole 0lant)
Ka_*hapuUpV cons&sts o, Ghole plant o, ConEolEulus plur&caul&s Cho&sy (>am+
ConEolEulaceae)M a prostrateN su8PerectN sprea#&n%N ha&ryN perenn&al her8 G&th a Goo#y root
stoc*N ,oun# throu%hout the country+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O Ka_*hpuUpLN Ka_*hLhEL
Assamese O PP
Ben%al& O San*hapusp&
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O Shan*haEal&
H&n#& O Shan*hapushp&
Kanna#a O B&l&*ant&soppuN Shan*hapushp&N Shan*haul&
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O PP
)arath& O San*hahul&N Shan*haEelaN San*hapusp&
Or&ya O San*hapusp&
0un;a8& O Ks&rapusp&N San*hapusp&N San*hahul&
Tam&l O Ka*attamN Ka**anan%u#&N Kara*hurattN San%hupushpam
Telu%u O Shan*hapushp&
:r#u O PP
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Root P :sually 8ranche#N cyl&n#r&calN r&88e# haE&n% some rou%h stem no#ules an#
small secon#ary rootsN 1P. cm lon%N 5+1P5+/ cm th&c*N yelloG&shP8roGn to l&%ht 8roGn+
Stem P Slen#erN cyl&n#r&calN a8out 5+1 cm or less &n th&c*ness G&th clear ha&ry no#es an#
218
&nterno#esM l&%ht %reen+
'ea, P Shortly pet&olateN l&nearPlanceolateN acuteN ha&ry on 8oth sur,acesM 5+.P cm lon% an#
5+1P5+. cm 8roa#M l&%ht %reen+
>loGer P 2h&te or p&n*&shM sol&tary or &n pa&rs sess&le or su8Psess&le &n the lea, aF&sM sepals
narroGlyN l&nearPlanceolateN sparsely ha&ryM corolla shortly #&sco&#M stamen .N ,reeN
ep&petalousN alternate G&th the petalsN &nserte# #eep &n the corolla tu8eM oEary super&or an#
8&carpellary+
>ru&t P CapsuleN o8lon% %lo8ose G&th cor&aceousN pale 8roGn per&carp+
See# P BroGnM m&nutely pu8erulous+

8) )&croscop&c
Root P Appears nearly c&rcular &n outl&neM cor* compose# o, 15P1. layers o,
tan%ent&ally elon%ate#N th&c*PGalle# cellsM corteF compose# o, 6P15 layers o, oEal to
elon%ate#N ell&pt&calN parenchymatous cells an# yelloG&shP8roGnN tann&n&,erousN secretory
cells present &n th&s re%&onM phloem compose# o, s&eEe elementsN phloem parenchyma an#
phloem raysM Fylem cons&st&n% o, usual elementsM Eessels sol&tary or &n %roups o, tGo G&th
s&mple p&tsM ,&8res an# trache&#s aseptate an# p&tte#M me#ullary rays 1P( cells G&#e an#
mult&cellular &n len%thM starch %ra&ns sol&tary or &n %roupsN s&mple an# compose# o, P(
componentsN roun# to oEal &n shapeN measur&n% (P9 &n #&a+N present &n corteFN phloemN
Fylem rays an# parenchyma+
Stem P ShoGs s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&sN coEere# G&th th&c* cut&cleM at places un&cellular
ha&rs presentM corteF #&,,erent&ate# &n tGo -onesN P( upper collenchymatous an# 1P loGer
parenchymatous layersN 8oth haE&n% roun# to oEalN elon%ate#N th&nP Galle# cellsM
en#o#errn&s s&n%le layere#M per&cycle present &n the ,orm o, s&n%le stran# o, ,&8resM phloem a
narroG -oneN mostly compose# o, s&eEe elements an# parenchymaM Fylem cons&sts o,
EesselsN ,&8res an# parenchymaM me#ullary rays an# trache&#s not #&st&nctN Eessels mostly
sol&tary G&th sp&ral th&c*en&n%M ,&8res aseptate haE&n% po&nte# en#s an# narroG lumenM
stran# o, &nternal phloem present aroun# the sl&%htly l&%n&,&e# p&th+
'ea,P
)&#r&8 P appears conEeF &n loGer an# concaEe &n upper s&#eM ep&#erm&s s&n%le layere#N
coEere# G&th th&c* cut&cleM loGer ep&#erm&s ,olloGe# 8y P( layers o, chlorenchymatous
cellsM Eascular 8un#le 8&collateralN compose# o, usual elements o, phloem an# FylemM rest
o, t&ssue 8etGeen chlorenchyrna an# Eascular 8un#les compose# o, /P. layers o,
parenchymatous cells+
219
'am&na P shoGs ep&#erm&s on 8oth sur,aces coEere# G&th th&c* cut&cleM ha&rs un&cellularN
present on 8oth sur,acesN pal&sa#e tGo layere#N spon%y parenchyma /P. layere#M a ,eG
8&collateral Eascular 8un#les present &n spon%y parenchymaM pal&sa#e rat&o 6P=M Ee&n &slet
num8er 1P. per sQ+ mm+ N stomatal &n#eF &n loGer sur,ace 13P5 an# &n upper sur,aceN
1(+9P13+5M stomatal num8er &n loGer sur,ace 19/P/9N an# &n upper sur,ace 5P(9 per sQ+
mm+
0oG#er P '&%ht yelloG&shP%reenM shoGs %roups o, Eessels G&th spr&a1 th&c*en&n% an# s&mple
p&tsN ,&8res an# trache&#sN s&mple an# compoun# starch %ra&nsN measur&n% ( P 9 &n #&a+N
un&cellular ha&rsN mesophyll cells an# %&Ees pos&t&Ee test ,or tann&n+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 13 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 9 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 6 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 15 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

CONST4T:ENTS P Al*alo&#


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O T&*taN KaRuN KaULya
1uSa O Sara
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O 0&ttaharaN KaphaharaN RasLyanaN )e#hyaN BalyaN )ohanLWa*aN yuUya
220
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P A%astyaharVta*V RasLyanaN BrLhma RasLyanaN BrLhmV
1hXtaN )Lnasam&tra BaRa*aN 1orocanL#& BaRVN BrLhZV BaRV
THERA0E:T4C :SES P )Lnasaro%aN ApasmLra
DOSE P (P9 % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm
NoteO 4n certa&n parts o, 4n#&aN Cl&tor&a ternatea '&nn+ an# EEolEulus als&no&#es '&nn+ are
use# as Ka_*hapuUpV


221
63+ Saptala (2+0+)
SA0TA' (2hole 0lant)
SaptalL cons&sts o, #r&e# Ghole plant o, Euphor8&a #racunculo&#es 'am+ (>am+
Euphor8&aceae)M a much 8ranche#N 5P/5 cm h&%hN annual her8N ,oun# throu%hout 4n#&a &n the
pla&ns an# loG h&lls+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O SLtalLN CarmasLhELN Carama*aUL
Assamese O Kule*hara
Ben%al& O Cha%alpupt&
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O Satale
H&n#& O T&tal&N $oyach&N Cha%ulputput&
Kanna#a O SatalaN B&l&*all&N Kall&
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Chasma 'anthaN 0ath&r&
)arath& O N&Ea#un%
Or&ya O Naa%aphen&N S&;uN Saptala
0un;a8& O Kan%&
Tam&l O T&lla*a#aN Thus&mulla&
Telu%u O T&lla*a#a
:r#u O Thuhar
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Root P SmallN /P. cm lon%N 5+.P mm th&c*N cyl&n#r&calN r&88e#N %ra#ually taper&n%N
haE&n% a ,eG secon#ary rootsN pale 8roGnN ,ractureN shortN o#our an# taste &n#&st&nct+
'ea, P 1+3P3 cm lon%N 5+P5+9 cm G&#eN sess&leN l&nearN lanceolate or l&near o8lon%N su8acuteN
8ase rarely roun#e# or su8Pcor#ateM %reen&shPyelloGM o#our an# taste not #&st&nct+
222
>loGer P 4nEolucre 8roa#ly campanulateN su8Psess&leN sol&taryN +. mm across at the mouthN
%la8rous outs&#e an# pu8escent &ns&#eN lo8es shortN oEateN c&l&olateM %lan# sem&lunateN
horne#M ,&lament pu8escentM styleN 1 mm lon%N ,ree to the 8aseN shortly P,&# at the apeF+
>ru&t P CapsuleN smoothM (P/ mm &n #&aM tr&locularN (P celle# G&th or G&thout attache#
pe#&cel+
See# P ( mm lon%N ell&pso&#al to o8lon% G&th a Gh&teN leprous tu8erculate testaN roun#e# at
the 8aseN %rooEe# at one s&#eN G&th an ar&llo#e at the o8l&Que #epresse# apeF+

8) )&croscop&c
Root P Coun% root shoGs eF,ol&ate#N s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&sM mature root shoGs
th&n Galle# cor*N compose# o, 15P1 layers o, rectan%ular cellsM secon#ary corteF cons&sts
o, /P 6 layers o, oEalN ell&pt&calN parenchymatous cellsM oEal to elon%ate# ell&pt&cal th&c*
Galle#N l&%n&,&e# cells G&th G&#e lumenM %roups o, stone cells an# a ,eG ,&8res present &n
th&s re%&onM en#o#erm &s an# per&cycle not #&st&nctM secon#ary phloem compose# o, s&eEe
elements an# parenchymaM secon#ary Fylem cons&sts o, EesselsN ,&8resN trache&#s an#
me#ullary raysM all elements th&c*PGalle# an# l&%n&,&e#M ,&8res an# Eessels haE&n% s&mple
p&tsM starch %ra&ns s&mpleN roun#e# to oEalN +3. &n #&aM ,oun# scattere# &n phloem re%&onM
rarely a ,eG o&l %lo8ules also present+
Stem P ShoGs a s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s compose# o, th&c*PGalle#N ,latten#e#N tan%ent&ally
elon%ate# cellsM ol#er stem shoGs /P. layers o, cor* compose# o, th&nPGalle#N rectan%ularN
tan%ent&ally elon%ate# an# ra#&ally arran%e# cellsM corteF compose# o, /P. layers o, oEal to
rectan%ularN tan%ent&ally elon%ate# ell&pt&calN th&nPGalle# parenchymatous cellsM stone cells
oEal to elon%ate#N ell&pt&calN th&c*PGalle# l&%n&,&e#N G&th G&#e lumen present &n th&s re%&onM
en#o#erm&s not #&st&nctM per&cycle represente# 8y %roups o, l&%n&,&e# ,&8resM secon#ary
phloem narroGN compose# o, s&eEe elementsN phloem parenchyma an# a ,eG elon%ate#
lat&c&,erous sacsM secon#ary Fylem compose# o, EesselsN ,&8res an# trache&#sN traEerse# 8y
numerous Fylem raysM all elementsN th&c*PGalle# an# l&%n&,&e#N Eessels haE&n% s&mple p&tsM
,&8res elon%ate# an# aseptateM centre occup&e# 8y a p&thN cons&st&n% o, th&c*PGalle#N c&rcular
to oEalN parenchymatous cellsM some roun#e#N small lat&c&,erous sacs present &n per&pheral
p&th cellsN ,&lle# G&th yelloG&shP8roGn contentM starch %ra&ns more a8un#ant &n phloem an#
p&th re%&onN s&mpleN sol&tary or &n %roupsN roun#e# to oEalN measur&n% .+.P1=+. &n
#&ameter+
'ea,P
)&#r&8 P shoGs sl&%htly conEeF outl&neM ep&#erm&s s&n%le layere#N coEere# eFternally G&th
th&c*N str&ate# cut&cleM hypo#erm&s cons&sts o, s&n%le layere# collenchymatous cells toGar#s
loGer s&#eM Eascular 8un#le collateral an# surroun#e# 8y /P6 layers o, th&nPGalle#N
223
parenchymatous cells+
'am&na PshoGs sl&%htly GaEy outl&neM ep&#erm&s on e&ther coEere# G&th th&c* cut&cleM
paracyt&c stomata present on 8oth sur,acesM mesophyll #&,,erent&ate# &nto pal&sa#e an#
spon%y parenchymaM pal&sa#e s&n%le layere# present on 8oth s&#esM spon%y parenchyma /P.
layere# cons&st&n% o, &rre%ularly arran%e# cells present 8etGeen upper an# loGer pal&sa#eM a
,eG small collateral Eascular 8un#les em8e##e# &n spon%y parenchyma+
0oG#er P '&%ht yelloGM shoGs Eessels G&th s&mple p&tsN aseptate ,&8resM oEal to elon%ate#N
ell&pt&calN stone cells th&c*PGalle#N l&%n&,&e# G&th G&#e lumenM s&mpleN roun#e# to oEal starch
%ra&nsN measur&n% (P1= &n #&ameter+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 11 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than . per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 15 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n% Chloro,orm O
)ethanol (=.O.) shoGs un#er :+B+ ((66 nm) tGo 8lue ,luorescent -ones at R,+ 5+5/ an#
5+63+ On eFposure to 4o#&ne Eapour three spots appear at R,+5+5/N 5+/6N an# 5+.3 (all
yelloG)+ On spray&n% G&th .\ )ethanol&cPSulphur&c ac&# rea%ent an# heat&n% the plate ,or
ten m&nutes at 15.C tGo spots appear at R,+ 5+/6 (8roGn) an# 5+93 (E&olet)+


CONST4T:ENTS P 1lycoPal*alo&# (Euphor8&ne)+


224
0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O T&*taN KaULya
1uSa O 'a%huN RT*UaN TV*USaN B&*LWV
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtalLN 0&ttaharaN KaphaharaN Ra*ta#oUaharaN B&Y8he#&nV
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P BrLhmV 1hXtaN )&Wra*a SnehaN NLrLyaSa CTrSa
THERA0E:T4C :SES P 1ulmaN :#LEartaN nLhaN :#araro%aN B&8an#haN B&sarpa
DOSE P .5 % o, the #ru% ,or #ecoct&on+


225
69+ SatahEa (>r+)
KATHB (>ru&t)
KatLhEL cons&sts o, the #r&e# r&pe ,ru&ts o, Anethum soGa RoF8+ eF >lem+ Syn+ A+
%raEeolens '&nn+ Ear+ soGa RoF8+M A+ %raEeolens DC+M 0euce#anum soGa RoF8+M 0+
%raEeolens Benth+ (>am+ Ap&aceae)M a tallN %la8rousN aromat&c her8 ,oun# throu%hout trop&cal
an# su8Ptrop&cal re%&ons o, the country an# cult&Eate#+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O KatapuUpL
Assamese O PP
Ben%al& O SuEaN SulphaN ShulupaN SoGa
En%l&sh O 4n#&an D&l >ru&t
1u;rat& O SuEa
H&n#& O SoyaN SoEa
Kanna#a O Sa8as&%e
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O PP
)arath& O Ba#&shepN ShepaN Shepu
Or&ya O PP
0un;a8& O Soya
Tam&l O Sata*uppa
Telu%u O Sa#apa
:r#u O Sh&8tN Soya
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
>ru&tsN #ar* 8roGnN o,ten stal* attache#N 8roa#ly oEal an# compresse#
#orsallyM mer&carps usually separate an# ,reeN / mm lon%N P( mm 8roa# an# 1 mm th&c*N
%la8rousN traEerse# ,rom the 8ase to apeF 8y . l&%hter coloure# pr&mary r&#%es o, Gh&ch (
226
#orsalN sl&%htly ra&se#N 8roGnN ,&l&,orm an# &ncosp&cuousN lateral prolon%e# &nto th&nN
yelloG&sh mem8ranous G&n%sM o#ourN ,a&ntly aromat&c resem8l&n% that o, caraGayN an# a
GarmN sl&%htly sharp tasteN a*&n to caraGay+

8) )&croscop&c
>ru&t P 0er&carp shoGs ep&#erm&s o, poly%onal ta8ular cells haE&n% th&c* outer Gall
an# str&ate# cut&cleM mesocarpN parenchymatousN some cells l&%n&,&e# an# shoG ret&culate
th&c*en&n%M en#ocarp cons&sts o, ta8ular cells somet&mes G&th s&nuous ant&cl&nal GallsM
E&ttaeN / on the #orsal Ealleculae an# on the comm&ssural sur,aceN eFten#&n% the len%th o,
each mer&carp G&th an en#othel&um o, 8roGn cells an# conta&n&n% Eolat&le o&lM #orsal costae
threeN one lar%er an# the tGo lateral 8roa#ly G&n%e#N each costae G&th Eascular stran#sM
en#osperm much ,lattene# an# cons&sts o, th&c*PGalle#N cellulos&cN parenchyma conta&n&n%
,&Fe# o&l an# numerous aleurone %ra&ns upto . &n #&ameter conta&n&n% m&croProsette
crystals o, calc&um oFalateM carpophore spl&tN pass&n% at the apeF &nto the raphe o, each
mer&carp conta&n&n% a Eascular stran# o, sclerenchymatous ,&8res an# sp&ral Eessels+
0oG#er P BroGnM shoGs sp&ral EesselsN m&croProsette crystals o, calc&um oFalate an# o&l
%lo8ulesN aleurone %ra&ns upto . &n #&ameter+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than . per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 1/ per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1+. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than / per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1. per centN Appen#&F ++3+
Bolat&le o&l Not less than ( per centN Appen#&F ++15

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n% Toluene shoGs on
eFposure to 4o#&ne Eapour tGo spots at R,+ 5+.= an# 5+69 (all yelloG)+ On spray&n% G&th
227
An&sal#ehy#ePSulphur&c ac&# rea%ent an# heat&n% the plate ,or a8out ten m&nutes at 115 C
three spots appear at R,+ 5+(3 (p&n*) 5+.= (8lue) an# 5+69 (E&olet)+


CONST4T:ENTS P Essent&al O&l+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaRuN T&*ta
1uSa O Sn&%#ha
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN KaphaharaN DVpanaN KTlapraWamana
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P BXhat 0hala 1hXtaN 1orocanL#& BaRVN NLrLyaSa CTrSaN
!aY8&n#u Ta&la
THERA0E:T4C :SES P $EaraN Netra Ro%aN BraSaN KTlaN AtVsLra
DOSE P (P6 % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


