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This mark is for anything larger than 1 3/4"laser output
September 1995
GENERATOR SETS
APPLICATION and
INSTALLATION GUIDE
CATERPILLAR ENGINE DIVISION

1

Introduction.......................................................................................7
Summary.............................................................................................9
Installation........................................................................................10
Foundati ons......................................................................................10
Ground Loadi ng ............................................................................10
Concrete Base................................................................................11
Fabri cated Steel Base...................................................................13
Vi brati on ...........................................................................................14
Li near Vi brati on............................................................................15
I sol ati on .........................................................................................16
I sol ati on for Mobi l e Equi pment ................................................18
Commerci al I sol ators .................................................................18
Bul k .............................................................................................20
Torsi onal ......................................................................................22
Noise...................................................................................................23
Sound Waves/Terms.........................................................................23
Loudness ...........................................................................................23
A-Wei ghted, db(A) Measurement ...................................................23
Octave Band Level s .........................................................................24
Noi se Addi ti on..................................................................................24
Noi se Exposure ................................................................................25
Noi se Control ....................................................................................25
Mechani cal Noi se ..........................................................................25
I ntake Noi se ..................................................................................26
Exhaust Noi se ...............................................................................26
Sound Level Conversi on..................................................................27
Air Intake Systems.........................................................................28
Ai r Cl eaners .....................................................................................28
Precl eaners .......................................................................................28
Ducti ng..............................................................................................28
Ai r I ntake Restri cti on...................................................................28
Fl ex Connecti ons ...........................................................................29
Turbocharger Loadi ng ..................................................................29
Cl eanl i ness ....................................................................................29
I nl et Ai r Duct I nsul ati on..............................................................30
Ai r Cl eaner I ci ng..............................................................................30
Extreme Col d....................................................................................30
Exhaust Systems.............................................................................31
Mani fol ds ..........................................................................................31
Pi pi ng................................................................................................31
Exhaust Backpressure ....................................................................32
Cal cul ati ng Exhaust Backpressure ...............................................32
Fl exi bl e Connecti ons........................................................................34
Cl eanl i ness .......................................................................................36
Emi ssi ons..........................................................................................36
DeNO
x
Catal yst System .................................................................36

