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Pooran Chand (2K11/EE/080)

I would like to express my sincere thanks to Mr. S. K. GUPTA (DGM, BSES-Laxmi Nagar) for
allowing me to go through the training under his surveillance. This training has provided me a
great experience and knowledge about the networking and working of the company.

I am very grateful for the cooperation and interest of Mr. RAJKUMAR (BSES mentor) who took
part in this and assisted me through all stages in project and provided me a great overview of
the company BSES, a power distribution company.

It would not have been possible without his help. This research was supported by I would also
like to express my sincere thanks to all the advisors for their cooperation and encouragement
during this project.

Last, I express my thanks to Delhi Technological University for having provided me with this
unique opportunity to train for four weeks.

Pooran Chand
Delhi Technological University
Delhi -110042

The Delhi Vidyut Board was formed by the Government of NCT Delhi in 1997 for the purpose
of generation and distribution of power to the entire area of NCT of Delhi except the areas
falling within the jurisdiction of NDMC and Delhi Cantonment Board. On July 1, 2002, The Delhi
Vidyut Board (DVB) was unbundled into six successor companies: Delhi Power Supply
Company Limited (DTL)-TRANSCO; Indraprastha Power Generation Company Limited (IPGCL)-
GENCO; BSES Rajdhani Power Limited (BRPL)-DISCOM; BSES Yamuna Power Limited (BYPL)-
DISCOM; North Delhi Power Limited (NDPL)-DISCOM.
Following the privatization of Delhis power sector and unbundling of the Delhi Vidyut Board in
July 2002, the business of power distribution was transferred to BSES Yamuna Power Limited
(BYPL) and BSES Rajdhani Power Limited (BRPL). These two of the three successor entities
distribute electricity to 28.34 lakh customers in two thirds of Delhi. The company acquired
assets, liabilities, proceedings and personnel of the Delhi Vidyut Board as per the terms and
conditions contained in the Transferred Scheme.
BSES Yamuna Power Limited, Shakti Kiran Building, Opp. Karkarduma Court, Delhi
BSES Rajdhani Power Limited, BSES Bhawan, Nehru Place, Delhi 11019.
BSES Yamuna Power Limited (BYPL)
BYPL distribute power to an area spread over 200 sq. km with a population density of 5953 per
sq. km. Its 11.9 lakh customers are spread over 14 districts across Central and East areas
including Chandni Chowk, Daryaganj, Paharganj, Sankar Road, Patel Nagar, G T Road,
Karkardooma, Krishna Nagar, Laxmi Nagar, Mayur Vihar, Nand Nagri and Karawal Nagar.
BSES Rajdhani Power Limited (BRPL)
BRPL distribute power to an area spread over 750 sq. km with a population density of 2192 per
sq km. Its 16.44 lakh customers are spead in 19 districts across South and West areas including
Alakananda, Khanpur, Vasant Kunj, Saket, Nehru Place, Nizamuddin, Sarit Vihar, Hauj Khas, R K

Puram, Janakpuri, Najafgarh, Nagloi, Mundka ,Punjabi Bagh, Tagore Garden, Vikas Puri, Palam
and Dwarka.
To be amongst the most admired and most trusted integrated utilities companies in the world.
To deliver reliable and quality products and services to all consumers at competitive costs,
with international standards of customer care, thereby creating superior value for all
To set new benchmarks in: standards of corporate performance and governance, through the
pursuit of operational and financial excellence, responsible citizenship and profitable growth.

To attain global best practices and become a world class utility.
To provide: uninterrupted, affordable, quality, reliable, safety and customer care.
To achieve excellence in: service, quality, reliability, safety and customer care.
To earn: trust and confidence of all customers and stakeholders by exceeding their
expectation and make the company a respected household name.
To work: with vigor, dedication and innovation keeping total customer satisfaction as
the ultimate goal.
To consistently achieve: high growth with highest level of productivity.
To be: a technology driven, efficient and financially sound organization.
To be a responsible corporate citizen nurturing human values and concern for society,
the environment and above all, people.
To contribute: towards community development and nation building.
To promote a work culture that fosters: individual growth, team spirit and creativity to
overcome challenges and attain goals.
To encourage: ideas, talent and values systems.
To uphold the guiding principles of: trust, integrity and transparency in all aspects of
interactions and dealing.