228
6=+ S&%ru (',+)
K41R: ('ea,)
K&%ru cons&sts o, #r&e# lea, o, )or&n%a ole&,era 'am+ Syn+ )or&n%a ptery%osperma
1aertn+ (>am+ )or&n%aceae)M a small or me#&um s&-e# treeN ,oun# G&l# &n su8 H&malayan tractN
commonly cult&Eate# throu%hout the country+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O Ko8hL];anaN BahalaN TV*USa%an#hLN A*UVEaN )oca*a
Assamese O PP
Ben%al& O Sa;&naN Sa;naN Sa;ne
En%l&sh O Horse Ra#&sh TreeN Drum St&c* Tree
1u;rat& O Sar%aEoN Se*atoN Sara%aEo 0arna
H&n#& O Sha;omaN )un%na
Kanna#a O Nee%%eN Nu%%e ele
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O )ur&nnaN T&shna%an#haN )ur&n%aN )ur&n%a Ela&
)arath& O SeEa%aN Se%ataN Se%ata panaN SheG%ach& pane
Or&ya O Sa;anaN )un%aN )un&*a
0un;a8& O Sohan;ana
Tam&l O )urun%a&N )urun%a& 4la&
Telu%u O )una%a A*u
:r#u O Seh;an
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
'eaEes tr&p&nnate compoun#N aEa&la8le &n the ,orm o, lea,lets an# some
8ro*en p&eces o, rach&sN slen#erN th&c*ene#N an# art&culate# at the 8aseM lea,let 1+P cm lon%
an# 5+.P1 cm G&#eN ent&reN ell&pt&cN oEate or o8oEateN roun#e# or narroGe# at 8ase an#
o8tuse at apeFM smooth an# %reen&shP%rey to pale %reenM o#our an# taste not #&st&nct+
229

8) )&croscop&c
Rach&s P Rach&s shoGs s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&sN ,olloGe# 8y s&n%le layer o,
p&%mente# collenchymatous hypo#erm&sM corteF cons&st&n% o, .P15 layere#N oEal to
ell&pt&calN th&n Galle#N parenchymatous cellsM per&cycle ,orm&n% a 8ro*en r&n%N cons&st&n% o,
per&cycl&c ,&8resM Eascular 8un#le collateralM p&th compose# o, G&#e -one o, th&nPGalle#N
parenchymatous cellsM rosette crystals o, calc&um oFalate present &n corteFN p&th an# phloem
parenchyma+
'ea,let P 'ea,let shoGs #ors&Eentral structureM ep&#erm&s an# un&cellular ha&rs present on
8oth the sur,acesM pal&sa#e s&n%le layere#M spon%y parenchyma P( layersM central re%&on
occup&e# 8y a crescentPshape#N collateral Eascular 8un#le surroun#e# 8y P/ layers o,
collenchymatous cellsM rosette crystals o, calc&um oFalate present &n mesophyll an#
collenchymatous cellsM stomata anornocyt&cN present on 8oth sur,ace 8ut more on loGer sur
,aceM pal&sa#e rat&o 6P11M stomatal &n#eF 15P1(P1. stomatal num8er 155P1(3 upper sur,ace
an# =5P(.5 loGer sur,ace per mm sQuareM Ee&n &slets num8er .5P6.+
0oG#er P1rey&shP%reenM shoGs %roups o, spon%y parenchymaN pal&sa#e cellsM sp&ral EesselsN
un&cellular ha&rs G&th 8lunt t&pM p&eces o, polyhe#ral ep&#ermal cells &n sur,ace E&eGN
stomata an# rosette crystals o, calc&um oFalate+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 16 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than / per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 9 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n% Toluene O
Ethylacetate (=O 1) shoGs s&F spots at R,+ 5+5.N 5+19N 5+6 (all %reen)N5+(6 (yelloG&sh
%reen)N 5+/6 (#ar* %reen) < 5+=/ (yelloG) &n E&s&8le l&%ht+ :n#er :+B+ ((66 nm) s&F
,luorescent -ones are E&s&8le at R,+ 5+5.N 5+19N 5+6N 5+(6N 5+/6 (all re#) < 5+=/
(8lue)+ On spray&n% G&th .\ )ethanol&c 0hosphomoly8#&c ac&# rea%ent s&F spots
230
appear on heat&n% the plate ,or ten m&nutes at 15. C at R,+ 5+(9N 5+/6 (8oth 8lue)N
5+. (%reen)N 5+.= (8lue)N 5+6= (8lue) an# 5+93 (8lue)+ On spray&n% G&th
An&sal#ehy#ePSulphur&c ac&# rea%ent ten spots appear on heat&n% the plate ,or ten
m&nutes at 15.C at R,+ 5+5.N 5+5N 5+6N (all %reen)N 5+(5 (p&n*)N 5+(6 (%reen)N 5+/6
(%reen)N 5+.( (yelloG)N 5+6= (yelloG)N 5+9 (yelloG) an# 5+=/ (E&olet)+


CONST4T:ENTS P Car8ohy#rateN 0rote&nN Carotene an# Ascor8&c ac&#+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O )a#hura
1uSa O 1uruN RT*UaN TV*USa
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O )a#hura
Karma O BLtaharaN 0&ttaharaN )e#oharaN Ku*ranLWa*aN KXm&haraN BXZhaSaN
Ca*UuUyaN S&roE&reca*a
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P B&Uat&n#u*a Ta&laN E*L_%aEVra RasaN Ratna%&r& Rasa
THERA0E:T4C :SES P KophaN KXm&ro%aN )e#oro%aN 0lVhLro%aN B&#ra#h&N 1ulmaN 1ala%aSYa
DOSE P 15 P 5 ml o, the ,resh #ru% &n ;u&ce ,orm+


231
35+ Sthulaela (S#+)
STHI'A4' (See#)
SthTla&lL cons&sts o, #r&e# see# o, Amomum su8ulatum RoF8+ (>am+ 7&n%&8eraceae)M a
her8 G&th lea,y stem an# perenn&al root stoc*M cult&Eate# &n sGampy places alon% the s&#es o,
mounta&n streams &n Ben%al an# Assam+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O Bha#rLN Bha#ra&lL
Assamese O PP
Ben%al& O Baara al&ach
En%l&sh O 1reater or Nepal car#amom
1u;rat& O Ela&choN )oth& El&ch&
H&n#& O Bar& elach&
Kanna#a O Do##a Cala**&N Nep#& Ela**&
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Bal&ya ElamN 0erelam
)arath& O )oth& Elayach&
Or&ya O Ba#a ale&chaN Ale&cha
0un;a8& O Bu#& Ele&ch&
Tam&l O 0er&ya ElamN BeraelamN Kattu Elam
Telu%u O 0e##a Ela*ulu
:r#u O Ba#& Ela&ch&N Heel Kalan
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
See# 5+/ cm lon%N 5+( cm G&#eN &rre%ularly oEo&# G&th ( ,lattene# ,ace
coEere# eFternally G&th a colourlessN mem8raneous ar&lM 8roGn to #ar* 8roGnM o#ourN
aromat&cM tasteN sp&cy pun%ent+
232

8) )&croscop&c
See# PShoGs a Eery th&n mem8raneous ar&l compose# o, seEeral layers o, collapse#
cells conta&n&n% o&l %lo8ules an# pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalateM testa cons&sts o,
s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s o, rectan%ular cells ,olloGe# 8y 1P layers o, collapse#N th&nP
Galle# parenchymatous cellsN 8eneath th&s a s&n%le layere# lar%e rectan%ular cells conta&n&n%
o&l %lo8ules presentN Gh&ch &s &nternally surroun#e# 8y seEeral layers o, ,lattene#N th&n
Galle#N parenchymatous cellsM per&sperm cons&sts o, poly%onalN th&nPGalle#N
parenchymatous cells conta&n&n% roun# to oEal starch %ra&ns measur&n% P. &n #&a+N an#
cluster crystals o, calc&um oFalateM per&sperm surroun#e# eFternally 8y th&c*PGalle#N
sclerenchymatousN ra#&ally elon%ate# #ar* 8roGn 8ea*er cellsM per&spenn encloses the
en#osperm an# em8ryoN 8oth compose# o, poly%onalN th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cellsN
r&ch &n prote&n+
0oG#er P '&%ht 8roGnM shoGs ,ra%ments o, testaN poly%onalN th&nPGalle#N per&sperm cellsN o&l
%lo8ulesN rarely cluster crystals o, calc&um oFalateN roun#e# to oEalN s&mpleN starch %ra&ns
measur&n% P. &n #&ameter+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than / per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1+. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than . per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1/ per centN Appen#&F ++3+
Bolat&le o&l Not less than 1 E^Gper centN Appen#&F ++15

CONST4T:ENTS P Bolat&le O&l (r&ch &n C&neole)+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaRuN T&*ta
233
1uSa O 'a%huN RT*UaN TV*USa
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN KaphaharaN Roca*aN DVpanVN )u*haWo#ha*aN A
_%amar#apraWamana
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P SLr&Ea#yLsaEaN KarpTrL#yLr*aN KalyLSa*a 1hXtaN
BastyLmayLnta*a 1hXtaN )Lnasam&tra BaRa*a
THERA0E:T4C :SES P KELsaN KLsaN TXUSLN Char#&N )u*haro%aN HXllLsaN KaSYT
DOSE P 5+. P1 %+ o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+
Note P Cluster crystals o, calc&um oFalate are present &n Sthulaela (Amomum su8ulatum
RoF8+(See#)N Gh&le a8sent &n Su*sama&la (Elettar&a car#amomum )aton+ (See#)+


234
31+ Te;oEat& (St+B*+)
TE$OBATA (Stem Bar*)
Te;oEatV cons&sts o, #r&e# stem 8ar* o, 7anthoFylum armatum DC+ Syn+ 7+ alatum
RoF8+ (>am+ Rutaceae)M an eEer%reen or su8P#ec&#uous shru8 or occas&onally a small tree upto
6 m h&%hN stem an# 8ranchesN arme# G&th lon%N sharp pr&c*lesN ,oun# &n the hot Ealleys o, the
H&malayas ,rom $ammu to Khas&a h&lls at 655P1955 m an# eastern %hats &n Or&ssa an# An#hra
0ra#esh at 155 mN also somet&mes plante# ,or he#%es &n Assam+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O Te;ohEa
Assamese O Kule*hara
Ben%al& O Te;oEat&
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O Te;a8alaN Te;8al
H&n#& O Te;8al
Kanna#a O Te;apatr&N $&mm&N Tum8uraN Tum8uru#raN Te;oEant&
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Thum8oonalN Thum8oon&N Bal&yaEalu-haEam
)arath& O Te;a8al
Or&ya O Te;a8ala
0un;a8& O Te;oEat&N Te;a8al
Tam&l O The;yoEath&
Telu%u O Te;oEath&
:r#u O Ka8a8PePKhan#an
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Bar* cor*yN channelle# an# s&n%le Qu&lle# G&th lar%e mar*s o, tu8ercular
235
pr&c*lesM5+1P5+ cm th&c*N eFternal sur,ace pale 8roGnN rou%h G&th numerous scattere#
patches o, lent&celsN rather #eeply ,urroGe#M &nternal sur,ace smoothN l&%ht yelloG to pale
8roGnM ,ractureN shortM o#ourN aromat&cM tasteN aromat&c pun%ent+

8) )&croscop&c
Stem Bar* P ShoGs eF,ol&ate# cor* &nterrupte# 8y lent&cels at some placesM cor*
1.P5 layers o, ta8ularN 8roGn&shN th&c*PGalle# cellsM secon#ary corteF 15P5 layers o,
tan%ent&ally elon%ate# or oEalN th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cellsM small %roups o, stone
cells an# some ,&8res ,oun# scattere# &n th&s re%&onM secon#ary phloem cons&st&n% o, s&eEe
elementsN parenchyma an# ,&8res traEerse# 8y phloem raysM phloem ,&8res th&c*PGalle#N
l&%n&,&e#N aseptate an# arran%e# &n tan%ent&al roGsM stone cells ,oun# &n tan%ent&al 8an#s
alternat&n% G&th phloem ,&8resM a num8er o, secretory cells ,oun# scattere# throu%hout
secon#ary phloemM phloem rays 1P cells G&#e an# 15P1. cells h&%hM secretory cells conta&n
&n% o&ly or res&nous su8stancesM pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalate an# s&mple starch
%ra&ns ,oun# scattere# &n secon#ary corteFN phloem parenchyma an# phloem raysM starch
%ra&ns roun# an# oEalN measur&n% +3. P 1(+3. &n #&ameter+
0oG#er P CelloG&shP8roGnM shoGs ,ra%ments o, cor* cellsM aseptate ,&8resN stone cellsN
pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalateN o&l %lo8ules an# starch %ra&nsN roun# an# oEal
measur&n% +3. P 1(+3. &n #&ameter+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1+. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 9+. per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1( per centN Appen#&F ++3+

CONST4T:ENTS P A 8&tter crystall&ne pr&nc&ple &#ent&cal G&th Ber8er&neN a Bolat&le O&l
an# Res&n+


236
0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaRuN T&*ta
1uSa O RT*Ua
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN KaphaharaN DVpanaN 0LcanaN RucyaN )e#hya
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P 0a]cat&*ta 1u%%ulu 1hXtaN KLla*a CTrSa ('epa)
THERA0E:T4C :SES P KELsaN KLsaN )u*haro%aN maELtaN ArucVN H&**L
DOSE P 15P5 % o, the #ru% ,or #ecoct&on+


237
3+ Tulas& (2+0+)
T:'ASA (2hole 0lant)
TulasV cons&sts o, #r&e# Ghole plant o, Oc&mum sanctum '&nn+ (>am+ 'am&aceae)M an
erectN (5 P 65 cm h&%hN much 8ranche#N annual her8N ,oun# throu%hout the country+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O SurasLN KXUSatulasVN Bana TulasV
Assamese O Tulas&
Ben%al& O Tulas&
En%l&sh O Holy Bas&l
1u;rat& O Tulas&N Tuls&
H&n#& O Tulas&
Kanna#a O Tulas&N Shree Tulas&N B&shnu Tulas&
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Tulas&N Tulasa
)arath& O Tulas
Or&ya O PP
0un;a8& O Tulas&
Tam&l O Tulas&N Thulas&N Th&ru Thee-a&
Telu%u O Tulas&
:r#u O Ra&hanN Tuls&
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Root P Th&nN G&ryN 8ranche#N ha&ryN so,tN 8lac*&shP8roGn eFternally an# pale+ E&olet
&nternally+
Stem P ErectN her8aceousN Goo#yN 8ranche#M ha&ryN su8 Qua#ran%ularN eFternally purpl&shP
8roGn to 8lac*N &nternally creamN coloure#M ,ractureN ,&8rous &n 8ar* an# short &n FylemM
o#our ,a&ntly aromat&c+
238
'ea, P +.P. cm lon% 1+6 P (+ cm G&#eN ell&pt&c o8lon%N o8tuse or acuteN ent&re or serrateN
pu8escent on 8oth s&#esM pet&ole th&nN a8out 1+.P( cm lon% ha&ryM o#ourN aromat&cM tasteN
character&st&c+
>loGer P 0urpl&sh or cr&mson coloure#N small &n close GhorlsM 8racts a8out ( mm lon% an#
8roa#N pe#&cels lon%er than calyFN slen#erN pu8escentM calyF oEo&# or campanulate (P/ mm
8&l&ppe#N upper l&p 8roa#ly o8oEate or su8or8&cularN shortly ap&culateN loGer l&p lon%er than
upper haE&n% ,our mucronate teethN lateral tGo short an# central tGo lar%estM corolla a8out /
mm lon%N pu8escentM o#ourN aromat&cM tasteN pun%ent+
>ru&t P A %roup o, / nutletsN each G&th one see#N enclose# &n an enlar%e#N mem8ranousN
Ee&ne# calyFN nutlets su8P%lo8ose or 8roa#ly ell&pt&cN sl&%htly compresse#N nearly smoothM
pale 8roGn or re##&sh G&th small 8lac* mar*&n% at the place o, attachment to the thalamusM
o#ourN aromat&cM tasteN pun%ent+
See# P Roun#e# to oEalM 8roGnN muc&la%&nous Ghen soa*e# &n GaterN 5+1 cm lon%N sl&%htly
notche# at the 8aseM no o#ourM tasteN pun%entN sl&%htly muc&la%&nous+

8) )&croscop&c
Root P ShoGs a s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s ,olloGe# 8y corteFN cons&st&n% o, seEen or
more layers o, rectan%ularN roun# to oEal poly%onalN th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cellsN
,&lle# G&th 8roGn contentN &nner layers o, corteF #eEo&# o, contentsM phloem cons&st&n% o,
s&eEe elementsN th&nPGalle#N rectan%ular parenchyma cells an# scattere# %roups o, ,&8resN
,oun# scattere# &n phloemM Fylem cons&sts o, EesselsN trache&#sN ,&8res an# parenchymaM
Eessels p&tte#M ,&8re trache&#esN lon%N p&tte# G&th po&nte# en#sM ,&8res th&c* Galle# an# G&th
po&nte# en#s+
Stem P ShoGs a s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s G&th un&ser&ateN mult&cellular coEer&n% tr&chomes
haE&n% .P6 cellsN occas&onally a ,eG cells collapse#M corteF cons&sts o, 15 or more layers o,
th&nPGalle#N rectan%ularN parenchymatous cellsM phloem cons&sts o, s&eEe elementsN th&nP
Galle#N rectan%ular parenchyma cells an# ,&8resM ,&8res ,oun# scattere# mostly throu%hout
phloemN &n %roups an# rarely &n s&n%lesM Fylem occup&es ma;or port&on o, stem cons&st&n% o,
EesselsN trache&#s ,&8res an# parenchymaM Eessels p&tte#M ,&8res G&th po&nte# en#sM centre
occup&e# 8y nanPoG p&th cons&st&n% o, roun# to oEalN th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cells+
'ea,P
0et&ole P shoGs someGhat cor#ate outl&neN cons&st&n% o, s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s compose#
o, th&nPGalle#N oEal cells haE&n% a num8er o, coEer&n% an# %lan#ular tr&chomesM coEer&n%
tr&chomes mult&cellular 1P9 celle# lon%Nrarely sl&%htly re,leFe# at t&pM %lan#ular tr&chomes
239
shortN sess&le G&th 1P celle# stal* an# P9 celle# 8alloonPshape# hea#N measur&n% P3 &n
#&aM ep&#erm&s ,olloGe# 8y 1 or layers an# or ( layers o, th&nPGalle#N elon%ate#N
parenchyma cells toGar#s upper an# loGer sur,aces respect&EelyM three Eascular 8un#les
s&tuate# centrallyN m&##le one lar%er than other tGoM Fylem surroun#e# 8y phloem+
)&#r&8 P ep&#erm&sN tr&chomes an# Eascular 8un#les s&m&lar to those o, pet&ole eFcept
cort&cal layers re#uce# toGar#s ap&cal re%&on+
'am&na P ep&#erm&s an# tr&chomes s&m&lar to those o, pet&oleM 8oth anomocyt&c an# #&acyt&c
type o, stomata present on 8oth sur,acesN sl&%htly ra&se# a8oEe the leEel o, ep&#erm&sM
pal&sa#e s&n%le layere# ,olloGe# 8y /P6 layers o, closely pac*e# spon%y parenchyma G&th
chloroplast an# oleoPres&nM stomatal &n#eF 15P1P1. on upper sur,ace an# 1/ P 1. P 16 on
loGer sur,aceM pal&sa#e rat&o (+9M Ee&n &slet num8er (1 P (.+
0oG#er P 1reen&shO shoGs th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cellsN a ,eG conta&n&n% re##&sh
8roGn contentsN un&cellular an# rnult&cellularPtr&chomes e&ther ent&re or &n p&ecesM th&n
Galle# ,&8resN Fylem Eessels G&th p&tte# th&c*en&n%sN ,ra%ments o, ep&#ermal cells &n sur,ace
E&eG haE&n% &rre%ular shapeN o&l %lo8ulesN roun#e# to oEalN s&mple as Gell as compoun#
starch %ra&ns haE&n% P. componentsN measur&n% (P13 &n #&ameter+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 15 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1+. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than / per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 9 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, Tulas& o&l o8ta&ne# 8y stem #&st&llat&on &s carr&e# out on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate
us&n% Toluene O Ethylacetate (=(O3) Tulas& o&l &s #&lute# &n chloro,ormPtoluene (1O 15)+
Eu%enol to 8e appl&e# as stan#ar# also #&lute# &n 1(5 rat&o an# 15 l o, each to 8e appl&e# &n
240
8an# ,orm+ A,ter runn&n% #&stance o, 15 cm the plate &s a&r #ry&n% ,or 1. m&nutes an# than
*ept &n the oEer ,or to . m&nutes+ On cool&n% sprayN &n thorou%hly Ean&ll&n P Sulphur&c ac&#
rea%ent an# heat the plate at 115 C ,or . P 1P m&nutes :n#er o8serEat&on+ Recor# R,+ Ealues
o, eu%enol an# caryophyllence+ Eu%enol (oran%e 8roGn) approF+ R,+ Ealue 5+3N
caryophyllence (re##&sh E&olet) runs to solEent ,ront+