Table of Contents
Ventilation.........................................................................................37
Cooling...............................................................................................39
Engi ne Consi derati ons ....................................................................39
Heat Rejecti on ...............................................................................39
Temperature Li mi ts ......................................................................39
Pressure Li mi ts .............................................................................40
Sperate Ci rcui t Aftercool i ng ........................................................40
Cool i ng System.................................................................................40
System Desi gn...............................................................................40
Temperature Control ....................................................................40
Types of Cool i ng ...............................................................................41
Radi ator .........................................................................................41
Radi ator Fans................................................................................41
Ai r Densi ty.....................................................................................42
Speed ..............................................................................................42
Temperature ..................................................................................42
Heat Exchanger ...............................................................................43
Expansi on Tanks...........................................................................44
Heat Recovery ...............................................................................45
Standard Temperature Heat Recovery ....................................46
Cri teri a Desi gn Cri teri a
_
Standard Temperature Heat Recovery ....................................48
Hi gh Temperature Heat Recovery Ci rcui ts .............................48
Hi gh Temperature Sol i d Water System...................................48
Cri teri a Desi gn Cri teri a
_
Hi gh Temperature Sol i d Water .................................................49
Hi gh Temperature Water -Stream System ..............................49
Cri ti cal Desi gn Cri teri a
_
Hi gh Temperature Water-Steam..............................................50
Ebul l i ent Cool i ng .......................................................................51
Auxi l i ary Heat Sources ...................................................................51
Exhaust..........................................................................................51
Lubri cati ng Oi l ..............................................................................51
External Consi derati ons .................................................................51
Remote Radi ator ...........................................................................51
Submerged Pi pe Cool i ng ..............................................................52
Cool i ng Towers ..............................................................................53
Remote Expansi on Tanks.............................................................53
Expansi on Tank Locati on..........................................................53
Expansi on Tank Vol ume............................................................54
Venti ng and Fi l l i ng ....................................................................54
Deaerati on ..................................................................................55
Mai ntai ni ng Pump Sucti on Heat -
wi th the Expansi on Tank ..........................................................57
I nl et Regul ated Systems ...........................................................57
Outl et Regul ated Systems ........................................................57
Pi pi ng Consi derati ons ..................................................................58
External Restri cti ons .................................................................58
Maxi mum Vel oci ty .....................................................................58
2
Cool ant Consi drati ons ..................................................................63
Properti es....................................................................................63
Treatment ...................................................................................63
Anti freeze....................................................................................64
Cl eanl i ness..................................................................................64
Servi ceabl i ti y .................................................................................64
Fuel System......................................................................................65
Bul k Storage.....................................................................................65
Auxi l i ary Tank ..............................................................................66
Cool ers.........................................................................................67
Fi l ters ..........................................................................................67
Fuel Selection...................................................................................67
Engi ne Requi rements ...................................................................67
Crude Oi l Fuel s .............................................................................69
Kerosene or JP5 Fuel s ..................................................................69
Gaseous Fuel s ...............................................................................69
Propane/Butane Mi xtures ............................................................71
Starting Systems.............................................................................72
El ectri c...........................................................................................72
Batteri es......................................................................................72
Battery Charger .........................................................................73
Cabl e Si ze ...................................................................................73
Ai r Start.........................................................................................74
Automati c Start-Stop....................................................................76
Ten Second Starti ng...................................................................76
Starti ng Ai ds .................................................................................76
Jacket Water Heaters ................................................................76
Fl ame Start.................................................................................76
Ether............................................................................................76
Oi l Heaters..................................................................................77
Al ti tude/Temperature/Humi di ty Consi derati ons.......................77
Equi pment Mai ntenance.................................................................78
Generator Set Storage.....................................................................79
Governors..........................................................................................80
Descri pti on .......................................................................................80
Types of Governors ..........................................................................81
Caterpi l l ar .....................................................................................81
ADEM ............................................................................................81
Woodward ......................................................................................82
3
Electric Power Generation..........................................................84
System Desi gn..................................................................................84
Uti l i ty vs On-Si te Power .................................................................84
Generator Set Si zi ng .......................................................................84
Power and Power Factor ..............................................................85
kW and kVA Requi rements of Load .........................................88
Generator vs Engi ne Si ze.............................................................89
Engi ne Si zi ng and Sel ecti on ........................................................89
Engi ne-Generator Set Load Factor .............................................89
Generator Si zi ng and Sel ecti on ...................................................91
Equi pment Consi derati ons .............................................................91
Motors ............................................................................................91
Squi rrel Cage.................................................................................92
Wound Rotor (Sl i p Ri ng)...............................................................92
Synchronous ..................................................................................92
DC Motors......................................................................................93
Si l i con Control l ed Recti fi er (SCR) Systems................................93
Motor Starti ng Load .....................................................................93
Motor Torque .................................................................................94
Starti ng (Breakaway) Torque ......................................................94
Accel erati ng Torque ......................................................................94
Synchronous Torque .....................................................................95
Peak Torque...................................................................................95
Regenerati ve Power ......................................................................95
Motor Starti ng Vol tage .................................................................96
Starti ng Techni ques......................................................................97
Ful l Vol tage Starti ng ....................................................................98
Reduced Vol tage Starti ng.............................................................98
Auto Transformer-Open .............................................................100
Auto Transformer-Cl osed ...........................................................100
Reactor-Resi stor ..........................................................................100
Part Wi ndi ng ...............................................................................100
Wye (Star) Del ta..........................................................................100
Sol i d State....................................................................................100
Li ghti ng........................................................................................101
Transformers ...............................................................................103
Computers ...................................................................................103
Communi cati ons Equi pment .....................................................103
Uni nterrupti bl e Power Suppl y (UPS).......................................103
X-Ray Equi pment .......................................................................104
Appl i cati on Consi derati ons...........................................................104
Mul ti pl e Generator Sets.............................................................104
Paral l el i ng ...................................................................................105
Regul ator Compensati on............................................................105
Bal anci ng Loads on Avai l abl e Phases.......................................105
Standby Generator sets..............................................................107
Regul ator .....................................................................................107
Phase Arrangement....................................................................108
Rated Amperes ............................................................................109
Number of Pol es/Synchronous Speed .......................................109
4
Generator Characterei sti cs ...........................................................110
Faul t Current ..............................................................................110
Generator Groundi ng..................................................................111
Si ngl e Beari ng Generator Sets ..................................................111
NEMA-I EC Desi gn Consi derati ons...........................................112
NEMA Consi derati ons-Temperature Ri se MG 1-22.40...........112
Maxi mum Momentary Overl oads MG 1-22.41 ........................112
Maxi mum Devi ati on Faceotr MG 1-22.42 ................................112
Tel ephone I nfl uence Factor (TI F) MG1-22.43 ..........................112
Short Ci rcui t Requi rements MG 1-22.45..................................113
Overspeed MG1-22.47 ................................................................113
Harmoni c Content.......................................................................113
Swi tchgear ......................................................................................117
Start-Stop.....................................................................................117
Cranki ng Panel ..............................................................................118
Shutdown Devi ces..........................................................................118
Control Panel Types.......................................................................119
Scope of Suppl y............................................................................119
El ectri cal Codes...........................................................................120
DC Protecti on and Control .........................................................120
AC Protecti on-Di stri buti on and Meteri ng................................120
Automati c Transfer Swi tch ........................................................121
Ambi ent Condi ti ons ....................................................................121
Ci rcui t Protecti ve Devi ces.............................................................121
Fuses vs Ci rcui t Breakers ..........................................................122
Fuses ............................................................................................123
Ci rcui t Breaker ...........................................................................124
Conversion Factors......................................................................126
kVkW Amperage chart..............................................................130
Electrical Formulae.....................................................................131
5

7

Introduction
Proper sel ecti on and i nstal l ati on of generator
sets i s vi tal for dependabl e performance and
l ong, troubl e-free l i fe. The purpose of thi s
gui de i s to hel p the reader:
Make knowl edgeabl e choi ces of power
equi pment.
Desi gn and bui l d i nstal l ati ons that perform
rel i abl y at an opti mum pri ce/val ue
rel ati onshi p to the customer.
To ensure proper i nstal l ati ons are
accompl i shed, Caterpi l l ar has support
capabi l i ty unmatched i n the i ndustry. From
concepti on of power needs, through vari ed
di sci pl i nes requi red for i nstal l ati on, to servi ce
and mai ntenance demanded years after
compl eti on, Caterpi l l ar conti nues i ts
commi tment to i ts customer s successful
i nstal l ati ons.
Fi fty years of devel opi ng power generati on
equi pment has cul mi nated i n a broad l i ne of
practi cal equi pment, provi di ng cost-effecti ve
sel ecti on and i nstal l ati on ease. A si ngl e source
for engi ne, generator, and control s assures
testi ng and qual i ty control for matched
packages.
Devel opment of i nstal l ati on knowl edge
paral l el s equi pment advances. Whi l e thi s
appl i cati on and i nstal l ati on gui de summari zes
many aspects of i nstal l ati on, Caterpi l l ar
Deal ers stand ready to assi st you.
An expert software program, EPG Desi gner, i s
avai l abl e from your deal er, and offers detai l ed
assi stance i n si zi ng, speci fyi ng and i nstal l i ng
engi ne, generators, cool i ng systems and
associ ated equi pment.
I t i s the i nstal l er s responsi bi l i ty to consi der
and avoi d possi bl y hazardous condi ti ons
whi ch coul d devel op from the systems
i nvol ved i n the speci fi c engi ne i nstal l ati on.
The suggesti ons provi ded i n thi s gui de
regardi ng avoi dance of hazardous condi ti ons
appl y to al l appl i cati ons and are necessari l y of
a general nature si nce onl y the i nstal l er i s
fami l i ar wi th the detai l s of a parti cul ar
i nstal l ati on. Consi der the suggesti ons
provi ded i n thi s gui de as general exampl es
onl y and are i n no way i ntended to cover
every possi bl e hazard i n al l i nstal l ati ons.
Use thi s gui des tabl e of contents as a
checkl i st of subjects affecti ng on-si te power
pl ants. Referri ng to thi s i ndex duri ng
prel i mi nary pl anni ng avoi ds the effort and
expense of after-i nstal l ati on changes.
8
3406B
3512B

Summary

This summary contains important points to
remember for a successful installation. These
points are amplified and expanded in the
following section:

1. The generator set must be si zed properl y for
the i nstal l ati on. Determi ne the duty cycl e
Conti nuous, Pri me, Standby or Peak
Shavi ng or Shari ng (paral l el ed or not
paral l el ed wi th the uti l i ty).