Customer Profile
Category BRPL BYPL
Domestic 1,465,561 904,463
Non Domestic 244,071 295,890
Industrial 12,694 19,704
Agriculture 4,259 51
Railway Traction 1 -
DMRC 6 1
Others 6,396 7,476
Total 1,733,005 1,227,755
*Customer Base as of 31

An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from supplier to
consumers. It consists of three main components:
1. Power stations that produce electricity from combustible fuel (coal, natural gas and
biomass) or non-combustible fuels (wind, solar, nuclear, hydro power).
2. Transmission lines that carry electricity from power plant to demand centres.
3. Transformers that reduce voltage so distribution lines carry power to final delivery.

In the power industry, electrical grid is a term used for an electricity network which includes
the following three distinct operations:
1. Electricity generation-Generating plants are usually located near a source of water, and
away from heavily populated areas. They are usually quite large to take advantage of
economies of scale. The electric power which is generated is stepped up to a higher
voltage- at which it connects to the transmission network.
2. Electric power transmission The transmission network will move (wheel) the power
long distances-often across state lines, and sometimes across international boundaries,
until it reaches its wholesale consumer (usually the company that owns the local
distribution network).
3. Electricity distribution- Upon arrival at the substation, the power will be stepped down
in voltage- from a transmission level voltage to a distribution level voltage. As it exits the
substation, it enters the distribution wiring. Finally, upon arrival at the service location,
the power is stepped down again from the distribution voltage to the required service

Generation stage:
Electrical generation is the process of generating electric energy from other form of energy.
Electrical power starts at the power plant, in almost all cases the power plant consists of a
spinning electrical generator. A generator is a machine that transforms mechanical energy into
electrical energy.
Sometimes has to spin that generator; it might be a water wheel in a hydroelectric dam, a
large diesel engine or a gas turbine. But in most areas the thing spinning the generator is a
steam turbine.
The steam might be created by burning coal, oil, natural gas or the fission of nuclear fuel.
And some generating stations use renewable energy sources like sun and wind.
Sometimes, another stages of power generation is provided in transmission and distribution
stages (Embedded generation) to meet additional power requirements in some load areas.

Electrical power transmission is defined as the process of transferring electrical energy from
one point to another.
Electrical power transmission or high voltage electrical transmission is the bulk transfer of
electrical energy, from generating plants (historically hydroelectric power-plants). Electrical
transmission lines can vary a few kilometers long in urban surroundings to thousands of
kilometers for lines carrying power from remote power plants.

The transmission lines are interconnected with every completely different to make higher
networks, so that if one line ought to fail, another can take over the electrical load.
Transmission lines can be overhead or underground.
Transmission stages:
Electric-power transmission is the bulk transfer of electrical energy; from generating power
plants to substations located near population centers.
The 3-phase power leaves the generator and enters a transmission substation at the power
plant. This substation uses large transformers to convert the generators voltage (which is at
the thousands of volts level) up to extremely high voltages for long-distance transmission on
the transmission grid. Typical voltages for long distance transmission are in the 155,00 to
765,000 volt range in order to reduce line losses.
Transmission stage may include sub-station stages (secondary transmission) to supply
intermediate voltage levels. Sub-transmission stages are used to enable a more practical or
economical transition between transmission and distribution systems.

Overhead transmission

High-voltage overhead transmission conductors are not covered by insulation. The conductor
material is nearly always an aluminum alloy, made into several strands and possibly reinforced
with steel strands.
Conductors sizes ranges from 12 mm
to 750 mm
( 1,590,000 circular miles area), with
varying resistance and current-carrying capacity. Thicker wires would lead to a relatively small
increase in capacity due to skin effect, that causes most of the current to flow close to the
surface of the wire. Because of this current limitation, multiple parallel cables (called bundle
conductors) are used when higher capacity is needed. Bundle conductors are also used at high
voltages to reduces energy loss caused by corona discharge. Today, transmission-level voltages
are usually considered to be 110 kV and above. Lower voltages such as 66 kV and 33 kV are
usually considered sub transmission voltages but are occasionally used on long with light
loads. Voltages less than 33 kV are usually used for distribution. Voltages above 230 kV are
considered extra high voltages and require different designs compared to equipment used at
lower voltages.

