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TA'.ZaraTabi(ztabi@ucsd.

edu) BICD 120:


Dr.Schmidt
OH:ByemailAppt,
AIM:ztabi06 Week3
andPolvploidv
GropDomestication
mainly
crops
oftoday's
- Domestication a consequence ofArtificial andBreeding
Selectionlisolation
for
oleracea-selecting
Ex.Brassica different gave
traits us varieties
different ofveggies!

Containing
- Polyploidy- morethan2 copieschromosome set
. Results ofcellandorgan
inincrease size(flowers,
seeds,
stems,etc.)
. Plants
withodd number ploidy
aresterile
- Chromosomes unabletopairproperly meiosis
during gametes
I non-viable
- Carbon ) since
allocation don'tproduceseeds
can useresources oftheplant
inotherparts
.ex.sugarbeets -+ al/oatc4u/?rtfr zzrs ,t/ncc 4tun.f ,fue,!?df
(3n)
Triploids
- Obtaining 7"/du4-/
1)NonDisjunctionevent) VeryRARE!
2)Combination (2n)andtetraploid
ofdiploid [n+ 2n= 3n]
(4n)gametes

(an)-TWO
Tetraploids
- Obtaining WAYS:
- Tetraploid
1)Autotetraploid fromchromosomes
created of1 individual/species
- Canoccur by means
artificial
. Colchicin*interferes formation
withmicrotubule meiosis
during

created
- Tetraploid
2)Allotetraplod individuals/species
of2 different
formchromosomes
PlantTransposable (akaTransposons)-The
Elements Genes!"
"Jumping
+b**f undinthegenome /Z @4P<4 ftea
uplargepartofplantgen6me
- Makes (50-80$andisresponsible
forvariegation er'e"
Z*,Wd| ,rea$
patterns /'fr*t

Twodifferent
tvpes:
1)Class l- "CopyandPaste"
- Uses enzymereverse andRNAintermediate
transcriptase itselftootherpartsof
toduplicate
genome 'mac/?aq/ .%'//ry/ ilm'r 7421zr,fuat trt'uah ,4arz a4qrf 7rS
- u I
z)Class ll-"CutandPaste"
- Usesenzyme tocutitself
transposase outandmove tootherpartsofgenome

[Youdon'tneedtomemorizeallofthedifferenttypes
of transposon
families
orhowbigtheyare- Understand,
though,
thatthereAREdifferent
transposonvarieties
withdifferenf
s2esandactivities.l

Mechanism
Basic
elements
-Transposable phenotypes
oftengiverisetomutable ) Alternate
between
a normal
andmutant
phenotype

Transooson
Common features
1)Allfamilies
havebothautonomous andnon-autonomous elements
- Autonomous- abletomoveitself<ancodeforitsowntransposase
- Non-Autonomous- cannot move onitsown-{ependant onautonomous elementfortransposing
. Cannot properly
codeforitsowntransposase ) duetodeletion (deletion
derivative)
. lf noautonomous element available,
willremain
insame place
&willbeindistinguishable
fromothermutants
- willbeabletomoveagain ifcrossedwithplantthatcontainted
anautonomous
elementinsame family

2)Haveterminal
inverted
repeats(TlRs)atends
- Sizedependsontransposonfamily
- Transposase
recognizesthesesitestocuttransposon
out
. Stabilizes
"stem-loop" whentransposon
Structure iscutout
3)Cause (TSD)
siteduplication
target wherever theygetinserted!
- Amount specific
ofduplication families
fordifferent
- WhenTransposon iscutout,TSDisleftbehind
. Provides
genetic thatmaybebeneficial
diversity tohost
orharmful

Howareplantsabletosurvive
withtransposons thatcanpotentially vitalgenefunction?
disrupt
thatsuopress
canhaveactivities
-Plants transposonactivitv,
^frmyoorts 9./7dap t.n 72,& '' lrtt4 6nnzzzs.) /eaz dza/sz+ tte aazl/eznp
fr o ,'
PlantDevelopment& Structure ,.
Regions
-Meristems- cells) actively
ofundifferentiated ->
dividing! 2odra r71oz/ t('r'{l
. capable intospecific
ofdifferentiating (leaves,
structures flowers)
. 2 Types:
1)Apical-
Foundattipsofrootsandshoots
- Responsibleforprimarygrowth(upanddown) found inALLtypes ofplants
2)Lateral-Foundinthevascular cambium
- Responsible
forsecondary growth(girth,
thickness) found
usually inperennial
(woody)
plants

- Plant
VascularSystem-Connectingrootsandshoots
imarv tissues:
Xylem: & MineralTransport
Water Phloem: +o\wL ?nt.ltJcts'{f^*' zutrr/es
Sugartransport
- Dead withhighly
cells lignified
cellwalls - Living NOThighly
cells-cellwalls lignified
allow water - Include
companioncellsandsieve
cells
totravelvia
cohesion andadhesion
- lncludeTracheidsandVessel Element
cell
types

byvascular
- BothTypesoftissuecreated cambium!