Y
a/s=
Two Beam Interference in Thin Dielectric Films:
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We will begin by considering only the first two rays to emerge from a film of uniform
thickness t and index of refraction n, as shown above (in reality internal reflection from the
upper boundary produces many more refracted beams). Well also assume nearnormal
incidence so that the path length of the refracted beam may be expressed in terms of the
thickness of the film.
The wavelength, n= in a medium whose refractive index is n is given by:
n=
o/n
where
o
is
the wavelength in free space
The path length difference between the reflected and refracted beams is: = (AB + BC) = 2t
or, in terms of the index of refraction in the film, n
f
(AB+ BC)=n
f
(2t)
It is apparent that when
or in terms of the wavelength in the film, 2t =
n
/2 the two beams interfere destructively
based on the path length difference, , since the path length difference is the equivalent of a
phase shift of half a wavelength.
When 2n
f
t =
0
f , or 2t =
n
, the two beams interfere constructively since the path length
difference is the equivalent of a phase shift of a full wavelength.
There exists, however, a complication. Recall that waves often undergo a phase shift upon
reflection. In beams of light: external reflections (n
f
>n
0
) f o n > n 180
0
( phase shift)
internal reflections (n
0
>n
f
) n
0
> n
f
0
0
(no phase shift)
If both reflections are internal or external no relative phase shift between the beams occurs.
The reflected phase shifting causes beams that would interfere constructively due to path
length difference alone to interfere destructively. Consider the thin film surrounded by air
shown at right.
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Beam 1 is externally reflected with a phase change of 180 with respect to the incident wave.
Beam 2 is internally reflected and undergoes no phase change upon reflection with respect to
the incident wave. It is, however, 180 degrees out of phase with the Beam1
If only the reflections are considered the beams would interfere destructively but we must
also consider the actual difference in path length 2t. Hence if
2t =n/2 or t=/4
the waves recombine in phase which leads to the requirement for constructive interference
for mixed reflections:
2t=(m+1/2)
n, where
m=0,1,2,3.
2tn
f
=(m+1/2)
0 where
m=0,1,2,3.
If 2t is a multiple of
n
the two waves combine out of phase and destructive
interference for mixed reflections results:
2t =
n
t =
n/2
=2t = m
n
or 0 2tn
f
= m
0
where m= 0, 1, 2, 3,
These conditions apply only when the film is surrounded by a common medium (a glass slide
in air, water between two glass slides, etc.) or when the index of refraction on both sides of
the film is either lower or higher than that in the film resulting in a mixture of external and
internal reflections.
If the film is located between two different media, one of lower index of refraction and one
of higher index of refraction, the conditions for constructive and destructive interference are
reversed by virtue of the fact that both reflections will be of the same type, either external or
internal. In this case
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2t = mn or 2tn
f
=m
0
where m= 0, 1, 2, 3, (constructive interference)
2t=(m+1/2)
n
or 2tn
f
=(m+1/2)
0(destructive interference )
Example 1 Consider a nonreflecting film on a camera lens. Antireflection coatings on lenses
are designed to exploit destructive interference to quench reflection from the lens in visible
light. A commonly used coating is MgF2, n = 1.38.
Since the film is located between media of two different refractive indices, one lower and one
higher than that of the lens, the reflections are matched (both external) and the path length
difference is the sole determinant in the type of Interference that occurs . In this case the
condition for destructive interference is:
2t=(m+1/2)
n
or 2t
n
=(m+1/2)
If
f=
o
/n
f
in the film and t=
f
/4, the condition for destructive interference is
2tn
f=
=(m+1/2)
0
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For complete extinction to occur, the reflected and refracted waves should have the same
amplitude. In practice the concept is to reduce reflection from 4 5% to less than 1%.
If we assume that 550nm If we assume that 550nm ( the minimum thickness (m = 0) of the
coating is:
t=
o
/4n
f=
/ m =99.6nm
Notice that if the coating has an index of refraction greater than the glass of the lens then
reflectivity is increased under the same conditions. This is how one way windows and
reflecting sunglasses are made.
Example 2 Consider a layer of methylene iodide (n = 1.756), between two layers of glass (n
= 1.5). What must the minimum thickness of the film be if light of 600 nm is to be strongly
reflected?
The condition for maximum Constructive interference in a film surrounded by a common
medium
2t
2
T=
So the minimum thickness is 85.4 nanometers.
What are the next three thicknesses of coating that will work?
Notice that t is about 171 nanometers. This represents a tight tolerance.
Example 3 Compute the minimum thickness for a nonreflecting coating for a solar
cell.
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Assume:
0
=550nm
Destructive interference with no relative phase change:
2
Example 4 In a thin film of gasoline on water the film appears yellow instead of white
because blue light has been removed. What is the minimum thickness of the film?
blue = 469nm
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Notice that destructive interference occurs due to mixed reflections when t = 0 (m = 0) (what
does this imply abut the edge of a film of gasoline on a wet surface?). The next minimum
thickness that will work is:
2
Nonnormal rays (arbitrary angle of incidence)
The phase difference along the plane defined by points C and D is due to path difference ()
between A D and A B C.
Unlike previous examples, the path in the film A B C is much greater than 2t for angles
of incidence much greater than nearnormal.
=
=
[n (AE+ FC) AD]+ (EB+ BF)
sin
AE= AG sin
AD=AC sin
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2AE=AC
AD=2 AE= (AE+ FC)
(EB+ BF)=2 EB
IF EB = t
Note that the path difference is expressed in terms of angle of refraction and that the angle of
incidence may be determined by Snells Law if needed.
For nearnormal incidence = 2 as before.
The phase difference between the waves is: = =
The net phase change must also take into account any phase changes
occurring upon reflection (as before).
The net phase change must also take into account any phase changes
occurring upon reflection (as before).
If is the path length difference and is the phase difference due
to reflection then:
p + r = m constructive interference
p + r = destructive interference where m = 0, 1, 2,
Fringes of Equal Thickness
If the thickness, t, of a film varies then the path length = cos differs with
out any variation of angle of incidence.
A bright or dark fringe for a given angle of incidence will be associated witha
particular thickness of the film as the dependant conditions ofconstructive and
destructive interference change with the change in thickness.
Such fringe patterns are called fringes of equal thickness
Consider the arrangement of glass slides as shown
at the right. The gap between the slides serves as
a film of unequal thickness.
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If a beam of monochromatic light strikes this
arrangement at nearnormal incidence:
= cos
and the conditions for constructive and destructive interference, respectively, are:
p + = +
p + = +
Where r is either /2 or 0 depending on the whether or not a reflective phase
shift exists. Note that as x decreases, t decreases and p 0.
The pattern of equally spaced light and dark fringes seen in the film are known as
Fizeau fringes.
A common application of this technique is measuring the smoothness of
lenses or mirrors.
In this case the optical surface is not flat but has some radius of curvature
and the air film beneath it will be in the form of a circular wedge producing
Fizeau fringes in the form a series of concentric rings around the point of
contact with the flat surface known as Newtons rings.
At the point of contact the thickness of
the film, t, is zero and phase difference
between the reflected rays is (/2) due
to the external and internal reflections.
The center of the fringe pattern is dark and is surrounded by a series of
bright and dark concentric fringes.
If the lens surface is smooth the fringes are smooth.