Continuous
Output avai l abl e wi thout varyi ng l oad for
an unl i mi ted ti me.
Prime
Output avai l abl e wi th varyi ng l oad for an
unl i mi ted ti me.
Standby
Output avai l abl e wi th varyi ng l oad for the
durati on of the i nterrupti on of the normal
source of power. Usual l y si zed i ni ti al l y for
60% of actual l oad si nce l oads tend to
i ncrease duri ng the 30 year l i fe of the
uni t. Normal hours of operati on are l ess
than 100 hours per year.
Peak Shaving/Sharing
Pri me i f paral l el ed wi th the Uti l i ty.
Standby i f not paral l el ed wi th the Uti l i ty
and i f the l oadi ng meets the defi ni ti on of
Pri me or Standby. Normal l y Peak
Shavi ng/Shari ng i s l ess than 200 hours
per year of operati on.
Loads that are too l i ght cause engi ne sl obber.
Overl oadi ng causes excessi ve pi ston l oadi ng
and hi gh exhaust temperatures.
Standby engi nes that must be exerci sed
regul arl y but cannot be l oaded shoul d be onl y
run l ong enough to achi eve normal oi l
pressure and then shut off l ess than fi ve
mi nutes of runni ng ti me.
2. The generator set must be properl y
i nstal l ed i n an atmosphere whi ch al l ows i t
to achi eve the requi red l i fe.
Air Flow
Provi de adequate cl ean, cool ai r for
cool i ng and combusti on. Hi gh engi ne
room temperatures may requi re ducti ng
cool er outsi de ai r to the engi ne i ntake to
avoi d power derati on. Restri cti on of
radi ator ai r reduces i ts cool i ng capabi l i ty.
Exhaust
I sol ate exhaust pi pi ng from the engi ne
wi th fl exi bl e connecti ons. Wrap the pi pi ng
wi th a thermal bl anket to keep exhaust
heat out of the engi ne room. The exhaust
stack and muffl er need to be si zed so the
exhaust back pressure at the
turbocharger outl et does not exceed
6.7 kPa (27 i n.) of water. Excessi ve
backpressure rai ses exhaust
temperatures and reduces engi ne l i fe.
Fuel
Use cl ean fuel . Fuel day tanks shoul d be
bel ow the l evel of the i njectors.
Mounting
The generator sets must have a fl at and
secure mounti ng surface. The generator
set mounti ng must al l ow adequate space
around the generator set for mai ntenance
and repai rs.
Starting
Batteri es shoul d be cl ose to the starter
and protected from very col d
temperatures. Do not di sconnect batteri es
from a runni ng engi ne or a pl ugged-i n
battery charger.
3. SCR l oads can affect generator output
waveform. Make sure the SCR devi ce
suppl i er and the consul ti ng engi neer are
aware of the possi bl e probl ems.
9

10

Installation

Foundations
Major functi ons of a foundati on are to:
Support total wei ght of generator set.
Mai ntai n al i gnment between engi ne,
generator, and accessory equi pment.
I sol ate generator set vi brati on from
surroundi ng structures.
Ground Loading
I ni ti al consi derati ons i ncl ude generator set
wei ght and materi al supporti ng thi s wei ght.
The wet wei ght of the total package must be
cal cul ated. Thi s i ncl udes accessory equi pment
and wei ght of al l l i qui ds (cool ant, oi l , and
fuel ,) supported by the foundati on.
Materi al supporti ng foundati on must carry
the total wei ght. Fi gure 3 shows beari ng l oad
capabi l i ti es of common materi al s.
Figure 1
Weights of Liquids
Liquid lb/U.S. gal Specific Gravity

Water/Glycol 8.55 1.030
Water 8.30 1.000
Lube Oil 7.60 0.916
Diesel Fuel 7.10 0.855
Kerosene 6.70 0.800
Figure 2
Bearing Load Capability
Safe Bearing Load
Material psi kPa
Rock, Hardpan 70 482
Hard Clay, Gravel
Coarse Sand 56 386
Loose Medium Sand
and Medium Clay 28 193
Loose Fine Sand 14 96.4
Soft Clay 0-14 0-96.4
Figure 3
Fi rm, l evel soi l , gravel , or rock provi des
sati sfactory support for si ngl e-beari ng
generator sets used i n stati onary or portabl e
servi ce. Use thi s support where the wei ght-
beari ng capaci ty of the supporti ng materi al
exceeds pressure exerted by the equi pment
package, and where al i gnment wi th external
machi nery i s uni mportant.
Soi l , such as fi ne cl ay, l oose sand, or sand near
the ground water l evel , i s parti cul arl y
unstabl e under dynami c l oads and requi re
substanti al l y l arger foundati ons. I nformati on
concerni ng beari ng capaci ty of soi l s at the si te
may be avai l abl e from l ocal sources and must
compl y wi th l ocal bui l di ng codes.
Area of l oad-beari ng support i s adjusted to
accommodate surface materi al . To determi ne
pressure (P) exerted by the generator set,
di vi de total wei ght (W) by total surface area
(A) of the rai l s, pads, or vi brati on mounts.
P =
W
A
Where: P = Pressure in kg/m
2
(psi)
W= Weight in kg (lb)
A = Area in m
2
(in
2
)
Pressure i mposed by the generator set wei ght
must be l ess than the l oad-carryi ng capaci ty
of supporti ng materi al .
Where support rai l s or mounti ng feet have
i nsuffi ci ent beari ng area, fl otati on pads can
di stri bute the wei ght. The undersi de area and
sti ffness of the pad must be suffi ci ent to
support the equi pment.
Seasonal and weather changes adversel y
affect mounti ng surfaces. Soi l changes
consi derabl y whi l e freezi ng and thawi ng. To
avoi d movement from seasonal changes,
extend foundati ons bel ow the frost l i ne.
Concrete Base
Several basi c foundati ons are appl i cabl e for
generator sets. The foundati on chosen wi l l
depend on factors previ ousl y outl i ned as wel l
as l i mi tati ons i mposed by the speci fi c l ocati on
and appl i cati on.
Massi ve concrete foundati ons are unnecessary
for modern mul ti cyl i nder medi um speed
generator sets. Avoi d excessi vel y thi ck,
heavy bases to mi ni mi ze subfl oor or soi l
l oadi ng. Bases need be onl y thi ck enough to
prevent defl ecti on and torque reacti on, whi l e
retai ni ng suffi ci ent surface area for support.
(Non-paral l el uni ts requi re no foundati on
anchori ng.)
I f a concrete foundati on i s requi red,

