Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 15

9.

3 The Acidic Environment


9.3 The Acidic Environment
(1-i) Classify common substances as acidic, basic or neutral
Acidic Basic Neutral
ulfuric Acid !istilled "ater #otassium $ydro%ide
Carbonic Acid &il' odium $ydro%ide
oda "ater (il Ammonia
(1-ii) )dentify that indicators such as litmus, *henol*hthalein, methyl
oran+e and bromothymol blue can be used to determine the acidic or
basic nature of a material over a ran+e is identi,ed by chan+e in indicator
colour.
These indicators have a s*eci,c *$ ran+e at -hich they chan+e colour. this ran+e is
useful in identifyin+ the nature of a substance
(1-iii) )dentify and describe some everyday uses of indicators includin+ the
testin+ of soil acidity/basicity
- oil testin+- ome *lants +ro- best at a certain *$ therefore farmers/+ardeners
use indicators to test the soil, as they may need to ad0ust the *$ of it, for e%am*le
a farm -ould *refer the soil to be at the o*timum *$ for the cro* they are tryin+
to +ro- to *roduce the +reatest yield
- "ater testin+- -immin+ *ools and a1uariums need re+ular testin+ to monitor *$
level -hich maintains the -ater 1uality, health of inhabitants or *revention of
+ro-th of certain or+anisms
- E2uent Testin+- )ndicators are used to monitor the *$ levels of -aste -aters from
industry to reduce the im*act on the environment.
(1-a) #erform a ,rst-hand investi+ation to *re*are and test a natural
indicator
"e tested the *$ of a ran+e of substances usin+ beetroot 0uice cabba+e 0uice and
universal indicator then $ibiscus e%tract.
1
9.3 The Acidic Environment
(btain the natural indicator by boilin+ cabba+e and/or beetroot in -ater (se*arate
bea'ers)
$ibiscus indicator is made by crushin+ the 3o-er in a mortar and *estle -ith metholated
s*rits
&ethod-
1. (btain 3 identical test tubes and *ut e1ual amount of 4.1 mol $Cl into each before
*uttin+ a fe- mls of cabba+e 0uice and notin+ the colour chan+e.
5. 6e*eat -ith all other acids and bases (7ine+ar, soda -ater, salt -ater, 8a($ and
Cloudy Ammonia) notin+ all colour chan+es
3. 6e*eat for the other indicators includin+ universal indicator
"e found that cabba+e 0uice (ori+inally *ur*le) has a *$ ran+e of 9-: -ith it been +reen
in basic solution and red in acidic solution, -hilst beetroot (ori+inal red) -as *ur*le in
acid and bro-n/oran+e in base -ith a *$ ran+e of 3-:
(1-b) )dentify data and choose resources to +ather information about the
colour chan+es of a ran+e of indicators
ee +ra*h in (1-ii)
(1-c) olve *roblems by a**lyin+ information about the colour chan+es of
indicators to classify some household substances as acidic, neutral or
basic
;y usin+ the information +iven on the colour a variety of indicator is in certain
substances, -e can classify a ran+e of substances as acidic or basic
(5-i) )dentify (%ides of non-metals -hich acts as acids and describe the
conditions under -hich they act as acids
The o%ides of non-metals and semi-metal such as carbon dio%ide can acts as acids under
certain conditions. these conditions include reactin+ -ith -ater to form an acid
E+ C(5 < $5( $5C(3
they can also act as acids in neutralisin+ bases to form -ater and a salt
E+ C(5 < 58a($ 5$5( < 8a5C(3
(5-ii) Analyse the *osition of these non-metals in the *eriodic table and
outline the relationshi* bet-een *osition of elements in the *eriodic table
and the acidity/basicity of o%ides
8on metal (%ides located at the ri+ht hand side of the *eriodic table act as acids, -hilst
metal o%ides located on the left hand side of the *eriodic table act as bases, also the
o%ides of the ,ve elements close to the borderline bet-een metals and non-metals are
am*hoteric
5
9.3 The Acidic Environment
(3-iii) !e,ne =e Chatelier>s *rinci*le
)f a system of e1uilibrium is disturbed the *osition of the e1uilibrium -ill ad0ust itself in
the direction -hich counteracts the disturbance
(5-iv) )dentify factors -hich can a?ect the e1uilibrium in a reversible
reaction
@actors -hich can a?ect the *osition of the e1uilibrium in a reaction includeA
- A chan+e in tem*erature
- A chan+e in *ressure (#ressure is *ro*ortional to the number of moles)
- Chan+e in concentration (addin+ more reactant or *roduct)
(5-v) !escribe the solubility of carbon dio%ide in -ater under various
conditions and e%*lain in terms of =e Chatelier>s *rinci*le
The dissolvin+ of C(5 in -ater to form carbonic acid is an e%othermic reaction therefore
heat ener+y may be considered one of the *roducts.