This technique may also be used to measure the radius of curvature of the
lens surface
If the flat surface is transparent a complementary fringe pattern is formed
by the light transmitted through it.
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Chapter 2
Polarization of Light
Q.1 Define specific Rotation ? Describe the construction & working of Laurents half
shade polarimeter How can it be used to determine specific rotation of glucose
solution .
Ans. The arrangement of this type of polarimeter is similar to above fig except a Half
shaped device is inserted b/w P & T.
Half Shade Device :
It consists of two semicircular plates ; one being of simple
glass & other of quartz . The quartz plate is a half wave plate whose optic axis is
parallel to its face & perpendicular to vertical diameter . The HWP introduces a phase
difference of or a path difference of /2 b/w oray & Ecomponents . Thickness of
the glass plate is so adjusted that it should absorb same amount of light as that by
quartz plate . In this way the intensity of xmitted light from these semicircular plates
remain same . This Laurenzts half shade plate is kept b in b/w p & T in such a way a
that plane of vibration of incident plane polarized light remains perpendicular to the
face of Laurents plate.
Working :
Suppose the plane of vibration of xmitted plane polarized light from
polarizer is incident normally on the plate in the direction op makes an angle with
the diameter A
0
B on passing through the glass, half of the vibrations will remain
along op, but on passing through the quartz (HWP) , half of these will be split op into
E & O component along OA A phase difference of is introduced b/w these two
vibrations . The ovibrations will advance in phase by and will occur along OD
instead of OC on emergence . The resultant vibration on emerging from the Quartz
HWWP will there fore be along o Q such that  <poA = ,QPA = Q (Ref fig. below )
If the principal section A, OA
2
of the analyser A is arlar to AOB as shown in fig
above (i) . then both half portions of the field of view will be seen equally bright .
because the components of OP & OQ on A
1
OA
2
(UE
1
= OE
2
) are equal . If the on A
1
OA
2
(OE
1
= OE
2
) are equal . if the principal section A
1
OA
2
is rotated in the clock
wise direction . fig (i) then OE
2
& OE, As a result of the left hand of the field of
view appears brighter than the right half again if A
1
o A
2
is rotated anticlockwise wise
fig (iii) . then oE
2
<OE, and right hand of the field of view appear brighter . than the
left half . In order to determine the angle of rotation , analyser A is rotated to such an
extent . that both salves appear equally bright . Now the analyser is set in this position
first by taking pure water & then by optically active sol
n
in the polarimeter tube . The
difference b/w the two readings will give the angle of rotation . Main defect of this
Engg Physics 21
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polarimeter is that it can be used only for the wave length of light for which
semicircular quartz plate acts as a half plate In general it is used with sodium light .
Q.2 What is optical activity ? Mention the Law of optical rotation?
Ans. When plane polarized light is passed through water or glass . there is no change in the
dir
n
of plane of polarisation of plane polarized light . But there are certain substance
through which . if plane polarized light is passed . they rotate the plane of
polarization. This phenomenon of rotation of plane of polarization of plane polarized
light is called optical activity. Those substances which rotate the plane of polarization
are called optically substances .
There are two types of optically active substance.
Laws of optical Activity :
Angle of Rotation ( ) of the plane of polarization of the polarized light of
definite wave length is directly proportional to the distance covered by the
polarize light in an optically active medium (solid, liquid, gas) Q r l
In the case of solutions the angle of rotation plane polarized light is directly
proportional to the concentration of the solution .
The angle of rotation is inversely proportional to the square of the wave length
. Thus will be east for red & greatest for violet i.e violet colour will be
rotated maximum & red colour will be rotated minimum .
Thus when a white light is passed through an optically active substance, the
xmitted rags dispersed into different colors . This phenomenon is called
rotator dispersion .
The rotation produced by a number of optically . active substances is equal to
the algebraic sum of the . Individual rotations , The rotation in clock wise dirn
is taken as +ve, while the anti clock wise dirn is taken as ve.
The angle of rotation also depends on the nature & temp of the substance .
Q.3 A polarized examines two adjacent plane polarization beams A & B whose
planes of polarization are mutually perpendicular . In one position of analyser
,the beam B shows zero intensity from this position a rotation of 30
0
show that
the two beams . have equal intensity what is the ratio of the Intensities of two
beams .
Ans. From Males Lass I = I
v
cos
2
According to the question when rotated 30
0
from the direction beam B shows no
intensity . The angle made by vibrating electric vector . with B & A are respectively
90
0
30
0
= 60
0
& 90
0
60
0
= 30
0
hence ,
I
A
cos
2
30
0
= I
B
cos
2
60
0
= cos
2
60 =
cos
2
30
0
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Q.4 A vo an long tube containing sugar soln rotates the plane of ploanisation . by 11
0
.
If specific rotation of sugar soln is 66 dm/gm/lit. Calculate strength of rotation .
Ans. Given = 11
0
l = 2 dm S = 66
0
dm/gm/litre
S =
C = or C = = 0.083 gm/litre
Q.5 Explain the working of polarimeter
Ans. In order ot find the angle of rotation fill the polarimeter to be with pure water & place
the tube in its position inside the polarimeter . Now the analyser is rotated until the
intensity of light as seen through the eye piece becomes zero or the analyser is in a
crossed position & the reading is noted on the circular late . Now the ploarimeter tube
is filled with solution or liquid and placed inside the ploarimeter . This optically
active liquid or solution rotates the plane of vibration of the ploarised light . As a
result of the Intensily of light a reappears when seeing through the eye piece . Now
the analyser is rotated until the intensity of light as seen through the eye piece became
zero . The position of analyser is again noted . The difference of the two position of
the analyser gives the angle fo rotation the plane of polarization of the polarized light
produced by an optically active slon . This ploarimeter is called simple polarimeter .
It is less sensitive since at the crossed position of ploariser & analyser, even if we
rotate . the analyzer through 4
0
5
0
, the intensity of light is seen almost . hence the
angle of rotation cannot be measured accurately . In order to the sensitivity of the
ploarimeter; a particular derive is placed b/w the ploariser p & tube T .
Q.6 Using the accept of electric vector of electromagnetic wave discuss circularly &
elliptically polarized light .
Ans. It the electric vector rotates with constant amplitude in an plane perpendicular to the
direction of proprgaton ie . the head of electric field vector rotates in a circular path
then the light is called circularly ploarised . Such type of ploarised light is produced
by the combination of two perpendicular periodic vibrations of equal amplitude &
having a phase difference of .
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Chapter 3
Diffraction of Light
Q.1 Show that the Intensity of light diffracted from a plane x mission grating is given
by
I = I ( ) = ( ) =
where symbols have their usual meanings find the positions of maximum &
minima & calculate
(a) width of n the principal maximum.
(b) Resolving power of grating .
Ans. Plane x mission grating is a spectral . arrangement of frauhofer . diffraction due to N
slits . let a plane wave front be incident normally on N slits . Then according to
Huygens principle all points in each s lit . become a source of secondary wavelets .