minimum
desi gn gui del i nes i ncl ude:
Strength must support wet wei ght of uni ts
pl us dynami c l oads.
Outsi de di mensi ons exceed that of the
generator set a mi ni mum of 300 mm (1 ft)
on al l si des.
Depth suffi ci ent to attai n a mi ni mum
wei ght equal to generator set wet wei ght
(onl y i f l arge mass, i .e., i nerti a bl ock, i s
speci fi ed for vi brati on control ).
11
Figure 4
Cal cul ate foundati on depth to equal generator
set wei ght by:
FD = W
D x B x L
FD = foundati on depth, m (ft)
W = total wet wei ght of generator set, kg (l b)
D = densi ty of concrete, kg/m
3
(l b/ft
3
)
Note: use 2403 for metri c uni ts and 150
for Engl i sh uni ts.
B = foundati on wi dth, m (ft)
L = foundati on l ength, m (ft)
Suggested concrete mi xture by vol ume i s 1:2:3
of cement, sand, aggregate, wi th maxi mum
100 mm (4 i n.) sl ump and 28-day compressi ve
strength of 20 MPa (3000 psi ).
Rei nforce wi th No. 8 gauge steel wi re mesh or
equi val ent, hori zontal l y pl aced on 150 mm
(6 i n.) centers. An al ternati ve method pl aces
No. 6 rei nforci ng bars on 300 mm (12 i n.)
centers hori zontal l y. Bars shoul d cl ear
foundati on surfaces 75 mm (3 i n.) mi ni mum.
When effecti ve vi brati on i sol ati on equi pment
i s used, depth of fl oor concrete i s that needed
for structural support of the stati c l oad. Major
rotati ng and reci procati ng components of
Caterpi l l ar generator sets are i ndi vi dual l y
bal anced and, theoreti cal l y, have no
unbal ance. Practi cal l y, manufacturi ng
tol erances and combusti on forces i mpose some
dynami c l oadi ng on the foundati on. I f
i sol ators are not used, dynami c l oads transmi t
to the faci l i ty fl oor and requi res the fl oor to
support 125% of the generator set wei ght.
I f generator sets are paral l el ed, possi bl e out-
of-phase paral l el i ng and resul ti ng torque
reacti ons demand stronger foundati ons. The
foundati on must wi thstand twi ce the wet
wei ght of the generator set.
Figure 5
Figure 6
TwoBearing
Generator
Structurally Rigid Base
12
Fabricated Steel Base
Frequent rel ocati on, i ni ti al i nstal l ati on ease,
vi brati on i sol ati on or i sol ati ng from fl exi ng
mounti ng surfaces, such as trai l ers, are major
uses for fabri cated bases. Do not ri gi dl y
connect any base to fl exi ng surfaces.
Bases mai ntai n al i gnment between engi ne,
generator, and other dri ven equi pment such
as radi ator fans. Engi nes wi th cl ose-coupl ed
si ngl e-beari ng generators mai ntai n
al i gnment by mounti ng rai l s or modest bases.
Two-beari ng generators, generators dri ven
from ei ther end of the engi ne, tandem
generators, or tandem engi nes, requi re
substanti al boxed bases, see Fi gure 6. Bases
must i ncorporate suffi ci ent strength to:
Resi st outsi de bendi ng forces i mposed on the
engi ne bl ock, coupl i ngs, and generator
frame duri ng transportati on.
Li mi t torsi onal and bendi ng movement
caused by torque reacti ons.
Prevent resonant vi brati on i n the operati ng
speed range.
Due to thermal expansi on,
[cast i ron 5.5 x 10
-6
mm/mm/1.8C
(5.5 x 10
-6
i n./i n/1.0F)] engi nes may l engthen
2.3 mm (0.09 i n.) from col d to operati ng
temperature. This growth must not be
restrained. On si ngl e-beari ng and most
two-beari ng generators, no cl ose cl earance
dowel s or ground body bol ts are used to l i mi t
thermal growth. Si ngl e-beari ng generators
requi ri ng extremel y cl ose al i gnment, use a
ground body bol t at the fl ywheel end on one
si de of the engi ne. No other restrai nt i s
permi tted.
Mounti ng feet of two-beari ng generators can
be dowel ed wi thout harm. Sl i ght expansi on
wi thi n the generator i s absorbed i n the
generator coupl i ng.
13
Vibration
Mechani cal systems wi th mass and el asti ci ty
are capabl e of rel ati ve moti on. I f thi s moti on
i s repeti ti ve, i t i s vi brati on. Engi nes produce
vi brati ons due to combusti on forces, torque
reacti ons, structural mass and sti ffness
combi nati ons, and manufacturi ng tol erances
on rotati ng components. These forces create a
range of undesi rabl e condi ti ons, rangi ng from
unwanted noi se to hi gh stress l evel s and
ul ti mate fai l ure of engi ne or generator
components.
Vi brati ng stresses reach destructi ve l evel s at
engi ne speeds where resonance occurs.
Resonance occurs when system natural
frequenci es coi nci de wi th engi ne exci tati ons.
The total engi ne-generator system must be
anal yzed for cri ti cal l i near and torsi onal
vi brati on.
14
Figure 7
120 180 240 360 660 1200 2400 3600 6000
Vibration Frequency cpm
100
80
60
40
30
20
10
8
6
4
3
2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
Sensory Perception
Level
Very Rough
Acceptable Limits
(No Load)
Engine And Generator
Engine Only
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1
)
Rough
Slightly Rough
Fair
Good
Very Smooth
Linear Vibration
Li near vi brati on i s exhi bi ted by noi sy or
shaki ng machi nes, but i ts exact nature i s
di ffi cul t to defi ne wi thout i nstrumentati on.
Human senses are i nadequate to detect
rel ati onshi ps between the magni tude of
vi brati on and peri od of occurrence. A fi rst
order (1 x rpm) vi brati on of 0.254 mm
(0.010 i n.) di spl acement may feel about the
same as thi rd order measurement of
0.051 mm (0.002 i n.). However, as depi cted i n
Fi gure 7, severi ty of vi brati on correl ates
reasonabl y wel l wi th l evel s of percepti on and
annoyance.
Vi brati on occurs as a mass i s defl ected and
returned al ong the same pl ane and can be
i l l ustrated as a si ngl e mass spri ng system, see
Fi gure 8. Wi th no external force i mposed on
the system, the wei ght remai ns at rest and
there i s no vi brati on. But when the wei ght i s
moved or di spl aced and then rel eased,
vi brati on occurs. The wei ght travel s up and
down through i ts ori gi nal posi ti on unti l
fri cti onal forces cause i t to rest. When