CONST4T:ENTS P Essent&al O&l+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaRuN T&*taN KaULya
1uSa O TV*USaN RT*UaN 'a%hu
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O 0&ttaEar#h&nVN BLtaharaN KaphaharaN HX#yaN DVpanaN RucyaN
Dur%an#h&hara
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P Tr&8huEana*Vrt& RasaN )u*tLpa]cLmXta RasaN )u*tL#&
)ahL];anaN )Lnasam&tra BaRa*a
THERA0E:T4C :SES P KELsaN KLsaN H&**LN Char#&N KXm&ro%aN 0LrWEa KTlaN KuURhaN AWmar
VN Netraro%a
DOSE P 1P( ml o, the #ru% &n ;u&ce ,orm+
1P % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm (see#)+


241
3(+ Tulas& (',+)
T:'ASA ('ea,)
TulasV cons&sts o, #r&e# lea, o, Oc&mum sanctum '&nn+ (>am+ 'am&aceae)N an erectN
(5P65 cm h&%hN much 8ranche# annual her8N ,oun# throu%hout the country+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O Bana TulasVN KXUSatulasVN SurasL
Assamese O Tulas&
Ben%al& O Tulas&
En%l&sh O Sacre# Bas&lN Holy Bas&l
1u;rat& O Tulas&N Tuls&
H&n#& O Tulas&
Kanna#a O Tulas&
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Tulas&
)arath& O Tulas
Or&ya O PP
0un;a8& O Tulas&
Tam&l O Thulas&N Tulas&
Telu%u O Tulas&
:r#u O Ra&hanN Tuls&
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
'eaEes +.P. cm lon%N 1+6P(+ cm G&#eN ell&pt&cPo8lon%N o8tuse or acuteN ent&re or
serrateN pu8escent on 8oth sur,acesN pet&olateN th&nN pet&ole 1+.P( cm lon%N ha&ryM o#ourN
aromat&cM tasteN character&st&c+

242
8) )&croscop&c
'ea,P
0et&ole P shoGs cor#ate outl&neN cons&st&n% o, s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s compose# o, th&n
Galle#N oEal cells haE&n% a num8er o, coEer&n% an# %lan#ular tr&chomesM coEer&n% tr&chomes
mult&cellularN un&ser&ate 1P9 celle# lon%N rarely sl&%htly re,leFe# at t&pM %lan#ular tr&chomes
shortN sess&le or G&th 1P celle# stal*N an# P9 celle#N 8alloonPshape# hea#N enclose# &n a
cut&cular 8la##erN measur&n% P3 #&a+N upper ep&#erm&sN ,olloGe# 8y (P/ layers o,
collenchymatous an# 1P layers o, parenchymatous cellsM loGer ep&#erm&s ,olloGe# 8y 1P(
layers o, collenchymatous an# P( layers o, parenchymatous cellsM three Eascular 8un#les
s&tuate# centrallyN m&##le one lar%er than the other tGoN cons&st&n% o, Fylem an# phloem+
)&#r&8 P ep&#erm&sN tr&chomes an# Eascular 8un#les s&m&lar to those o, pet&oleN eFcept
re#uce# &n cort&cal layers toGar#s ap&cal re%&on o, m&#r&8+
'am&na P ep&#erm&s an# tr&chomes s&m&lar to those o, pet&ole on 8oth sur,acesM stomata
anomocyt&c an# #&acyt&c present on 8oth sur,aces an# sl&%htly ra&se# a8oEe the leEel o,
ep&#erm&sM pal&sa#e s&n%le layere# ,olloGe# 8y /P6 layeres o, closely pac*e# spon%y
parenchyma G&th chloroplasts an# oleoPres&nM stomatal &n#eF 15P1(P1. on upper sur,ace an#
1/P1.P16 on loGer sur,aceM pal&sa#e rat&o (+9M Ee&n &slet num8er (1P((+
0oG#er P '&%htP%reenM shoGs ,ra%ments o, poly%onalN less GaEy Galle# ep&#ermal cells &n
sur,ace E&eGN coEer&n% an# %lan#ular tr&chomes as a Ghole or &n p&ecesN pal&sa#e an# spon%y
parenchymaN anomocyt&c an# #&acyt&c stomata+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 1= per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than ( per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 6 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 1( per centN Appen#&F ++3+

ASSAC
243

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n% TolueneO
Ethylacetate (=O 1) shoGs &n E&s&8le l&%ht n&ne spots at R,+ 5+5( (#ar* %reen)N 5+5/N 5+59 (8oth
%reen)N 5+1 (l&%ht %reen)N 5+1N 5+(( (8oth %reen) 5+/. (yelloG&sh %reen)N 5+9. < 5+=( (8oth
l&%ht %reen)+ :n#er :+B+ ((66 nm) e&%ht ,luorescent -ones appear at R,+ 5+5/N 5+(5N 5+((N
5+/.N 5+9( (all p&n*) 5+9. (8lue)N 5+=( (p&n*) < 5+=9 (8lue)+ On eFposure to 4o#&ne Eapour
eleEen spots appear at R,+ 5+5/N 5+59N 5+1N 5+1N 5+((N 5+/.N 5+./N 5+3.N 5+9(N 5+99 an# 5+=(
(all yelloG)+ On spray&n% G&th Ban&ll&nPSulphur&c ac&# rea%ent an# heat&n% the plate at 115
5
C,or ten m&nutes ten spots appear at R,+ 5+59 (E&olet)N 5+1 (l&%ht E&olet)N 5+1 (8roGn)N 5+((
(E&olet)N 5+/. (E&olet)N 5+./ (8lue)N 5+3. (E&olet)N 5+9( (8lue)N 5+=( (E&olet) an# 5+=9 (8lue)+


CONST4T:ENTS P Essent&al O&l (CarEacrolN CaryophylleneN Nerol an# Camphene
etc+N)+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaRuN T&*taN KaULya
1uSa O 'a%huN RT*UaN TV*USa
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN KaphaharaN 0&ttaharaN DVpanVN HX#yaN KXm&%hna
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P )Lnasam&tra BaRa*aN Tr&8huEana KVrt& RasaN )u*tL
0a]cLmXt RasaN )ahL;EarL_*uWa Rasa
THERA0E:T4C :SES P KELsaN KLsaN 0rat&WyLyaN 0LrWEaWTlaN ArucVN H&**LN KXm&ro%aN
KuURha
DOSE P P( % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


244
3/+ Bacha (R-+)
BAC (Rh&-ome)
BacL cons&sts o, #r&e# rh&-ome o, Acarus calamus '&nn+ (>am+ Araceae)M a sem&aQuat&c
her8N G&l# or cult&Eate# throu%hout the country ascen#&n% upto 1955 m &n the H&malayas+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O :%ra%an#hLN :%rLN !aY%ranthL
Assamese O PP
Ben%al& O PP
En%l&sh O The SGeet >la%
1u;rat& O 1ho#uEa;N 1ho#Each
H&n#& O BachN 1oraP8ach
Kanna#a O Ba;eN Narru Berua
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Bayam8u
)arath& O BacaN Be*han#as
Or&ya O PP
0un;a8& O BarchN 1ho#aEaca
Tam&l O Basam8uN 0&lla& maruntho
Telu%u O Basa
:r#u O 2a;aPePTur*&
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Dru% occurs &n s&mple or rarely G&th thum8Pl&*e 8ranches at no#esM su8
cyl&n#r&cal to sl&%htly ,lattene#N someGhat tortuous or rarely stra&%htN cut p&eces o, 1P. cm
lon%N an# 5+.P1+. cm th&c*M upper s&#e mar*e# G&th alternately arran%e#N lar%eN 8roa#lyN
tr&an%ularN transEerse lea, scars Gh&ch almost enc&rcle the rh&-omeM at no#es lea, sheath
mostly haE&n% an appearence presentM loGer s&#e shoGs eleEate# tu8ercular spots o, root
scarsM l&%htP8roGn G&th re##&shPt&n%e to p&n*&sh eFternallyN 8u,, coloure# &ntemallyM
,ractureN shortM o#ourN aromat&cM tasteN pun%ent an# 8&tter+
245
8) )&croscop&c
Rh&-ome P ShoGs s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&sM corteF compose# o, spher&cal to o8lon%N
th&nPGalle# cells o, Ear&ous s&-esN cells toGar#s per&pheryN smallerN someGhat
collenchymatousN more or less closely arran%e# cells toGar#s &nner s&#eN roun#e# an# ,orm a
netGor* o, cha&ns o, s&n%le roG o, cellsN enclos&n% lar%e a&r spacesN ,&8roPEascular 8un#les
an# secretory cells haE&n% l&%ht yelloG&shP8roGn contentsN present &n th&s re%&onM
en#o#erm&s #&st&nctM stele compose# o, roun#N parenchymatous cells enclos&n% lar%e a&r
spaces s&m&lar to those o, corteF an# seEeral concentr&c Eascular 8un#les arran%e# &n a r&n%
toGar#s en#o#erm&sN a ,eG Eascular 8un#les scattere# &n %roun# t&ssuesM starch %ra&ns
s&mpleN spher&calN measur&n% (P6 &n #&a+N present &n corteF an# %roun# t&ssue+
0oG#er P Bu,, coloure#M shoGs ,&8resN ret&culateN annular Eessels an# s&mple spher&cal starch
%ra&nsN measur&n% (P6 &n #&ameter+
O8serEat&on o, poG#er an# &ts eFtracts on eFposure un#er :B l&%ht OP
a+ 0oG#er as suchO P CelloG&shPcream
8+ EFtracts &n
&+ 0etroleum etherPNo chan%e
&&+ Chloro,ormP'&%ht %reen
&&&+ )ethanolPCelloG&sh %reen
&E+ Ben-enePNo chan%e
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 3 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1 per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than = per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 16 per centN Appen#&F ++3+
Bolat&le o&l Not less than per centN Appen#&F ++15

ASSAC

246
T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n% TolueneO
Ethylacetate (=O1) shoGs tGo spots at R,+ 5+1/ (E&olet) an# 5+3( (E&olet) on spray&n% G&th
Ban&ll&nPSulphur&c ac&# rea%ent an# heat&n% the plate ,or ten m&nutes at 15.C+


CONST4T:ENTS P Bolat&le O&l (pr&nc&pal const&tuents o, the Bolat&le o&l are Asamyl
alcoholN Eu%enol an# Asarone)N also conta&ns a 8&tter pr&nc&ple Acor&n (1lucos&#e)N Starch
an# Tann&n+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaRuN T&*ta
1uSa O 'a%huN TV*USa
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLtaharaN KaphaharaN )ala )TtraE&Wo#hanVN DVpanVN KaSRhyaN
KXm&haraN BLma*aN )e#hya
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P BacL#& Ta&laN BacL 'aWunL#& Ta&laN SLrasEata CTrSaN
SLrasEatLr&URaN )Lnasam&tra BaRa*aN Can#rapra8hL BaRVN Kha#&rL#& BaRVN H&_%uEacL#& CTrSa
THERA0E:T4C :SES P ApasmLraN :nmL#aN B&8an#haN #hmLnaN KTlaN KarSa SrLEaN KLsaN
KELsaN SmXt& #aur8alya
DOSE P 65 P15 m% o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+
1P %+ o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm ,or &n#uc&n% Eom&t&n%+
NoteO So#hana o, Baca &s to 8e #one 8e,ore &nternal use+

247
3.+ Batsana8ha (Rt+)
BATSANBHA (Root)
BatsanL8ha cons&sts o, #r&e# roots o, Acon&tum chasmanthum Stap,+ eF Holmes (>am+
Ranunculaceae)M plant &s an erectN perenn&al her8N occurs &n su8alp&ne an# alp&ne -ones o, the
Gestern H&malayasN &n h&%h plateaus 8etGeen 555P/555 mN roots are %enerally collecte# late
&n Septem8er+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O AmraN B&Ua Ba;ranL%aN SthLEaraE&UaN BatsanL%a*a
Assamese O )&thaE&shN B&sh
Ben%al& O KathaE&sh
En%l&sh O Acon&te
1u;rat& O Bachhanaa%N Basanaa%
H&n#& O B&saN )eetha8&shaN Bachhnaa%N Tel&ya B&sh
Kanna#a O Basanall&N Batsana8haN Batsana8h&N Bachana%a
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Batsana8h&
)arath& O Bachna%a
Or&ya O TaharaN )ahuraN )&thE&sa
0un;a8& O )&tha B&shaN )&thatel&a
Tam&l O BasanaaE&N Batsana8h&N Na8h&N Basana8h&
Telu%u O Batsanaa8h&N Naa8h&
:r#u O Bachna*N )&thalel&aN BeeshN Atees
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Roots pa&re#N occas&onally separate# #ue to 8rea*a%eN oEo&#N con&calN small port&ons
o, stem somet&mes attache#N taper&n% #oGnGar#s to a po&ntN P/+. cmN rarely . cm lon%N 5+/
P 1+9 cm th&c*N %ra#ually #ecrease &n th&c*ness toGar#s taper&n% en#M Gr&n*le#
lon%&tu#&nally an# transEerselyN rou%h #ue to root scarsM #ar* 8roGn to 8lac*&shP8roGnM
248
,ractureN cart&la%&nousN har# an# Gh&te G&th&n the cam8&um r&n% an# 8roGn&sh outs&#e
cam8&umM o#our &n#&st&nctN tasteN sl&%htly 8&tter ,olloGe# 8y a stron% t&n%l&n% sensat&onN
po&sonous+

8) )&croscop&c
Root PShoGs ep&#erm&s 1P( layere#N su8er&se#N pap&llose on outs&#eN pr&mary corteF
cons&st&n% o, 9P15 layers o, oEal to tan%ent&ally elon%ate#N th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous
cellsN G&thout or G&th a ,eG &ntercellular spacesN a ,eG rectan%ular or tr&an%ular stone cells
&n s&n%les ,oun# scattere# &n th&s -oneM pr&mary corteF separate# 8y #&st&nct en#o#erm&sM
&nner 8ar* parenchymatousN cons&st&n% o, roun# to oEal cellsN conta&n&n% a ,eG %roups o,
phloem stran#sN occupy&n% more than hal, the ra#&usM cam8&um haE&n% 6 P 15 an%lesM Fylem
Eessels arran%e# almost &n a r&n%N some scattere#N o,ten ,orm&n% [B[ shape# r&n%N enclos&n%
Fylem parenchyma &n ol#er port&onsM 8un#les compact o,ten Ge#%ePshape# haE&n% acute
apeFM Fylem eFarchN metaFylem Eessels met &n centreM starch %ra&ns s&mple measur&n% 6P19
&n #&a+ an# compoun# %ra&ns cons&st&n% o, P. components G&th h&lum &n centreN present &n
cort&cal cellsN phloem parenchyma an# Fylem parenchyma+
0oG#er P '&%ht %reyM shoGs EesselsN a ,eG aseptate ,&8resN an# numerous s&mple an#
compoun# starch %ra&ns haE&n% h&lum &n the centreN s&n%le %ra&n measur&n% 6P19 &n #&a+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than .+. per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 9 per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than / per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n% Chloro,ormO
)ethanol (=5O15) shoGs s&F spots at R,+ 5+15N 5+5N 5+(=N 5+.6N 5+3/ an# 5+=6 (all yelloG) on
eFposure to 4o#&ne Eapour+ On spray&n% G&th Dra%en#or,, rea%ent tGo spots appear at R,+
5+(= an# 5+=6 (8oth oran%e)+
249


CONST4T:ENTS P Al*alo&#s


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O )a#hura
1uSa O :USaN RT*UaN TV*USaN 'a%huN B&*LsVN B&yaELyVN Co%aELh&
BVrya O :USa
B&pL*a O )a#hura
Karma O Tr&#oUaharaN RasLyanaN SEi#alaN 0&ttaWantLpa*Lra*a
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P Tr&8huEana*Vrt& RasaN STtaWe*hara RasaN Anan#a8ha&raEa
RasaN BLtaE&#hEaZsana RasaN )ahLE&Ua%ar8ha Ta&la
THERA0E:T4C :SES P Sann&pLtaN BLta*apha;EaraN BLtaro%aN $EarLt&sLraN KaSRharo%a
DOSE P 1. P (5 m%s o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+
NoteO 4t &s #an%erous to eFcee# the normal #ose+