Since overhead transmission wires depend on the air for insulation, design of these lines
requires minimum clearances to be observed to maintain safety. Adverse weather conditions
of high wind and low temperature can lead to power outages. Wind speeds as low as 23 knots
(43 km/h) can permit conductors to encroach operating clearances, resulting in a flashover
and loss of supply.

Electric power can also be transmitted by undergrounded power cables instead of overhead
power lines. Underground cables take up less right-of-way than overhead lines, have lower
visibility, and are less affected by bad weather. However, cost of insulated cable and
excavation are much higher than overhead construction. Faults in buried transmission lines
take longer to locate and repair. Underground lines are limited by their thermal capacity,
which permits fewer overloads or re-rating than overhead lines. Long underground cables
have significant capacitance, which may reduce their ability to provide useful power to loads.

Electricity distribution is the final stage in the delivery of electricity to end users. A distribution
systems network carries electricity from the transmission system and delivers it to consumers.
Typically, the network would include medium voltage (less than 1 kV) distribution wiring and
sometimes meters.
The modern distribution system begins as the primary circuit leaves the substation and ends as
the secondary service enters the consumers meter socket. Distribution circuits serve many
customers. The voltage used is used is appropriate for the shorter distance and varies from
2,300 to about 35,000 volts depending on utility standard practice, distance, and load to be
served. Distribution circuits are fed from a transformer located in an electrical substation,
where the voltage is reduced from the high values used for power transmission.
Conductors for distribution may be carried o overhead pole lines, or in densely populated
areas where they are buried underground. Urban and suburban distribution is done with three
phase systems to serve residential, commercial, and industrial loads. Distibution in rural areas
may be only single phase if it is not economical to install three phase power for relatively few
and small customers.
Only large consumers are fed directly from distribution voltage, most utility customers are
connected to a transformer, which reduces the distribution voltage to the relatively low
voltage used by lighting and interior wiring systems. The transformer may be pole-mounted or
set on the ground in a protective enclosure. In rural areas a pole-mounted transformer may
serve only one customer, but in more built-up areas multiple customers may be connected. In
very dense city areas, a secondary network may be formed with many transformers feeding
into a common bus at the utilization voltage. Each customer has an electrical service or
service drop connection and a meter for billing. (Some very small loads, such as yard lights,
may be too small to meter and so are charged only a monthly rate.)
A ground connection to local earth is normally provided for the customers system as well as
for the equipment owned by the utility. The purpose of connecting the customers system to
the ground is to limit the voltage that may develop if high voltage conductors fall on lower
voltage conductors, if a failure occurs within a distribution transformer. If all conductive
objects are bonded to the same earth grounding system, the risk of electric shock is
minimized. However, multiple connections between the utility ground and customer ground
can lead to stray voltage problems; customer piping, swimming pools or other equipment may

develop objectionable voltage. These problems may be difficult to resolve since they often
originate from places other than customers premises.

Distribution network configuration
Distribution network are typically of two types, radial and interconnected. A radial network
leaves the station and passes through the network area with no normal connection to any
other supply. This is typical of long rural lines with isolated load areas. An interconnected
network is generally found in more urban areas and will have multiple connections to other
points of supply. These points of connections are normally open but allow various
configuration by the operating utility by closing and opening switches. Operation of these
switches may be by remote control from a control centre or by a lineman. The benefit of the
interconnected model is that in the event of a fault or required maintenance a small area of
network can be isolated and the remainder kept on supply.
Within these networks there may be a mix of overhead line construction utilizing traditional
utility poles and wires and, increasingly, underground construction with cables and indoor or
cabinet substations. However, underground distribution is significantly more expensive than
over head construction. In part to reduce this cost, underground power lines are sometimes
co-located with other utility lines in what are called common utility ducts. Distribution feeders
emanating from a substation are generally controlled by a circuit breaker which will open
when a fault is detected. Automatic circuit re-closers may be installed to further segregate the
feeder thus minimizing the impact of faults.
Long feeders experience voltage drop requiring capacitors or voltage regulators to be
Characteristics of the supply given to customers are generally mandated by contract between
supplier and customer. Variables of the supply include:
AC or DC Virtually all public electricity are AC today.Users of large amounts of DC
power such as some electric railways, telephone exchanges and industrial processes
such as aluminum smelting usually either operate their own or have adjacent
dedicated generating equipment, or us rectifiers to derive DC from the public AC
Voltage, including tolerance (usually +10 or -15 percent).