C(
5 (+)
< $
5
(
(l)
$
5
C(
3 (a1)
< heat ener+y
An increase of tem*erature reduces the amount of C(5 dissolved -hilst increasin+ the
*ressure allo-s for more C(5 to dissolve
Therefore if the tem*erature is raised the e1uilibrium -ill shift to the left in order to use
u* some of the heat and lo-er the tem*erature.
)f the tem*erature is lo-ered the e1uilibrium shifts to the ri+ht in order to release more
heat ener+y to raise the tem*erature
)f the *ressure is increased the e1uilibrium -ill shift to the ri+ht in order to relieve the
*ressure by usin+ u* some of the C(5 as +ases ta'e u* more s*ace than li1uid therefore
by usin+ some of the C(5 some of the *ressure is relieved
)f the concentration of a reactant is increased the e1uilibrium -ill shift to the ri+ht, but if
the concentration of the *roduct is increased then it -ill shift to the left, this is in order to
use u* some of the e%tra thin+ added
3
9.3 The Acidic Environment
(5-vi) )dentify natural and industrial sources of sulfur dio%ide and o%ides of
nitro+en
ulfur !io%ide is created naturally by volcanic eru*tions and hot s*rin+s, but is made in
lo- levels. )n industry sulfur dio%ide is made by the smeltin+ of ul,de ores (e+ #b < (5
#b < (5) and the burnin+ of fossil fuels -hich contain sulfur such as coal -hich u*on
combustion reacts -ith the o%y+en to for ulfur !io%ide
8(% (8
5(+)
<(5
5(+)
58(
(+)
) (58(
(+)
< (
5(+)
58(
5(+)
)
(%ides of nitro+en are created natural by li+htnin+ -hich cause the 85 and (5 in the air
to react and form 8(, -hich then can react -ith o%y+en to form 8(5. $i+h tem*erature
combustion such as coal burnin+, *o-er *lants and vehicle en+ines are e%am*les of
sources from -hich o%ides of nitro+en is formed in industry.
(5-vii) !escribe usin+ e1uations e%am*les of chemicals reactions -hich
release (5 and chemicals reactions -hich release 8(%
ulfur-
- meltin+- 5Bn
(s)
< 3(5
(+)
5Bn(
(s)
< 5(
5 (+)
- ;urnin+ of fossil fuels-
(s)
< (
5(+)
(
5(+)
8itro+en-
- 8
5(+)
<(5
5(+)
58(
(+)
(li+htnin+ or furnaces)
- 58(
(+)
< (
5(+)
58(
5(+)
(li+htnin+ or furnaces)
(5-viii) Assess the evidence -hich indicates increases in atmos*heric
concentration of sulfur and nitro+en
)t>s hard to measure the amount of (5 and 8(% as these +ases are constantly removed
by rain so evidence *resence of these +ases isn>t certain, but from the increasin+ e?ects
of these +ases -e can see that they are increasin+ in concentration, -ill it causin+ severe
dama+e to cro*s *lants and statues -ith acid rain
(5-i%) calculate volumes of +ases +iven masses of some substances in
reactions, and calculate masses of substances +iven +aseous volumes, in
reactions involvin+ +ases at 4
o
C and 144'#a or 59
o
C and 144'#a
7olume of 1 mole ideal +asA at 144 '#a and
at 4CC (5D3.19 E) ...................... 55.D1 = (T#)
At 59CC (59:.19 E).................... 5F.D9 = (=C)
(5-%) E%*lain the formation and e?ects of acid rain
ince all rain contains dissolved carbon dio%ide even un*olluted rain is sli+htly acidic as it
forms carbonic acid. Acid rain normally forms -hen rain dissolved sulfur o%ides and 8(%
formin+ sul*hurous ($5(3) sulfuric ($5(F) and nitric acids ($8(3). These then ionises
formin+ $< -hich do the dama+e to buildin+ etc. The e?ects of acid rain are-
F
9.3 The Acidic Environment
1. Causes -ater-ays to become acidic a?ectin+ a1uatic life, in some case too acid
to su**ort life
5. !ama+es *lants and cro*s by alterin+ the *$ of soil thereby a?ectin+ +ro-th as