external forces, such as engi ne combusti on,
conti nue to affect the system whi l e i t vi brates,
i t i s termed forced vibration.
Ti me requi red for the wei ght to compl ete one
movement i s cal l ed a peri od, see Fi gure 9.
Maxi mum di spl acement from the mean
posi ti on i s ampl i tude; i nterval i n whi ch the
moti on i s repeated i s cal l ed the cycl e.
I f the wei ght needs one second to compl ete a
cycl e, the vi brati on frequency i s one cycl e per
second.
I f one mi nute, hour, day, etc., were requi red,
i ts frequency woul d be one cycl e per mi nute,
hour, day, etc. A system compl eti ng i ts ful l
moti on 20 ti mes i n one mi nute woul d have a
frequency of 20 cycl es per mi nute, or 20 cpm.
15
W
Spring At Rest
(Mean Position) W
Spring Extended
X
Mass-Spring System
1 Cycle
Position Of Weight (X) Amplitude
Time
Upper Limit
Peak
Acceleration
Peak
Velocity
Peak-To-Peak
Displacement
D
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
Neutral Position
Lower Limit
Period
Time
Figure 8
Figure 9
Establ i shi ng vi brati on frequency i s necessary
when anal yzi ng a probl em. I t al l ows
i denti fi cati on of engi ne component or
condi ti on causi ng the vi brati on.
Total di stance travel ed by the wei ght, from
one peak to the opposi te peak, i s peak-to-peak
di spl acement. Thi s measurement i s usual l y
expressed i n mi l s, one mi l equal i ng one-
thousandth of an i nch [.025 mm (.001 i n.)]. I t
i s a gui de to vi brati on severi ty.
Average and root-mean-square (rms) are used
to measure vi brati on (rms = 0.707 ti mes the
peak of vi brati on.) These terms are referred to
i n theoreti cal di scussi ons.
Another method to anal yze vi brati on i s
measuri ng mass vel oci ty. Note that the
exampl e i s not onl y movi ng but changi ng
di recti on. The speed of the wei ght i s al so
constantl y changi ng. At i ts l i mi t, the speed i s
0. I ts speed or vel oci ty i s greatest whi l e
passi ng through the neutral posi ti on.
Vel oci ty i s extremel y i mportant; but because
of i ts changi ng nature, a si ngl e poi nt has been
chosen for measurement. Thi s i s peak vel oci ty
normal l y expressed i n i nches per second.
Vel oci ty i s a di rect measure of vi brati on and
provi des best overal l i ndi cator of machi nery
condi ti on. I t does not, however, refl ect the
effect of vi brati on on bri ttl e materi al .
Rel ati onshi p between peak vel oci ty and
peak-to-peak di spl acement i s compared by:
V Peak = 52.3 D F x 10
-6
Where:
V Peak = Vi brati on vel oci ty i n i nches per
second peak.
D = Peak-to-peak di spl acement, i n mi l s
(1 mi l - 0.00l i n.).
F = Frequency i n cycl es-per-mi nute
(cpm).
Accel erati on i s another characteri sti c of
vi brati on. I t i s the rate of vel oci ty change. I n
the exampl e, note that peak accel erati on i s at
the extreme l i mi t of travel where vel oci ty i s
0. As vel oci ty i ncreases, accel erati on
decreases unti l i t reaches 0 at the neutral
poi nt.
Accel erati on i s di mensi oned i n uni ts of g
(peak), where g equal s the force of gravi ty
(980 x 6650 mm/s
2
= 386 i n./s
2
= 32.2 ft/s
2
).
Accel erati on measurements, or gs, are used
where rel ati vel y l arge forces are encountered.
At very hi gh frequenci es (60,000 cpm), i t i s
perhaps the best i ndi cator of vi brati on.
Vi brati on accel erati on i s cal cul abl e form peak
di spl acement
g Peak = 1.42 D F
2
x 10
-8
Machi nery vi brati on i s compl ex and consi sts
of many frequenci es. Di spl acement, vel oci ty,
and accel erati on are al l used to di agnose
parti cul ar probl ems. Di spl acement
measurements are better i ndi cators of
dynami c stresses and are, therefore,
commonl y used. Note that overal l or total
peak-to-peak di spl acement, descri bed i n
Fi gure 10, i s approxi matel y the sum of
i ndi vi dual vi brati ons.
Isolation
Generator sets need no i sol ati on for protecti on
from sel f-i nduced vi brati ons. They easi l y
wi thstand any vi brati ons whi ch they create.
16
Figure 10
However, i sol ati on i s requi red i f engi ne
vi brati on must be separated from bui l di ng
structures, or i f vi brati ons from nearby
equi pment are transmi tted to i noperati ve
generator sets. Caterpi l l ar Generator Sets
wi th i sol ati on mounts between the generator
set and base al ready sati sfy these
requi rements. Runni ng uni ts are rarel y
affected by exteri or vi brati ons. Methods of
i sol ati on i s the same for external or sel f-
generated vi brati ons.
I f no i sol ati on i s requi red, the generator set
may rest di rectl y on the mounti ng surface.
Factory assembl ed uni ts are dynami cal l y
bal anced and theoreti cal l y there i s no
dynami c l oad. Practi cal l y, the surface must
support 25% more than the stati c wei ght of
the uni t to wi thstand torque and vi bratory
l oads. Unl ess the engi ne i s dri vi ng equi pment
whi ch i mpose si de l oads, no anchor bol ti ng i s
requi red. Thi s normal l y appl i es to al l
nonparal l el generator set mounti ngs. Thi n
rubber or composi ti on pads mi ni mi ze the
uni ts tendency to creep or fret foundati on
surfaces.
Vi brati on i s reduced by commerci al l y
avai l abl e fabri cated i sol ators or bul k i sol ators.
Both techni ques uti l i ze stati c defl ecti on, wi th
i ncreased defl ecti on resul ti ng i n greater
i sol ati on. Al though i nternal dampi ng of
vari ous materi al s cause performance
di fferences, the vi brati on chart i n Fi gure 11
descri bes the general effect defl ecti on has on
i sol ati on. By usi ng engi ne rpm as the nomi nal
vi brati on frequency, magni tude of compressi on
on i sol ati ng materi al s can be esti mated.
The uni t can be separated from supporti ng
surfaces by these soft commerci al devi ces, i .e.,
those whi ch defl ect under the stati c wei ght.
Mounti ng rai l s or fabri cated bases wi thstand
torque reacti ons wi thout uni form support
from the i sol ators.