250
36+ B&#ar& (Tu8+Rt+)
B4DRA (Tu8erous Root)
B&#LrV cons&sts o, sl&ce# an# #r&e# p&eces o, tu8erous root o, 0uerar&a tu8erosa DC+
(>am+ >a8aceae)M a perenn&al cl&m8er G&th Eery lar%e tu8erous rootN #&str&8ute# nearly
throu%hout the country eFcept &n Eery hum&# or Eery ar&# re%&ons an# ascen#&n% upto 155 m+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O B&#LrVN B&#Lr&*LN Bhum&*uUmLnYa
Assamese O Bhe#eletonN Bhu&*umra
Ben%al& O B&#ar&N Bhum&*usman#aN Bhu&n*umra
En%l&sh O PP
1u;rat& O B&#ar&*antaN Bhony*oruN Ea%&oN Bho&*oluN Sa*harEel
H&n#& O B&#ar&*an#a
Kanna#a O Nela%um8ala 1u##eN Nela%um8alaN 1uma#& 8ell&N Nela%um8ulaN
1uma#&%&#a
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O )u#a**u
)arath& O Bhu&*ohalaN 1ho#Eel
Or&ya O Bhu&an*a*haru
0un;a8& O PP
Tam&l O N&lapoosan&
Telu%u O Nela%ummu#aN Dar&%umma#&
:r#u O PP
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Dru% aEa&la8le &n the ,orm o, lon%&tu#&nally sl&ce# p&eces o, Ear&a8le s&-eM outer
sur,ace re##&shP8roGnN smooth eFcept ,or protu8erances at some placesM cut sur,ace
cream&shP8roGnN starchy an# someGhat porousM usually #oes not 8rea*N 8ut pl&a8leM tasteN
251
sGeet&sh+

8) )&croscop&c
Tu8erous Root P )ature tu8er shoGs 5P(5 layers o, cor* cons&st&n% o, rectan%ularN
th&nPGalle#N tan%ent&ally elon%ate# an# ra#&ally arran%e# cells ,&lle# G&th #ar* re##&shP
8roGn content eFcept &n a ,eG &nner layersM secon#ary corteF cons&sts o, 6P1. layers o,
c&rcularN oEal to rectan%ular an# tan%ent&ally elon%ate#N th&nPGalle# cellsN yelloG 8an# o,
P6 layers o, compactly arran%e# stone cells present toGar#s &nner s&#e o, corteFM stone cells
mo#erately th&c*PGalle#N Eary&n% &n shape an# s&-e an# haE&n% Gell mar*e# str&at&ons an#
p&tsM a num8er o, pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalate ,oun# &n parenchymatous cellsN an#
also rarely &n stone cellsM secon#ary phloem cons&sts o, s&eEe elements an# phloem
parenchyma haE&n% a num8er o, stran#s o, phloem ,&8res an# a ,eG stone cellsM s&eEe
elements someGhat collapse# &n outer re%&on ,orm&n% tan%ent&al 8an#sM phloem ,&8res much
elon%ate#N h&%hly th&c*ene#N l&%n&,&e# G&th narroG lumenM a num8er o, tann&n&,erous #ucts
,&lle# G&th 8roGn contentN #&str&8ute# throu%hout th&s re%&onM Fylem ,orms Ghole o, &nner
Gh&te spon%y -oneN cons&st&n% o, seEeral concentr&c r&n%s o, one or a ,eG Fylem Eessels
assoc&ate# G&th a ,eG Fylem elementsM Eessels mostly #rumPshape# haE&n% ret&culate
th&c*en&n%M Fylem rays mult& ser&ate an# Gell mar*e# cons&st&n% o, th&n Galle#N ra#&ally
elon%ate# cellsN a ,eG lateF #uct also presentM plenty o, starch %ra&ns mostly s&mpleN
someGhat roun#N an%ular to oEalN haE&n% central h&lum an# str&at&onsN measur&n% .+. P 1(+3.
&n #&a+ present &n all parenchymatous cells+
0oG#er P Bu,, coloure#M shoGs plenty o, starch %ra&ns G&th central h&lum an# str&at&ons
measur&n% .+. P 1(+3. &n #&a+N ,ra%ments o, cor*N pr&smat&c crystals o, calc&um oFalateN a
,eG Fylem Eessels G&th ret&culate th&c*en&n% an# phloem ,&8res+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 13 per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than /+. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than / per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than / per centN Appen#&F ++3+

CONST4T:ENTS P 1lucon&c an# )al&c ac&#s+
252


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O )a#hura
1uSa O Sn&%#haN 1uru
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O )a#hura
Karma O BLtaharaN 0&ttaharaN Stanya#aN Ku*ralaN )TtralaN $VEanVyaN RasLyanaN
BXZhaSVyaN SEaryaN BarSyaN Balya
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P B&#LryL#&*ELtha CTrSaN B&#LryL#& 1hXtaN )arma 1uR&*LN
)anmathL8hra RasaN 0T%a*haSYa (Apara`)
THERA0E:T4C :SES P DLhaN Ra*tap&ttaN A_%amar#aN Daur8alyaN KoUa
DOSE P (P6 % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm+


253
33+ CaEa (>r+)
CABA (>ru&t)
CaEa cons&sts o, #r&e# ,ru&t o, Hor#eum Eul%are '&nn+ Syn+ H+ sat&Eum 0ers+ (>am+
0oaceae)M an annualN erect her8N .5P155 cm h&%hN cult&Eate# ch&e,ly &n North 4n#&a+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O DhLnyarL;aN TV*USaWu*aN HayeURL
Assamese O Kule*hara
Ben%al& O $auN $aE
En%l&sh O Barley
1u;rat& O ChenoN $au
H&n#& O $aE
Kanna#a O PP
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O $aEe%am8u
)arath& O CaEaN $aEa
Or&ya O PP
0un;a8& O $aEo
Tam&l O Barley
Telu%u O Barl&8&yamN CaEa Dhanya
:r#u O $au
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
>ru&t a caryops&sN ell&pt&cN o8lon%N oEo&#Pan# taper&n% at 8oth en#sN smoothN
a8out 1 cm lon% an# 5+P5+( cm G&#eN #orsally compresse# an# ,lattene# on the s&#es G&th a
shalloG lon%&tu#&nal ,urroGN (P. r&#%es haE&n% shalloG #epress&on 8etGeen themN %ra&ns
t&%htly enclose# an# a#her&n% the lemma an# paleaM paleP%reen&shPyelloGM o#ourN not
#&st&nctM tasteN sGeet&shPacr&#+
254

8) )&croscop&c
>ru&t PShoGs s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s cons&st&n% o, crescentPshape#N roun# to oEal
GaEy Galle# cellsN ,olloGe# 8y P( layersN th&c*PGalle#N sclerenchymatous ,&8resM 8eloG the
sclerenchyma are present &rre%ularN sQuare or Qua#r&lateralN spon%y parenchymatous cellsN a
,eG cell Galls haE&n% s&l&ca 8o#&es throu%h Gh&ch run the ,&8roPEascular 8un#les o, the r&8sN
,olloGe# 8y more or lessN poly%ortal &nner ep&#ermal cellsN a ,eG &nner ep&#ermal cells
haE&n% un&cellular claGPshape# ha&r an# stomataM per&carp compose# o, cells G&th more or
less compresse# parenchymatous cellsM see# coat appears as a colourless l&neM per&sperm
compose# o, cells G&th more or less GaEy Galls haE&n% narroG lumensM en#osperm #&E&#e#
&nto tGo -onesN P/ cells #eep aleurone layersN an# the rest starch layersM starch %ra&ns
s&mpleN roun# to oEalN measur&n% (P(5 &n #&ameter+
0oG#er P Cream&shPGh&teM shoGs %roups o, ,ra%ments o, poly%onalN th&nPGalle# ,loGer&n%
%lume cells &n sur,ace E&eGN sclerenchymatous ,&8resN scalar&,orm Eessels an# a8un#ant
roun# to oEalN s&mple starch %ra&nsN measur&n% (P(5 &n #&ameter+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than / per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than 1+. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
2aterPsolu8le ash Not less than / per centN Appen#&F ++.
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than +. per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than .+. per centN Appen#&F ++3

ASSAC

T+'+C+
T+'+C+ o, alcohol&c eFtract o, the #ru% on S&l&ca %el [1[ plate us&n% nPButanol O
Acet&c ac&#O 2ater (/O 1 O.) shoGs un#er :+B+ l&%ht ((66 nm) seEen ,luorescent -ones at R,+
255
5+15N 5+N 5+(1N 5+/.N 5+69N 5+9( (all E&olet) an# 5+= (yelloG)+ On spray&n% G&th
0hosphomoly8#&c ac&# rea%ent an# on heat&n% the plate ,or ten m&nutes at 15.C s&F spots
appear at R,+ 5+15N 5+N 5+(1N 5+69N 5+9( an# 5+= (all %rey)+ On spray&n% G&th N&nhy#r&n
rea%ent eleEen spots appear at R,+ 5+56N 5+1/N 5+16N 5+/N 5+(1N 5+(6N 5+//N 5+.(N 5+.6N 5+6. <
5+3 (all p&n*+)


CONST4T:ENTS P StarchN Su%arsN >atsN 0rote&ns (Al8um&nN 1lo8ul&nN 0rolam&n an#
1lut&l&n) also conta&ns >laEone 1lycos&#es E&-N Or&entos&#eN Or&ent&nN B&teF&n etc+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O KaULyaN )a#hura
1uSa O RT*UaN 1uruN 0&cch&laN )X#u
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O KaRu
Karma O BLta*XtN 0&ttaharaN KaphaharaN )e#oharaN BalyaN BXUyaN SEaryaN BarSyaN
Stha&rya*araN 0urVUa*XtN )TtraharaN 'e*hana
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P A%astyaharVta*V RasLyanaN ElL#ya )o#a*aN DL#h&*a
1hXtaN DhLnEantara 1hXtaN 1an#harEahasta Ta&laN DhLnEantara Ta&laN BXhatmLUa Ta&laN
SarUapL#& 0ralepaN KLyasthL#ya Bart&
THERA0E:T4C :SES P )e#oro%aN 0ramehaN TXUSLN :rustam8haN KaSRharo%aN KELsaN KLsaN 0
VnasaN TEa%ro%a
DOSE P 155 P 55 % o, the #ru%+


256
39+ CaEasa*a (2+0+)
CABSAKA (2hole 0lant)
CaELsa*a cons&sts o, #r&e# Ghole plant o, Alha%& pseu#alha%& (B&e8)+ DesE+ (>am+
>a8aceae)M a small thorny shru8N mostly ,oun# &n ar&# an# #ry re%&ons o, 1u;aratN 0un;a8N
:tter 0ra#esh an# Ra;asthan+
SCNONC)S
Sans*r&t O CaELsaN CLsaN CaELsa*a
Assamese O Bhatuasha*
Ben%al& O PP
En%l&sh O 0ers&an )anna 0lant
1u;rat& O $aEaso
H&n#& O $aEasa
Kanna#a O Turuchana %&#aN $aEasaN Nela#an%araN 8all&#ura8&N Durala8ha
Kashm&r& O PP
)alayalam O Ben*at&thuraN Bal&ya Kot&thuEa
)arath& O Dhamasa
Or&ya O PP
0un;a8& O PPP
Tam&l O 0una&*an;ur&N Kanchor&
Telu%u O Ch&nna#oola%on#&N DhanEayasamu
:r#u O Turan;a8een
DESCR40T4ON
a) )acroscop&c
Root P 2ell #eEelope#N 5P(5 cm lon% an# 5+P1 cm th&c*M %ra#ually taper&n%N
secon#ary an# tert&ary root a8sentM #ar* 8roGnM ,ractureN short+

257
8) )&croscop&c
Stem P Cyl&n#r&calN %la8rousN sl&%htly rou%h at 8asal re%&on G&th slen#erM har#N sharp
aF&llary sp&nes upto (+9 cm lon%M 8ranche#N tereteN str&ateN %la8rousN nearly 5+1P1 cm th&c*M
yelloG&shP%reen to yelloG&shP8roGn+
'ea, P S&mpleN alternateN o8lon%N mucronate o8tuseN #roop&n%N oppos&teN eFt&pulateN 5+.P1 cm
lon%N 5+.P5+3 cm 8roa#+ ell&pt&calN smooth or pu8erulous G&th Eery short pet&oleN st&pules
%reenM no taste an# o#our+
Root PShoGs 6P15 layers o, tan%ent&ally elon%ate#N ra#&ally arran%e# cor* cellsM cor*
cam8&um s&n%le layere#N ,&lle# G&th re##&shP8roGn contentsM secon#ary corteF almost
a8sentM phloem compose# o, s&eEe elementsN phloem parenchyma an# phloem ,&8resM some
phloem parenchyma cells ,&lle# G&th tann&nM Fylem cons&sts o, EesselsN trache&#sN ,&8res
parenchyma an# Fylem raysM Eessels mostly sol&tary G&th s&mple p&tsM trache&#s an# ,&8res
th&c*PGalle#N ascptate G&th 8luntly po&nte# en#sM me#ullary rays 1P/ cells G&#eN (P/. cells
lon%M p&th compose# o, a ,eG th&nPGalle#N an%ularN parenchymatous cellsM starch %ra&ns
s&mpleN roun#e# to oEalN .+.P1/+3. &n #&a+ present throu%hout the re%&on+
Stem P ShoGs a s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s coEere# eFternally G&th th&c* cut&cleM corteF
compose# o, 9P1. layers o, oEalN tan%ent&ally elon%ate# cellsN numerous tann&n&,erous cells
,oun# scattere# &n th&s re%&onM per&cycle present &n ,orm o, ,&8re %roupsM phloem compose#
o, s&eEe elementsN parenchyma an# ,&8resM some parenchyma cells ,&lle# G&th tann&nM Fylem
cons&sts o, EesselsN trache&#sN Fylem ,&8resN Fylem parenchyma an# Fylem raysM Eessels
sol&tary or &n %roups o, P( G&th s&mple p&tsM trache&#s an# ,&8resN a ,eG G&th th&c* Gall an#
s&mple p&tsM me#ullary rays P( cells G&#e p&th compose# o, roun#e#N th&nPGalle#N
parenchymatous cellsN some cells ,&lle# G&th tann&n+
'ea,P
0et&ole P appears c&rcular &n outl&neM shoGs s&n%le layere# ep&#erm&s coEere# eFternally G&th
cut&cleM hypo#erm&s P( layere#N ,&lle# G&th tann&nN [D[[ shape# collateral Eascular 8un#le
present &n central re%&onM rest o, t&ssue 8etGeen Easculr 8un#le an# hypo#erm&s compose#
o, th&nPGalle#N parenchymtous cells some o, Gh&ch are ,&lle# G&th tann&n+
)&#r&8 P appears 8&conEeF &n outl&neM ep&#erm&s s&n%le layere#N coEere# eFternally G&th
th&c* cut&cleM hypo#erm&s 1P layere#N ,&lle# G&th tann&nM per&cycle present &n the ,orm o,
,&8res stran#sM Eascular 8un#le collateralM Fylem s&tuate# a8oEe phlomeN rest o, t&ssue
8etGeen Eascular 8un#le an# per&cycl&c stran# &s parenchymatous+
'am&na P ep&#erm&s cons&st&n% o, s&n%le layere# cellsN coEere# G&th cut&cleM paracyt&c
stomata present on 8oth sur,aces hypo#erm&s s&n%le layere# ,&ller E&th tann&nM mesophyll not
#&,,erent&ate# &nto pal&sa#e an# spon%y parenchymaN cons&st&n% o, th&nPGalle# oEal to
poly%onal cells haE&n% chlorophyllM roun#e# to elon%ate# tann&n&,erous cells ,oun# scattere#
258
&n mesophyll+
0oG#er P 1reen&shP8roGnM shoGs ,ra%ments o, ep&#ermal cells cons&st&n% o, rectan%ular to
poly%onalN elon%ate#N th&nPGalle#N parenchymatous cells G&th paracyt&c stomataN p&tte#
EesselsN ,&8resN tann&n&,erous cellsN s&mpleN roun# an# oEal starch %ra&ns measur&n% .+.P
1/+3. &n #&ameter+
4DENT4TCN 0:R4TC AND STREN1TH

>ore&%n matter Not more than per centN Appen#&F +++
Total Ash Not more than 1(+. per centN Appen#&F ++(+
Ac&#P&nsolu8le ash Not more than +. per centN Appen#&F ++/+
AlcoholPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than per centN Appen#&F ++6+
2aterPsolu8le eFtract&Ee Not less than 15 per centN Appen#&F ++3+

T+'+C+


CONST4T:ENTS P Su%ars ()el&-&toseN SucroseN 4nEert Su%ars)+


0RO0ERT4ES AND ACT4ON
Rasa O )a#huraN T&*taN KaULya
1uSa O 'a%huN Sara
BVrya O KVta
B&pL*a O )a#hura
Karma O KaphaharaN 0&ttaharaN DVpanaN Bala*Xt
259
4)0ORTANT >OR):'AT4ONS P Ch&nno#8haEL#& KELtha CTrSaN 1an#harEahastL#& KELtha
CTrSaN BhLr_%yL#& KELtha CTrSaN Ar&me#L#& Ta&la
THERA0E:T4C :SES P TXUSLN Char#&N KLsaN $EaraN BLtara*taN Ra*tap&ttaN B&sarpa
DOSE P 5 P .5 % o, the #ru% &n poG#er ,orm ,or #ecoct&on+

