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LGBT in Islam

1
LGBT in Islam
Persian Shah Abbas with a page (1627).
LGBT and Islam is influenced by the religious, legal and cultural
history of the nations with a sizable Muslim population, along with
specific passages in the Qur'an and statements attributed to the prophet
Muhammad (hadith). Hadiths traditionally are not interpreted because
their language is understood to be simple matter of fact language.
Orthodox Islam is not only a system of beliefs, but also a legal system.
The traditional schools of Islamic law based on Qur'anic verses and
hadith consider homosexual acts a punishable crime and a sin, and
influenced by Islamic scholars such as Imam Malik and Imam Shafi.
[1]
The Qur'an cites the story of the "people of Lot" (also known as the
people of Sodom and Gomorrah), destroyed by the wrath of God
because they engaged in "lustful" carnal acts between men.
Nevertheless, homoerotic themes were present in poetry and other
literature written by some Muslims from the medieval period onwards
and sometimes homoeroticism in the form of pederasty was seen in a
positive way.
Today in most of the Islamic world homosexuality is not socially or
legally accepted. In these countries, Afghanistan, Iran, Mauritania,
Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, the UAE, and Yemen,
homosexual activity carries the death penalty.
[2][3][4][5]
Alternatively, same-sex sexual intercourse is legal in about twenty Muslim-majority nations (Albania, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Turkey, Lebanon, Palestine, Iraq, Syria, Bahrain, Jordan, Niger, Chad, Djibouti, Northern Cyprus,
Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Abkhazia, Mali, and most of Indonesia). In Albania, Lebanon, and
Turkey, there have been discussions about legalizing same-sex marriage. Homosexual relations between females is
legal in Kuwait (but homosexual acts between males are illegal). Lebanon has had recent internal efforts to legalize
homosexuality. Even in regions where homosexuality is not illegal it is seen as a shame by most
families,Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Words to watch#Unsupported attributions and privately executing the
punishments required by Islamic lawWikipedia:Avoid weasel words may be seen as morally justified.
Most Muslim-majority countries have opposed moves to progress LGBT rights at the United Nations, in the General
Assembly and/or the UNHRC. However, Albania and Sierra Leone have signed a UN Declaration supporting LGBT
rights.
[6]
OIC member-state Mozambique provides LGBT rights protections in law in the form of non-discrimination
laws, and discussions on legally recognizing same-sex marriage have been held in the country.
LGBT in Islam
2
Islamic law
The Quran
The Quran contains seven references to "the people of Lut", the biblical Lot, but meaning the residents of Sodom and
Gomorrah (references 7:8084, 11:7783, 21:74, 22:43, 26:165175, 27:5659, and 29:2733), and their
destruction by Allah is associated explicitly with their sexual practices:
[7][8]
And (We sent) Lot when he said to his people: What! do you commit an indecency which any one in
the world has not done before you? Most surely you come to males in lust besides females; nay you are
an extravagant people. And the answer of his people was no other than that they said: Turn them out of
your town, surely they are a people who seek to purify (themselves). So We delivered him and his
followers, except his wife; she was of those who remained behind. And We rained upon them a rain;
consider then what was the end of the guilty.
[ 7:8084

[9](Translated byShakir)]
The sins of the people of Lot became proverbial, and the Arabic words for homosexual behaviour (liwat) and for a
person who performs such acts (luti) both derive from his name. There is, however, only one passage in the Qur'an
which can be interpreted as prescribing a legal position, and is not restricted to homosexual behaviour - in fact it
deals with public practice of adultery:
And as for those who are guilty of an indecency from among your women, call to witnesses against
them four (witnesses) from among you; then if they bear witness confine them to the houses until death
takes them away or Allah opens some way for them. And as for the two who are guilty of indecency
from among you, give them both a punishment; then if they repent and amend, turn aside from them;
surely Allah is oft-returning (to mercy), the Merciful.
[ 4:1516

[10](Translated byShakir)]
Islamist journalist Muhammad Jalal Kishk found no prescribed punishment for homosexuality in Islamic law
[11]
Several modern day scholars, including Scott Kugle, argue for a different interpretation of the Lot narrative focusing
not on the sexual act but on the infidelity of the tribe and their rejection of Lot's Prophethood.
The Hadith and Seerah
The hadith (sayings and actions of Muhammad) show that homosexuality was not unknown in Arabia. Given that the
Qur'an is vague regarding the punishment of homosexual sodomy, Islamic jurists turned to the collections of the
hadith and seerah (accounts of Muhammad's life) to support their argument for Hudud punishment; these are
perfectly clear but particularly harsh.
[]
Ibn al-Jawzi[12] records Muhammad as cursing sodomites in several hadith, and recommending the death penalty
for both the active and passive partners in same-sex acts.
Sunan al-Tirmidhi, compiling his work two centuries after the death of Muhammad, wrote that Muhammad had
prescribed the death penalty for both the active and the passive partner: "Whoever you find committing the sin of the
people of Lut (Lot), kill them, both the one who does it and the one to whom it is done." The overall moral or
theological principle is that a person who performs such actions (luti) challenges the harmony of God's creation, and
is therefore a revolt against God.
Al-Nuwayri in his Nihaya reports that the Prophet is alleged to have said what he feared most for his community
were the practices of the people of Lot (although he seems to have expressed the same idea in regard to wine and
female seduction).
Narated By Abdullah ibn Abbas : The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: If you find anyone doing as Lot's
people did, kill the one who does it, and the one to whom it is done.
Sunan Abu Dawood, 38:4447
[13]
see also Sunan Abu Dawood, 38:4448
[14]
Sunan Abu Dawood, 31:4007
[15]
Sunan Abu Dawood, 31:4008
[16]
Sunan Abu Dawood, 11:2169
[17]
Sunan Abu Dawood, 32:4087
[18]
Sunan Abu Dawood, 32:4088
[19]
LGBT in Islam
3
Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: The Prophet cursed effeminate men; those men who are in the similitude (assume the
manners of women) and those women who assume the manners of men, and he said, "Turn them out of your
houses." The Prophet turned out such-and-such man, and 'Umar turned out such-and-such woman.