*lants need a s*eci,c *$ soil
3. !ama+es stone and metal buildin+ by erodin+ them, such as the hydro+en ions
brea'in+ ho- calcium carbonate in statues
(5-a) identify data, *lan and *erform a ,rst-hand investi+ation to
decarbonate soft drin' and +ather data to measure the mass chan+es
involved and calculate the volume of +as released at 59CC and 144'#a
Aim- To determine the amount of C(5 +as dissolved in a soft drin'
)nde*endent variable- #ressure at -hich the soft drin' is contained
!e*endent 7ariable-
&ethod- 1. "ei+ht and record an uno*ened can of co'e
5. Carefully o*en the can, tryin+ not to s*ill any
3. Allo- the can to rest in a cool *lace (room tem*erature) a-ay from direct
sunli+ht (to reduce eva*oration). "ei+h and record daily for a D day *eriod
F. Create a control by sub0ectin+ an uno*ened can to identical conditions
em*tyin+ and also to im*rove e%*erimental result create an identical can and
re*lacin+ it -ith an e1uivalent amount of distilled -ater and sub0ect it to the same
conditions as the e%*erimental can recordin+ the -ei+ht of the can daily
6esults
Day Weight of
experimental can
Weight of
unopened can
Weight of ater
can
! F4G.F9 F4D.34 3:4.F1
" !idn>t -ei+h !idn>t -ei+h !idn>t -ei+h
3 !idn>t -ei+h !idn>t -ei+h !idn>t -ei+h
# F41.D1 F4D.34 3DD.95
$ F44.94 F4D.34 3DD.F4
% F44.F1 F4D.59 3DG.F1
(ver the *eriod of si% days the control lost F.G5 +rams
&ass of carbonated cola H F4G.F9+
&ass of decarbonated cola H F44.F1+
&ass of C(5 lost H G.4F+ but the -ater can lost F.G5 +rams due to eva*oration
Therefore 1.F5+ of C(5 -as lost
&oles H +rams/molecular mass
H 1.F5/FF.41
7olume H &oles % &olar 7olume
H 1.F5/FF.41 % 5F.D9
7olume of C(5 H 4.D99=
I Error @actory su**lied data states 944mls of Cola *roduces 1.9= of C(5
The e%*eriment *roduced 4.D99= for 3D9 mls
Therefore 944mls of this e%*eriment Cola -ould *roduces 1.4GD=
I Error H reference value J e%*erimental value/ reference value % 144
H 1.9 J 1.4GD/1.9 % 144
H F3.:GI
ources of error-
- &ass loss- &ass loss not cause by eva*oration or the loss of C(5 caused by thin+s
such as s*illa+es can cause an e%*erimental error but chan+in+ the -ei+ht values
thereby ma'in+ the results less accurate.
9
9.3 The Acidic Environment
- "ei+hin+ Error- The scales only measure to t-o decimal *laces, therefore each
-ei+hin+ can cause a <- 4.41error, -hich accumulates -ith each -ei+hin+.
- Calculation error- The conditions to -hich the cans -ere sub0ected -as not e%actly
=C therefore the molar value used is sli+htly o?
Kustify the method-
- Allo-ed for eva*oration to be calculated im*rovin+ accuracy
- A control -as used ma'in+ this e%*eriment more valid
- The lon+ *eriod of time allo-s for the ma0ority if not all of the C(5 to leave the
solution
(5-b) analyse information from secondary sources to summarise the
industrial ori+ins of sulfur dio%ide and o%ides of nitro+en and evaluate
reasons for concern about their release into the environment
ee dot *oint (5-vi) (5-vii) (5-%)
(3-i) !e,ne acids as *roton donors and describe the ionisation of acids in
-ater
An acid is a chemicals s*ecies -hich donates *rotons (hydro+en ion) to another s*ecies.
"hen an acid molecule is *laced in -ater, it can ionise, releasin+ a *roton and formin+ a
ne+ative ion. The *roton, $
<
, can attach to a -ater molecule, $
5
(, formin+ -hat is called
a hydrated hydro+en ion or hydronium ion, $
3
(
<
.