By the theory of diffraction at a single s lit discussed . the resultant amplitude in the
direction q is given by AQ = Ao sin2 (1)
2
where r is the phase of the resultant have , and it is given by
L = e sin o (2)
The resultant wave in each slit is supposed to be coming out from the middle point of
the slit . Now suppose S
1
, S
2
, S
3
, S
N
producing interference
According to the fig. 3.8 the path difference b/w the successive wavelets diffracted at
angle Q from each slit is same & is equal to (e+b) sin Q
The equivalent phase difference will be (e+b) sin
let 2 = (e+b) sin
S
1
e+b
S
2
S
3
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So, = (e+b) sin (3)
The resultant of all the wavelets at the point p
1
is the vector sum of all the amplitude s
of the coherent wavelets obtained from N identical sources The amplitude of each
wavelets is Ao & its phase by an amount 2 in successive wavelet .
Now applying vector addition method the resultant amplitude will be mpn (ref fig
3.9) so,
resultant amplitude
R = M P
N
= 2MP = 2r sin N (4)
& MP
1
= r sin (5)
here MP
1
= AQ = Ao sin2 amplitude of first vector & r = radius of curvature divide
eqn (5) by (4) we get .
=
=
MPN = A
from eqn. (1)
MPN = A
0
So resultant amplitude
R = A
0
(6)
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Now intensity at any point on screen due to plane transmission grating
I R
2
I = KR
2
I = KA
0
2
I = I
0
here
(i) Width of principal maxima
The condition of n
th
order principal maxima of the wavelength l in the direction of
angle on is given by (e+b) sin Q n = n (1)
let the first minimum on either side of principal maxima can be obtained in the
direction of Qn d o n & Q n + do n . Then 2donis called the annular width of
principal maximum .
S
G G
th
maxima
d n 2 n
( nd n)
n
For the position of minimum 
(e+b) sin (Q
n
+ d Qn) = (2)
where m is an integer excluding the values of O , N , 2N so m = nN will give the
position of principal maxima thus for the first minima . which is adjacent nt to the n
th order principal maxima .
m=nN 1
(e+b) sin( n + d n) = (nN+1) = n + (3)
(e+b) sin( n + d n) = (nN1) = n + (4)
Substituting eqn. (4) from (3) we get ,
(e+b) [ sin( n + d n)sin( n + d n)] = (5)
I
0
= kA
0
2
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since d n is small sin d n d n
2(e+b) cos n d n =
2d n =
Thus the angler width of principal maxima is inversely proportional to the total no of
lines ruled on the grating and the order of principal maxima and directly proportional
to tan
n
. since the in tan q n Since the in tan n since the in tan n is less than the
in n there fore the angler width of principal maxima for higher values of no.
(b) Resolving power of a plane diffraction grating
Q
+d f
n+d
n
n
Grating
In the position of just resolution , the resolving power of the grating
R =
let a parallel beam of light of have length & + d be incident normally on the
diffraction grating if n th principal maximum of & + d are formed in the
direction n & n + d n respectively (sec above fig) then ,
For the principal maximum of wave long the at p
(e+b) sin n = n  (1)
& for a principal maximum of wave long the ( +d ) at Q
(e+b) sin ( n + d n) = n ( + d )  (2)
where n = 1,2,3& (e+b) is the grating element The n
th
principal maximum of
eave length . is formed at p . If first minimum of this wave length is formed in the
direction ( n+d n) ie at the point . then according to Rayleigh criteria the spectral
2d n =
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line of wave length & +d will appear just resolved for minimum of wave length
formed in the direction (
n
+d
n
) ie at Q (e+b) sin (
n
+d
n
) ie at
(e+b) sin ( n + d n) = m  (3)
N
The first minimum adjacent to the n
th
principal maximum in the direction (
n
+d )
will be obtained for m= nN 1 ; where N is the total no of rulings on the grating.
(e+b) sin (
n
+d
n
) = (4)
Comparing eqn., S (1) & (2) we get ,
n + = n( + d )
nd =
Resolution limit of grating = = & Resolving power of grating
R = = Nn  (5)
Thus the resolving power of grating is equal to the product of the order of the
spectrum & the total no of rulings on the grating.
It is directly proportional to the order of the spectrum & the total no of lines on the
grating surface .(N). It is independent of the grating elements (e+b) of the lines .
n = [ substitute the value of n in eqn (5) we get,
Resolving power = Nn = =
where W = N (e+b) = Total width of ruled surface
Resolving power of the grating would not be affected , if the no of lines N in a given
width of ruled space is changed .
if Q = 90
0
then maximum resolving power R = = =
Q.2 Explain, what is meant by Resolving power of a diffraction grating . Define an
expression for the same.
Ans. Resolving power of a grating is the ability to separate. the lines very close to each
other expression will do in the last expression
Q.3 Give the theory of plane xmission grating & show how would you use it to find
the wave length of light. How are spectral lines affected if the ruling are made
closer ?
Ans. Already do in the Question No. 1
Q.4 Resolving power of diffraction grating ?
Ans. Already do in the Question
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Q.5 Derive an expression for the intensity of diffracted light in the fraunhofer s
diffraction due to single slit ?
M L
1
Fraunhofer Diffraction due to single slit
S = monochromatic Source ( wave length )
S
1
= screen
L
1
, L
2
= Converging (convex ) lens
Wf = plane wave front
AB = s lit with width e (e )
= diffracted angle
AFP
1
+ BEP
1
= diffracted waves
Bk = path difference b/w the wave
p = central (bright) maxima at screen
p
1
= Any arbitrary point on screen (to calculate Instead )
MN = spectral wave front
A slit . rectangular aperture of karge length . compared to its breadth is placed
perpendicular to the plane of paper let the slit . AB. be illuminated . by a parallel
beam of monochromatic light of wave length from a source which is placed at the
principal focus of the lens . L
1
let the width of the narrow slit be e light is diffracted
by the slit and is focused by another lens L
2
on the screen . S
1
Instead of a sharp
image of the slit , a contral bright band & alternate dose & bright bands of decreasing
intensity . symmetrical on both sides are obtained . This pattern is called diffraction
pattern of a single slit
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Now a icular xG is drawn from the centre k of an are on the line AB, which will
bisect . the line AB in two equal parts . (BG & AG)
< AKG = < BKG = = & sin =
So , AB = 2AG = 2r sin [in AKG]
[ AK =r]
Substitute the value of r from eqn. (1) we get AB = sin = = A (Resultant
Amplitude )
Where is given by eqn. (1)
= e sin (2)
The resultant in intensity at point p
1
will be
I a
2
I = k a
2
= kf
2
a
2
sin
2
[k is proportionality const]
2
or I = I
0
sin
2
(3)
2
where I
0
= kA
0
z = kp
2
a
2
is the maximum in intensity at the point where all the waves
reach in the same phase eqn. (3) represent intensity at d any point p
1
on screen.
Q.6 What do you understand by resolution ? Explain what is mean by resolving
power of a grating ?
Ans. Where tow objects ( or their image are very near to each other , they may appear as
one and it may be impossible for the nailed eye to see them separately .
The method of seeing two objects or images which are very dose to each other as
separate using some optical instrument is called resolution
The resolving power of an grating is the ability to separate the spectral lines very
close to each other . when two spectral lines in the spectrum . produced by grating are
just resolved then in this position . the ratio of the wave length difference d and
them mean . wave length of the spectral . lines is called reciprocal is called .
resolving power of the grating .
Q.7 A grating has 9600 lines uniformly spaced over a width of 3.0 cm and is
illuminated by light from mercury vapor Lamp find .