Sahih al-Bukhari, 7:72:774
[20]
see also Sahih al-Bukhari, 8:82:820
[21]
Medieval jurisprudence
The four schools of shari'a (Islamic law) disagreed on what punishment is appropriate for liwat. Abu Bakr Al-Jassas
(d. 981 AD/370 AH) argued that the two hadiths on killing homosexuals "are not reliable by any means and no legal
punishment can be prescribed based on them",
[22]
and the Hanafi school held that it does not merit any physical
punishment, on the basis of a hadith that "Muslim blood can only be spilled for adultery, apostasy and homicide";
against this the Hanbali school held that sodomy is a form of adultery and must incur the same penalty, i.e. death.
[]
There were varying opinions on how the death penalty is to be carried out. Abu Bakr recommended toppling a wall
on the evil-doer, or else burning alive, while Ali bin Abi Talib ordered death by stoning for one "luti" and had
another thrown head-first from the top of a minaretaccording to Ibn Abbas, this last punishment must be followed
by stoning.
Rulings by modern scholars of Islam
With few exceptions all scholars of Sharia, or Islamic law, interpret homosexual activity as a punishable offence as
well as a sin. There is no specific punishment prescribed, however, and this is usually left to the discretion of the
local authorities on Islam.
[23]
Mohamed El-Moctar El-Shinqiti, a contemporary Mauritanian scholar, has argued that
"[even though] homosexuality is a grievous sin...[a] no legal punishment is stated in the Qur'an for
homosexuality...[b] it is not reported that Prophet Muhammad has punished somebody for committing
homosexuality...[c] there is no authentic hadith reported from the Prophet prescribing a punishment for the
homosexuals..." Hadith scholars such as Al-Bukhari, Yahya ibn Ma`in, An-Nasa'i, Ibn Hazm, Al-Tirmidhi, and
others have impugned these statements.
Faisal Kutty, a professor of Islamic law at Indiana-based Valparaiso University Law School and Toronto-based
Osgoode Hall Law School, commented on the contemporary same-sex marriage debate in a March 27, 2014 essay in
the Huffington Post. He acknowledged that while Islamic law iterations prohibits pre and extra marital as well as
same-sex sexual activity, it does not attempt to regulate feelings, emotions and urges, but only its translation into
action that authorities had declared unlawful. Kutty, who teaches comparative law and legal reasoning, also wrote
that many Islamic scholars have even argued that homosexual tendencies themselves were not haram [prohibited]
but had to be suppressed for the public good. He noted that this may not be what the LGBTQ community wants to
hear, but he wrote that, it reveals that even classical Islamic jurists struggled with this issue and had a more
sophisticated attitude than many contemporary Muslims. Kutty who in the past wrote in support of allowing Islamic
principles in dispute resolution also noted that most Muslims have no problem extending full human rights to those
- even Muslims - who live together in sin. He argued that therefore it seems hypocritical to deny fundamental
rights to same-sex couples. Moreover, he argued as pointed out by Islamic legal scholar Mohamed Fadel, this is not
about changing Islamic marriage (nikah), but about making "sure that all citizens have access to the same kinds of
public benefits.
LGBT in Islam
4
Views of homosexuality in Islamic societies
Modern day
Major denominations and religions of the world
LGBT rights at the United Nationsvte
During the Ottoman Empire,
homosexuality was decriminalized in
1858, as part of a wider reforms during
the Tanzimat.
Raphael Patai in The Arab Mind, has
argued that among some Arabs and
Turks homosexuality can be justified
as an expression of power. The active
homosexual act is considered as an
assertion of ones aggressive masculine
superiority, while the acceptance of the
role of the passive homosexual is
considered extremely degrading and
shameful because it casts the man or
youth into a submissive, feminine
role.
[25]
In 2011, the United Nations Human
Rights Council passed its first
resolution recognizing LGBT rights,
which was followed up with a report
from the UN Human Rights
Commission documenting violations of
the rights of LGBT people. The two
world maps of religions of the world
and the countries that support LGBT rights at the UN give an impression of the official attitude towards
homosexuality in the Muslim world.
Rejection of homosexuality according to opinion polls
In a study on the global acceptance of homosexuality by Pew Research Center, released June 4, 2013 it is stated:
[26]
The survey of publics in 39 countries finds broad acceptance of homosexuality in North America, the
European Union, and much of Latin America, but equally widespread rejection in predominantly
Muslim nations and in Africa, as well as in parts of Asia and in Russia.
LGBT in Islam
5
Age and views on homosexuality
Country 18-29 30-49 50+
Homosexuality should be accepted % % %
Malaysia 7 10 11
Turkey 7 9 10
Palestinian territories 5 3 --
Indonesia 4 3 2
Jordan 5 1 1
Egypt 3 2 3
Tunisia 3 2 1
Pakistan 2 2 2
Source: "The Global Divide on Homosexuality"
[27]
(Website). PEW Research. 4 June 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-13.
In the UK, a Gallup poll showed that none of the 500 British Muslims polled believed homosexuality to be "morally
acceptable", compared with 35% of the 1001 French Muslims polled. A 2007 survey of British Muslims showed that
61% believe homosexuality should be illegal, with up to 71% young British Muslims holding this belief.
[28]
According to a 2012 poll, 51% of the Turks in Germany, who account for nearly two thirds of the total Muslim
population in Germany,
[29]
believe that homosexuality is a sickness.
[30]
Sex between boys and men
Despite the formal disapproval of religious authority, the segregation of women in Muslim societies and the strong
emphasis on male virility leads adolescent males and unmarried young men to seek sexual outlets with boys younger
than themselvesin one study in Morocco, with boys in the age-range 7 to 13.
[31]
Men have sex with other males so
long as they are the penetrators and their partners are boys, or in some cases effeminate men.
[32]
Liwat is regarded as
a temptation,
[33]
and anal intercourse is not seen as repulsively unnatural so much as dangerously attractive. They
believe "one has to avoid getting buggered precisely in order not to acquire a taste for it and thus become addicted."