(3-ii) )dentify acids includin+ acetic (ethanoic), Citric, hydrochloric and
ulfuric acid
Acetic AcidA
ystematic nameA Ethanoic acid
A -ea' acid -ith the molecular formulaA C$
3
C(($
&itric AcidA
5-hydro%y*ro*ane-1,5,3-tricarbo%ylic acid
A -ea' acid -ith the molecular formulaA C
G
$
:
(
D
'ydrochloric AcidA
A stron+ acid -ith the molecular formulaA $Cl
(ulfuric Acid)
A stron+ acid -ith the molecular formulaA $
5
(
F
(3-iii) !escribe the use of the *$ scale in com*arin+ acids and bases
G
9.3 The Acidic Environment
The *$ scale is used to com*are the concentration of hydro+en ions in solutions of acids
and bases thereby allo-in+ us to determine the acidity or basicity of a substance. $ence,
the *$ scale allo-s us to com*are acids and bases, and their stren+ths
(3-iv) !escribe acids and their solutions -ith a**ro*riate use of the terms
stron+, -ea', concentrated and dilute
tron+ acid H Total ioniLation in solution
"ea' Acid H #artial ioniLation in solution
Concentrated Acid H $i+h molarity
!ilute Acid H lo- molarity
(3-v) identify *$ as Jlo+14M$
<
N and e%*lain that a chan+e in *$ of 1 means
a ten-fold chan+e in M$
<
N
*$ is the concentration of hydro+en ions -hich is -or'ed out by the formula -lo+14M$
<
N.
ince the numbers on the *$ are *o-ers of 14 it follo-s that if an acid solution has a *$
one unit lo-er than another it is actually 14 times more acidic
Jlo+14M$
<
N is a formula -hich can be used to -or' out the *$ of substances -hen +iven
the molarity -hich is $<. )n di*rotic acids the molarity of the acid has to be doubled to
,nd the molarity of $< if it ionised. To ,nd the molarity from the *$ use shit-lo+ molarity,
if the solution is di*rotic half the molarity to ,nd the molarity of the acid
(3-vi) Com*are the relative stren+ths of e1ual concentrations of citric,
acetic and hydrochloric acids and e%*lain in terms of the de+ree of
ionisation of their molecules
*roperty+Acid 'ydrochloric Ethanoic Acid &itric Acid
,olarity 1.44 1.44 1.44
p' 4 5 9
(trength tron+ "ea' "ea'
Explanation Com*letely
ioniLes
!oesn>t
com*letely
ioniLe
!oesn>t
com*letely ioniLe
(3-vii) !escribe the di?erence bet-een a stron+ and a -ea' acid in terms
of an e1uilibrium bet-een the intact molecule and its ions
A stron+ acid is one in -hich the molecules *resent *ractically all ionise -hen *laced in
-ater, e.+. hydrochloric acid, $Cl.
A -ea' acid is one -here only a small *ro*ortion of the molecules ionise, e.+. acetic acid
(ethanoic acid), C$
3
C(($.
D
9.3 The Acidic Environment
(3-a) olve *roblems and *erform a ,rst-hand investi+ation to use *$
meters/*robes and indicators to distin+uish bet-een acidic, basic and
neutral chemicals
;y usin+ *$ meters and universal indicators -e -ere able to see the *$ of many
chemicals thus allo-in+ us to classify them as acidic, basic or neutral
(3-b) #lan and *erform a ,rst-hand investi+ation to measure the *$ of
identical concentrations of stron+ and -ea' acids
Tested the *$ of di?erent acids -hich the same molarity and found the *$ can vary
de*endin+ on the stren+th of the acid. Tested 4.1 mol $Cl and acetic acid and found that
the stron+er acid in $Cl had a lo-er *$ than the -ea' acid in acetic acid, 1ualitatively
and 1uantitatively ie -ith both universal indicator and a *$ meter.
(3-c) Oather and *rocess information from secondary sources to -rite
ionic e1uations to re*resent the ionisation of acids
"e search many sources, hi+hli+hted and summarise relevant information, before
chec'in+ validity.