(a) dispersion in the third order in the vicinity of green line of wave length jH
60
0
A
0
(b) Resolving power of a grating in 5
th
order
Ans. Grating element (e+b) = = 3 10
2
= 3.126 10
6m
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9600
form grating eqn (e+b) sin = n
= sin
1
=
sin1
3 5460 10
10
3.126 10
6
= sin
1
(0.524) = 31.6
dispersion is given by
= = 3
(3.126 10
6
)cos (31.6
0
)
= 1.13 10
3
rad/m = 0.0646
0
n/m
(b) Resolving power of grating in 5
th
order RP = nN = 5 9600 = 4.8 10
4
Q.8 What should be the minimum no of lines in a grating which will just resolve in
the second order , the lines whose wave lengths are 5890 A
0
& 5896 A
0
soln Given that n =z
1
= 5890 A
0
= 5890 10
8
cm
2
= 5896 A
0
5896 10
8
cm
d =
2

1
= 6A
0
= 6 10
8
cm
Resolving power = = nN
5893A
0
= 2 N
6A
0
N = = 491
Q.9 How many lines per cm are there in a grating . which gives an angle of
diffraction of 30 in first order spectrum of light of wave long the 6 10
5
cm?
Ans. The grating eqn. is
(e+b) sin = n
(e+b) = = 1 6 10
5
= 12 10
5
cm
sin30
0
No of lines per cm = = 10
5
= 8333.3/ cm
12
Q.10 A plane transmission grating has 6000 lines/cm Calculate . the bighest order of
spectrum which can be seen with light of wave longth 4000 A
0
.
Ans. We know that (e+b) sin = n
n
max = [for
n
max = sin = 1]
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n
max = =
= 2 = 100 = 4.16 4
24 10
2
24
Q.11 Light composed of two spectral lines with wave length 6000A
0
& 6000 s A
0
. It
falls normally on a diffraction grating 10mm wide . At a certain diffraction angle
these lines are close to be being resolved (according to lay leih crilerion )
Ans. Given that = 6000A
0
& + d = 6000.5 A
0
d = 0.5 A
0
Total width of grating = w = N (e+b) = 10mm =1cm
The resolving power of
grating = nN (1)
& the position of principal maxima is given by
(e+b) sin = n
sin =
= = [using (i)]
sin =
2
[ w = N (e+b)]
wd
sin = (6000 10
8
)
2
= 0.72
1cm 0.5 10
8
cm
= sin
1
(0.72) = 46
0
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Chapter4
Elements of Material Science
We will encounter different cases such as ionic, covalent, or metallic bonding. It has to be
kept in mind that these are just idealized limiting cases. Often mixed bonding types are
found, for example, a combination of metallic and covalent bonding in the transition metals.
As in conventional chemistry, only a restricted number of all the electrons participate in the
bonding. These socalled valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost shell(s) of an
atom. The electrons in the inner shells, or core electrons, are bound so tightly to the nucleus
that they do not feel the presence of other atoms in their neighborhood.
Attractive
Two different forces must be present to establish bonding in a solid or in a molecule.
Anattractive force is necessary for any bonding. Different types of attractive forces are
discussed below. A repulsive force, on the other hand, is required in order to keep the
atoms from getting too close to each other. An expression for an interatomic potential
can be written as
(1)
where n >m, that is, the repulsive part has to prevail for short distances (sometimes this is
achieved by assuming an exponential repulsion potential). Such a potential and the resulting
force are shown in Figure 1.1. The reason for the strong repulsion at short distances is the
Pauli exclusion principle. For a strong overlap of the electron clouds of two atoms, the wave
functions have to change in order to become orthogonal to each other, because the Pauli
principle forbids having more than two electrons in the same quantum state. The
orthogonalization costs much energy, hence the strong repulsion.
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Inter atomic distance, r (equilibrium distance)
Figure 1.1 (a) Typical interatomic potential for bonding in solids
according to (1.1) with n6 and m1. (b) Resulting force,that is, _gradf(r).
Ionic Bonding:
Ionic bonding involves the transfer of electrons from an electropositive atom to an Electro
negative atom. The bonding force is the Coulomb attraction between the two resulting ions.
Ionizing both atoms usually costs some energy. In the case of NaCl, the ionization energy of
Na is 5.1 eV but the electron affinity of Cl is only 3.6 eV. The net energy cost for creating a
pair of ions is thus 5.1_3.61.5 eV. The energy gain is given by the Coulomb potential. For
just one Na and one Cl ion separated by a distance a0.28 nm, this is _e2/4pe0a, which
amounts to 5.1eV.
Potential energies for more complicated structures are discussed below. It is important to
distinguish between the different energy contributions involved: The ionization energy is the
energy needed to turn atoms into ions, the lattice energy is the electrostatic energy gain by
assembling a lattice, and the cohesive energy is the lattice energy minus the ionization
energy, that is, it represents the total energy balance to form the ionic solid.
The fact that the total potential energy curve in Figure 1.1 contains a repulsive part in
addition to the Coulomb potential means that the actual potential minimum for a given inter
atomic distance a is a bit shallower than expected from the pure Coulomb potential (10% or
so). Therefore, the lattice energy can be calculated rather accurately using classical physics if
the inter atomic distance a is known. Predicting this distance, however, requires the inclusion
of quantum effects. In any event, ionic bonding is very strong. The cohesive energy per atom
is in the order of several electron volts.
Covalent Bonding
Covalent bonding is based on the true sharing of electrons between different atoms. The
simplest case is that of the hydrogen molecule that we will discuss quantitatively below. In
solids, covalent bonding is often found for elements with a roughly half filled
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outer shell. A prominent example is carbon that forms solids as diamond or graphite as well
as complex molecules such as Buckminster Fullerene C60 or carbon nanotubes. The covalent
bonds in diamond are constructed from a linear combination of the 2s orbital and three 2p
orbitals. This results in four socalled sp3 orbitals that stick out in a tetrahedral
configuration from the carbon atoms. In graphite, the 2s orbital is combined with only two 2p
orbitals, giving three sp
2
orbitals, all in one plane and separated by an angle of 120
0
, and
one p orbital oriented perpendicular to this plane. This linear combination of orbitals already
reveals an important characteristic for the covalent bonding: it is highly directional. In
addition to this, it is also very stable and the bonding energies are several electron volts.
A very instructive example for covalent bonding is the hydrogen molecule H
2
for which we
will sketch a solution here. We go into some detail, as much of this will be useful in later
chapters. As a starting point, take two hydrogen atoms with their nuclei at R
A
and R
B
and we
call R
B
_R
A
=R. We do, of course, know the solution of the Schrdinger equation for each of
the atoms. Let these groundstate wave functions be
A
and
B,
respectively. The Hamilton
operator for the hydrogen molecule can be written as
(2)
where r
1
and r
2
are the coordinates of the electrons belonging to the A and the B nucleus,
respectively. The first two terms refer to the kinetic energy of the two electrons. The
operators
1
2
and
2
2
andr
22
act only on the coordinates r
1
and r
2
, respectively.
The electrostatic term contains the repulsion between the two nuclei and the repulsion
between the two electrons as well as the attraction of each electron to each nucleus.