Frequency, commonly 50 or 60 Hz, 16.6 Hz and 25 Hz for some railways and, in a few
older industrial and mining locations, 25 Hz.
Phase configuration (single-phase, poly phase including two phase and three phase).
Maximum demand (usually measured as the largest amount of power delivered within
a 15 or 30 minute period during a billing period).
Load factor, expressed as a ratio of average load to peak load over a period of time.
Load factor indicates the degree of effective utilization of equipment (and capital
investment) of distribution line or system.
Power factor of connected load.
Earthing systems.
Prospective short circuit current
Maximum level and frequency of occurrence of transients.


The Distribution stage:
Electricity distribution is the final stage in the final stage in the delivery of electricity to end
users. A distribution systems network carries electricity from the transmission system and
delivers it to consumers.
For power to be useful in a home or business it comes off the transmission grid and is stepped
down to the distribution grid in a power distribution substation, and this may happen in
several phases as follows:
Primary distribution system (HV distribution)
It is that portion of network between the sub-transmission substation and secondary
distribution system. The primary system consists of step- down transformer and sometimes
embedded generation can be used at voltage levels which range from 33 kV to 6.6 kV.
The secondary distribution system (LV distribution):
It is that portion of the network between the primary feeders and utilization equipment. The
secondary system consists of step-down transformers and secondary circuit at utilization
voltage levels which range from 480 V to 120 V.
Note: Residential secondary systems are predominantly single phase, but commercial and
industrial systems generally use three-phase power.


The demand for electrical energy is ever increasing. Today over 21 %( theft apart!!) of the total
electrical energy generated in India is lost in transmission ( 4-6%) and distribution ( 15-18%).
The electrical power deficit in the country is currently about 18%. Clearly, reduction in
distribution losses to a 6-8% level in India with the help of newer technological options
(including information technology) in the electrical power distribution sector which will enable
better monitoring and control.
How does Power reach us?
Electrical power is normally generated at 11-25 kV in a power station. To transmit over long
distances, it is then stepped-up to 400 kV, 220 kV or 132 kV as necessary. Power is carried
through a transmission network of high voltage lines. Usually, these lines run into hundreds
o9f kilometers and deliver the power into a common power pool called grid. The grid is
connected to load centers (cities) through a sub-transmission network of normally 33kV (or 66
kV) substation, where the voltage is stepped-down to 11 kV and lower.
The power network, which generally concerns the common man, is the distribution network of
11 kV lines or feeders downstream of the 33 kV substation. Each 11 kV feeder which emanates
from the 33 kV substation branches further into several subsidiary 11 kV feeders to carry
power close to the load points (localities, industrial areas, villages etc.). At these load points, a
transformer further reduces the voltage from 11 kV to 415 V to provide the last mile
connection through 415V feeders (also called as Low Tension (LT) feeders) to individual
customers, either at 240 V (as single-phase supply) or at 415 V (as three-phase supply). A
feeder could be either an overhead line or an underground cable. In urban areas, owing to the
density of customers, the length of an 11 kV feeder is generally up to 3 km. On the other hand,
in rural areas, the feeder length is much larger (up to 20 km). A 415 V feeder should normally
be restricted to about 0.5-1.0 km. Unduly long feeders lead to low voltage at the consumer