(3-d)Pse available evidence to model the molecular nature of acids and
simulate the ionisation of stron+ and -ea' acids
Throu+h usin+ models -e sho-ed ho- stron+ acid ionise more than -ea' acids
(3-e) Oather and *rocess information from secondary sources to e%*lain
the use of acids as food additives
- #reservatives- Addin+ acids to a food lo-ers the *$ and ma'es it more diQcult for
some bacteria or fun+i to +ro- -ithin thereby hel* it last lon+er, acid -hich do
thins include ethanoic and sulfur dio%ide
- @lavour- &any food such as soft drin' and 0ams uses citric and ethanoic acids to
-ith it a shar* sour taste
- -8utrition- some foods have vitamins added to increase their nutritional value
such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
(3-f) )dentify data, +ather and *rocess information from secondary sources
to indentify e%am*les of naturally occurrin+ acids and bases and their
chemical com*osition
;ull ants or bee stin+s contain formic acid (methanoic acid). Ethanoic acid is the main
chemical in vine+ar. &any fruit es*ecially citrus contain citrus acid
Common bases include lime -hich is Ca( and is used in cement as -ell as =ye -hich is
mainly E($ and 8a($ and is obtained by soa'in+ -ood ashes in -ater
(3-+) #rocess information from secondary sources to calculate *$ of stron+
acids +iven a**ro*riate hydro+en ion concentrations
Jlo+14M$
<
N is a formula -hich can be used to -or' out the *$ of substances -hen +iven
the molarity -hich is $<. )n di*rotic acids the molarity of the acid has to be doubled to
:
9.3 The Acidic Environment
,nd the molarity of $< if it ionised. To ,nd the molarity from the *$ use shit-lo+ molarity,
if the solution is di*rotic half the molarity to ,nd the molarity of the acid
E+ -hat is the *$ of 4.49m $Cl
M$<N H 4.49
Jlo+14M4.49N H 1.3
*$ H 1.3
E+ the *$ of $5(F is 5.5 ,nd its molarity
Jlo+14M$
<
NH 5.5
lo+14M$
<
N H -5.5
($)@T =(O) J 5.5 H 4.44GF
$5(F is di*rotic so
&olarity H 4.9%4.44GF
H 4.4435
*$ < *($ H 1F
M4$-N H 1%14R59 mol
*$ H 1F.44 < lo+ 1%14R59
H 1F-9
H 9.44
*$ H 13 ,nds its molarity
-lo+M($-N H 1F-13
lo+M($-N H -1
M($-S 4.1
(F-i) (utline the historical develo*ment of idea about acids includin+ those
of
- =avoisier- =avoisier used sim*le *lant-e%tract indicators to identify acids and
bases. Throu+h e%*eriments he found that all non-metal o%ides tested *roduced
acid solution -hich led him to conclude that all acids must contain o%y+en
- !avy- !avy found that all 'no-n acids contained hydro+en, and he dis*roved
=avoisier>s theory. $e also discovered that metal o%ides are basic and described
ho- metals react -ith acid to form hydro+en.
- Arrhenius- Acids *roduce $< ions in -ater solution and bases *roduces ($- ions,
this is not com*letely correct as it doesn>t e%*lain acid/base behaviour in -ater,
as -ell as -hy some com*ounds -hich don>t contain hydro+en or hydro%ide
e%hibit acid or base behaviours
(F-ii) (utline the ;ronsted-=o-ry theory of acids and bases
!evelo*ed inde*endently by Kohannes ;ronsted and Thomas =o-ry, this is the most
accurate theory about acids and bases. )t states that all acid base reactions involve the
transfer of *rotons -ith acids actin+ as *roton donor -hile a base -ill act as a *roton
acce*tor. This theory is based around the conce*t of con0u+ate s*ecies. "hen an acid
donates a *roton, it forms its con0u+ate base. this -ould act as a base if the reaction -as
reversed as it -ould acce*t a *roton. "hen a base acce*ts a *roton, it forms its
con0u+ate acid, this -ould act as an acid if the reaction -as reversed as it -ould donate
a *roton.
9
9.3 The Acidic Environment
(F-iii) !escribe the relationshi* bet-een an acid and its con0u+ate base
and a base and its con0u+ate acid
"hen an acid donates a *roton, it forms its con0u+ate base. this -ould act as a base if
the reaction -as reversed as it -ould acce*t a *roton. "hen a base acce*ts a *roton, it
forms its con0u+ate acid, this -ould act as an acid if the reaction -as reversed as it -ould
donate a *roton.
(F-iv) )dentify a ran+e of salts -hich form acidic, basic or neutral solutions
and e%*lain their acidic, neutral or basic nature
Acidic (alts Neutral (alts Basic (alts
8a$(F 8aCl 8a5C(3
8$FCl E8(3 C$3C((8a
8$F8(3 8a5(F odium ethanoate
(F-v) )dentify con0u+ate acid/base *airs
"henever an acid and a base react, they form their con0u+atesA
$Cl < $
5
( Cl
-
< $
3
(
<

acid
1
base
5
con0u+ate base
1
con0u+ate acid
5

$ydrochloric acid and chloride ion are a con0u+ate acid-base *air.