The solution of this problem is not simple. It would be greatly simplified by removing the
electrostatic interaction between the two electrons because then the Hamiltonian could be
written as the sum of two parts, one for each electron. This could then be solved by a product
of the two wave functions that are solutions to the two individual Hamiltonians, that is, the
twoparticle wave function would look like (r
1
, r
2
)=
A
(r
1
)
B
(r
2
). Actually, this is not
quite right because such a wave function is not in accordance with the Pauli principle.
Since the electrons are fermions, the total wave function must be ant symmetric with respect
to particle exchange and the simple product wave function does not fulfill this requirement
The total wave function consists of a spatial part and a spin part and therefore there are two
possibilities for forming an ant symmetric wave function. We can either choose a symmetric
spatial part and an ant symmetric spin part or vice versa. This is achieved by constructing the
special wave function of the form
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(r
1
, r
2
)
A
(r
1
)
B
(r
2
)+
A
(r
2
)
B
(r
1
)..(1)
(r
1
, r
2
)
A
(r
1
)
B
(r
2
)
A
(r
2
)
B
(r
1
)..(2)
The plus sign in (1.3) returns a symmetric spatial wave function that we can take for an ant
symmetric spin wave function with the total spin equal to zero (the socalled singlet state);
the minus in (1.4) results in an ant symmetric spatial wave function for a symmetric spin
wave function with the total spin equal to 1 (the socalled triplet state). The ant symmetric
wave function (1.4) vanishes if r1r2, that is, the two electrons cannot be at the same place
simultaneously. This leads to a depletion of the electron density between the nuclei and
hence to an ant bonding state. For the symmetric case, on the other hand, the electrons have
opposite spins and can be at the same place, which leads to a charge accumulation between
the nuclei and hence to a bonding state (see Figure 1.2). An approximate way to calculate the
eigenvalues of (1.2) was suggested by W. Heitler and F. London in 1927. The idea is to use
the known singleparticle 1s wave functions for atomic hydrogen for
A
and
B
to form a
twoelectron wave function
Figure 1.2 The energy changes E and E for the formation of the hydrogen molecule.
The dashed lines represent the approximation for long distances. The two insets show gray
scale images of the corresponding electron probability density
The energy changes E and E for the formation of the hydrogen molecule. The dashed
lines represent the approximation for long distances. The two insets show gray scale images
of the corresponding electron probability density. (r
1
, r
2
), which is given by either (1.3) or
(1.4). An upper limit for the groundstate energy eigen values can then be calculated by
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The calculation is quite lengthy and shall not be given here. The resulting ground state
energies for the singlet and triplet states can be written as
(1)
..(2)
E
0
is the groundstate energy for one hydrogen atom that appears here twice because we start
with two atoms. The energies E
1
and E
2
are also shown in Figure 1.2. E
is always larger than zero and does not lead to any chemical bonding. DE"#, however, shows
a minimum below zero at approximately 1.5 times the Bohr radius.
This is the binding state.
For long distances between the nuclei, (1.6) and (1.7) can further be simplified to
Give E=2E
0
+C that is, the energy change upon bonding has two parts, one that
does depend on the relative spin orientations of the electrons (_X) and one that does not (C).
The energy difference between the two states is then given by 2X, where X is called the
exchange energy. In the case of the hydrogen molecule, the exchange energy is always
negative.
We will encounter similar concepts in the chapter about magnetism where the underlying
principle for magnetic ordering is very similar to what we have here. The total energy of a
system of electrons depends on their relative spin directions through the exchange energy,
and therefore a particular ordered spin configuration is favored. For two electrons, the
.magnetic. character is purely given by the sign of X. For a negative X, the coupling with two
opposite spins is favorable (the anti ferro magnetic case) whereas a positive X would lead to
a situation where two parallel spins give the lowest energy (the ferromagnetic case).
Metallic Bonding : In metals, the outer valence electrons are removed from the ion cores,
but in contrast to ionic solids, there are no electronegative ions to bind them. Therefore, they
are free to migrate between the remaining ion cores. These delocalized valence electrons are
involved in the conduction of electricity and are therefore often called conduction electrons.
One can expect metals to form from elements for which the energy cost of removing outer
electrons is not too big. Nevertheless, this removal always costs some energy that has to be
more than compensated by the bonding. Explaining the energy gain from the bonding in an
intuitive picture is difficult
But we can at least try to make it plausible. The ultimate reason must be some sort of energy
lowering.
One energy contribution that is lowered is the kinetic energy of the conduction electrons.
Consider the kinetic energy contribution in a Hamiltonian, T=
2 2
/2m. A matrix element
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(  T ) measures the kinetic energy of a particle. TY is proportional to the second spatial
derivative of the wave function, that is,
the curvature. For an electron that is localized to an atom, the curvature of its wave function
is much higher than that for a nearly free electron in a metal and this is where the energy gain
comes from. The other contribution to the electron energy is the potential energy. One should
think that the average electrostatic potential of any single electron in a solid is almost zero
because there are (almost) as many other electrons as there are ions with the same amount of
charge. But this turns out to be wrong. In fact, the electrons see an attractive potential. The
reason is again partly due to the Pauli principle that, loosely speaking, does not allow two
electrons with the same spin direction to be at the same place and therefore the electrons go
.out of each others way.. In addition to this, there is also a direct Coulomb interaction
between the electrons, which makes them avoid each other. We will discuss this in more
detail when dealing with magnetism. Typically, metallic bonding is not as strong as covalent
or ionic bonding but it amounts to a few electron volts per atom. Stronger bonding is found in
transition metals, that is, metals with both s and p conduction electrons and a partially filled d
shell. The explanation for this is that we have a mixed bonding. The s and p electrons turn
into delocalized metallic conduction electrons, whereas the d electrons create much more
localized, covalenttype bonds.
1.Why is a typical inter atomic potential, such as in Figure 1.1, so asymmetric?
2. Which elements are likely to form crystals through ionic bonding?
3. What kind of forces are important for ionic bonding?
4. How does the lattice energy in an ionic crystal depend on the inter atomic
distance?
5. Explain the difference between cohesive energy and lattice energy.
6. Which elements are likely to form metals?
7. Where does the energy gain in metallic bonding come from?
8. What is the difference between a simple metal and a transition metal (definition
and typical physical properties)?
Conductors
Conductors are generally substances which have the property to pass different types of
energy. In the following, the conductivity of electricity is the value of interest.
Metals: The conductivity of metals is based on the free electrons (socalled Fermi gas) due
to the metal bonding. Already with low energy electrons become sufficiently detached from
the atoms and a conductivity is achieved.
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Metallic bonding: fixed ions and free valence electrons (Fermi gas)
The conductivity depends, inter alia, on the temperature. If the temperature rises, the metal
atoms swing ever stronger, so that the electrons are constrained in their movements.
Consequence, the resistance increases. The best conductors, gold and silver, are used
relatively rare because of the high costs (gold e.g. for the contacting of the finished chips).
The alternatives in the semiconductor technology for the wiring of the individual components
of microchips are aluminum and copper.
Salts: In addition to metals, salts can also conduct electricity. There are no free electrons, so
the conductivity depends on ions which can be solved when a salt is melting or dissolving, so
that the ions are free to move (see chapter chemical bonds for details).
Insulators
Insulators possess no free charge carriers and thus are nonconductive.
The atomic bond: The atomic bond is based on shared electron pairs of nonmetals. The
elements which behave like nonmetals have the desire to catch electrons, thus there are no
free electrons which might serve as charge carriers.