Not all sodomy is homosexual: one Moroccan sociologist, in a study of sex education in his native country, notes
that for many young men heterosexual sodomy is considered better than vaginal penetration, and female prostitutes
likewise report the demand for anal penetration from their (male) clients.
[34]
It is not so much the penetration as the enjoyment that is considered bad.
[35]
Deep shame attaches to the passive
partner: "for this reason men stop getting laid at the age of 15 or 16 and 'forget' that they ever
allowed/suffered/enjoyed it earlier."Wikipedia:Citation needed Similar sexual sociologies are reported for other
Muslim societies from North Africa to Pakistan and the Far East.
[36]
In Afghanistan in 2009, the British Army was
forced to commission a report into the sexuality of the local men after British soldiers reported the discomfort at
witnessing adult males involved in sexual relations with boys. The report stated that though illegal, there was a
tradition of such relationships in the country, known as "bache bazi" or boy play, and that it was especially strong
around Kandahar. This should be compared with the famous episode of T. E. Lawrence's homosexual rape in Revolt
in the Desert.
[37]
LGBT in Islam
6
Gay marriage
In 2007 there was a gay party in the Moroccan town of al-Qasr al-Kabir. Rumours spread that this was a gay
marriage and more than 600 people took to the streets, condemning the alleged event and protesting against leniency
towards homosexuals.
[38]
Several persons who attended the party were detained and eventually six Moroccan men
were sentenced to between four and ten months in prison for "homosexuality".
[39]
In France there was an Islamic same-sex marriage on February 18, 2012.
[40]
In Paris in November 2012 a room in a
Buddhist prayer hall was used by gay Muslims and called a "gay-friendly mosque",
[41]
and a French Islamic website
[42]
is supporting religious same-sex marriage.
An American Muslim in the US Congress, Keith Ellison said in 2010 that all discrimination against LGBT people is
wrong.
[43]
He further expressed support for gay marriage stating:
[44]
I believe that the right to marry someone who you please is so fundamental it should not be subject to
popular approval any more than we should vote on whether blacks should be allowed to sit in the front
of the bus.
Medieval era
Ottoman illustration depicting a
young man used for group sex (from
Sawaqub al-Manaquib)
Increasing prosperity resulting from Muslim conquests in the centuries following
Muhammad's death, was accompanied by what some Muslims bemoaned as a
general "corruption" of morals in the two holy cities of Mecca and Medina.
Therefore, in spite of its condemnation by religious authorities, homosexuality
persisted in a subterranean manner. And it seems to have become less of a rarity
as the process of acculturation sped up. Information relating to the development
of music and song reveals the presence of mukhannathun, who were apparently
for the most part of foreign origin. The arrival of the Abbasid army to Arabia in
the 8th century seems to have meant that tolerance for homosexual practice
subsequently spread more widely under the new dynasty. The ruler Al-Amin, for
example, was said to have required slave women to be dressed in masculine
clothing in the hope of inducing him to adopt more conventional morals.
There are other examples from the following centuries. The Aghlabid Emir,
Ibrahim II of Ifriqiya (ruled 875902), was said to have been surrounded by
some sixty catamites, yet whom he was said to have treated in a most horrific
manner. Caliph al-Mutasim in the 9th century and some of his successors were
accused of homosexuality. The popular stories says that Cordoba, Abd
al-Rahman III had executed a young man from Len who was held as a hostage,
because he had refused his advances during the Reconquista.
Mehmed the Conqueror, the Ottoman sultan living in the 15th century, European sources say who was known to
have ambivalent sexual tastes, sent a eunuch to the house of Notaras, demanding that he supply his good looking
fourteen year old son for the Sultans pleasure. When he refused, the Sultan instantly ordered the decapitation of
Notaras, together with that of his son and his son-in-law; and their three heads were placed on the banqueting
table before him.
[45]
Another youth Mehmed found attractive, and who was presumably more accommodating, was
Radu III the Fair, the brother of the famous Vlad the Impaler, Radu, a hostage in Istanbul whose good looks had
caught the Sultans fancy, and who was thus singled out to serve as one of his most favored pages. After the defeat
of Vlad, Mehmed placed Radu on the throne of Wallachia as a vassal ruler. However, Turkish sources deny these
stories.
[46]
It should be noted that the objectivity of the European sources that claim Mehmed had homosexual tendencies
cannot always be verified. Commonly, contemporary writers would embellish stories to add sensual imagery and
LGBT in Islam
7
homosexual behavior and attribute them to Ottoman sultans in an attempt to rile up European opposition to the
Ottomans. Furthermore, with regards to the story about Notaras' son, Ottoman sources assert that the boy was being
recruited to be an i olan, meaning an "inner servant". Mehmed employed a corps of inner servants, whose role was
to serve in the innermost chambers of the palace, not for the sexual pleasure of the sultan.
In literature
According to the Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World
Whatever the legal strictures on sexual activity, the positive expression of male homeoerotic sentiment
in literature was accepted, and assiduously cultivated, from the late eighth century until modern times.
First in Arabic, but later also in Persian, Turkish and Urdu, love poetry by men about boys more than
competed with that about women, it overwhelmed it. Anecdotal literature reinforces this impression of
general societal acceptance of the public celebration of male-male love (which hostile Western
caricatures of Islamic societies in medieval and early modern times simply exaggerate).
[47]
Legal status in nations
The death penalty for homosexuality is currently in place in Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Iran, Afghanistan, Mauritania,
Sudan and northern Nigeria. Homosexual relations are a crime in Saudi Arabia and Iran.
The legal situation in the United Arab Emirates is that it is illegal and can get you the death penalty, but some
regions just give jail time, mutilations, and fines. In Qatar, Algeria, Uzbekistan and the Maldives, homosexuality is
punished with jail time or fines. This has led to controversy regarding Qatar, which is due to stage the 2022 FIFA
World Cup. Human rights groups have questioned the awarding in 2010 of the right to host the competition, due to
the possibility that gay football fans may be jailed. In response, Sepp Blatter, head of FIFA, joked that they would
have to "refrain from sexual activity" while in Qatar. He later withdrew the remarks after condemnation from rights
groups.