260
THE AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA
OF INDIA
PART- I
VOLUME III
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE
DEPARTMENT OF ISM & H
Contents | Monographs | Abbrevations | Appendices
Legal Notices | General Notices
i
CONTENTS
Legal Notices
General Notices
MONOGRAPHS
S.No. Plant Name Botanical Name
Page No.
(asper book)
1 HAK (Root) Cajanus cajan (Linnn) Millsp. 1
2 AGNlMANTHA (Root) Cleo!en!u" p#lo"i!is Linn $
$ AM%A&'HAK (Root) Hi(iscus sa(!ai))a Linn *
+ MRA (,ee!) Man-i)ea in!ica Linn. .
* MRA (,te" %a/) Man-i)ea in!ica Linn. 0
1 MRTA (,te") ,pon!ias pinnata (Linn.).) Ku2 . 11
. A3MRGA (Root) Ac#4ant#us aspea Ro5(. 1$
6 ARAL7 (,te" %a/) Ailant#us e5celsa ( Ro5(). 1*
0 ARKA (,te" %a/) Calotopis pocea (Ait.) R.%. 1.
18 A,ANA (,te" %a/) 3teocapus "asupiu" Ro5(. 10
11 A,TH9,AMH:TA (,te") Cissus ;ua!an-ulais Linn. 21
12 TMAG73T (,ee!) Mucuna puita Hoo/. 2$
1$ %HRA<G (Root) Cleo!e!on seatu" Linn. 2*
1+ %=A3>RA (?es# ?uit) Citus "e!ica Linn. 2.
1* %9L@A (Root) Ae-le "a"elos Co. 20
11 %9M% (A#ole plant) Coccinia in!ica AB A. $2
1. C<GCR (A#ole 3lant) D5alis coniculata Linn. $1
16 C9RA%9L@A (?uit) Holoptelea inte-i)olia 3lanc#. $0
10 EANT (Root) %aliospe"u" "ontanu" Muell
A-.
+1
28 EHATT>RA (,ee!) Eatua "etel Linn. +$
21 ERK& (?uit) @itis Fini)ea Linn. +*
22 E>R@ (Root) C4no!on !act4lon (Linn ) 3es. +.
2$ CRAGA (?es# Lea)) Ricinus co""unis Linn. +0
ii
2+ CRAGA (,ee!) Ricinus co""unis Linn. *1
2* GAM%HR (,te") G"elina a(oea Ro5(. *$
21 GD=9H@ (Aeial 3at) Dnos"a (acteatu" Aall. **
2. GRANTH93ARG (Root) Leonotis nepetae)olia R.%. *6
26 HAH,A3AE (A#ole 3lant) A!iantu" lunulatu" %u". 18
20 HA37& (?uit) =unipeus co""unis Linn. 1$
$8 9NERA@R7G (?uit) Citullus coloc4nt#is ,c#a!. 1*
$1 9NERAIA@A (,ee!) Holo#ena anti!4senteica Aall. 1.
$2 J@AR (Root) Aistoloc#ia in!ica Linn. 10
$$ =T (Lea)) =as"inu" o))icinale Linn. .1
$+ KAEAL (R#i2o"e) Musa paa!isica Linn. .$
$* KKA=A<GH (Root) 3estop#e (ical4culata Linn. .*
$1 KKAN,9K (,ee!) Mat4nia annua Linn. ..
$. KKDL (Tu(eous Root) Liliu" pol4p#4llu" E.Eon. .0
$6 KAMALA (R#i2o"e) Nelu"(o nuci)ea Gaetn. 61
$0 KARA@RA (Root) Neiu" in!icu" Mill. 6+
+8 KARAMAREA (Root) Caissa caan!as Linn. 61
+1 KJA (Root ,toc/) ,acc#aau" spontaneu" Linn. 66
+2 KA'3HALA (?uit) M4ica esculenta %uc#KHa". C5.
E.Eon.
08
+$ KA'3HALA (,te" %a/) M4ica esculenta %uc#KHa". C5.
E.Eon
02
++ KDLA (?uit 3ulp) L424p#us juju(a La". 0+
+* KDLA (,tea" %a/) L424p#us juju(a La". 01
+1 KD&TAK (A#ole 3lant) Lu))a acutan-ula (Linn) Ro5(. 06
+. K7M7E (?loMe) N4"p#aea al(a Linn. 182
+6 K7JA (Root ,toc/) Ees"ostac#4a (ippanata ,tap#. 18+
+0 L<GAL (Tu(eous Root) Gloiosa supe(a Linn. 181
*8 LAJ7NA (%ul() Alliu" satiFu" Linn. 186
iii
*1 MAH%AL (Root) ,i!a #o"(i)olia Linn. 118
*2 MAN=9&'H (,te") Ru(ia co!i)olia Linn. 112
*$ MAR9CA (?uit) 3ipe ni-u" Linn. 11*
*+ M&A3ARG (A#ole 3lant) Tea"nus la(ialis ,pen-. 116
** MA,>RA (,ee!) Lens culinais Me!ic. 121
*1 M7EGA (,ee!) 3#aseolus a!iatus Linn. 12$
*. M>LAKA (,ee!) Rap#anus satiFus Linn. 12*
*6 M7GT9K (Lea)) ,p#aeant#us in!icus Linn. 12.
*0 M7,T (R#i2o"e) C4peus otun!us Linn. 120
18 NGA@ALL (Lea)) 3ipe (etle Linn. 1$1
11 NR9KCLA (Cn!ospe") Cocos nuci)ea Linn. 1$+
12 N9C7LA (?uit) %in-tonia acutan-ula (Linn.)
Gaetn.
1$1
1$ NL (A#ole 3lant) 9n!i-o)ea tinctoia Linn. 1$6
1+ N9RG7G (Lea)) @ite5 ne-un!o Linn. 1+2
1* 3AEMAKA (Heat Aoo!) 3unus ceasoi!es E.Eon. 1+*
11 3'AL (Root) ,teeospe"u" suaFeolens EC. 1+.
1. 3HALG7 (?uit) ?icus #ispi!a Linn. 1+0
16 3HALG7 (Root) ?icus #ispi!a Linn. 1*1
10 3RA37NNA (,ee!) Cassia toa Linna. 1*$
.8 RAKTACANEANA (Heat Aoo!) 3teocapus santalinus Linn. 1**
.1 RAKTA37NRNA@A (Root) %oe#aaFia !i))usa Linn. 1*.
.2 RMAJ9TAL9K (A#ole 3lant) A"aant#us ticolo Linn. 1*0
.$ R,N (Leal) 3luc#ea lanceolata DliFe B
Hie".
112
.+ ,AHACARA (A#ole 3lant) %alaia pionitis Linn. 11*
.* ,AHAEC@9 (A#ole 3lant) @enonia cineea Liees. 110
.1 JA9LCIA (Lic#en) 3a"elia pelata ( Hu!s.) Ac#. 1.2
.. JKA (Heat Aoo!) Tectona -an!is Linn.?. 1.+
iv
.6 JKHD'AKA (,te" %a/) ,te(lus aspe Lou. 1.1
.0 JLA3ARG (Root) Ees"o!u" -an-eticu" EC. 1.6
68 JL (?uit) D42a satiFa Linn. 161
61 JLMAL9 (,te" %a/) %o"(a5 cei(a Linn. 16$
62 JAGA (,ee!) Cotalaia juncea Linn. 16*
6$ JARA (Root) ,acc#aua" (en-alense Ret2. 16.
6+ ,ARALA (Heat Aoo!) 3inus o5(u-#ii ,a-ent. 160
6* ,ARALA (Root) 3inus o5(u-#ii ,a-ent. 101
61 ,AR&A3A (,ee!) %assica ca"pestis Linn. 10$
6. JATA3ATR9K (?loMe) Rosa centi)olia Linn. 10*
66 J9HJA3 (Heat Aoo!) Eal(e-ia sissoo Ro5(. 10.
60 J9HJA3 (,te" %a/) Eal(e-ia sissoo Ro5(. 100
08 J9R&A (,te" %a/) Al(i22ia le((ec/ %ent. 281
01 ,THA7GCIA (Lea)) Ta5us (accata Linn. 28$
02 ,>RAGA (Co") A"op#op#allus ca"panulatus
(Ro5(.) %lu"e.
28*
0$ J@CTACANEANA (Heat Aoo!) ,antalu" al(u" Linn. 28.
0+ JIDNKA (Root) Do54lu" in!icu" @ent. 280
0* TLA (9n)loescence) %oassus )la(elli)e Linn. 211
01 TR9@:T (Root) Dpeculina tupet#u" (Linn.)
,ilFa Manso.
21$
0. T7M%9N (?es# ?uit) La-enaia siceaia (Mol.)
,tan!l.
21*
06 7E7M%ARA (?uit) ?icus -lo"eata Ro5(. 21.
00 7JRA (Root) @etiFeia 2i2anio!es (Linn.)
Nas#.
210
188 7T3ALA (?loMe) N4"p#aea stellata Aill!. 221
v
LEGAL NOTICES
In India there are laws dealing with drugs that are the subject of monographs
which follow. hese monographs should be read subject to the restrictions imposed
b! these laws wherever the! are applicable.
It is e"pedient that en#uir! be made in each case in order to ensure that the
provisions of the law are being complied with.
In general$ the %rugs & Cosmetics Act$ '()* +subse#uentl! amended in '(,)
and '(-./$ the %angerous %rugs Act$ '(0* and the 1oisons Act$ '('( and the rules
framed thereunder should be consulted.
2nder the %rugs & Cosmetics Act$ the A!urvedic 1harmacopoeia of India
+A.1.I./$ 1art3I$ 4ol. III$ is the boo5 of standards for single drugs included therein and
the standards prescribed in the A!urvedic 1harmacopoeia of India$ 1art3I$ 4ol. III
would be official. If considered necessar! these standards can be amended and the
Chairman of the A!urvedic 1harmacopoeia Committee authorised to issue such
amendments. 6henever such amendments are issued the A!urvedic
1harmacopoeia of India$ 1art3I$ 4ol. III$ would be deemed to have been amended
accordingl!.
vi
GENERAL NOTICES
Title - The title of the book is Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of
Name of the Drugs - The name given on the top of each monograph of the drug is in
Sanskrit as mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics and/or in the Ayurvedic Formulary of
India Part-I and Part-II !ill be considered official" These names have been arranged in
#nglish alphabetical order" The $atin name %ta&onomical nomenclature' of each drug as
found in authentic scientific literature has been provided in the monograph in the
introductory paragraph" The official name !ill be the main title of the drug and its
scientific name !ill also be considered as legal name"
Introductory Para - #ach monograph begins !ith an introductory paragraph indicating
the part scientific name of the drug in $atin !ith short description about its habit
distribution and method of collection if any"
Synonyms - Synonyms of each drug appearing in each monograph in Sanskrit #nglish
(indi )rdu and other Indian regional languages have been mentioned as found in the
classical te&ts Ayurvedic Formulary of India Part-I and Part-II as procured from the
e&perts scholars of Ayurveda and officials in the field from different states"
Italics - Italic type has been used for scientific name of the drug appearing in the
introductory paragraph of each monograph as also for chemicals and reagents
substances or processes described in Appendi&"
Odour and Taste - *herever a specific odour has been found it has been mentioned
but the description as +odourless, or +no odour, has in many cases been avoided in the
description as large numbers of drugs have got no specific odour" The odour- is
e&amined by directly smelling ./ g of the po!dered drug contained in a package or
freshly po!dered" If the odour is discernible the sample is rapidly transferred to an open
container and re-e&amined after 0/ minutes" If the odour persists to be discernible it is
described as having odour"
The Taste- of a drug is e&amined by taking a small 1uantity of 2/ mesh po!der
by a tip of moist glass rod and applying it on tongue previously rinsed !ith !ater" This
may not be done in case if poisonous drugs indicated in monograph"
Mesh Number - *herever the po!dering of the drug has been re1uired the sieve 3esh
4umber 2/- has been used" This !ill not apply for drugs containing much oily substance"
Weights and Measures - The metric system of !eights and measures is employed"
*eights are given in multiples or fractions of a gramme %g' or of a milligram %mg'" Fluid
measures are given in multiples or fractions of millilitre %ml'"
*hen the term drop- is used the measurement is to be made by means of a
tube !hich delivers in .5 drops 0 gram of distilled !ater at 0/
o
6"
3etric measures are re1uired by the Pharmacopoeia to be graduated at .5
o
6 and
all measurements involved in the analytical operations of the Pharmacopoeia are
intended unless other!ise stated to be made at that temperature"
Identity, Purity and Strength - )nder the heading Identification- tests are provided
as an aid to identification and are described in their respective monographs"
The term Foreign 3atter- is used to designate any matter !hich does not form
part of the drug as defined in the monograph" 7egetable drugs used as such or in
formulations should be duly identified and authenticated and be free from insects
vii
pests fungi micro-organisms pesticides and other animal matter including animal
e&creta be !ithin the permitted and specified limits for lead arsenic and heavy metals
and sho! no abnormal odour colour sliminess mould or other evidence of
deterioration"
The 1uantitative tests e"g" total ash acid-insoluble ash !ater-soluble ash
alcohol-soluble e&tractive !ater- soluble e&tractive ether-soluble e&tractive moisture
content volatile oil content and assays are the methods upon !hich the standards of
Pharmacopoeia depend" The methods for assays are described in their respective
monographs and for other 1uantitative tests methods are not repeated in the te&t of
monographs but only the corresponding reference of appropriate appendi& is given" The
analyst is not precluded from employing an alternate method in any instance if he is
satisfied that the method !hich he uses !ill give the same result as the
Pharmacopoeial 3ethod" In suitable instances the methods of microanalysis if of
e1uivalent accuracy may be substituted for the tests and assays described" (o!ever in
the event of doubt or dispute the methods of analysis of the Pharmacopoeia are alone
authoritative"
Limits for ea!y Metals 8 All Ayurvedic 9rugs %Single/6ompound formulation' must
comply !ith the limits for (eavy 3etals prescribed in individual 3onograph and !herever
limit is not given then they must comply !ith the limits given in *(: publication
;uality 6ontrol 3ethods for 3edicinal Plants and 3aterial-"
Standards - For statutory purpose statements appearing in the API Part-I 7ol" 7
under 9escription those of definition of the part and source plants and Identity Purity
and Strength shall constitute standards"
Thin Layer "hromatogra#hy $T%L%"%& - )nder this head !herever given the number
of spots and <f values of the spots !ith their colour have been mentioned as a guide for
identification of the drug and not as Pharmacopoeial re1uirement" (o!ever the analyst
may use any other solvent system and detecting reagent in any instance if he is satisfied
that the method !hich he uses even by applying kno!n reference standards !ill give
better result to establish the identity of any particular chemical constituent reported to
be present in the drug"
'uantities to be (eighed for )ssays and Tests - In all description 1uantity of the
substance to be taken for testing is indicated" The amount stated is appro&imate but the
1uantity actually used must be accurately !eighed and must not deviate by more than
05 per cent from the one stated"
"onstant Weight - the term 6onstant *eight- !hen it refers to drying or ignition
means that t!o consecutive !eighings do not differ by more than 0"5 mg per g of the
substance taken for the determination the second !eighing follo!ing an additional hour
of drying on further ignition"
"onstituents - )nder this head only the names of important chemical constituents
groups of constituents reported in research publications have been mentioned as a guide
and not as pharmacopoeial re1uirement"
Percentage of Solutions - In defining standards the e&pression per cent %=' is used
according to circumstances !ith one of the four meanings given belo!"
Per cent !/! %percentage !eight in !eight' e&presses the number of grammes of
active substance in 055 grammes of product"
Per cent !/v %Percentage !eight in volume' e&presses the number of grammes of
active substance in 055 millilitres of product"
viii
Per cent v/v %percentage volume in volume' e&presses the number of millilitres of
active substance in 055 millilitres of product"
Per cent v/! %percentage volume in !eight' e&presses the number of millilitres of
active substance in 055 grammes of product"
Percentage of alcohol - All statements of percentage of alcohol %6.(/:(' refer to
percentage by volume at 0/"/>
o
6"
Tem#erature - )nless other!ise specified all temperatures refer to centigrade %celsius'
thermometric scale"
Solutions - )nless other!ise specified in the individual monograph all solutions are
prepared !ith purified !ater"
*eagents and Solutions - The chemicals and reagents re1uired for the test in
Pharmacopoeia are described in Appendices"
Solubility - *hen stating the solubilities of 6hemical substances the term Soluble- is
necessarily sometimes used in a general sense irrespective of concomitant chemical
changes"
Statements of solubilities !hich are e&pressed as a precise relation of !eights of
dissolved substance of volume of solvent at a stated temperature are intended to apply
at that temperature" Statements of appro&imate solubilities for !hich no figures are
given are intended to apply at ordinary room temperature"
Pharmacopoeial chemicals !hen dissolved may sho! slight physical impurities
such as fragment of filter papers fibres and dust particles unless e&cluded by definite
tests in the individual monographs"
*hen the e&pression parts- is used in defining the solubility of a substance it is
to be understood to mean that 0 gramme of a solid or 0 millilitre of a li1uid is soluble in
that number of millilitres of the solvent represented by the stated number of parts"
*hen the e&act solubility of pharmacopoeial substance is not kno!n a
descriptive term is used to indicate its solubility"
The follo!ing table indicates the meaning of such terms ?-
Descri#ti!e terms *elati!e +uantities of sol!ent
7ery soluble $ess than 0 part
Freely soluble From 0 to 05 parts
Soluble From 05 to @5 parts
Sparingly soluble From @5 to 055 parts
Slightly soluble From 055 to 0555 parts
7ery slightly soluble From 0555 to 05555 parts
Practically insoluble 3ore than 05555 parts
Thera#eutic uses and im#ortant formulations 8Therapeutic uses and important
formulations mentioned in this Pharmacopoeia are as provided in the recognised
Ayurvedic classics and in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India Part 8I and Part-II"
Doses 8 The doses mentioned in each monograph are in metric system of !eights
!hich are the appro&imate conversions from classical !eights mentioned in Ayurvedic
ix
te&ts" A conversion table is appended giving classical !eights of Ayurvedic System of
3edicine !ith their metric e1uivalents" 9oses mentioned in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia
of India %A"P"I"' are intended merely for general guidance and represent unless
other!ise stated the average range of 1uantities per dose !hich is generally regarded
suitable by clinicians for adults only !hen administered orally"

It is to be noted that the relation bet!een doses in metric and Ayurvedic systems
set forth in the te&t is of appro&imate e1uivalence" These 1uantities are for convenience
of prescriber and sufficiently accurate for pharmaceutical purposes"
The abbreviations commonly employed are as follo!s?