Bottlenecks in Ensuring Reliable Power
Lack of information at the base station (33kV sub-station) on the loading and health status of
the 11kV/415V transformer and associated feeders is one primary cause of inefficient power
distribution. Due to absence of monitoring, overloading occurs, which results in low voltage at
the customer end and increases the risk of frequent breakdowns of transformers and feeders.
In fact, the transformer breakdown rate in India is as high as around 20%, in contrast to less
than 2% in some advance countries.
In the absence of switches at different points in the distribution network, it is not possible to
isolate certain loads for load shedding as and when required. The only option available in the
present distribution network is the circuit breaker (one each for every main 11kV feeder) at
the 33kV substation. However, these circuit breakers are actually provided as a means of
protection to completely isolate the downstream network in the event of fault. Using this as a
tool for load management is not desirable, as it disconnects the power supply to a very large
segment of consumers. Clearly, there is a need to put in place a system that can achieve a finer
resolution in load management.

In the event of a fault on any feeder section downstream, the circuit breaker at the 33kV
substation trips (opens). As a result, there is a black out over a large section of the distribution
network. If the faulty feeder segment could be precisely identified, it would be possible to
substantially reduce the blackout area, by re-routing the power to the healthy feeder
segments through the operation of switches (of the same type as those for load management)
placed at strategic locations in various feeder segments.

Example for a complete power system grid:

The generator produces 20,000 volts.
This, however, is raised to 138,000 volts for the long transmission journey.
This power is conducted over 138,000 volt (138 kV) transmission lines to switching
stations located in the important load area served.
When the power reaches the switching stations, it is stepped down to 34,500 volts (34.5
kV) for transmission in smaller quantities to the substations in the local load areas and
industrial consumers can utilize electrical power at this stage.
Then it is stepped down to 13,800 volts (13.8 kV) for direct distribution to local areas
and industrial, commercial and residential consumers can utilize electrical power at this
stage by using appropriate step down transformer to their grids voltage level.

Medium-Voltage circuit breakers
Medium-voltage circuit breakers rated between 1 and 72 kV may be assembled into metal
enclosed switchgear ups for indoor use, or may be individual components installed outdoors in
a substation. Air-breaker circuit breakers replaced oil-filled units for indoor applications, but
are now themselves being replaced by vacuum circuit breakers (up to about 35 kV). Like the
high voltage circuit breakers described below, these are also operated by current sensing
protective relays operated through current transformers. The characteristics of MV breakers
are given by international standards such as IEC 62271. Medium-voltage circuit breakers nearly
always use separate current sensors and protective relays, instead of relying on built-in
thermal or magnetic over current sensors.
Medium-voltage circuit breakers can be classified by the medium used to extinguish the arc:
Vacuum circuit breakers-with rated current up to 3000 a, these circuit breakers
interrupt the current by creating and extinguishing the arc in a vacuum container. These
are generally applied for voltages up to about 35,000 V, which corresponds roughly to
the medium-voltage range of power systems. Vacuum circuit breakers tend to have
longer life expectancies between overhaul than do air breakers.
Air circuit breakers- rated current between up to 10,000 A. Trip characteristics are often
fully adjustable including configurable trip thresholds and delays. Usually electronically
controlled, through some models are microprocessors controlled via an integral
electronic trip unit. Often used for main power distribution in large industrial plant,
where the breakers are arranged in draw-out enclosures for ease of maintenance.
SF circuit breakers extinguish the arc in a chamber filled with sulphur hexafluoride gas.
Medium-voltage circuit breakers may be connected into the circuit by bolted connections to
bus bars or wires, especially in outdoor switchyards. Medium-voltage circuit breakers in
switchgear line-ups are often built with draw-out construction, allowing breaker removal
without disturbing power circuit connections, using a motor-operated or hand-cranked
mechanism to separate the breaker from its enclosure.
Sulphur hexafluoride (SF) high-voltage circuit-breaker
A sulphur hexafluoride circuit breaks uses contacts surrounded by sulphur hexafluoride gas to
quench the arc. They are most often used for transmission-level voltages and may be

incorporated into compact gas-insulated switchgear. In cold climate, supplemental heating or
de-rating of the circuit breakers may be required due to liquefaction of the SF gas.