[48]
In Saudi Arabia, while the maximum punishment for homosexual acts is public execution, the government will
generally use lesser punishmentse.g., fines, jail time, and whippingas alternatives, unless it feels that individuals
are challenging state authority by engaging in LGBT social movements. Iran is perhaps the nation to execute the
largest number of its citizens for homosexual acts. Since the 1979 Islamic revolution, the Iranian government has
executed more than 4,000 such people.
In Egypt, openly gay men have been prosecuted under general public morality laws. (See Cairo 52.) In stark contrast,
homosexuality is both legal and tolerated in Lebanon and other states in the Levant, like Palestine, Jordan, and Syria.
In 20 out of 57 Muslim-majority nations same-sex intercourse is not forbidden by law. In Albania there have been
discussions about legalizing same-sex marriage. Homosexual relations between females are legal in Kuwait but
homosexual acts between males are illegal. Lebanon has an internal effort to legalize homosexuality.
Homosexuality laws in majority Muslim countries
Main article: LGBT rights by country or territory
According to the International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA) seven countries still retain capital punishment
for homosexual behavior: Afghanistan, Mauritania, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Yemen. The situation in the
United Arab Emirates (UAE) is that is punished by corporate or capital punishment, depending on the region.
[49]
LGBT in Islam
8
Country Laws against
homosexuality
Penalty Same-sex
Unions
Laws against
discrimination
Adoption Comments
Afghanistan Yes Death No No No
The country is undergoing a period of relative chaos due to
the continuing battles between NATO forces and the
resurgent Taliban. The death penalty is enforced in some
areas of Afghanistan.
[50]
The Penal Code from 1976 in
force, stipulates long imprisonment for adultery and
pederasty.
[51]
See LGBT rights in Afghanistan.
Egypt No* Prison No No No
In Egypt, openly gay men have been prosecuted under
general public morality laws. (See Cairo 52.)
[52]
and LGBT
rights in Egypt.
Indonesia No* No No *Homosexuality is legal outside of Aceh province. See
LGBT rights in Indonesia.
Iran Yes Death No No No Legal gender recognition in Iran is legal if accompanied by a
medical intervention. See LGBT rights in Iran.
Iraq No* No No
*No provisions of the current Iraqi criminal code deal with
homosexuality. The U.S. occupation restored the criminal
code back to its original 1969 edition. Before 2003, the
criminal code was amended in 2001 to include the death
penalty for homosexuality. However currently, death squads
are operating in the country killing gays.
[53]
See LGBT
rights in Iraq.
Malaysia Yes Fine to
20 years
No No Former Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim, who was
himself charged (but later acquitted by the Court of Appeal)
for engaging in homosexuality, has called for their repeal.
Marina Mahathir, the daughter of former Prime Minister
Mahathir Mohamad, has called for an end to discrimination
based on sexual orientation. However, during Mahathir's
term as Prime Minister, he warned gay ministers in foreign
countries not to bring along their partners while visiting the
nation. See LGBT rights in Malaysia.
Mauritania Yes Death No No No See LGBT rights in Mauritania.
Nigeria Yes* 514
years /
death
No No *Areas under Sharia have instituted death for men and
women. Any content, advocating groups or associations,
support, talking to, marriage, etc., regarding LGBT persons
can land you in jail for at least four years. See LGBT rights
in Nigeria.
Pakistan Yes* 2 years
to life
No No
Saudi
Arabia
Yes Death No No No See LGBT rights in Saudi Arabia.
Sudan Yes Death No No No See LGBT rights in Sudan.
Turkey No No No
Uzbekistan Male only* Fine* to
3 years*
No No *Besoqolbozlik (Only applies to anal sex), page 43 of.
Yemen Yes Death No No No See LGBT rights in Yemen.
LGBT in Islam
9
Homosexuality laws in India
In India, where Muslims form a large minority, the largest Islamic seminary (Darul Uloom Deoband) has
vehemently opposed recent government moves
[54]
to abrogate and liberalize laws from the British Raj era that
banned homosexuality.
[55]
LGBT movements within Islam
Float for gay Muslims at Pride London 2011.
The Al-Fatiha Foundation is an organization which tries to advance the
cause of gay, lesbian, and transgender Muslims.Wikipedia:Citation
needed It was founded in 1998 by Faisal Alam, a Pakistani American,
and is registered as a nonprofit organization in the United States. The
organization was an offshoot of an internet listserve that brought
together many gay, lesbian and questioning Muslims from various
countries.
[56]
The Foundation accepts and considers homosexuality as
natural, either regarding Qur'anic verses as obsolete in the context of
modern society, or stating that the Qu'ran speaks out against
homosexual lust and is silent on homosexual love. In 2001,
Al-Muhajiroun, a banned and now defunct international organization who sought the establishment of a global
Islamic caliphate, issued a fatwa declaring that all members of Al-Fatiha were murtadd, or apostates, and
condemning them to death. Because of the threat and coming from conservative societies, many members of the
foundation's site still prefer to be anonymous so as to protect their identity while continuing a tradition of secrecy.
[57]
Al-Fatiha has fourteen chapters in the United States, as well as offices in England, Canada, Spain, Turkey, and South
Africa. In addition, Imaan, a social support group for Muslim LGBT people and their families, exists in the UK.
Both of these groups were founded by gay Pakistani activists. The UK also has the Safra Project for women.
Some Muslims such as the lesbian writer Irshad Manji
[58]
and academic author Scott Kugle argue that Islam does not
condemn homosexuality.
[59]
Kugle, South Asian scholar and author Ruth Vanita, and Muslim scholar and writer
Saleem Kidwai even contend that ancient Islam has a rich history of homoerotic literature.
[60]
There are also a number of Islamic ex-gay (i.e. people claiming to have experienced a basic change in sexual
orientation from exclusive homosexuality to exclusive heterosexuality) groups aimed at attempting to guide
homosexuals towards heterosexuality. The StraightWay Foundation is a UK based ex-gay organization which works
with homosexual Muslims who seek to eliminate their same-sex attractions.