"ater and hydronium ions is another con0u+ate acid-base *air
(F-vi) )dentify am*hi*rotic substances and construct e1uations to describe
their behaviour in acidic and basic solutions
A chemical s*ecies -hich can both donate and acce*t *rotons are called am*hi*rotic. An
e%am*le of an am*hi*rotic substance is -ater as it can donate or acce*t a *roton.
"ater as an acidA $
5
( $
<
< ($
-
or more fully $
5
( <$
5
( $
3
(
<
< ($
-
"ater as a baseA $
<
< $
5
( $
3
(
<
or more fully $
3
(
<
<$
5
( $
5
( < $
3
(
<
(F-vii) )dentify neutralisation as a *roton transfer reaction -hich is
e%othermic
@rom the net ionic e1uation of a neutralisation reaction it can be seen that neutralisation
involves a transfer of *rotons re+ardless of -hat acid and base is involved. )f this reaction
-as underta'en in a calorimeter it -ould be found that the tem*erature 1uic'ly rises
therefore the reaction is e%othermic
(F-viii) !escribe the correct techni1ue for conductin+ titrations and
*re*aration of standard solutions
A solution of accurately 'no-n concentration is called a standard solution.
@or a chemical to be suitable to *re*are as a standard solution, it mustA
1. be a -ater soluble solid
5. have hi+h *urity
14
9.3 The Acidic Environment
3. have an accurately 'no-n formula
F. be stable in air, i.e. it does not lose or +ain -ater or react -ith o%y+en or
carbon dio%ide in air
E%am*les of suitable solutions are Acid- o%alic acid (C(($C(($) -hich is
di*rotic, and base- anhydrous sodium carbonate (8a5C(3)
The solution is *re*ared byA
1. Accurately -ei+hin+ a calculated amount of solid
5. !issolvin+ it in distilled -ater
3. Transferrin+ all of the dissolved solid to a volumetric 3as'
F. @lushin+ out the bea'er -ith distilled -ater to +et the entire solid into the
volumetric 3as'
9. Addin+ -ater to the 3as' to *re*are a ,%ed volume of solution.
G. ha'in+ to com*letely dissolve the solid into the -ater
D. Calculate the &olarity
Tou must have a suitable indicator for a titration-
- tron+ Acid < tron+ ;ase, has an e.* around *$ D so ;romothymol blue -ould be
a +ood indicator, yello- in acid and blue in base.
- tron+ Acid < "ea' base has an e.* around *$ F-9 therefore methyl oran+e
-ould be a +ood indicator, red in acid and yello- in base
- "ea' acid < stron+ base has an e.* around *$ 9-14 therefore *henol*hthalein
-ould be a +ood indicator, colourless in acid and *in' in base
&ethod for titrations
1. &i% u* the *rimary standard
5. Choose the suitable indicator
3. 6inse the burette -ith *rimary standard
F. @ill the burette -ith the *rimary standard to the Lero mar'
9. 6inse a *i*ette -ith the un'no-n then add an 59ml ali1uot of un'no-n into a
volumetric 3as' (-hich has been rinsed -ith distilled -ater) -ith the *i*ette, then
add a fe- dro*s of the indicator
G. Carefully add the solution from the burette into the 3as' until the indicator
chan+es, record the amount of standard used and re*eat
(F-i%) Uualitatively describe the e?ect of bu?ers -ith reference to a
s*eci,c e%am*le of a natural system
A bu?er or bu?ered solution is a solution -hich can absorb si+ni,cant amounts of acid or
base -ith minimal chan+e in *$. ;u?ers control the level of acidity or basicity in a
solution. A bu?er solution is usually a mi%ture of a -ea' acid and its con0u+ate base such
as hydro+en carbonate ions, $C(
3
-
, and its con0u+ate base carbonate ions, C(
3
5-
.
$ydro+en carbonate ions are im*ortant in maintainin+ the *$ of human blood at about
D.F.)f an acid is added to the bu?er, the hydro+en ions are removed by
$
<
< $C(
3
-
$
5
C(
3
it does this by alterin+ the *osition of the e1uilibrium accordin+ to =e
Chatelier>s *rinci*le that been an increase of a *roduct or reactant -ill alter to *osition of
the e1uilibrium accordin+ly as to use of some of this e%tra substance. This is the same
for if a base is added to the bu?er, hydro%ide ions are removed by ($
-
< $C(
3
-
$
5
( <
C(
3
5-
The net e?ect is that the *$ of the solution containin+ bu?er chan+es only sli+htly.