1. Transformer Tank-This hold the transformer windings and its insulating medium (oil-
filled). Transformer tanks must be air-tightly sealed for it to isolate its content from any
atmospheric contaminants.
2. High Voltage Bushing-this is the terminals where the primary windings of the
transformer terminates and serves as an insulator from the transformer tank. Its
creapage distance is dependent on the voltage rating of the transformer.
3. Low Voltage Bushing-Like the high voltage bushing, this is the terminals where the
secondary windings of the transformer terminates and serves as an insulator from the
transformer tank. Low voltage bushing can be easily distinguished from its high voltage
counterpart since low voltage bushings are usually smaller in size compared to the high
voltage bushing.

4. Cooling Fins/Radiators-in order for the transformer to dissipate the heat it generated in
its oil-insulation, cooling fins and radiators are usually attached to the transformer
tanks. The capacity of the transformer is dependent to its temperature that is why it is
imperative for it to have a cooling mechanism for better performance and higher
5. Cooling Fans-can be usually attached to the cooling fins. Cooling fans can be either be a
timer controlled or a winding/oil temperature controlled. Cooling fans helps raises the
transformer capacity during times when the temperature of the transformer rises due
to loading. Cooling fans used on the transformer are actuated by the help of a relaying
device which when senses a relatively high temperature enables the fan to
automatically run.
6. Conservator Tank-A oil preservation system in which the oil in the main tank isolated
from the atmosphere, over the temperature range specified, by means of an auxiliary
tank partly filled with oil and connected to the completely filled main tank.
7. System Ground Terminal-system ground terminals in a power transformer are usually
present whenever the connection type of the transformer windings has wye in it. This
terminal can be found in-line with the main terminals of the transformer.
8. Drain valve- can be usually found in the bottom part of the transformer tank. Drain
valves are used whenever oil replacement is necessary. Through this valve, the
replacement of oil in an oil-filled transformer can be easily done simply by opening this
valve like that of a faucet.
9. Dehydrating Breather-are used to prevent the normal moisture in the air from coming in
contact with the oil in electrical equipment as the load or temperature changes. This
reduces the degeneration of the oil and helps maintain its insulation capability. When
used with conservator system with a rubber air cell it reduces moisture accumulation in
the cell. Some breathers are designed for sealed tank transformers and breathe only at
pre-set pressure levels.
10. Oil Temperature/Pressure gauges-these are used for monitoring the internal
characteristics of the transformer especially its winding. These gauges help the operator
in knowing the level of the temperature inside the transformer (oil & winding). This will
also serve as an alarm whenever a certain level is reached that could be harmful to the
transformer winding.
11. Bushing Current Transformer-modern transformer construction today now includes
current transformers. These are usually found around the transformer terminals which
will be later be used for metering and relaying purpose. Its terminals are found in the
control panels attached to the transformer.

12. Control Panel-this houses all of the transformers monitoring devices terminals and
auxiliary devices including the terminals of the bushing current transformers and cooling
fans. Control panels are very useful especially when a remote control house is needed to
be constructed, this will serves as their connection point.
13. Surge Arresters- this type of arresters are placed right directly before and after the
transformer terminals in order to minimize the exposure of the transformer. Like any
other surge arresters, its purpose is to clip sudden voltage surge that can be damaging
to the winding of the transformer.

Whenever there is some fault in the transmission/distribution lines, complaint centre is
informed about the location and he notes down the details and further contacts the lineman
to go the location and repair the faults.
For every fault, a slip is detached from BSES slip book and given to lineman who is given the
duty to repair fault at the provided location. These records are maintained properly.
In case of LT fault, LT feeder team is informed and it takes the responsibility to repair the
problem caused.
In case of HT fault, HT feeder pursues the operation.
For every substation a team, car and necessary equipment are provided so that they can help
in solving the nearby complaints.
Complaints can be lodged by three methods-
1. Through internet/email.
2. Through personally walking to the complaint centre.
3. Through telephone.
Each of the complaint is dealt seriously and response team responds and takes the necessary
action immediately, as any delay in this might cause serious consequences.

Cable use size (mm
LT main 4*300
Single core cable from transformer 630
Feeder-pillar to Feeder-pillar 4*150
Feeder-pillar to Service pillar 4*95
Service cable-1 4*50
Service cable-2 4*25