[61]
Al-Tawbah is an Internet-based
ex-gay group.
The religious conflicts and inner turmoil that Islamic homosexuals struggle over has been addressed in various
media, such as the 2006 Channel 4 documentary Gay Muslims, and the 2007 documentary film A Jihad for Love.
The latter was produced by Sandi Simcha DuBowski, who also made a Jewish-themed documentary on the same
topic (Trembling Before G-d) 6 years before.
In November 2012, a prayer room was set up in Paris by gay Islamic scholar and founder of the group 'Homosexual
Muslims of France' Ludovic-Mohamed Zahed. It was described by the press as the first gay-friendly mosque in
Europe, but traditional Islamic scholars disagree.
LGBT in Islam
10
Gender variant and transgender people
In Islam, the term mukhannathun is used to describe gender-variant people, usually male-to-female transsexuals.
Neither this term nor the equivalent for "eunuch" occurs in the Qur'an, but the term does appear in the Hadith, the
sayings of Muhammad, which have a secondary status to the central text. Moreover, within Islam, there is a tradition
on the elaboration and refinement of extended religious doctrines through scholarship. This doctrine contains a
passage by the scholar and hadith collector An-Nawawi:
A mukhannath is the one ("male") who carries in his movements, in his appearance and in his language
the characteristics of a woman. There are two types; the first is the one in whom these characteristics are
innate, he did not put them on by himself, and therein is no guilt, no blame and no shame, as long as he
does not perform any (illicit) act or exploit it for money (prostitution etc.). The second type acts like a
woman out of immoral purposes and he is the sinner and blameworthy.
[62]
Wikipedia:Identifying reliable
sources
While Iran has outlawed homosexuality, Iranian Shi'a thinkers such as Ayatollah Khomeini have allowed for
transsexuals to change their sex so that they can enter heterosexual relationships. This position has been confirmed
by the Supreme Leader of Iran, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, and is also supported by many other Iranian clerics. The
state will pay a portion of the cost for a sex-change operation.Wikipedia:Citation needed
Iran carries out more sex change operations than any other nation in the world except for Thailand. It is regarded as a
cure for homosexuality, which is punishable by death under Iranian law. The government even provides up to half
the cost for those needing financial assistance and a sex change is recognised on the birth certificate.
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LGBT in Islam
11
Luongo, Michael (ed.), Gay Travels in the Muslim World Haworth Press, 2007. ISBN 978-1-56023-340-4.
Everett K. Rowson, J.W. Wright (eds.), Homoeroticism in Classical Arabic Literature New York, 1997
Arno Schmitt and Jehoeda Sofer (eds.), Sexuality and Eroticism Among Males in Moslem Societies Harrington
Park Press 1992
Arno Schmitt and Gianni de Martino, Kleine Schriften zu zwischenmnnlicher Sexualitt und Erotik in der
muslimischen Gesellschaft, Berlin, Gustav-Mller-Str. 10 : A. Schmitt, 1985
Stephen O. Murray and Will Roscoe (eds.), "Islamic Homosexualities: culture, history, and literature" NYU Press
New York 1997
Wafer, Jim (1997) "Muhammad and Male Homosexuality" in "Islamic Homosexualities: culture, history, and
literature" by Stephen O. Murray and Will Roscoe (eds.), NYU Press New York
Wafer, Jim (1997) "The Symbolism of Male Love in Islamic Mysthical Literature" in "Islamic Homosexualities:
culture, history, and literature" by Stephen O. Murray and Will Roscoe (eds.), NYU Press New York 1997
Vincenzo Patan, "Homosexuality in the Middle East and North Africa" in: Aldrich, Robert (ed.) Gay Life and
Culture: A World History, Thames & Hudson, London, 2006
Notes
[1] Homosexuality and Lesbianism: Sexual Perversions (http:/ / www. islamonline. net/ servlet/
Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar/ FatwaE/ FatwaE& cid=1119503545556) Fatwa on Homosexuality from
IslamOnline.net
[2] ILGA: Lesbian and Gay Rights in the World (2009) (http:/ / www. ilga. org/ Statehomophobia/ ILGA_map_2009_A4. pdf).
[3] [3] Abu Dawud 32:4087
[4] [4] Sahih Bukhari 7:72:774
[5] [5] Ibn Majah Vol. 3, Book 9, Hadith 1903
[6] http:/ / www. amnesty. org/ es/ library/ asset/ IOR40/ 024/ 2008/ en/ 269de167-d107-11dd-984e-fdc7ffcd27a6/ ior400242008en. pdf/
[7] [7] Duran (1993) p. 179
[8] Kligerman (2007) pp. 5354
[9] http:/ / www. usc. edu/ org/ cmje/ religious-texts/ quran/ verses/ 007-qmt. php#007. 080
[10] http:/ / www.usc.edu/ org/ cmje/ religious-texts/ quran/ verses/ 004-qmt. php#004. 015
[11] A Muslim's Thoughts about the Sexual Question, (1984)
[12] http:/ / toolserver.org/ %7Edispenser/ cgi-bin/ dab_solver. py?page=LGBT_in_Islam& editintro=Template:Disambiguation_needed/
editintro& client=Template:Dn
[13] http:/ / www.usc.edu/ org/ cmje/ religious-texts/ hadith/ abudawud/ 038-sat. php#038. 4447
[14] http:/ / www.usc.edu/ org/ cmje/ religious-texts/ hadith/ abudawud/ 038-sat. php#038. 4448
[15] http:/ / www.usc.edu/ org/ cmje/ religious-texts/ hadith/ abudawud/ 031-sat. php#031. 4007
[16] http:/ / www.usc.edu/ org/ cmje/ religious-texts/ hadith/ abudawud/ 031-sat. php#031. 4008
[17] http:/ / www.usc.edu/ org/ cmje/ religious-texts/ hadith/ abudawud/ 011-sat. php#011. 2169
[18] http:/ / www.usc.edu/ org/ cmje/ religious-texts/ hadith/ abudawud/ 032-sat. php#032. 4087
[19] http:/ / www.usc.edu/ org/ cmje/ religious-texts/ hadith/ abudawud/ 032-sat. php#032. 4088
[20] http:/ / www.usc.edu/ org/ cmje/ religious-texts/ hadith/ bukhari/ 072-sbt. php#007. 072. 774
[21] http:/ / www.usc.edu/ org/ cmje/ religious-texts/ hadith/ bukhari/ 082-sbt. php#008. 082. 820
[22] Threats to Behead Homosexuals: Shari`ah or Politics? (http:/ / www. islamonline. net/ servlet/ Satellite?cid=1212925140273&
pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar/ FatwaE/ PrintFatwaE+ ) by Mohamed El-Moctar El-Shinqiti, IslamOnline.net
[23] Duran, K. (1993). Homosexuality in Islam, p. 184. Cited in: Kligerman (2007) p. 54.
