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f A:ZaraTabi(zlabj@ucsd.eiu) BICD120:Dr.

Schmidt
AIM:ztabi06OH:ByemailAppt. Week 3
& LifeCvcles
PlantDiversity
Yauwon'tbe asked lifecycles
todrawoutthedetailed oftheplantsdescribed butdostudythediagrams
inlecture,
yourselves
familiarize
whatishappening,
andtryto understand withimpoftant andmoreimportantly
vocabulary, the
keyconcepts.Chlamydomonasp. 331,Uvula p,
p. 335,Moss 362-363, p.
Angiosperm448-449
Fern396-397,

ofoenerations:
Alteration

. Describes
howthelifecyclesbetweentwoqenerations
ofa plant(NOTanindividual
organism!)
alternate
between (n)
a haploid phase anda diploid phase
(2n) ) The haploidgeneration
gives
rise
tothediploid
stage,
and
thediploid
stagegivesrisetothehaploidstage.
. KEYWORDS:
(2n)formofa plant.
Thediploid
- Sporophyte- Theyproduce haploid
SPORES throughMEIOSIS.
. Sporangia- thatproduces
Structure spores
- Gametophyte-
Thehaploid(n)formofa Theyproduce
plant. haploid
GAMETES through
MITOSIS.
. Gametangia- where
Structure gametes areproduced,
Canformfemalel+ (Archegonia)ormalef(Antheridium)
gametes
,0 ,tnou lfu ,Spzapr4ft/6r*anpnftc prr$ 4 ea.
. Dependffion ofger/erations
thetypeoforgani{m,'Alte'rnation canbe1 "u&../
"/
Sporophyte
- Heteromorphic- and gametophyte have different with
forms, oneformdominant,-tffiher
-Fedu€edn-
f ,tu,artz- y'azn- 1)Chlamydomonas) Trwe@n/ft' (Ferns)
3)Pterophytes ) W2rFzrc
4ffi /qtl.iedh ,a/ *2)Bryophytes (Mosses) > frul/fhf<' )
4)Angiosperms
/ pupb*O Sometimesonestage isdependent 6ntheother!

- lsomorphic- areidentical
andGametophyte
Sporophyte (ex.Uvula/Sea
inappearance Lettuce)
. Why?) Getridofdeleterious/fatalrecessive
mutations
genetic
Increase variability
TheMovefromWater oftheAnqiosperms
toLand& Success
Plant (Chlamydomonas,
ancestors andearlynon-vascular
uvula) plants(Bryophytes/Mosses)
relied
onHzOsource
formetabolic
needs(Photosynthesis, (used
etc.)andfertilization flagellated
sperm)
theirsizeandwhere
) Limited theycanlive.

plants
EarlyVascular laterevolved
t,
(Pterophytes/Fems) systemsofwater
transport
) cangrowbigger, andgrowindriersoil,butstillhadflagellated
structures
taller sostillrelied
sperm, onHzOfor
fertilization

plants
Vascular (Gymnosperms
further
evolved
tt
lAngiosperms)with pollenand
theuseofwind/animaldispersed
seeds
canliveina greater
) NOneedforHzOinfertilization, ofplaces
variety
.ll
ons'o:f#ol.'F:fl
fi::f.'Jti:l,*[T[:::3[','1ffi
T'?]Xi"illffilHlerp'ants:
- 2nZygote) Plant
embryo
offoodforplant
) source
- 3nEndosperm

andlnheritance
PlantGenetics
. Classic Inheritance
Mendelian
- Results
ofcrossdoesNOTchange, regardlessofsex
. Usually
occurswithnuclear traits) derived
fromDNAfound
innucleus
workwithpeatraits(round,
- Ex.Mendel's wrinkled,
etc.)
MOST GENETICS AREN'T THISSIMPLE!

Plasmid
lnheritance- lnvolves present
genes/components inplastids
. Usually ) Traits
Uniparental downfromONEparent
passed only
- lnAngiosperms, passes
female onit'splastids
(chloroplast)
tothenextgeneration
) WHY?
. Megagametophyte/Megaspore forproviding
(eggcell)responsible a majority
oftheembryo's
Microgametophyte/microspore
content.
cytoplasmic simplyprovides
itsDNA.
. Asa result,ALLprogeny mother's
willinherit plastid pigments,
traits(proteins, DNA,etc.)
leaves,
- Ex.Varigated plants
white/albino
" Bi-Parental
lnheritance) BOTH parents
contribute
totraitsofprogeny

Male Female Progeny


White Green i luwt rO

Variqated v Cz tAJ
Variqated
Varigated White i*nrv-'
. Inchlamydamonas, maternal
canstillobserve (* type)inheritance
- Only(+)type DNAabletobemethylated
chloroplast ) protectsfrombeing
degraded,while(-)typeDNA
isdestroyed
. Some important proteins
chloroplast encodedbyDNAinBOTH andnucleus
thechloroplast
- Ex.RUBISCO, ATPSynthase,Ribosomes
plastid
- lncompatibility
of genome andnucleargenomecomplicate ofdifferent
breeding species
. Leads proteins
ordefective
tononfunctional ) sickly, hybrids
unhealthy

Traits
haits-
Quantitative bymorethanonegene
thatarecontrolled
- Don't
see phenotypes
discrete
. Distribution
canbedescribedwitha bellcurve
) continuous
distribution
- Ex.Yield, time,Height,
Flowing etc.