The ionic bond: In the solid state, ions are arranged in a grid network. By electrical forces,
the particles are held together. There are no free charge carriers to enable a current flow.
Thus substances composed of ions can be both conductor and insulator.
Semiconductors
Semiconductors are solids whose conductivity lies between the conductivity of conductors
and insulators. Due to exchange of electrons  to achieve the noble gas configuration 
semiconductors</a> arrange as lattice structure. Unlike metals, the conductivity increases
with increasing temperature.
Increasing temperatures leads to broken bonds and free electrons are generated. At the
location at which the electron was placed, a socalled defect electron ("hole") remains.
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Cutout of a silicon lattice
The electron flow is based on the conductivity properties of semiconductors</a>. The
electronic band structure illustrates why semiconductors</a> behave like this.
The band model
The electronic band structure is an energy schema to describe the conductivity of conductors,
insulators, and semiconductors</a>. The schema consists of two energy bands (valence and
conduction band) and the band gap. The valence electrons  which serve as charge carriers 
are located in the valence band, in the ground state the conduction band is occupied with no
electrons. Between the two energy bands there is the band gap, its width affects the
conductivity of materials.
The energy bands If we consider a single atom, there are according to the Bohr model of
atoms sharply distinct energy levels, which may be occupied by electrons. If there are
multiple atoms side by side they are interdependent, the discrete energy levels are fanned out.
In a silicon crystal, there are approximately 10
23
atoms per cubic centimeter, so that the
individual energy levels are no longer distinguishable from each other and thus form broad
energy ranges.
Energy levels of atoms which are in interdependency with other atoms
The width of the energy bands depends on how strongly the electrons are bound to the atom.
The valence electrons in the highest energy level interact strongly with those of neighboring
atoms and can be solved relatively easily from an atom; with a very large number of atoms, a
single electron can no longer be assigned to one single atom. As a result, the energy bands of
the individual atoms merge to a continuous band, the valence band.
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Energy bands of atoms which are in interdependency with other atoms
The band model of conductors: In conductors, the valence band is either not fully occupied
with electrons, or the filled valence band overlaps with the empty conduction band. In
general, both states occure at the same time, the electrons can therefore move inside the
partially filled valence band or inside the two overlapping bands. In conductors there is no
band gap between the valence band and conduction band.
The band model of insulators: In insulators the valence band is fully occupied with
electrons due to the covalent bonds. The electrons can not move because they're "locked up"
between the atoms. To achieve a conductivity, electrons from the valence band have to move
into the conduction band. This prevents the band gap, which lies inbetween the valence band
and conduction band.
Only with considerable energy expenditure (if at all possible) the band gap can be overcome;
thus leading to a negligible conductivity.
The band model of semiconductors</a>: Even in semiconductors</a>, there is a band gap,
but compared to insulators it is so small that even at room temperature electrons from the
valence band can be lifted into the conduction band. The electrons can move freely and act as
charge carriers. In addition, each electron also leaves a hole in the valence band behind,
which can be filled by other electrons in the valence band. Thus one gets wandering holes in
the valence band, which can be viewed as positive charge carriers.
There are always pairs of electrons and holes, so that there are as many negative as positive
charges, the semiconductor crystal as a whole is neutral. A pure undoped semiconductor is
known as intrinsic semiconductor. Per cubic centimeter there are about 10
10
free electrons
and holes (at room temperature).
Since the electrons always assume the energetically lowest state, they fall back into the
valence band and recombine with the holes if there is no energy supply. At a certain
temperature an equilibrium is arranged between the electrons elevated to the conduction band
and the electrons falling back. With increasing temperature the number of electrons that can
leap the band gap is increased, and thus increasing the conductivity of semiconductors</a>.
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The band model
Since the width of the band gap represents a certain energy corresponding to a particular
wavelength, one tries to alter the width selective in order to obtain certain colors of light
emitting diodes (LED). This may be achieved by combining different materials. Gallium
arsenide (GaAs) has a band gap of 1.4 eV (electron volts, at room temperature) and thus
emits red light.
The intrinsic conductivity of silicon is of no interest for the functioning of components, since
it depends, inter alia, on the supplied energy. Which means that it changes with the
temperature; in addition a conductivity comparable to metals is only possible at very high
temperatures (several hundred degrees Celsius). In order to deliberately influence the
conductivity of semiconductors</a>, impurity atoms can be introduced into the regular
silicon lattice to alter the number of free electrons and holes.
Conductivity of Semiconductors
Now lets consider the conductivity of semiconductors.
Consider silicon which, like carbon, has the diamond cubic cyrstal structure. The valance
electrons are all covalently bonded in sp
3
orbitals. These orbitals are completely filled.
However, in this case, the next available energy level (in the Conduction Band) is 1.1 eV
above the highest occupied level.
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So the picture is exactly the same as that for the insulating materials, except that the the size
of the energy gap is smaller. Hence for Si, with an energy gap of 1.1 eV, at room temperature
some electrons will be promoted into the conduction band which accounts for its
intermediate value of conductivity. Furthermore, for every electron promoted into the
conduction band, a "hole" is left in the valance band!
These holes are also considered to be charge carriers. So there are two types of carriers for
electrical conduction: electrons and holes. Electrons are called ntype carriers (for negative)
and holes are called ptype carriers (for positive).
For intrinsic semiconductors (no impurities), the number of electrons will be equal to the
number of holes.
n
e
= n
h
Thus, the conductivity for an intrinsic semiconductor can be calculated:
sigma = n
e
q m
e
+ n
h
q m
h
And since n
e
= n
h
the conductivity for an intrisic semiconductor is given by this equation:
sigma = n
i
q (m
e
+ m
h
)
where i stands for intrinsic carrier concentration.
Overall Conclusion on the Conductivity of Semiconductors:
Semiconductors are semigood electrical conductors because although their valence band is
completely filled, the energy gap between the valance band and the conduction band is not
too large. Hence some electrons can bridge it to become charge carriers. The difference
between a semiconductors and an insulator is the magnitude of the energy gap. For
semiconductors E
g
< 2eV and for Insulators E
g
> 2eV.
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Temperature Affect the Conductivity of a Conductor?
Lets Consider the effect of increasing the temperature on the conductivity of conductors.
Let's look at the factors that go into conductivity and consider how each of these are affected:
sigma = n q m
First consider what will happen to n as temperature increases. The electrons that are
charge carriers in a conductor will gain energy and go into higher energy levels.
However, these energy levels are all still in the valance band. So the number of
charge carriers will not change for a conductor with an increase in temperature.
Now consider q. As temperature increases, the charge on each carrier will not change.
Finally, what happens to the mobility? Recall that mobility is the drift velocity
divided by the electric field strength. Temperature won't affect the electric field
strength. But it will decrease the drift velocity because as the temperature increases,
the atomic vibrations will increase, which will cause more collisions of the electrons
with the crystal lattice. Hence the drift velocity will decrease.
Conclusion:
The electrical conductivity of a conductor will decrease with an increase in
temperature!
The relationship is not linear, however, if we consider the resistivity, which is the
reciprocal of conductivity, we do get a linear relationship:
rho = rho
roomTemp
[1 + alpha(T  T
room
)]
where rho
roomTemp
is the room temperature resisitvity and alpha is the temperature
coefficient of resistivity.