[24] http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ w/ index. php?title=Template:LGBT_rights_at_the_UN& action=edit
[25] [25] Patai, The Arab Mind, p. 33
[26] Pew Research Center: The Global Divide on Homosexuality (http:/ / www. pewglobal. org/ 2013/ 06/ 04/
the-global-divide-on-homosexuality/ ) retrieved 9 June 2013
[27] http:/ / www.pewglobal.org/ 2013/ 06/ 04/ the-global-divide-on-homosexuality/
[28] http:/ / dvmx. com/ British_Muslim_Youth. pdf
[29] Bundesministerium des Inneren: Zusammenfassung "Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland" (http:/ / www. bmi. bund. de/ SharedDocs/
Downloads/ DE/ Themen/ Politik_Gesellschaft/ DIK/ langversion_studie_muslim_leben_deutschland. pdf?__blob=publicationFile), p. 2
[30] Liljeberg Research International: Deutsch-Trkische Lebens- und Wertewelten 2012 (https:/ / d171. keyingress. de/ multimedia/ document/
228. pdf), July/August 2012, p.73
[31] Schmitt&Sofer, p.36
[32] Schmitt&Sofer, pp.x-xi
LGBT in Islam
12
[33] [33] Habib, p.287
[34] [34] Dialmy, pp.32 and 35, footnote 34
[35] Schmitt&Sofer, p.7
[36] Murray&Roscoe, passim
[37] Paedophilia 'culturally accepted in south Afghanistan' (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ worldnews/ asia/ afghanistan/ 8257943/
Paedophilia-culturally-accepted-in-south-Afghanistan. html), Telegraph
[38] Al Arabiya: "Moroccan "bride" detained for gay wedding" (http:/ / www. alarabiya. net/ articles/ 2007/ 11/ 27/ 42200. html)
[39] Al Arabiya: "Morocco sentences gay brideto jail" (http:/ / www. alarabiya. net/ articles/ 2007/ 12/ 12/ 42868. html)
[40] France 24 - Concilier islam et homosexualit, le combat de Ludovic-Mohamed Zahed - Galle LE ROUX (http:/ / www. france24. com/ fr/
20120330-france-mariage-homosexuel-musulmans-gay-religion-imam-coran-corps-livre-ludovic-mohamed-zahed)
[41] Gay-friendly 'mosque' opens in Paris (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ world-europe-20547335) retrieved 12 February 2013
[42] Homosexuel-musulmans.org - Association nationale Homosexuel-le-s musulman-e-s de France (http:/ / www. homosexuels-musulmans.
org/ gay_muslims. html)
[43] Bradlee Dean: Keith Ellison is advancing Sharia law through homosexual agenda(http:/ / minnesotaindependent. com/ 74635/
bradlee-dean-keith-ellison-is-advancing-sharia-law-through-homosexual-agenda) retrieved 15 January 2013
[44] Keith Ellison: Minnesota Anti-Gay Marriage Amendment Will Fail (http:/ / 2012. talkingpointsmemo. com/ 2012/ 06/
keith-ellison-minnesota-marriage-amendment-fail. php) retrieved 16 January 2013
[45] Kinross, The Ottoman Centuries, pp. 11516.
[46] History of the Ottoman Empire, Mohamed Farid Bey
[47] Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, MacMillan Reference USA, 2004, p.316
[48] Fifa boss Sepp Blatter sorry for Qatar 'gay' remarks (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ sport2/ hi/ football/ 9297497. stm), BBC
[49] [49] LGBT rights in the United Arab Emirates
[50] Islam And Homosexuality (http:/ / www.religioustolerance. org/ hom_isla. htm)
[51] With the Government in our bedrooms (http:/ / typo3. lsvd. de/ fileadmin/ pics/ Dokumente/ Homosexualitaet/
With_the_government_in_our_bedrooms_-_November_2006. pdf)
[52] With the Government in our bedrooms (http:/ / www. ilga. org/ statehomophobia/
With_the_government_in_our_bedrooms_November_2006. pdf)
[53] World legal wrap up survey (http:/ / typo3. lsvd.de/ fileadmin/ pics/ Dokumente/ Homosexualitaet/ World_legal_wrap_up_survey.
_November2006.pdf)
[54] India to repeal anti-gay law as second Gay Pride is held (http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ news/ world/ asia/ article6597715. ece), The
Times
[55] After Deoband, other Muslim leaders condemn homosexuality (http:/ / articles. timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ 2009-07-01/ india/
28209224_1_muslim-leaders-controversial-section-maulana-jalaluddin-omari), Times of India
[56] [56] "Cyber Mecca", The Advocate, March 14, 2000
[57] [57] Tim Herbert, "Queer chronicles", Weekend Australian, October 7, 2006, Qld Review Edition.
[58] Irshad Manji blog and official website "Do homosexual Muslims deserve happiness?" (http:/ / www. irshadmanji. com/
im-do-homosexual-muslims-deserve-happiness)
[59] Progressive Scottish Muslims: Scott Kugle: Homosexuality in Islam Critical Reflection on Gay, Lesbian, and Transgender Muslims (http:/ /
progressivescottishmuslims.blogspot.com/ 2010/ 07/ homosexuality-in-islam-critical. html)
[60] Queer India: Gay historians: Ruth Vanita and Saleem Kidwai (http:/ / queerindia. blogspot. com/ 2005/ 03/
gay-historians-ruth-vanita-and-saleem.html)
[61] The StraightWay Foundation (http:/ / straightway.sinfree. net/ ). Retrieved 2007-04-06.