(F-a) Oather and *rocess information from secondary sources to trace
develo*ments in understand and describin+ acid/base reactions
11
9.3 The Acidic Environment
(F-b) Choose e1ui*ment and *erform a ,rst-hand investi+ation to identify
the *$ of a ran+e of salt solutions
The salt -e dissolved in -ater before their *$ -as tested. Also from neutralisation
reactions -ere tested
tron+ Acid < tron+ ;ase 8eutral alt
tron+ Acid < -ea' base acidic salt
"ea' acid < stron+ base basic salt
(F-c) #erform a ,rst-hand investi+ation and solve *roblems usin+ titrations
and includin+ the *re*aration of standard solutions and use available
evidence too 1uantitatively and 1ualitatively describe the reaction
bet-een selected acids and bases
tron+ Acid < tron+ ;ase 8eutral e.*
tron+ Acid < -ea' base acidic e.*
"ea' acid < stron+ base basic e.*
(F-d) Analyse information from secondary sources to assess the use of
neutralisation reactions as a safety measure or to minimise dama+e in
accidents or chemical s*ills
)f there has been a industrial s*illa+e over e1ui*ment the +round or someone its safe to
use an am*hi*rotic substance such as sodium bicarbonate (8a$C(3) as one it has
neutralised the substance then it -on>t react anymore thereby reducin+ harm, if a base
-as used to neutralise an acid you -ould need to 'no- the e%actly molarity to ma'e it
com*letely safe
(9-i) !escribe the di?erences bet-een the al'anols and al'anoic acid
functional +rou*s in carbon com*ounds
The functional +rou* in al'anols is a hydro%ide ion (hydro%y) *rovidin+ it -ith
characteristic *ro*erties, such as hi+h meltin+ *oints and boilin+ *oints -hilst an
al'anoic acid has a double bond ( +rou* in addition to the hydro%ide +rou* attached to
the same carbon, this is 'no-n as the carbo%ylic acid functional +rou*, -C(($, al'anoic
acids, can act as acids if they lose a hydro+en
(9-ii) )dentify the )P#AC nomenclature for describin+ the esters *roduced
by reactions of strai+ht-chained al'anoic acids from C1 to C: and strai+ht-
chained *rimary al'anols from C1 to C:
Al-ano
l
Methan
oic Acid
Ethan
oic
acid
Propan
oic
Acid
Butan
oic
Acid
Petan
oic
Acid
Hexan
oic
Acid
Heptan
oic
Acid
Octan
oic
Acid
Metha
methyl
methanoat
methyl
ethanoat
methyl
*ro*anoat
methyl
butanoat
methyl
*entanoa
methyl
he%anoat
methyl
he*tanoat
methyl
octanoat
15
9.3 The Acidic Environment
nol
e e e e te e e e
Ethano
l
ethyl
methanoat
e
ethyl
ethanoat
e
ethyl
*ro*anoat
e
ethyl
butanoat
e
ethyl
*entanoa
te
ethyl
he%anoat
e
ethyl
he*tanoat
e
ethyl
octanoat
e
Propa
nol
*ro*yl
methanoat
e
*ro*yl
ethanoat
e
*ro*yl
*ro*anoat
e
*ro*yl
butanoat
e
*ro*yl
*entanoa
te
*ro*yl
he%anoat
e
*ro*yl
he*tanoat
e
*ro*yl
octanoat
e
Butan
ol
butyl
methanoat
e
butyl
ethanoat
e
butyl
*ro*anoat
e
butyl
butanoat
e
butyl
*entanoa
te
butyl
he%anoat
e
butyl
he*tanoat
e
butyl
octanoat
e
Pentan
ol
*entyl
methanoat
e
*entyl
ethanoat
e
*entyl
*ro*anoat
e
*entyl
butanoat
e
*entyl
*entanoa
te
*entyl
he%anoat
e
*entyl
he*tanoat
e
*entyl
octanoat
e
Hexan
ol
he%yl
methanoat
e
he%yl
ethanoat
e
he%yl
*ro*anoat
e
he%yl
butanoat
e
he%yl
*entanoa
te
he%yl
he%anoat
e
he%yl
he*tanoat
e
he%yl
octanoat
e
Hepta
nol
he*tyl
methanoat
e
he*tyl
ethanoat
e
he*tyl
*ro*anoat
e
he*tyl
butanoat
e
he*tyl
*entanoa
te
he*tyl
he%anoat
e
he*tyl
he*tanoat
e
he*tyl
octanoat
e
Octan
ol
octyl
methanoat
e
octyl
ethanoat
e
octyl
*ro*anoat
e
octyl
butanoat
e
octyl
*entanoa
te
octyl
he%anoat
e
octyl
he*tanoat
e
octyl
octanoat
e
(9-iii) E%*lain the di?erence in meltin+ *oint and boilin+ *oint caused by
strai+ht Jchained al'anoic acid and strai+ht-chained *rimary al'anols
structures
Al'anoic acids have much hi+her meltin+ *oint and boilin+ *oints than their
corres*ondin+ al'anols due to Al'anoic acids havin+ double the amount of hydro+en
bonds bet-een molecules thereby +ivin+ it a hi+her meltin+ and boilin+ *oint due to it
therefore needin+ more ener+y to brea' the bonds. Al'anes only have dis*ersion forces
bet-een each molecules, +ivin+ them the lo-est boilin+ *oint of the three as dis*ersion
forces are much -ea'er than hydro+en bonds.