Pi pi ng connected to generator sets requi res
i sol ati on, parti cul arl y when gen sets mount on
spri ng i sol ators. Fuel and water l i nes, exhaust
pi pes, and condui t coul d otherwi se transmi t
vi brati ons l ong di stances. I sol ator pi pe
hangers, i f used, shoul d have spri ngs to
attenuate l ow frequenci es, and rubber or cork
to mi ni mi ze hi gh frequency transmi ssi ons. To
prevent bui l dup of resonant pi pe vi brati ons,
support l ong pi pi ng runs at unequal
di stances, see Fi gure 12.
17
Basic Vibration Chart
10.0
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
1.0
.8
.6
.4
.2
.10
.08
.06
.04
.02
.01
100 200 400 600 800 1000 2000 4000
Resonance
Natural
Frequency
60 81 90 95 99
70 85 93 97
Isolation
Efficiency %
Vibration Frequency (CPM)
Figure 11
Figure 12
A A A A
A B C B
A B C D . . .etc.
= = = / / /
Good
Poor
Isolation for Mobile Equipment
I sol ati on from a movabl e pl atform i s desi rabl e
to:
1. Reduce vi brati on.
2. Reduce noi se.
3. Prevent torque l oadi ng on generator sets
caused by pl atforms or trai l er beds.
Vi brati on carri ed throughout an encl osure
causes earl y fai l ure of auxi l i ary equi pment.
Rel ays, swi tches, gauges, and pi pi ng are
adversel y affected.
Noi se, whi l e normal l y onl y annoyi ng, can
attai n l evel s objecti onabl e to owners and
operators. I f operati ng near property l i nes,
noi se coul d exceed l ocal ordi nances.
Perhaps the most i mportant reason to i sol ate
mobi l e equi pment i s to avoi d bendi ng of the
generator set by movement of the subbase.
Unl ess the pl atform or trai l er bed i s extremel y
ri gi d, the generator set must not be bol ted to
i t. Defl ecti on of the bed woul d be transmi tted
to the engi ne, causi ng bl ock bendi ng and
possi bl e crankshaft and beari ng fai l ures.
Lateral movement of the generator set must
be mi ni mi zed as the trai l er i s transported.
Thi s can be achi eved si mpl y by bl ocki ng the
uni t off the i sol ators duri ng the move. I f not
practi cal , snubbers can confi ne verti cal and
hori zontal movement.
A detai l of a spri ng-type i sol ator shows the
addi ti on of thrust bl ocks to restri ct l ateral
movement wi thout i nterferi ng wi th the spri ng
functi on, Fi gure 13.
Commercial Isolators
Several commerci al i sol ators provi de vari ous
degrees of i sol ati on. General l y, the l ower the
natural frequency of the i sol ator, the greater
the defl ecti on (soft) and more effecti ve the
i sol ati on. Wei ght of generator sets can be
unequal l y bal anced wi thi n the l i mi ts of the
i sol ators. However, overl oadi ng wi l l el i mi nate
i sol ator benefi ts. I sol ators are most effecti ve
when l ocated under generator mounti ng and
engi ne front support, Fi gure 14. I f addi ti onal
support i s desi red, pl ace an i sol ator mi dway
between front and rear mounts and under
radi ator.
To appl y i sol ators, wet wei ght and center of
gravi ty of the assembl ed uni t must be
establ i shed. Assumi ng engi ne and generator
are assembl ed to a base, wet wei ght (WT) and
assembl ed center of gravi ty can be cal cul ated.
A common reference i s needed, see Fi gure 14.
I n thi s case, use the rear face of the fl ywheel
housi ng. Because measurements are to both
si des of the reference, one di recti on can be
consi dered negati ve.
W
T
(D) = W
E
(D
2
)
_
W
G
(D
1
) + W
R
(D
3
)
D =
W
E
(D
2
)
_
WG (D
1
) + W
R
(D
3
)
W
T
18
BASE MOUNTING HOLES
LOCKNUT
SNUBBER BOLT
ISOLATOR MOUNTING HOLES
LEVELING BOLT
VIBRATION ISOLATOR
Figure 13
D
1
D
C
G
W
T W
E
W
G
Rear Face of Flywheel Housing
W
R
D
2
D
3
Figure 14
Vibration Isolator
19
I f addi ti onal equi pment i s added, the process
i s repeated to determi ne a new center of
gravi ty.
Havi ng establ i shed center of gravi ty for the
total uni t, as i n Fi gure 15, l oadi ng on each
pai r of i sol ators i s determi ned by:
S
1
= W
T
B S
2
= W
T
A
C C
I sol ators are si zed to have natural frequenci es
far removed from engi ne exci ti ng frequenci es.
I f these frequenci es were si mi l ar, the enti re
uni t woul d resonate. The transmi ssi bi l i ty
chart i n Fi gure 16 depi cts thi s condi ti on. I t
al so shows the si gni fi cant i mprovement
caused by decreasi ng the mounti ng natural
frequency to al l ow a rati o i ncrease above 2,
or 1.414.
The most effecti ve i sol ators are of steel spri ng
desi gn, see Fi gure 17. They i sol ate over 96%
of al l vi brati ons, provi de overal l economy, and
permi t mounti ng the generator set on a
surface capabl e of supporti ng onl y the stati c
l oad. No al l owance for torque or vi bratory
l oads i s requi red. As wi th di rect mounti ngs,
no anchor bol ti ng i s usual l y requi red.
However, when operati ng i n paral l el , verti cal
restrai nts are recommended and the i sol ator
fi rml y fastened to the foundati on. Spri ng
i sol ators are avai l abl e wi th snubber for use
when engi nes are si de l oaded or l ocated on
movi ng surfaces.
Addi ng rubber pl ates beneath spri ng i sol ators
bl ock hi gh frequency vi brati ons transmi tted
through the spri ng. These vi brati ons are not
harmful but cause annoyi ng noi se.
Rubber i sol ators are adequate for appl i cati ons
where vi brati on control i s not severe. By
careful sel ecti on, i sol ati on of 90% i s possi bl e.
They i sol ate noi se created by transmi ssi on of
vi bratory forces. Avoi d usi ng rubber i sol ators
wi th natural frequenci es near engi ne
exci tati on frequenci es.
Fi bergl ass, fel t, composi ti on, and fl at rubber
do l i ttl e to i sol ate major vi brati on forces. The
fabri c materi al s tend to compress wi th age
and become i neffecti ve. Because defl ecti on of
these types of i sol ators i s smal l , thei r natural
frequency i s rel ati vel y hi gh compared to the
engi nes. Attempti ng to stack these i sol ators or
appl y them i ndi scri mi natel y coul d force the
system i nto resonance.
A
C
G
W
T
B
S