Lets Consider the effect of increasing the temperature on the conductivity of
semiconductors.
Let's look at the factors that go into conductivity of a semiconductor and consider
how each of these are affected:
sigma = n
i
q (m
e
+ m
h
)
First let's consider q. As with conductors, as temperature increases, the charge on
each carrier will not change.
Now consider mobility. The effect of an increase in temperature on mobility is the
same as it was for conductors. With the same reasoning, we see that the drift velocity
will decrease causing the mobility to decrease.
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Lastly, let's consider what will happen to n
i
for semiconductors as temperature
increases. The electrons in the valance band will gain energy and go into the higher
energy levels in the conduction band where they become charge carriers! So this term
will increase. Not only will it increase, but it will increase exponentially! (Promoting
electrons from the valance band into the conduction band is a thermally activated
process.)
o n
i
= C e
(E Eave)/kT
o n
i
= C e
Eg/2kT
So even though mobility decreases, the exponential increase in the number of charge
carriers will dominate.
Conclusion:
The electrical conductivity of a semiconductor will increase exponentially with an
increase in temperature!
sigma = C e
Eg/2kT
We can graph this equation on log vs. 1/T axes to get a linear plot (as with all
Arrhenius type equations):
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Now let's consider adding impurities to a semiconductor.
When we add impurities to semiconductors we call them dopants and the process is called
doping. The result is a dilute (100 1000 ppm) substitutional solid solution.
There are two kinds of dopants: one will give negative charge carriers (to make an ntype
semiconductor) and the other will give positive charge carriers (to make a ptype
semiconductor).
Ntype Semiconductor
Ntype semiconcdutors have dopants from the VA group, such as P
+5
. These donor impurity
atoms are in substitutional solid solution. The extra valance electron not needed for the sp
3
tetrahedral bonding is only loosely bound to the P atom in a donor energy level, E
d
. The
energy of this donor energy level is close to the lowest energy level of the conduction band
(in Si it is 0.4 eV) and so it is easy to promote an electron from the donor level to the
conduction band. These promoted electrons become charge carriers that contribute to the
material's conductivity. Since they are negative, the result is called an ntype semiconductor.
As temperature increases, more and more of these donor electrons will be promoted into the
conduction band. Eventually, a temperature will be reached such that there will be none left.
The donor electrons will be "exhausted". During this process the relationship of conductivity
to temperature will look like this:
sigma = sigma
0
e
(EcEd) /kT
This is referred to as extrinsic semiconduction. The conductivity depends on the dopants.
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After these electrons from the dopants are all promoted to the conductance band, (i.e. are
exhausted,) there is a range of temperatures before intrinsic semiconduction kicks in where
the conductivity remains essentially constant. After that, as temperature increases, there will
be a promotion of electrons from the valance band into the conduction band (intrinsic
behavior).
Note that the temperatures needed to promote the dopant electrons into the conduction band
are lower than the temperatures required to promote the intrinsic electrons into the
conduction band.
Also note that the slope of the exrinsic range is less steep than the intrinsic range. This
reflects the fact that the activation energy to promote a dopant electron into the conduction
band is less than the activation energy to promote an intrinsic electron into the conduction
band.
Ptype Semiconductor
Ptype semiconductos have dopants from the IIIA group such as B
+3
. These donor impurity
atoms in substitutional solid solution. The lack of an electron needed for sp
3
tetrahedral
bonding is easily filled by a neighboring Si atom into an acceptor energy level, E
a
of the
dopant atom. The energy of this acceptor level is only slightly above the valance band and so
it is easy to promote an electron from the valance band into it. For each promotion of an
electron into one of these acceptor levels, a hole is left in the valance band. It is these holes
that become the charge carriers and contribute to the conductivity of the semiconductor.
Since these holes are positive, the result is called a ptype semiconductor.
Note that the temperatures needed to promote the dopant electrons into the conduction band
are lower than the temperatures required to promote the intrinsic electrons into the
conduction band.
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Also note that the slope of the exrinsic range is less steep than the intrinsic range. This
reflects the fact that the activation energy to promote a dopant electron into the conduction
band is less than the activation energy to promote an intrinsic electron into the conduction
band.
As temperature increases, more and more of electrons from the valance band will
be promoted into these acceptor energy levels. Eventually, a temperature will be reached
such that all the acceptor energy levels will have electrons in them. The donor acceptor
levels will be "saturated". During this process the relationship of conductivity to temperature
will look like this:
sigma = sigma
0
e
(EaEv) /kT
This is referred to as extrinsic semiconduction. The conductivity depends on the dopants.
After the acceptor energy levels have been saturated, there is a range of temperatures before
intrinsic semiconduction kicks in where the conductivity remains essentially constant. After
that, as temperature increases, there will be a promotion of electrons from the valance
band into the conduction band (intrinsic behavior).
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Note that the temperatures needed to promote electrons from the valance band into the
acceptor levels (leaving holes in the valance band) are lower than the temperatures required
to promote the intrinsic electrons into the conduction band.
Also note that the slope of the exrinsic range is less steep than the intrinsic range. This
reflects the fact that the activation energy to promote an electron from the valance band into
the acceptor level less than the activation energy to promote an intrinsic electron into the
conduction band.
Xrays and braggs law
What are Xrays?
Xrays are electromagnetic radiation with very short wavelengths and high energy.
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Xrays have high energy and they penetrate opaque material, but are absorbed by materials
containing heavy elements. As an xray beam travels through a substance its intensity
decreases with distance traveled through the matter.
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Chapter5
Special Theory of Relativity
Q.1 Show that a body moving with velocity has mass m given by
m = m
0
where symbols have usual meanings .
1 v
2
c
2
Ans.
Y Y
1
S S V
1
V
2
S
1
u
1
u
1
m
1
m
1
+m
2
2m
1
0 0
1
x
1
; x
11
Z Z
1
Note :
In relativistic mechanics . the mass m is not absolute but varies with velocity
in such a manner that it makes the principal of conservation of momentum hold good
in all inertial system .
Let us as some that mass is variable i.e. velocity dependent the mass of two
bodies in frame s, will appear to be different let m, be the mass of the body travelling
with a velocity v, & m
2
be the mass of body moving with a velocity V
2
after
collision as the coalesced body is at rest in frame s
1
, it will appear to be moving
with a velocity V in frame S & its mass will be (m
1
+m
2
)
Hence according to conservation of momentum :
m
1
v
1
+ m
2
v
2
= (m
1
+m
2
) v (1)
m
1
( v
1
v ) = m
2
(v v
2
) (2)
= (3)
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Substitute the values of V
1
& V
2
from below eqn.
V
1
= & V
2
= (A)
= V 
=
=
further from eqn. (A)
C
2
V
1
2
= C
2
= C
2
C
2
V
1
2
= (5)
Similarly (by replacing u
1
by u
1
)
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C
2
V
2
2
=
Dividing eqn. (6) by equation (5) we get
=
= = (7)
= (8)
m. = Const (9)
For a particle at rest i.e. v = 0 , if mass is m
0
then ,
m = m
0
(10) = m
0
m =
(10)
m
m
0
0 0.5
fig (A)
From the graph (fig A) it is clear that as the velocity of the particle relative to the
observer
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the mass of the particle .
Q.2 Obtain relativistic expression for the kinetic energy of the particle .