[62] WIslam - Mukhannath (http:/ / wislam. org/ Concepts/ Mukhannath)
[63] http:/ / xa. yimg. com/ kq/ groups/ 14368256/ 413849807/ name/ Which
[64] http:/ / books. google. com. au/ books?id=PqRq1bBbT54C& pg=PA287& lpg=PA287& dq=liwat+ is+ regarded+ as+ a+ temptation&
source=bl& ots=1QtdXsuTjp& sig=pQinpV2Q2f0AiAd1SOXlhNwQzSI& hl=en& ei=A1_YTYy0N4mEvAP1qJmsBw& sa=X&
oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=10& ved=0CFoQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage& q=liwat%20is%20regarded%20as%20a%20temptation&
f=false
[65] http:/ / books. google. com. au/ books?id=PqRq1bBbT54C& pg=PR3& dq=Islam+ and+ homosexuality,+ Volume+ 2& hl=en&
ei=QSHWTfT7G4e6vQOc-Yi1Bw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&
q=Islam%20and%20homosexuality%2C%20Volume%202& f=false
[66] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=MD4qAgAAQBAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=Die+ Vertreibung+ aus+ dem+ Serail:+ Europa+
und+ die+ Heteronormalisierung+ der+ islamischen+ Welt& hl=en& sa=X& ei=CmmrU-yTAci7O-T1gegM&
ved=0CCAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&
q=Die%20Vertreibung%20aus%20dem%20Serail%3A%20Europa%20und%20die%20Heteronormalisierung%20der%20islamischen%20Welt&
f=false
[67] http:/ / books. google. com. au/ books?id=Kw_BVSVmNsUC& dq=Sexuality+ and+ eroticism+ among+ males+ in+ Moslem+ societies&
printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=2K5mS8aYJo2TkAXGuKntDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4&
ved=0CCAQ6AEwAw#v=onepage& q=& f=false
LGBT in Islam
13
[68] http:/ / www.uib. no/ jais/ content4. htm
[69] http:/ / docs. google. com/ viewer?a=v& q=cache:KjIohrD0R-AJ:www. safraproject. org/ Reports/
Muslim_Moral_Instruction_on_Homosexuality.pdf+ Islam,+ Homosexuality+ and+ Migration& hl=km& gl=kh& pid=bl&
srcid=ADGEESi8Wm3zisCleP-UN8czw5a7tpJLFe2ekZJF6ccbenXhff2ub-0SP0uu-fIfZvZBmHiuZ6vVJfYvaxtkKcxiMSQV-p_WTdlSR_wOVD0XVZznB9RJgtgWUUEOQNlfd8jgYiPqL4U0&
sig=AHIEtbTAKkG0EQImULQIOH5QsnBAyVuR_w
[70] http:/ / books. google. com. au/ books?id=hQuHFPKp8L0C& pg=PA87& lpg=PA87& dq=Muhammad+ and+ male+ homosexuality&
source=bl& ots=gdMmFV9J9w& sig=9xoXAcaDSYvq7rKWRKHtHLtrE3U& hl=en& ei=qATWTbyILoHGsAO79LWxBw& sa=X&
oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CCEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q=Muhammad%20and%20male%20homosexuality& f=false
External links
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: LGBT in Islam
Islam and homosexuality: Straight but narrow (http:/ / www. economist. com/ node/ 21546002), The Economist,
Feb 4th 2012
Islam and Homosexuality (http:/ / www. greenwood. com/ catalog/ C37900. aspx)Wikipedia:Link rot, a
two-volume anthology
Homosexuality: What is the real sickness? (http:/ / abdurrahman. org/ character/ sodomy. html) Illustrative Article
from AbdurRahman.org
Islam's Stand on Homosexuality (http:/ / newsgroups. derkeiler. com/ Archive/ Soc/ soc. culture. canada/ 2005-09/
msg00250. html)Wikipedia:Link rot
Gay Rights: Who are the Real Enemies of Liberation? (http:/ / www. socialistreview. org. uk/ article.
php?articlenumber=9662), Socialist Review
Imaan supports LGBT Muslim people, their families and friends (UK) (http:/ / www. imaan. org. uk/ )
The StraightWay Foundation (UK) (http:/ / www. straightstruggle. com/ )
Intolerant cruelty (http:/ / www. diabolicdigest. net/ Middle East/ Unspeakable_review. htm) This special edition
of Diabolic Digest explores the question of homosexuality in the Middle East.
Islamic law: (much) Theory and (just enough) Practice (http:/ / www. uib. no/ jais/ v004/ schmitt1. pdf)
Safra Project Sexuality, Gender and Islam (http:/ / www. safraproject. org/ sgi-intro. htm)
Queer Sexuality and Identity in the Qur'an and Hadith (http:/ / www. well. com/ user/ aquarius/ Qurannotes. htm),
interpretation of Islamic texts in historical context
Sodomy in Islamic Jurisprudence (article in German; engl. Summary ) (http:/ / www. uib. no/ jais/ v004/ schmitt1.
pdf)
Sexuality and Eroticism Among Males in Moslem Societies by Arno Schmitt and Jehoeda Sofer (eds.),
Harrington Park Press 1992 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Kw_BVSVmNsUC& pg=PA1& lpg=PA1&
dq=sofer+ schmitt+ male+ sexuality& source=web& ots=klfkx4gXIl&
sig=Cy9HrOdQRJ3ZfOb4VpMha5veCMc)
Islam and Homosexuality (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20091027063803/ http:/ / www. geocities. com/
mikailtariq/ homo. htm)
Gay Travels in the Muslim World (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ Travels-Muslim-World-Michael-Luongo/ dp/
1560233400/ ref=sr_1_3?s=books& ie=UTF8& qid=1320556541& sr=1-3), an anthology of travel essays by gay
Muslim and non-Muslim men; Luongo, Michael (ed.) Haworth Press
Islam and Homosexuality (http:/ / www. missionislam. com/ knowledge/ homosexuality. htm)
Kotb, H.G.: Sexuality in Islam at the Magnus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology (http:/ / www2. hu-berlin. de/
sexology/ GESUND/ ARCHIV/ kotb2. htm)
Homosexuality in Urdu poetry: Tolerance in medieval India and early Islamic societies (http:/ / www.