1
S
2
C
Figure 15
Figure 16
Bulk
Bul k i sol ati ng materi al s are used between the
foundati on and supporti ng surface but are not
as fool proof as spri ng or rubber types.
I sol ati on of bl ock foundati ons may be
accompl i shed by 200 to 250 mm (8 to 10 i n.)
of wet gravel or sand i n the bed of the
foundati on pi t. Sand and gravel can reduce
engi ne vi brati on one-thi rd to one-hal f. The
i sol ati ng val ue of gravel i s somewhat greater
than sand. To mi ni mi ze settl i ng of the
foundati on, gravel or sand must be thoroughl y
tamped before pouri ng the concrete bl ock.
Make the foundati on pi t sl i ghtl y l onger and
wi der than the foundati on bl ock base. A
wooden form the si ze and shape of the
foundati on i s pl aced on the gravel or sand bed
for pouri ng the concrete. After the form i s
removed, the i sol ati ng materi al i s pl aced
around foundati on si des, compl etel y i sol ati ng
the foundati on from surroundi ng earth.
Rubber, asphal t-i mpregnated fel t, and
fi ber-gl ass have al so been used for i sol ati ng
the foundati on bl ock from subsoi l , but they do
not provi de si gni fi cant l ow frequency
i sol ati on. The fl oor sl ab surroundi ng the
foundati on bl ock i s separated from the
foundati on by expansi ve joi nt materi al . Thi s
prohi bi ts vi brati on from travel i ng from the
bl ock to the fl oor and al so el i mi nates l osi ng
tool s i n the pi t duri ng servi ci ng.
Cork i s not effecti ve wi th di sturbi ng
frequenci es bel ow 1800 cps and, i f not kept
dry, wi l l rot. I t i s sel dom used wi th modern
generator sets, but i s used to separate engi ne
foundati ons and surroundi ng fl oor because of
resi stance to oi l , aci d, or temperature changes
between -20 and 95C (0 and 200F).
Seismic
Sei smi c shocks are i nsuffi ci ent to harm
generator sets resti ng on the fl oor. However,
i sol ati on devi ces, parti cul arl y spri ng i sol ators,
ampl i fy smal l movement generated by
earthquakes to l evel s whi ch woul d damage
equi pment. Speci al i sol ators i ncorporati ng
sei smi c restrai ni ng or dampi ng devi ces are
avai l abl e, but exact requi rements must be
revi ewed by the i sol ator suppl i er. I sol ators
anti ci pati ng sei smi c shock are bol ted to the
equi pment base and the fl oor. Posi ti ve stops
are added to l i mi t moti on i n al l di recti ons.
Attached pi pi ng and auxi l i ary equi pment
supports must al so tol erate rel ati ve
movement.
Fi gure 19 descri bes sei smi c acti vi ty occurri ng
throughout the worl d si nce 1897. The Uni ted
States i s further di vi ded i nto regi ons of
earthquake damage probabi l i ty.
20
Figure 17 Figure 18
21
Zone 0 No Significant Damage
Zone 1 Minor Damage
Zone 2 Moderate Damage
Zone 3 Major Damage
Zone 4 Major Faults
Seismic Zone Map of the United States
Figure 19
Figure 20
Torsional
Torsi onal vi brati ons occur as objects, such as
an engi ne crankshaft, twi st and recover.
Standard generator set components wi thstand
normal stresses caused by combusti on forces
and torque reacti ons. A generator set must
prevent the natural frequency of the dri ve
trai n from approachi ng the uni ts operati ng
speed. Fai l ure of crankshaft, coupl i ngs, gears
or beari ngs may resul t wi thout thi s attenti on.
Torsi onal vi brati ons ori gi nate wi th the pi ston
power stroke. The si mpl i fi ed dri ve trai n i n
Fi gure 21 i l l ustrates rel ati onshi p of shaft
di ameter, l ength, and i nerti a on the natural
system frequency.
Generator sets prepackaged by Caterpi l l ar
avoi d cri ti cal speeds where resonant
condi ti ons occur. Appl i cati ons fi el d matchi ng
engi ne and si ngl e-beari ng generator, or
i ncl udi ng equi pment dri ven from the front of
the engi ne, necessi tate a torsi onal anal ysi s.
Thi s assures compati bi l i ty of engi ne and
generator. The anal ysi s i s avai l abl e from the
engi ne suppl i er, but i s the responsi bi l i ty of the
generator set assembl er.
I f two-beari ng generators are speci fi ed,
i ncl ude torsi onal l y resi l i ent (soft) coupl i ngs
between engi ne and generator. A torsi onal
study i s agai n recommended.
The study predi cts operati ng characteri sti cs of
the mass el asti c system. Thi s combi nati on of
masses (or i nerti as) and spri ngs consti tutes
the vi brati ng system. When consi deri ng
torsi onal vi brati ons, the mass el asti c system
i ncl udes pi stons, rods, crankshaft, fl ywheel ,
coupl i ng, dri ven equi pment, and associ ated
shafti ng. Good resul ts from an anal ysi s
requi re accurate i nput concerni ng:
A. Engi ne Speed
1. Hi gh i dl e.
2. Low i dl e.
3. Ful l l oad.
B. Dri ven Equi pment
1. General arrangement drawi ng or sketch
of compl ete system wi th si gni fi cant
di mensi ons, i ncl udi ng crankshaft pul l eys
and front-dri ven equi pment.
2. WR
2
and torsi onal ri gi di ty i n pound-
i nches per radi an of defl ecti on on
coupl i ngs between engi ne and dri ven
equi pment.
3. WR
2
and pri nci pal di mensi ons of each
rotati ng mass. Wei ght and pri nci pal
di mensi ons of each reci procati ng mass.
4. WR
2
and pri nci pal di mensi ons of
connecti ng shafts.
Cyclic Irregularity
Cycl i c i rregul ari ty i s a nondi mensi onal rati o
descri bi ng degree of crankshaft twi st
occurri ng between two successi ve fi ri ngs of
cyl i nders duri ng steady-state operati on.
Formul as to represent thi s movement were
deri ved before modern i nstrumentati on
al l owed measurement. The rati o i s expressed
as:
Cycl i c I rregul ari ty =
rpm (maxi mum) - rpm (mi ni mum)
rpm (average)
System speed vari es wi th connected rotati ng
mass. Cycl i c i rregul ari ty di ffers, therefore, for
a basi c engi ne, one dri vi ng a generator, or
addi ti onal equi pment.
Thi s rati o compares meri ts of l arge sl ow speed
engi nes whi ch were custom made, but has
l i ttl e val ue appl i ed to modern medi um speed
engi nes.
22
Figure 21
Torsional Vibration