Ans. If the velocity of the particle is small compared to the velocity of light ie v<<c then
from eqn. Ev = (mm
0
) C
2
we get ,
(A)
E
k
= mc
2
m
0
c
2
= c
2
 m
0
c
2
= 1+
Using Binomial approx (1+x)
b
= 1+nx value for x <<
E
k
= m
0
c
2
 m
0
c
2
E
k
= m
0
V
2
, V<<C
These from small values of velocity V eqn. (A) converts into classic formula of
kinetic energy .
Q.3 Derive Einstein mass energy relation & explain its importance .
Ans. Total energy of a moving particle is given by
E = mc
2
= c
2
(1)
& momentum P = mv = v
 (2)
Squaring equation (1) & eqn. (2) we get
E
2
= (3)
P
2
= (4)
Ek = m
0
v
2
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P
2
C
2
= (5)
(5)
Substitute eqn. (5) from eqn. (3) we get
E
2
P
2
C
2
= 
E
2
P
2
C
2
= = = m
0
2
c
4
E
2
= P
2
C
2
+ m
0
2
C
4
*
(6)
Q.4 State the postulates of special theory of Relativity & deduce Lorentz x
formation.
Ans. First Postulate :
All Lows of physics are the same in all inertial reference frames which are moving
with a constant velocity relative to each other .
Second postulate :
The Speed of light is const in vacuum for all observers . , that is the speed of light is a
universal const
Y
S . P (x
1
,y
1
,z
1
,t
1
)
P (x,y,z,t)
0
1
x x
1
Z Z
1
E =
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The system S
1
is moving with a velocity v wrt s in the +ve direction of xdirection
for simplicity let us suppose that the axes of two coordinates system coincide initially
(at t = t
1
= 0)
let a pulse of light be generated at time t=0 at the origin which travels in the space .
Now consider the situation when the pulse reaches at print p let (x,y,z, t ) & (x
1
, y
1
,
z
1
, t
1
) be the position & time coordinates of p measured by obseress O & O
1
in frame
s & s
1
respectively let us assume that possible relation b/w x & x
1
is of the type x
1
= v
(x vt)
(1)
Where r is a const of proportionality
According of first postulated of relativity the Low of physics must have the same
form in both system s & s
1
. There fore the inverse relation with be written as
x = r (x
1
+ Vt
1
) (2)
Substitute for x & x
1
in eqn (1) & (2) we get
Ct
1
= V (ct vt) Ct
1
= vt (cv)
Ct
1
= V (ct
1
+ vt
1
) Ct = vt
1
(c+v)
C
2
= V
2
(C
2
V
2
)
V
2
= =
& using this value of v in eqn. (1) & (2) we get ,
x
1
= v (xvt) = xvt
(6)
& its inverse relation is
x = v (x
1
+ vt
1
) = ( x
1
+vt
1
)
V =
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(7)
Again using the value of v or in eqn (3) & (4) we get
t
1
= vt 
Time coordinates t & t
1
are not equal . let as substitute the value of x from eqn (1) in
equation (2) we get
x = v [ v (xvt) + vt
1
]
= vx vvt + vt
1
t
1
=  x + vt
t
1
= vt  [1 ] (3)
Similarly we get the inverse relation
t = vt
1
+ x
1
v [1 1] (4)
v v
2
The Value of v can be determined from the second postulate of relativity
Suppose a light signal is given at the origin o at time t = t
1
when o & o
1
coincide as
the signal travels with a speed of o which is same for both the fromes then its position
as seen from o & o
1
after sometime is given by
x = ct & x = ct
1
Inverse Lorentz x formation are given below
(11)
y = y
1
Z = Z
1
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These eqn. are used to for the x formation of the space & time coordinates of an event
from one frame of reference in to the other in const relative motion
(8)
& its inverse relation is
(9)
In the general case . when the light signal is not restricted to travel along the axis we
get two more relation y
1
= y & z = z
1
Hence , Lorentz x formation eqn. as given
below .
(10)
Q.5 Using Lorentz x formations for space & time obtain expression for Length
contraction & time dilation by explaining the meaning of each.
Ans. x
1
= x  v t
(1 v
2
)
y
1
= y
Z
1
= Z
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c
2
y
1
= y
z
1
= z
t
1
= t  v x
(1 v
2
)
c
2
If x = y = z = 0 , but t = 0 , then x
1
= 0
Thus if two events are local in one inertial frame , they may not be colocal in another
frame (Relativity of Co locality )
Special theory of Relativity is the contraction of a moving body in the direction of
motion , when it is observed from a stationary frame such a contraction was initially
by Fitzgerald & Lorentz to account for the negative result of Michelson Morley
experiment .
Y Y
1
l= x
2
x
1
S
1
l
1
= x
2
1
x
1
1
x
1
1
x
2
1
0 0
1
x
x
1
Z Z
1
According to relativity of simultaneity , two events which are simultaneous in one
inertial frame . consider two frame of reference s & s
1
. The s
1
is moving with a
velocity v wrt to s along xaxis . suppose . the axis of two frame coincide at t = t
1
= 0
let a is placed in s
1
a long xaxis . If x
1
1
& x
2
1
are the coordinates of its end point .
Then its length l
1
in system s
1
is given by
l
1
= x
2
1
x
1
1

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Now let an observer on system s measure the length of the same rod if x
1
& x
2
are the
coordinates of the and point of the same rod at same time t
Then the length of the rod in system s is given by
l = x
2
x
1
(2)
from Lorentz x formation eqn. we may write
& (3)
= [ l = x
2
x
1
]
Observed length = proper length
The length l
1
measured in the frame in which rod is at rest is called proper length . It
is the maximum length . with any observer will measure .
Q.6 A radio active atom is moving wrt . the Laboratory at a speed of 0.3 c in the x
direction If its emits an e having a speed of 0.8 c in the rest frame of the a tom .
find the velocity of e wrt a Laboratory . observer when :
(a) the e is ejected in the xdirection
(b) it is ejected in the y direction here c is the speed of light in vacuum )
(a) Given u
1
x = 0.8c , u
1
y = 0 & V = 0
= = 0.89c
(b) Given u
1
y = 0.8c , u
1
x =0 & V = 0.3c
u
y
= = = =0.76c
u
x
= = = 0.3c
There fore U = = = 0.82c
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Q.7 Calculate the percentage contraction in length of a rod moving with a velocity
0.8 c in a direction inclined 45
0
to its length .
Ans. Given that v=0.8 c = 0.8 Angle b/w the velocity and the longth of rod Q = 45
0
.
let l
1
be the length of the rod at rest then length components along & perpendicular to
the direction of motion are l
1
co s 45
0
& l
1
sin 45
0
respectively
l
x
= =
l
y
= [ No contraction traverse to direction of motion]
Here l
1
is the proper length of the rod
= = = 0.825 l
1
% contraction in length = = 17.5%
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Bibliography
1. Fundamental of Optics, Jenkins and White, Fourth Edition, McGraw Hill.
2. Optics, Ajoy Ghatak, Third Edition, Tata McGraw Hill.
3. Concept of Modern Physics, A. Baiser, Fifth Edition, McGraw Hill.
4. Modern Physics, J. Morrison, Edition 2011, Elsevier.
5. Elements of Material Science and Engineering, Van Vlack, Sixth Edition,
Pearson.