)bbre!iations of technical terms
m 3etre
l $itre
mm 3illimetre
cm 6entimetre
A 3icron %5"550 mm'
kg Bilogram
g Cramme
mg 3illigram
ml 3illilitre
in 4ormal solution
5"/ 4 (alf-normal solution
5"0 4 9ecinormal solution
03 3olar solution
Fam" Family
PS Primary Standards
TS Transverse Section
)bbre!iations used for Languages
Sansk" Sanskrit
Assam" Assamese
Deng" Dengali
#ng" #nglish
CuE" CuErati
Ban" Bannada
Bash" Bashmiri
3al" 3alayalam
3ar" 3arathi
:ri" :riya
PunE" PunEabi
Tam" Tamil
Tel" Telugu
x
),,*-.I)TIONS /O* P)*TS O/ PL)NTS
6otyledon 6otldn"
Flo!er Fl"
Fruit Fr"
(eart *ood (t" *d"
$eaf $f"
Pseudo-bulb Pseudo-bulb
<oot Dark <t" Dk"
<oot <t"
<hiFome <F"
Seed Sd"
Stem Dark St" Dk"
Stem St"
Tuberous <oot Tub" <t"
*ood *d"
*hole Plant *h" Pl"
xi
1. Adhaki (Rt.)
HAK (Root)
O#a/P consists o) !ie! oot o) Cajanus cajan (Linn.) Millsp. (?a". ?a(aceae)Q an
annual o peennialR eect s#u(R 1.2K$.1 " #i-#R cultiFate! al"ost t#ou-#out as a pulse cop
upto an altitu!e o) 16$8 " in t#e Hi"ala4as. 9t is "ainl4 -oMn in 7tta 3a!es#R Ma!#4a
3a!es#R %i#aR Ma#aas#ta an! Ta"il Na!u.
SYNONYMS
,ans/it S TuFaP
Assa"ese S Ru#a"a#
%en-ali S A!aR Aa#aeeR A#a
Cn-lis# S 3i-eon 3eaR Re! Ga"
Gujati S TuFaR TuFeaR TuR TuFe
Hin!i S Aa#a!R Aa#a
Kanna!a S To-aiR ToFaeeR To-aiR Kai 7!!uR To-ai(ele
Kas#"ii S KK
Mala4ala" S T#uFaaR TuFaa
Maat#i S TooR TooiR Tua
Di4a S Haa!aR Kan!ula-ac##a
3unja(i S A#a
Ta"il S ToFaaiR T#oFa4R A!a-i TuFaiR T#uFaaiR TuFaaiR T#oFaai
Telu-u S Kan!uluR Ka!ulu
7!u S A#a
DESCRITION
a) Ma!"o#!o$i!
Root stoutR (anc#e!R c4lin!icalR tapein- #aFin- a nu"(e o) secon!a4 oots an!
ootletsR su)ace ou-# !ue to tansFesel4 unnin- li-#t (oMn lenticelsR cea" to li-#t
4elloM e5tenall4R !it4 M#ite intenall4Q )actueR #a! an! )i(ousQ o!ouR c#aacteisticQ
12
tasteR aci!.
%) Mi!"o#!o$i!
Matue oot s#oMs $K. la4es o) co/ o) ectan-ulaR tan-entiall4 elon-ate!R t#in
Malle! cellsR inteupte! at cetain places (4 lenticelsQ secon!a4 cote5 consists o) oute
$K. la4es o) t#inKMalle!R so"eM#at tan-entiall4 elon-ate! paenc#4"atous cellR )olloMe!
(4 a oM o) oFal to elon-ate! stone cellsR t#ic/KMalle!R ellipticalR Mit# Mi!e lu"enQ so"e
a!joinin- paenc#4"atous cells contain pis"atic c4stals o) calciu" o5alateQ in t#e inne
e-ion stan!s o) isolate! o -oups o) 2K12 li-ni)ie! )i(es pesentQ secon!a4 p#loe"
consists o) sieFe ele"entsR )i(es an! p#loe" paenc#4"aR taFese! (4 p#loe" a4sQ
p#loe" )i(es li-ni)ie!R Faia(le in si2e Mit# pointe! tips an! Mi!e lu"en scattee!
t#ou-#out p#loe" e-ion in sin-le o in -oupsQ so"e stone cellsR "ostl4 in -oups an!
possessin- 4elloMis# contentsR also )oun! scattee! in inne p#loe"Q p#loe" a4s
nu"eousR uni to tiseiate an! stai-#tQ a4 cells ectan-ula to oun!e! in inne p#loe"
e-ionR oun!e! to tan-entiall4 elon-ate! in oute p#loe"Q ca"(iu" consistin- o) +K1 oMs
o) t#inKMalle!R naoMR tan-entiall4 elon-ate! colouless cellsQ 54le" occupies (ul/ o) oot
an! co"pose! o) FesselsR tac#ei!sR 54le" paenc#4"a an! )i(esQ Fessels o) Fa4in- si2es
#aFin- pitte! Malls occu in s"all -oups o) 2K$ an! also as occasionall4 isolate! units in
la-e -oups o) +K.Q )i(es s#ot Mit# Mi!e lu"en an! pointe! tipsQ paenc#4"a t#in Malle!
an! ectan-ulaQ 54le" a4s nu"eousR uni to tiseiateR (iseiate (ein- "oe co""onR
stai-#tR $K2* cells #i-#R a!iall4 elon-ate!.
o&d'" K Cea" coloue!Q s#oMs nu"eous pieces o) pitte! FesselsR )i(esR co/ cellsR
scleei!s an! a )eM pis"atic c4stals o) calciu" o5alate.
IDENTITY( )RITY AND STRENGTH

?oei-n "atte Not "oe t#an 2 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.2.
Total As# Not "oe t#an $.* pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.$.
Aci!Kinsolu(le as# Not "oe t#an 8.. pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.+.
Alco#olKsolu(le e5tactiFe Not less t#an 2 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.1.
AateKsolu(le e5tactiFe Not less t#an + pe centR Appen!i5 2.2...

T.L.C.
13
T.L.C. o) alco#olic e5tact on ,ilica -el TGT plate usin- Ct#4lacetate S Met#anol (08 S
18) v/v s#oMs un!e 7.@. ($11 n") si5 )luoescent 2ones at R). 8.81R 8.28R 8.10R 8.68R 8.08
(all (lue) an! 8.02 (4elloM). Dn spa4in- Mit# *U Met#anolic ,ulp#uic aci! si5 spots
appea on #eatin- t#e plate at 18*C )o a(out ten "inutes at R). 8.81R 8.22R 8.$8R 8.68R 8.66
an! 8.02 (all -e4).


CONSTIT)ENTS K ,aponins an! Re!ucin- ,u-as.


ROERTIES AND ACTION
Ra#a S KaVW4aR Ma!#ua
G*+a S RX/VaR La-#u
,-".a S JPta
,i$/ka S KaYu
Ka"0a S @Wta/aaR 3itta#aaR Kap#a#aaR GW#PR @aZ4aR Ruci/aaR @iVa-#na
IMORTANT 1ORM)LATIONS K Ma#W 3a[ca-aF4a G#\taR KW]/W4ana GuYi/W
THERAE)TIC )SES K Ra/taFi/Wa
DOSE K 2K1 - o) t#e !u- in poM!e )o"


14
2. A34i0a4tha (Rt.)
AGN5MANTHA (Root)
A-ni"ant#a consists o) !ie! "atue oots o) Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. (?a".
@e(enaceae)Q a la-e s#u( o s"all tee eac#in- upto 0 " in #ei-#tR Mit# "oe o less
pu(escent (anc#esR )oun! in !4 pats t#ou-#out t#e count4.
SYNONYMS
,ans/it S GaZi/Wi/W R =a4antPR =a4W
Assa"ese S KK
%en-ali S Gani4aiR AniR Goniai
Cn-lis# S KK
Gujati S AaniR Aani"ulaR Ani
Hin!i S 7ni
Kanna!a S Ta--iR Ta--i %eu
Kas#"ii S KK
Mala4ala" S Munja
Maat#i S Ta/ali"ula
Di4a S Gania4
3unja(i S KK
Ta"il S Ta2#uta2#ai
Telu-u S Talu/i
7!u S 3an
DESCRITION
a) Ma!"o#!o$i!
Eu- pieces .K1* c" lon-R 8.2 K$.8 c" t#ic/R occasionall4 (anc#e!R c4lin!icalR
tou-#R 4elloMis#K(oMn e5tenall4R (a/ t#inR occasionall4 easil4 peele!R oute su)ace
ou-# !ue to e5)oliationR Moo! li-#t 4elloMR )actue #a!Q tasteR sli-#tl4 astin-ent.
15

%) Mi!"o#!o$i!
Root s#oMs e5)oliatin- co/R consistin- o) 18K1*R occasionall4 "oeR oMs o)
tan-entiall4 elon-ate!R t#inKMalle! cellsQ secon!a4 cote5 consists o) oun! to oFal
paenc#4"atous cellsR a )eM containin- #o"(oi!al c4stals o) calciu" o5alateQ secon!a4
p#loe" consists o) iso!ia"eticR t#inKMalle!R paenc#4"atous cellsR a )eM o) t#e"
containin- #o"(oi!al c4stals o) calciu" o5alateQ p#loe" a4s !istinctR consistin- o)
a!iall4 elon-ate! cellsQ secon!a4 54le" s#oMs a Mi!e 2oneR consistin- o) usual ele"entsR
all (ein- li-ni)ie!Q Fessels )oun! in sin-le as Mell as in -oups o) 2K$R scattee! t#ou-#out
54le" e-ionQ 54le" paenc#4"a si"ple pitte!R s;uais# Mi!e lu"enQ 54le" a4s 1K*
seiateR consistin- o) a!iall4 elon-ate! cellsQ #o"(oi!al c4stal o) calciu" o5alate pac/e!
in 54le" paenc#4"a an! 54le" a4sQ a(un!ant si"pleR oun! stac# -ains "easuin- 1K1.
in !ia.R )oun! scattee! t#ou-#out.
o&d'" K Eull 4elloMQ s#oMs )a-"ents o) co/ cellsR s"allR pointe!R aseptateR li-ni)ie!
)i(esR si"pleR pitte! FesselsR li-ni)ie! cells pac/e! Mit# #o"(oi!al c4stals o) calciu"
o5alate an! nu"eous si"pleR oun! to oFal stac# -ains #aFin- naoM #ilu"R "easuin-
1K11 in !ia"ete.
IDENTITY( )RITY AND STRENGTH

?oei-n "atte Not "oe t#an 2 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.2.
Total As# Not "oe t#an 1 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.$.
Aci!Kinsolu(le as# Not "oe t#an 1 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.+.
Alco#olKsolu(le e5tactiFe Not less t#an 2 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.1.
AateKsolu(le e5tactiFe Not less t#an * pe centR Appen!i5 2.2...

T.L.C.
T.L.C. o) t#e alco#olic e5tact on ,ilica -el TGT plate usin- C#loo)o" S Met#anol
(6* S 1*) s#oMs un!e 7.@. ($11 n") )ou )luoescent 2ones at R). 8.18 (li-#t 4elloM)R 8.$6R
8.*0 an! 8.08 (all (lue). Dn e5posue to 9o!ine Fapou si5 spots appea at R). 8.18R 8.$6R
16
8.*0R 8..6R 8.6. an! 8.06 (all 4elloM). Dn spa4in- Mit# *U Met#anolic3#osp#o"ol4(!ic
aci! ea-ent an! #eatin- t#e plate )o a(out ten "inutes at 18*C si5 spots appea at R).
8.18R 8.$6R 8.*0R 8..6R 8.6. an! 8.06 (all -e4).


CONSTIT)ENTS K ,teols


ROERTIES AND ACTION
Ra#a S KaYuR Ti/taR KaVW4a
G*+a S La-#uR RX/Va
,-".a S 7VZa
,i$/ka S KaYu
Ka"0a S @Wta#aaR Kap#a#aaR JFa4at#u#aaR @Wta/aa
IMORTANT 1ORM)LATIONS K Ea^a"XlWiVYaR Ea^a"Xla KFWt#a CXZaR 9n!u/Wnta G#
\taR E#WnFantaa G#\taR GoocanW!i @aYPR NWW4aZa Taila
THERAE)TIC )SES K Jot#aR 3WZOuR A^aR @WtaFi/WaR @i(an!#aR A-ni"Wn!4aR !#"WnaR
Gul"aR MXta/\cc#aR MXtW-#Wta
DOSE K 12K2+ - o) t#e !u- in poM!e )o" )o !ecoction.


17
6. A0%a#thaki (Rt.)
AM7A89HAK (Root)
A"(aVY#a/P consists o) !ie! oots o) Hi(iscus sa(!ai))a Linn. (?a". MalFaceae)Q an
annualR eectR s#u(R -eneall4 cultiFate! in t#e #otte pats o) 9n!ia.
SYNONYMS
,ans/it S KK
Assa"ese S KK
%en-ali S Masts 3alR Mesta
Cn-lis# S =a"aican ,oel
Gujati S A"(o!i
Hin!i S 3atsanR 3atna
Kanna!a S 3u!isoppuR Ke"pu 3un!i/e 3ullic#e/i
Kas#"ii S KK
Mala4ala" S 3aicca/a"R 3ulic#eea
Maat#i S Lala"(ai
Di4a S K#ataaR KauniaR Ta/ %#en!
3unja(i S Kola!a
Ta"il S 3ulic#i/ie
Telu-u S 3un!i/uaR Gon-ua
7!u S 3atsan
DESCRITION
a) Ma!"o#!o$i!
Tap oot -e4is#K(oMn in colouR stoutR c4lin!ical Mit# "an4 lateal (anc#es
-a!uall4 tapein- toMa!s loMe en!R "o!eatel4 ou-# !ue to "inute lon-itu!inal
Min/lesR 1K2 c" t#ic/Q )actueR )i(ous in (a/ e-ion an! s#ot in Moo! e-ionQ no
c#aacteistic o!ou an! taste.
18

%) Mi!"o#!o$i!
Matue oot s#oMs $K* la4es o) co/ consistin- o) tan-entiall4 elon-ate! ectan-ula
cellsQ secon!a4 cote5 al"ost a(sentR M#en pesent 2K$ la4ee!R oFal to pol4-onalR t#inK
Malle!R paenc#4"atous cellsQ secon!a4 p#loe" co"pose! o) usual ele"entsQ secon!a4
54le" consists o) FesselsR tac#ei!sR )i(es an! paenc#4"a taFese! (4 54le" a4sQ Fessels
solita4 o 2K+ in -oups Mit# pitte! t#ic/enin-Q )i(es an! tac#ei!s s#ot to "o!eatel4
lon- Mit# pitte! MallsQ "e!ulla4 a4s 1K$ cells Mi!e an! "ulticelle! in #ei-#tQ stac# -ains
(ot# si"ple an! co"poun! an! t#e late #aFin- 2K$ co"ponentsR "easuin- *.*K1+ in !ia.
pesent in p#loe" paenc#4"aR 54le" paenc#4"a an! a4 cells.
o&d'" : Ge4is#K(oMnQ s#oMs pitte! FesselsR )a-"ents o) co/ cellsR )i(es an! tac#ei!sR
(ot# si"ple an! co"poun! stac# -ains "easuin- *.*K1+ in !ia. #aFin- 2K$ co"ponents.
IDENTITY( )RITY AND STRENGTH

?oei-n "atte Not "oe t#an 2 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.2.
Total As# Not "oe t#an 11 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.$.
Aci!Kinsolu(le as# Not "oe t#an $ pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.+.
Alco#olKsolu(le e5tactiFe Not less t#an 2 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.1.
AateKsolu(le e5tactiFe Not less t#an * pe centR Appen!i5 2.2...

T.L.C.
T.L.C. o) t#e alco#olic e5tact on ,ilica -el TGT plate usin- nK%utanol S Acetic aci! S
Aate (+S 1S *) s#oMs un!e 7. @. ($11 n") )ou )luoescent 2ones at R). 8.$1R 8.11R 8.02
(all (lue) an! 8.0* (pin/). Dn e5posue to 9o!ine Fapou tMelFe spots appea at R). 8.81R
8.12R 8.1.R 8.22R 8.20R 8.$1R 8.++R 8.*0R 8.11R 8..2R 8.62 an! 8.02 (all 4elloM). Dn spa4in-
Mit# *U Ct#anolic ,ulp#uic aci! ea-ent an! #eatin- t#e plate at 18*C )o ten "inutes
seFen spots appea at R). 8.20 (-e4)R 8.$1 (Fiolet)R 8.++R 8.11R 8..$R 8.62 an! 8.02 (all
-e4).

19

CONSTIT)ENTS K ,teols an! 3ol4sacc#ai!es


ROERTIES AND ACTION
Ra#a S Ma!#uaR A"laR Ti/taR KaVW4a
G*+a S La-#u
,i$/ka S A"la
Ka"0a S 3itta#aaR Kap#a#aaR Ast#isan!#Wna/aR @aZaopaZaR Ruci/aaR EPpanaR
KaZY#a^o!#ana
IMORTANT 1ORM)LATIONS K 3uV4Wnu-a CXZa
THERAE)TIC )SES K 3a/FWtisWaR Kap#ao-aR Galao-aR @Wtao-aR Ast#i(#a-naR @aZa
DOSE K * K18 -


20
;. A0"a (Sd.)
MRA (S''d)
"a consists o) !ie! see! o) Mangifera indica Linn. (?a". Anaca!iaceae)R a tee
)oun! Mil! o cultiFate! t#ou-#out t#e count4.
SYNONYMS
,ans/it S "a(Pja"ajjW
Assa"ese S KK
%en-ali S A"
Cn-lis# S Man-o
Gujati S Aa"(aoR A"(anooR Aa"(oR Kei
Hin!i S Aa"
Kanna!a S A"aFina
Kas#"ii S KK
Mala4ala" S Man-a
Maat#i S Aa"(a
Di4a S A"/oiliR A"(a/oiti
3unja(i S A"(
Ta"il S Man-ottai 3auppuR Maan-ottai
Telu-u S Ma"i!iK=ee!i
7!u S Aa"
DESCRITION
a) Ma!"o#!o$i!
,ee! $K+.* c" lon-R 1.*K2.* c" Mi!eR oFoi!R o(lon- coFee! Mit# Min/le!
inte-u"entR (ot# oute an! inne inte-u"ent closel4 unite!R oute inte-u"ent (u)) coloue!R
inne inte-u"ent e!!is#K(oMnQ tasteR (itte an! astin-ent.

21
%) Mi!"o#!o$i!
,ee! s#oMs oute inte-u"ent consistin- o) tan-entiall4 elon-ate!R ie-ulaR t#inK
Malle!R paenc#4"atous cellsR Mit# pool4 !eFelope! con!uctin- tissues o) Fessels s#oMin-
spial t#ic/enin-s toMa!s inne inte-u"entR inne inte-u"ent consistin- o) sli-#tl4
ectan-ulaR MaF4 an! la-e t#inKMalle! paenc#4"atous cellsQ cot4le!ons 2R co"pose! o)
iso!ia"eticR paenc#4"atous cells )ull4 pac/e! Mit# si"ple an! co"poun! stac# -ainsQ
co"poun! stac# -ains consistin- o) 2K1 co"ponentsR eac# stac# -ain oun! to oFalR
"easuin- 2K26 in !ia.R a )eM con!uctin- tissues Mit# spial Fessels also )oun! scattee!
in paenc#4"atous cells o) cot4le!ons.
o&d'" : Ge4is#K(u))Q s#oMs e!!is#Koan-e coloue! cells o) inte-u"entR t#inKMalle!R
paenc#4"atous cellsR si"ple an! co"poun! stac# -ainsR consistin- o) 2K1 co"ponentsR
"easuin- 2K26 in !ia"ete.
IDENTITY( )RITY AND STRENGTH

?oei-n "atte Not "oe t#an 1 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.2.
Total As# Not "oe t#an $ pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.$.
Aci!Kinsolu(le as# Not "oe t#an 8.* pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.+.
Alco#olKsolu(le e5tactiFe Not less t#an 18 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.1.
AateKsolu(le e5tactiFe Not less t#an 18 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2...