Ethane Ethanol Ethanoic Acid
Boiling *t .&/ -:9 <D: <11:
(9-iv) )dentify esteri,cation as the reaction bet-een an acid and an
al'anols and describe usin+ e1uations e%am*les of esteri,cation
Esters are a +rou* of carbon com*ounds formed by the reaction bet-een an al'anol and
an al'anoic acid, thou+h the reaction -hich forms ester is considered a condensation
reaction due to -ater been a *roduct, it is referred to as esteri,cation. Esteri,cation is a
reversible reaction -hich favours
Ester functional
+rou*
al'anoic acid < al'anol ester < -ater V$ W 4 (therefore esterification is
endothermic)
13
9.3 The Acidic Environment
(9-v) !escribe the *ur*ose of usin+ acid in esteri,cation for catalysis
Concentrated sulfuric Acid is used to catalyse esteri,cation for t-o reasons-
- Acts as a dehydration a+ent, absorbin+ -ater (and inducin+ condensation
reactionsX), thereby increasin+ the yield of ester as the e1uilibrium reaction is
shifted to the ri+ht as accordin+ to =e Chatelier>s *rinci*le
- )t acts as at catalyst, s*eedin+ u* the reaction rate reachin+ e1uilibrium faster
(9-vi) E%*lain the need for re3u%in+ durin+ esteri,cation
6e3u%in+ allo-s the mi%ture to react at hi+h tem*eratures -ithout fear that the reactants
or *roducts -ill eva*orate a-ay
(9-vii) (utline some e%am*les of the occurrence, *roduction and uses of
esters
Esters occur -idely in nature es*ecially in fruit and 3o-ers, in -hich they are res*onsible
for the smell and taste.
(9-a) )dentify data *lan select e1ui*ment and *erform a ,rst-hand
investi+ation to *re*are an ester usin+ re3u%
AimA to *roduce an ester usin+ a re3u%
&ethod-
1. #lace *ro*ortional molar (ie correct ratio to match the stachiometry) amounts of then
al'anol and the acid -ith 1 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid into a 94ml 3as'
5. Add a fe- boilin+ chi*s and assemble the re3u% a**aratus -ith a condenser
3. Connect a tube bet-een a -ater sources and the condenser and turn the ta* until a
moderate uniform 3o- is achieved
F. teadily heat the mi%ture over a busen 3ame for 34 minutes
9. Carefully remove the 3as' and *our the contents into a se*aratin+ funnel containin+
19mls of distilled -ater, sto**er the funnel and sha'e carefully before carefully decantin+
the a1ueous layer (lo-er layer)
G. Add 19 ml of 1 mol 8a5C(3 solution before sha'in+ and removin+ the lo-er layer
leavin+ the ester in the se*aratin+ funnel
D. Carefully smell, and record.
!iscussion-
The reaction mi%ture is -ashed -ith -ater in order to remove the a1ueous layer -hich is
miscousable -ith the ester, but the ester is imiscousable -ith -ater -hilst the a1ueous
layer isn>t thereby se*aratin+ them
The ester is -ashed -ith 8a5C(3 to neutralise and remove the catalyst.
(9-b) #rocess information from secondary sources to identify and describe
the uses of esters as 3avours and *erfumes in *rocessed foods and
cosmetics
Pses of esters include-
- Arti,cial 3avours for drin's and various *rocessed foods
1F
9.3 The Acidic Environment
- olventsA Ethyl ethanoate is -idely used as an industrial solvent, and is also used
as a solvent in nail varnish
- )n+redients in many *roducts includin+ sham*oo and cosmetic *roducts.
19