anindianmuslim. com/ 2009/ 07/ homosexuality-in-urdu-poetry-tolerance. html)
Article Sources and Contributors
14
Article Sources and Contributors
LGBT in Islam Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=618795531 Contributors: 109Eastside, 63.109.248.xxx, ACSE, AV3000, Access Denied, Actionfury199, Adashiel,
AdelaMae, Agari, AgnosticPreachersKid, Agzk, AirBa, Ajadon, Al-Andalusi, Alexlange, Allens, Allstar19921993, Altetendekrabbe, Ameroffsky, Aminooo, Ankit Maity, Antandrus, Antrozous,
Apollomelos, Apple pie 20 20, Arshan272, Asarelah, AsceticRose, Austriacus, AxelBoldt, BDD, Babajobu, Barotoa, Beland, Beno1000, BesselDekker, Bgwhite, Bihco, Bless sins, Bobrayner,
BoogaLouie, BorderlineWaxwork, BorgQueen, Borninusa100, Bowker61@fastmail.co.uk, Brendandh, BrianH123, Britcom, C.Fred, CALR, CanadianLinuxUser, Carbon Caryatid, Carlobdarlo,
Carolfrog, Carpelogos, Carwon, Cedrus-Libani, Chairman Sharif, ChildofMidnight, Chowen, Chris the speller, ChrisGualtieri, Chrono1084, Cmdrjameson, Cohesion, Coin945,
CommonsDelinker, Contaldo80, Conversion script, CovenantD, Cunado19, Curtmack, Cuado, Cynwolfe, DMacks, DOSGuy, DanB DanD, Danny, Dbachmann, Dendlai, Denisarona, Dev920,
DevOhm, Dialectric, Dipankan001, DocWatson42, Doseiai2, Draganta, Drhsantana, Dybryd, ESkog, Ecjmartin, Edward, Ejnogarb, Elazeez, Emiellaiendiay, Epson291, EqualRights, Eraserhead1,
Errtf, Ershadi, EryZ, Esperant, Evano1van, Exploding Boy, Faber42, Fadesga, Faheemo, Falcon8765, Fan-1967, Faris Malik, FatTrebla, Favonian, Feinoha, Fibonacci, Filelakeshoe, Fisher.G,
Fontgirl, G.dallorto, GPS94, Garik, GayBangladesh, Gilgamesh, Gilliam, Gr8opinionater, Graham87, Great50, Greebo cat, Greensleaves112, Grenavitar, Grue, Gryphon044, Guanaco, Gun
Powder Ma, Haiduc, Hairy Dude, Harryeds, Hasnicgotcha, Heimstern, Heron, Hidanovic21, Hoo man, Horselover Frost, Huangcjz, Hulleye, Hurtsalot, HuzaifaHussain, Hypatia71, Ibnqalaam,
Imadjafar, Irishpunktom, IronGargoyle, Itaqallah, Ivory212, Izzedine, JForget, JHunterJ, Jackson Peebles, Jacobolus, James, Jamyskis, JanTervel, Janko, Jason from nyc, Jeff3000, Jerome
Charles Potts, Jim1138, John Smythe, JohnPaulPagano, Jojhutton, Jormelo23, Joshinda26, JoshyDinda, Jpbrenna, Jprg1966, Khalid hassani, KhanyT, Khateeb88, Khuzstaniz, Kitmention, Koavf,
Kralahome, KrisW6, Kugland, Kunleofafrica, KurtRaschke, Kyle Barbour, Kyorosuke, Ladwiki, LadyofShalott, Laval, Le Anh-Huy, Leit... Leit... Leithammel, Lester, Leutha, LiangHH, Livajo,
Looxix, Lotje, MK8, MaXm, Magioladitis, Mahmudmasri, Mairi, Makoto7495, Malick78, Manifestation, Mark Arsten, Marokwitz, Martpol, Matt57, Matthew Fennell, Mav, Mcdruid, Mdwh,
Meco, Meiskam, Mentality, Merbabu, Metron, Mhakcm, Michael Hardy, Michael Voytinsky, Microchip08, Midas touch, Midgrid, Mike Rosoft, Mikenassau, Milovat, Mintguy, Mirv,
Mirza.Klovo, Misheu, Miss Madeline, Mitch1981, Mogism, Mongreilf, Monsieur Fou, MosheA, Mqduck, Mtluongo, Muiranec, Mulberry777, MuslimsofUmreka, Mustafaa, NZUlysses,
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OwenBlacker, Paco758, PahaOlo, Paris1127, Pass a Method, Patrick, Paul Willocx, Pecher, Peculiar Light, Pereant antiburchius, Peridon, Petrb, Phpp, PiCo, Pigsonthewing, Pingveno, Piotrus,
Politas, Portillo, Postdlf, Prince Godfather, Quadell, Quinsareth, R'n'B, RDiFebbo, RJFJR, RK, RP459, Rabidphage, Randy2063, Raven in Orbit, Raystorm, Razimantv, Realm of Shadows,
ReflectTheFacts, Refusingtogiveup, RexNL, Rich Farmbrough, RiverStyx23, Rjwilmsi, RobertGill1, RodC, RonduMcPhee, Roscelese, Rushbugled13, RxS, Rnin, S710, SWAdair, Saebjorn,
Safraproject, Sam Spade, Samarhabib80, Sardanaphalus, Sched12, Scientiom, Seewolf, Severa, Sfan00 IMG, Shadowsauce, Shamharush, Shenme, ShotmanMaslo, Shyamsunder, Silver Maple,
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