ASSAY

T.L.C.
T.L.C. o) t#e alco#olic e5tact on ,ilica -el TGT plate usin- nK%utanol S Acetic aci!S
Aate (+S1S*) s#oMs un!e 7.@. ($11 n") tMo )luoescent 2ones at R). 8.12 (4elloMis#) an!
8.02 ((lue). Dn e5posue to 9o!ine Fapou )iFe spots appea at R). 8.8.R 8.20R 8.12R 8... an!
8.0$ (all 4elloM). Dn spa4in- Mit# *U Met#anolicK,ulp#uic aci! ea-ent an! #eatin- t#e
plate )o a(out ten "inutes at 118C )iFe spots appea at R). 8.8. (-e4)R 8.20 (-e4)R 8.12
(-e4)R 8... ((oMn) an! 8.0$ ((oMn).
22


CONSTIT)ENTS K Tannins K 34o-allotannins


ROERTIES AND ACTION
Ra#a S KaVW4aR Ma!#ua
G*+a S RX/Va
,-".a S JPta
,i$/ka S KaYu
Ka"0a S ,a_-W#PR @Wta/aaR K\"i-#na
IMORTANT 1ORM)LATIONS K 3uV4Wnu-a CXZaR %\#at Ga]-W!#aa CXZaR A^o/WiVYa
THERAE)TIC )SES K AtPsWaR 3aFW#i/WR C#a!iR EW#aR TFa-o-a
DOSE K 1K2 - o) t#e !u- in poM!e )o"


23
<. A0"a (St.7k.)
MRA (St'0 7a"k)
"a consists o) !ie! ste" (a/ o) Man-i)ea in!ica Linn. (?a". Anaca!iaceae)R a
tee )oun! Mil! o cultiFate! t#ou-#out t#e count4.
SYNONYMS
,ans/it S "a
Assa"ese S Aa"
%en-ali S A"R A"a
Cn-lis# S Man-o
Gujati S A"(o
Hin!i S A"a
Kanna!a S MaFu
Kas#"ii S KK
Mala4ala" S MaFu
Maat#i S A"(a
Di4a S A"R A"(a
3unja(i S A"(
Ta"il S Ma"aa"
Telu-u S A"aa"u
7!u S Aa"
DESCRITION
a) Ma!"o#!o$i!
Eu- occus in pieces o) Faia(le si2e an! t#ic/nessR su)ace ou-# !ue to
lon-itu!inal cac/sR )issues an! scattee!R aise! lenticelsR -e4is# to !a/ (oMn e5tenall4
an! 4elloMis#KM#ite to e!!is# intenall4Q o!ouR pleasantQ tasteR astin-ent.
24

%) Mi!"o#!o$i!
Matue (a/R s#oMs a Mi!e co/ consistin- o) tan-entiall4 elon-ate! cellsR a )eM
oute la4es (oMn an! inne li-#te in colouR at a )eM places lenticels appeaQ secon!a4
cote5 al"ost a(sentQ secon!a4 p#loe" Mi!eR consistin- o) sieFe ele"entsR paenc#4"a an!
p#loe" )i(esR taFese! (4 "e!ulla4 a4sR esin canals an! 4elloM coloue! elon-ate!R
tannin sacs a(un!antl4 scattee! t#ou-#out p#loe" e-ionQ stone cells t#ic/ Malle!R
li-ni)ie!R ectan-ula Mit# Mi!e lu"en also pesent in sin-le o in -oupsQ stac# -ains an!
pis"atic c4stals o) calciu" o5alate pesent in nu"(e o) p#loe" cellsQ p#loe" )i(es in
-oups co"pose! o) 2K1* o "oe cellsR lon- an! t#ic/ Malle!R p#loe" a4s 1K$ seiateR $
seiate a4s "oe co""onR so"eM#at MaF4R t#inKMalle!R a!iall4 elon-ate! an! )ille! Mit#
c4stals o) calciu" o5alate an! si"pleR oun! stac# -ainsR "easuin- 12K11 in !ia"ete.
o&d'" : %oMnQ s#oMs )a-"ents o) co/ cellsR stone cellsR sin-le o in -oupsQ p#loe"
)i(esR pis"atic c4stals o) calciu" o5alateQ si"pleR sp#eical to ellipticalR stac# -ains
"easuin- 12 K 11 in !ia"ete.
IDENTITY( )RITY AND STRENGTH

?oei-n "atte Not "oe t#an 2 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.2.
Total As# Not "oe t#an 0 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.$.
Aci!Kinsolu(le as# Not "oe t#an 2 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.+.
Alco#olKsolu(le e5tactiFe Not less t#an 28 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.1.
AateKsolu(le e5tactiFe Not less t#an 1+ pe centR Appen!i5 2.2...

ASSAY

T.L.C.
T.L.C. o) t#e alco#olic e5tact on ,ilica -el TGT plate usin- nK%utanol S Acetic aci!S
Aate (+ S 1 S *) s#oMs un!e 7.@. ($11 n") t#ee Fiolet spots at R). 8.12R 8..$ an! 8.6..
25
Dn e5posue to 9o!ine Fapou )ou 4elloM coloue! spots appea at R). 8.$$R 8.*1R 8..+ an!
8.66. Dn spa4in- Mit# *U Met#anolicK,ulp#uic aci! ea-ent an! a)te #eatin- t#e plate at
18*C )o ten "inutesR t#ee -e4 coloue! spots appea at R). 8.+0R 8.10 an! 8.66.


CONSTIT)ENTS K Tannins K 3otocatec#uic Aci!R Catec#inR Man-i)einR AlanineR
Gl4cineR KA"ino(ut4ic aci!R Kinic an! ,#i/i"ic Aci!s.


ROERTIES AND ACTION
Ra#a S KaVW4a
G*+a S La-#uR RX/Va
,-".a S JPta
,i$/ka S KaYu
Ka"0a S GW#PR Kap#apitta^W"a/aR @aZaopaZaR Ruc4a
IMORTANT 1ORM)LATIONS K N4a-o!#W!i CXZaR N4a-o!#W!i KFWt#a CXZaR
Can!anWsaFaR Ga#aZP"i#ia TailaR MXta ,a_-a#aZP4a KaVW4a CXZa
THERAE)TIC )SES K AtPsWaR @aZaR A-ni"Wn!4aR Ga#aZPR 3a"e#aR Ioni Ro-a
DOSE K $K1 - o) poM!e
2*K*8 - )o !ecoction


26
=. A0"ata (St)
MRTA (St'0)
"Wta consists o) !ie! ste" o) Spondias pinnata (Linn. ).) Ku2 ,4n. S. mangifera
Aill!.R S. acuminata Ro5(. non Ga"(le (?a". Anaca!iaceae)Q a s"allR ao"aticR !eci!uous
teeR upto 2. " #i-# an! 2K* " in -it#R )oun! Mil! o cultiFate! al"ost t#ou-#out t#e
count4R ascen!in- upto an altitu!e o) 1*88 " in t#e Hi"ala4asR an! also !isti(ute! in
An!a"ans.
SYNONYMS
,ans/it S "Wta/aR Ma/aYa"a#R KapPtana
Assa"ese S A"!a
%en-ali S A"!a
Cn-lis# S 9n!ian Ho- 3lu"R Ho- 3lu"
Gujati S =an-ali A"(oR A"(e!a
Hin!i S A"(a!a
Kanna!a S A"(ateR A"ate"aa
Kas#"ii S KK
Mala4ala" S A"(a2#a"
Maat#i S A"(a!a
Di4a S Aa(a!a
3unja(i S KK
Ta"il S Ma"pulecciR Ma"pulicci
Telu-u S A"(ala"u
7!u S 3an
DESCRITION
a) Ma!"o#!o$i!
,te" occus in cut piecesR a(out $.* K 18.8 c" lon-R 1.8K$.8 c" in !ia.R c4lin!icalR
"oe o less ou-# !ue to lon-itu!inal Min/lesQ occasionall4 a )eM oun!R po"inent lea)
27
scas also pesentR e!!is#K-e4 e5tenall4 #aFin- lenticelR M#ite o cea" coloue!
intenall4 Mit# po"inent !a/ (oMn centeR li-#t in Mei-#tQ )actue Fe4 #a!Q o!ou an!
taste not c#aacteistic.

%) Mi!"o#!o$i!
Matue ste" s#oMs a Mi!e 2one o) co/ an-in- )o" 1*K2* oMsR co"pisin- o)
tan-entiall4 elon-ate!R a!iall4 aan-e!R t#inKMalle! cells containin- e!!is#K(oMn
contentsR a )eM oute cells e5)oliatin-Q secon!a4 cote5 consistin- o) 1*K1. la4esR oFal to
pol4-onalR tan-entiall4 elon-ate!R t#inKMalle! cellsR )olloMe! (4 2K$ tan-ential (an!s
co"pisin- o) -oups o) stone cellsQ secon!a4 p#loe" consistin- o) usual ele"entsQ p#loe"
)i(es aan-e! in tan-ential (an!sR t#ic/KMalle!R li-ni)ie!Q po"inent l4si-enous caFities
suoun!e! (4 a nu"(e o) tannin sacs pesent in (etMeen t#e patc#es o) p#loe" )i(esQ
p#loe" paenc#4"a consistin- o) t#inKMalle! cells #aFin- a )eM pis"atic c4stals o)
calciu" o5alateQ secon!a4 54le" consists o) usual ele"entsR li-ni)ie!Q Fessels sin-le o in
-oups o) 2K+ #aFin- si"ple pitsR occasionall4 eticulate t#ic/enin-R )i(es )usi)o" Mit#
(lunt tipsQ tac#ei!s t#ic/KMalle!Q 54le" a4s 1K2 cells Mi!e an! $K11 cells #i-#Q stac#
-ains si"pleR oun! to oFal #aFin- concentic stiations an! #ilu"R "easuin- $K1+ in
!ia.R pesent in secon!a4 cote5R p#loe" paenc#4"aR 54le" paenc#4"a an! 54le" a4s.
o&d'" : Ge4Q s#oMs )a-"ents o) co/ cellsR p#loe" )i(esR stone cells "ostl4 in -oupsR
occasionall4 sin-leQ a )eM pis"atic c4stals o) calciu" o5alateR si"ple an! eticulate
FesselsQ stac# -ains si"pleR oun! to oFal #aFin- concentic stiations an! #ilu" in centeR
"easuin- $K1+ in !ia"ete.
IDENTITY( )RITY AND STRENGTH

?oei-n "atte Not "oe t#an 1 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.2.
Total As# Not "oe t#an 1 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.$.
Aci!Kinsolu(le as# Not "oe t#an 8.* pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.+.
Alco#olKsolu(le e5tactiFe Not less t#an 2 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.1.
AateKsolu(le e5tactiFe Not less t#an * pe centR Appen!i5 2.2...

28
T.L.C.
T.L.C. o) t#e alco#olic e5tact on ,ilica -el TGT plate usin- C#loo)o" S Ct#4lacetate
S ?o"ic aci! (* S + S 1) s#oMs in Fisi(le li-#t t#ee spots at R). 8.86R 8..+ an! 8.6$ (all
-e4). 7n!e 7@ ($11 n") )iFe )luoescent 2ones ae Fisi(le at R). 8.8+R 8..0R 8.6$R 8.6. (all
(lue) an! 8.0$ (s/4 (lue). Dn e5posue to 9o!ine Fapou si5 spots appea at R). 8.1$R 8.+6R
8..+R 8.6$R 8.6. an! 8.0$ (all 4elloM). Dn spa4in- Mit# 18U ?eic c#loi!e solution
(a;ueous) ea-ent tMo spots appea at R). 8.8+ an! 8.0$ ((ot# (lue).


CONSTIT)ENTS K Tannins


ROERTIES AND ACTION
Ra#a S KaVW4aR A"la
G*+a S Guu
,-".a S 7VZa
,i$/ka S KaYu
Ka"0a S @Wta-#naR ,Wa/a
IMORTANT 1ORM)LATIONS K EW!#i/a G#\ta
THERAE)TIC )SES K EW#aR KVa4aR Ra/ta @i/WaR AtPsWa
DOSE K 1K$ - o) poM!e


29
>. A$a0a"3a (Rt)
AMRGA (Root)
ApW"W-a consists o) !ie! oot o) Achyranthes aspera Linn. (?a". A"aant#aceae)Q a
sti)) eectR 8.1K8.0 " #i-#R #e( )oun! co""onl4 as a Mee! t#ou-#out t#e count4 up to 088
".
SYNONYMS
,ans/it S A!#a`^al4aR Ji/#aiR Ma4Xa/a
Assa"ese S C#ic#ita
%en-ali S Apan-
Cn-lis# S 3ic/l4 C#a)) ?loMe
Gujati S A-#e!o
Hin!i S C#ic#iaR Latjia
Kanna!a S 7ttaaneR 7ttaen
Kas#"ii S KK
Mala4ala" S Ka!ale!ee
Maat#i S An-#a!a
Di4a S KK
3unja(i S 3ut#a/an!aR Lattajeea
Ta"il S Na4uuFi
Telu-u S 7ttaeni
7!u S C#ic#ita
DESCRITION
a) Ma!"o#!o$i!
Tap oot c4lin!ical sli-#tl4 i((e!R upto 1.8 c" in t#ic/nessR -a!uall4 tapein-R
ou-# !ue to pesence o) so"e oot scasQ secon!a4 an! tetia4 oots pesentQ 4elloMis#K
(oMnQ o!ouR not !istinctQ taste not c#aacteistic.

30
%) Mi!"o#!o$i!
Matue oot s#oMs 1K18 la4ee!R ectan-ulaR tan-entiall4 elon-ate!R t#inKMalle!
co/ cellsQ secon!a4 cote5 consistin- o) 1K0 la4esR oFal to ectan-ulaR t#inKMalle!
paenc#4"atous cells #aFin- scattee!R t#ic/KMalle!R ie-ula li-ni)ie! stone cellsR
)olloMe! (4 *K1 !iscontinuous in-s o) ano"alous secon!a4 t#ic/enin-R co"pose! o)
Fascula tissuesQ s"all patc#es o) sieFe tu(es ae !istinct in t#e p#loe" paenc#4"a
!e"acatin- t#e 54le" in-sQ secon!a4 54le" co"pose! o) tac#ei!sR )i(es an!
paenc#4"aQ Fessels Mit# (ot# si"ple an! (o!ee! pits an! Mit# scalai)o" t#ic/enin-R
"easuin- 1$*K$+6 in len-t# an! $2K1+ in Mi!t#Q )i(es pointe! at (ot# en!s Mit# Malls
"o!eatel4 t#ic/ene!R "easuin- 218K.+8 in len-t# an! 12K2+ in Mi!t#Q tac#ei!s #aFe
tapein- en!sR "easuin- 11*K*$* in len-t# an! 1.K$+ in Mi!t#.
9n A. bidentata %L. Fessels s#oM (o!ee! pits an! eticulate t#ic/enin-Q "e!ulla4 a4s
not !istinctQ stone cells an! pis"atic c4stals a(sent in cote5.
o&d'" K IelloMis#K(oMnQ s#oMs )a-"ents o) ectan-ula co/ cellsR stone cellsR Fessels
s#oMin- (o!ee! pits an! scalai)o" t#ic/enin-R )i(es an! a )eM pis"atic c4stals o)
calciu" o5alate.
IDENTITY( )RITY AND STRENGTH

?oei-n "atte Not "oe t#an 1 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.2.
Total As# Not "oe t#an 0 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.$.
Aci!Kinsolu(le as# Not "oe t#an 1 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.+.
Alco#olKsolu(le e5tactiFe Not less t#an 2 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.1.
AateKsolu(le e5tactiFe Not less t#an 18 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2...

T.L.C.
T.L.C. o) t#e alco#olic e5tact on ,ilica -el TGT plate usin- C#loo)o"S Met#anol
(0*S*) s#oMs un!e 7@ ($11 n") )iFe )luoescent 2ones at R). 8.8*R 8.10R 8.+$R 8.*8 an!
8.0. (all li-#t (lue). Dn e5posue to 9o!ine Fapou si5 spots appea at R). 8.8*R 8.12R 8.+$R
8.*8R 8.02 an! 8.0. (all 4elloM). Dn spa4in- Mit# Ea-en!o)) ea-ent )olloMe! (4 *U
31
Met#anolicK,ulp#uic aci! ea-ent tMo spots appea at R) 8.12 an! 8.0. ((ot# li-#t oan-e).


CONSTIT)ENTS K ,aponins


ROERTIES AND ACTION
Ra#a S Ti/taR KaYu
G*+a S La-#uR RX/VaR TP/VZaR ,aa
,-".a S 7VZa
,i$/ka S KaYu
Ka"0a S EPpanaR 3WcanaR Ruc4aR @Wta#aaR Kap#anW^a/aR Me!o#aaR MXtalaR
@Wnti#aa
IMORTANT 1ORM)LATIONS K A-ast4a HaPta/P RasW4anaR Ma#W 3a[ca-aF4a G#\taR
@ast4W"a4Wnta/a G#\taR Ma#W @iVa-a(#a TailaR Apa"W-a KVWa TailaR KVWa TailaR
3anaFialW!i KVWa
THERAE)TIC )SES K C#a!iR !#"WnaR KaZOXR JXlaR ApacPR Gant#iR %#a-an!aaR H
\!o-aR =FaaR JFitaR %W!#i4aR 7!aa Ro-aR Ia/\t Ro-aR Eanta Ro-aR Ra/ta @i/Wa
DOSE K *K18 -


32
?. A"a5* (St.7k)
ARAL) (St'0 7a"k)
Aalu consists o) !ie! ste" (a/ o) Ailanthus excelsa Ro5(. (?a". ,i"au(aceae)Q a
la-e !eci!uous tee occuin- in %i#aR C##ota Na-puR Ma!#4a 3a!es#R )oests o) Ganja"R
@is#a/#apatna" an! Eeccan.
SYNONYMS
,ans/it S KaYFa]-aR EP-#aF\nta
Assa"ese S Aalu
%en-ali S KK
Cn-lis# S KK
Gujati S AalaFo
Hin!i S AluR Mau/R G#o!a Kaanj
Kanna!a S Hie"aa He((eFe
Kas#"ii S Meu"aa"R Mattipon-il4a"
Mala4ala" S Meu"aa"R Mattipon-il4a"
Maat#i S G#o!a Kaanj
Di4a S Ea/s#ina/a(alaR Ma#ala
3unja(i S Auo
Ta"il S 3euFa-ai
Telu-u S 3e!!"anu
7!u S 3an
DESCRITION
a) Ma!"o#!o$i!
%a/ t#ic/R e5tenal su)ace li-#t -e4R -anula an! ou-# !ue to pesence o)
lon-itu!inal i!-esR intenal su)ace 4elloMis#KM#ite an! )i(ousQ )actueR )i(ousQ o!ouR
!isa-eea(le M#en )es#Q tasteR (itte.

33
%) Mi!"o#!o$i!
,te" %a/ co/ "ultila4ee!R co"pactl4 aan-e!R tan-entiall4 elon-ate!R
t#inMalle! cells o(liteate! at cetain points !ue to #4ti!o"aQ secon!a4 cote5 naoMR
co"pose! o) tan-entiall4 elon-ate! cellsR a )eM cells contain osette an! pis"atic c4stals
o) calciu" o5alateQ p#loe"R Mi!eR consistin- o) sieFe ele"entsR paenc#4"aR )i(es an!
stone cellsQ a )eM la4es o) oute p#loe" collapse! )o"in- ceatenc#4"aQ stone cellsR in
-oups an! in sin-lesR pesent toMa!s oute e-ion o) p#loe"Q li-ni)ie! )i(es pesent in
-oups in a!ial oMs in inne p#loe" e-ionQ calciu" o5alate c4stals si"ila to t#ose
)oun! in secon!a4 cote5 also )oun! in p#loe" e-ionQ "e!ulla4 a4s not !istinct.
o&d'" K %oMnis#K4elloMR )a-"ents o) co/ cellsQ -oups o sin-leR oFal to pol4-onalR
t#ic/KMalle!R li-ni)ie!R stone cellsR #aFin- Mi!e lu"en Mit# !istinct stiationsR li-ni)ie!
p#loe" )i(esR a )eM osette an! pis"atic c4stals o) calciu" o5alate.
IDENTITY( )RITY AND STRENGTH

?oei-n "atte Not "oe t#an 2 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.2.
Total As# Not "oe t#an 6.* pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.$.
Aci!Kinsolu(le as# Not "oe t#an 8.* pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.+.
Alco#olKsolu(le e5tactiFe Not less t#an 1.* pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.1.
AateKsolu(le e5tactiFe Not less t#an *.* pe centR Appen!i5 2.2...

T.L.C.
T.L.C. o) t#e alco#olic e5tact on ,ilica -el TGT plate usin- C#loo)o"S Met#anol
(0* S *) s#oMs un!e 7.@. ($11 n") tMelFe )luoescent 2ones at R). 8.8. (s/4 (lue)R 8.18
(s/4 (lue) 8.21R 8.$6R 8.+. (all 4elloM)R 8.*. (s/4 (lue)R 8..1 (li-#t s/4 (lue)R 8..1R 8.61
((ot# 4elloM)R 8.6+ (s/4 (lue)R 8.0$ (M#itis# (lue) an! 8.0. (s/4 (lue). Dn e5posue to
9o!ine Fapou tMelFe spots appea at R). 8.8.R 8.18R 8.21R 8.$6R 8.+.R 8.*.R 8..1R 8..1R 8.61R
8.6+R 8.0$ an! 8.0. (all 4elloM). Dn spa4in- Mit# *U Met#anolicK,ulp#uic aci! ea-ent
an! #eatin- t#e plate at 18*C )o )i)teen "inutes t#iteen spots appea at R). 8.8.R
8.81((ot# -e4)R 8.21 (li-#t (oMn)R 8.2+ ((lue)R 8.$6R 8.+. ((ot# li-#t (oMn)R 8.*2 (pin/)R
8.*0 ((lue)R 8..1R 8..1 ((ot# li-#t (oMn)R 8.6+ ((lue)R 8.0$ an! 8.0. ((ot# !a/ -e4).
34


CONSTIT)ENTS K K,itosteolR auassinoi!sR Ailantic Aci!R 2K1 Ei"et#o54K
%en2o;uinone an! Melant#in.


ROERTIES AND ACTION
Ra#a S Ti/taR KaVW4a
G*+a S RX/Va
,-".a S JPta
,i$/ka S KaYu
Ka"0a S Kap#apitta JW"a/aR EPpanaR 3WcanaR GW#PR @aZa^o!#anaR Jo!#a/a
IMORTANT 1ORM)LATIONS K 3uV4Wnu-a CXZaR %\#at Ga]-W!#aa CXZaR Aalu
3uYapW/a
THERAE)TIC )SES K AtPsWaR K\"iR A^aR ,annipWta =FaaR %#a"aR TFa-o-aR C#a!iR
KuVY#aR 3aFW#i/WR Ga#aZPR 3a"e#aR JFWsaR Gul"aR MXVa/a @iVaja Ro-a
DOSE K 1K$ -


35
@. A"ka (St.7k)
ARKA (St'0 7a"k)
A/a consists o) !ie! ste" (a/ o) Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. %. (?a".
Asclepia!aceae)Q an eect s#u( e5u!in- "il/4 M#ite late5 )o" cut patsR )oun! Mil! "oe o
less t#ou-#out 9n!ia.
SYNONYMS
,ans/it S ,X4a
Assa"ese S A/an!R A/an
%en-ali S A/an!aR A/one
Cn-lis# S Ma!!a
Gujati S Aa/a!o
Hin!i S Aa/R Ma!aR A/aFana
Kanna!a S C//aR C//a-i!a
Kas#"ii S KK
Mala4ala" S Ci//u
Maat#i S Rui
Di4a S Aa//a
3unja(i S A//
Ta"il S @elleu//uR Cu//u
Telu-u S =ille!u
7!u S Ma!aR Aa/
DESCRITION
a) Ma!"o#!o$i!
Eu- occus in c#annelle!R ;uille! an! )i(ous piecesR upto 8.1 K 8.* c" t#ic/R
e5tenal su)ace 4elloMis# (oMn #aFin- lon-itu!inal cac/sR intenal su)ace -eenis#R
s"oot#R Mit# an occasional Moo! tissue attac#e!Q )actueR )i(ousQ o!ou an! taste not
!istinct.
36

%) Mi!"o#!o$i!
,te" (a/ s#oMs e5)oliate! co/R consistin- o) 1K6 la4es o) tan-entiall4 elon-ate!R
t#ic/KMalle! cellsQ M#ee co/ #as not !eFelope!R epi!e"is pesent consistin- o) a sin-le
la4ee! ectan-ula cells coFee! e5tenall4 Mit# stiate! cuticleQ secon!a4 cote5
co"pose! o) tan-entiall4 elon-ate!R oFalR oun!e! o ectan-ula t#inKMalle!R
paenc#4"atous cells #aFin- intecellula spacesR so"e cells contain osette c4stals o)
calciu" o5alateR a nu"(e o) oun!e!R oFal to elon-ate!R sin-le o -oups o) stone cells an!
late5 cells also )oun! scattee! in t#is e-ionQ peic4clic )i(es nu"eousR li-ni)ie!Q
secon!a4 p#loe" co"pose! o) sieFe ele"entsR p#loe" paenc#4"aR p#loe" )i(es an!
p#loe" a4sQ p#loe" paenc#4"a ectan-ula to pol4-onal in s#ape #aFin- osette c4stals
o) calciu" o5alateR late5 cells an! stone cells si"ila to t#ose )oun! in secon!a4 cote5Q
p#loe" )i(es aseptate Mit# (o!ee! pitsQ p#loe" a4s "ostl4 uniseiate an! un stai-#t.
o&d'" K Li-#t 4elloMis#K-eenQ s#oMs )i(esR stone cellsR osette c4stals o) calciu"
o5alate an! late5 cells.
IDENTITY( )RITY AND STRENGTH

?oei-n "atte Not "oe t#an 2 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.2.
Total As# Not "oe t#an 12 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.$.
Aci!Kinsolu(le as# Not "oe t#an 1* pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.+.
Alco#olKsolu(le e5tactiFe Not less t#an . pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.1.
AateKsolu(le e5tactiFe Not less t#an 1* pe centR Appen!i5 2.2...

ASSAY

T.L.C.
T.L.C. o) t#e alco#olic e5tact on ,ilica -el TGT plate usin- C#loo)o" S Met#anol
(1S 1) s#oMs un!e 7@ ($11 n") )ou )luoescent 2ones at R). 8.1$R 8..1R 8.61 an! 8.6. (all
37
(lue). Dn spa4in- Mit# Ea-en!o)) ea-ent )olloMe! (4 *U Met#anolic ,ulp#uic aci!
ea-ent one spot appeas at R). 8.86 (oan-e).


CONSTIT)ENTS K K an! K CalotopeolsR KA"4inR Gi-anteolR a Colouless Ma5R s"all
a"ount o) Tetac4clic Tepenes an! Taces o) ,teols.


ROERTIES AND ACTION
Ra#a S KaYuR Ti/ta
G*+a S La-#uR RX/VaR TP/VZaR ,aa
,-".a S 7VZa
,i$/ka S KaYu
Ka"0a S Jo!#anaR @iecanaR @Wta#aaR EPpanaR Le/#anaR RopaZa
IMORTANT 1ORM)LATIONS K A(#a4W LaFaZaR A/a LaFaZa
THERAE)TIC )SES K 7!aao-aR KuVY#aR KaZOXR @aZaR 3lP#Wo-aR Gul"aR A^aR K
\"io-a
DOSE K 8.*K1 - in poM!e )o"


38
1A. A#a4a (St.7k)
ASANA (St'0 7a"k)
Asana consists o) !ie! ste" (a/ o) Pterocarpus marsupium Ro5(. (?a". ?a(aceae)Q a
"o!eate to la-e si2e!R !eci!uous teeR upto $8 " #i-# an! 2.* " in -it#R Mit# stai-#t clea
(oleR )oun! t#ou-#out !eci!uous )oests in peninsula 9n!ia.
SYNONYMS
,ans/it S Asana/aR %Pja/aR %PjasWaR 3PtasWa
Assa"ese S Aaja
%en-ali S 3itasalaR 3i4asala
Cn-lis# S 9n!ian Kino Tee
Gujati S %i4o
Hin!i S %ijaR @ija4asaa
Kanna!a S AsanaR %ijasaa
Kas#"ii S Lal C#an!eu
Mala4ala" S @en-a
Maat#i S %i(ala
Di4a S 3ias#ala
3unja(i S C#annanlalR C#an!an Lal
Ta"il S @en-ai
Telu-u S Ie-iR @e-isa
7!u S %ijasa
DESCRITION
a) Ma!"o#!o$i!
Eu- consists o) pieces o) ste" (a/R 1K1.* c" t#ic/R c#annele!R usuall4 4elloMis#K
-e4 Mit# (oMnis# spots !ue to e5u!atesR oute su)ace ou-# an! uneFen !ue to
potu(eances an! e5)oliationsR lon-itu!inal an! #oi2ontal cac/s pesentR inne su)ace
)ail4 s"oot#Q )actue )i(ousR (ea/s Mit# "uc# !i))icult4Q tasteR astin-ent.
39

%) Mi!"o#!o$i!
,te" (a/ s#oMs t#e pesence o) #4ti!o"aQ i!io(lasts consisun- o) l4si-enous
caFitiesR pesent in a oM just (eloM co/Q secon!a4 cote5 not !istinctQ secon!a4 p#loe"
occupies al"ost tMo t#i! o) t#e t#ic/ness o) (a/ consistin- o) sieFe ele"entsR p#loe"
paenc#4"aR p#loe" )i(esR c4stal )i(es an! taFese! (4 a nu"(e o) p#loe" a4sQ sieFe
ele"ents an! paenc#4"a )oun! collapse! toMa!s t#e "i!!le an! oute e-ions o) p#loe"R
)o"in- ceatenc#4"aQ p#loe" paenc#4"a t#inKMalle!R cicula to oFalQ p#loe" )i(es
sin-le usuall4 nu"eous in -oups )o"in- altenatin- (an!s t#ouK-#out p#loe" e-ionR
t#ic/KMalle! an! li-ni)ie! Mit# a s"all lu"enQ #o"(oi!al c4stals o) calciu" o5alate )oun!
scattee! t#ou-#out t#e e-ionQ l4si-enous caFities an! tannini)eous !ucts )ille! Mit# e!
colou "asses !isti(ute! t#ou-#out p#loe" e-ionQ p#loe" a4s Fe4 close to eac# ot#eR
"ostl4 uniseiate (ut (iseiate a4s also occasionall4 )oun! .
o&d'" K IelloMis#K(oMnQ s#oMs plent4 o) li-ni)ie! )i(esR c4stal )i(esR e!!is# K (oMn
contents an! )ee #o"(oi!al c4stals o) calciu" o5alate.
IDENTITY( )RITY AND STRENGTH

?oei-n "atte Not "oe t#an 2 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.2.
Total As# Not "oe t#an 16 pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.$.
Aci!Kinsolu(le as# Not "oe t#an 1.* pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.+.
Alco#olKsolu(le e5tactiFe Not less t#an ..* pe centR Appen!i5 2.2.1.
AateKsolu(le e5tactiFe Not less t#an 11.* pe centR Appen!i5 2.2...

T.L.C.
T.L.C. o) t#e alco#olic e5tact on ,ilica -el TGT plate usin- nK%utanol S Acetic Aci!S
Aate (+S1S*) s#oMs si5 spots at R) 8.80R 8.22R 8.+1 8.*2R 8.1$ an! 8..6 (all (oMn). Dn
e5posue to 9o!ine Fapou si5 spots appea at R) 8.80R 8.22R 8.+1R 8.1$R8..6 (all (oMn) an!
8.02 (4elloM). Dn spa4in- Mit# *U Met#anolic 3#osp#o"ol4(!ic aci! ea-ent si5 spots
appea on #eatin- t#e plate at 18*C )o a(out ten "inutes at R). 8.80R 8.22 ((ot# (lue)R
8.+1 ()aint (lue)R 8.1$R 8..6 an! 8.02 (all (lue).
40


CONSTIT)ENTS K Tannins an! Gu" Kino (M#ic# contains KinoKTannic Aci!R 1KK
Cpicatec#in an! a e!!is# (oMn colouin- "atte).


ROERTIES AND ACTION
Ra#a S KaVW4aR KaYuR Ti/ta
G*+a S La-#uR RX/Va
,-".a S 7VZa
,i$/ka S KaYu
Ka"0a S ,Wa/aR @WtWti!oVanutR Gala!oVa-#naR Ke^4aR TFac4aR Ra/ta"aZOalnW^in
PR JleV"a#aaR 3itta#aa
IMORTANT 1ORM)LATIONS K NWasi_#a G#\ta RasW4ana
THERAE)TIC )SES K 3WZOuR 3a"e#aR Me!o!oVaR KuVY#aR K\"io-aR JFitaR Ma!#u"e#aR
,t#aul4a
DOSE K $2K*8 - o) t#e !u- )o !ecoction


41
11. A#thi#a0ha"aka (St.)
ASTHISAMHBTA (St'0)
Ast#isa_#\ta consists o) !ie! ste" o) Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (?a". @itaceae)Q a
peennial )les#4 cactusKli/e cli"(e Mit# ten!ils an! a ;ua!an-ula ste"R )oun! t#ou-#out
t#e #otte pats o) 9n!ia alon-si!e #e!-es.
SYNONYMS
,ans/it S @ajaFallPR Catu!#WW
Assa"ese S Hajaa
%en-ali S Ha!ajoa
Cn-lis# S KK
Gujati S Ha!asan/ala
Hin!i S Ha!jo!
Kanna!a S Man-aa(alli
Kas#"ii S KK
Mala4ala" S C#an-ala" 3aan!e
Maat#i S Kan!Fel
Di4a S Ha!(#an-a
3unja(i S Ha!!jo
Ta"il S 3ean!ai
Telu-u S Nalleu
7!u S Hat#jo!
DESCRITION
a) Ma!"o#!o$i!
Eu- occus as pieces o) ste" o) Fa4in- len-t#sQ sten ;ua!an-ulaR +KMin-e!R
inteno!es consticte! at no!esQ a ten!il occasionall4 pesent at no!esQ inteno!es +K1* c"
lon- an! 1K2 c" t#ic/Q su)ace s"oot#R -la(ousR (u)) coloue! Mit# -eenis# tin-eR an-ula
potion e!!is#K(oMnQ no taste an! o!ou.
42

%) Mi!"o#!o$i!
Matue sten s#oMs s;uais# outline Mit# po"inent pojection at eac# anula pointQ
epi!e"is sin-le la4ee!R coFee! e5tenall4 Mit# t#ic/ cuticleQ epi!e"al cells t#inKMalle!R
ectan-ula an! tan-entiall4 elon-ate!R )olloMe! (4 2K$ la4es o) co/ an! sin-le la4ee!
co/ ca"(iu"Q cote5 co"pose! o) 6K11 la4es o) t#inKMalle!R cicula to oFal
paenc#4"atous cellsQ )ou patc#es o) collenc#4"atous cells pesent in all t#e )ou an-ula
points e"(e!!e! in cotical e-ion li/e an u"(ella ac#in- oFe la-e Fascula (un!lesQ in
t#e pojecte! potion o) an-ula e-ion cotical cells )ille! Mit# (oMnKe! contents pesentQ
en!o!e"is not !istinctQ stele consists o) a la-e nu"(e o) Fascula (un!les Fa4in- in si2e
aan-e! in t#e )o" o) a in- sepaate! (4 a4s o) paenc#4"aQ $ K+ Fascula (un!les la-e
in si2eR in eac# an-ula e-ionR (eloM collenc#4"atous patc#R M#ile est o) (un!les s"alle
in si2eQ Fascula (un!les collateal an! open t4peR cappe! (4 sc1eenc#4"atous s#eat#
M#ic# is Mell !eFelope! in la-e (un!lesQ ca"(iu" an! inte)ascicula ca"(iu" ;uite
!istinctQ cental e-ion occupie! (4 a Mi!e pit# co"pose! o) t#inKMalle!R cicula to oFal
paenc#4"atous cellsQ i!io(lasts containin- ap#i!es an! isolate! acicula c4stals o)
calciu" o5alate pesent in t#e oute e-ion o) cote5 an! also in a nu"(e o) cells
t#ou-#out t#e e-ionQ osette c4stals o) calciu" o5alate also )oun! in "ost o) t#e cells in
cotical e-ionQ stac# -ains pesent t#ou-#out t#e cotical an! t#e pit# e-ions.
o&am