Noise

Sound Waves Behavior
and Measurement

As sound waves radi ate, thei r strength
di mi ni shes. As di stance travel ed doubl es, the
wave ampl i tude i s reduced by one-hal f. Thi s
rul e appl i es i f the fi rst measuri ng poi nt i s at
l east two or three ti mes the l argest di mensi on
of the noi se source, usual l y about three feet.
Sound waves i mpi ngi ng on a mi crophone
produce vol tages proporti onal to sound
pressures. The si gnal s measure ampl i tude or
strength of the

sound pressurewaves.
Ampl i tude and frequency are the onl y sound
properti es measurabl e usi ng ordi nary
techni ques.
The extensi ve audi bl e range of sound
compl i cates noi se rati ngs. The human ear
hears, wi thout damage, pressure l evel s
100,000 ti mes stronger than the l owest
detectabl e l evel . Noi se measuri ng i nstruments
have extraordi nary range and are scal ed i n
deci bel s (dB).
Loudness
The human ear does not use sound pressure
deci bel s to judge l oudness. Rati ng noi se
l oudness i s a compl ex operati on because
human heari ng i s al so frequency sensi ti ve.
Sounds wi th frequenci es i n the 5,000-
10,000 Hz range are the easi est to hear;
sounds wi th very l ow frequenci es are the
hardest. Heari ng l oss from exposure to noi se
i s si mi l arl y frequency sensi ti ve.
A-Weighted, dB(A) Measurements
Loudness can be measured by fi l teri ng the
mi crophone si gnal to reduce the strength of
the l ow frequency si gnal s and gi ve more
wei ght to frequenci es i n the 5,000-10,000 Hz
range. (These are the frequenci es to whi ch the
ear i s most sensi ti ve). Thi s i s done wi th a
standardi zed (i nternati onal ) A fi l ter
network to make adjustments throughout the
frequency range accordi ng to Fi gure 22. The
resul t i s a total deci bel rati ng wi th a
correcti on approxi mati ng the ear s sensi ti vi ty.
The measurements are A-scal e, A-wei ghted or
dB(A) l evel s.
Sound
Distance Strength

X 100%
2X 50%
4X 25%
23
Figure 22
Signals Entering
Filter
Low
Frequencies
High
Frequencies
Signals Leaving
Filter
dB Total
dB(A) Total
Response Characteristics
of Standard A Filter
Frequency-Hertz (cycles per sec.)
Relative
Response
-Decibels
"A" Weighted
Filtering
- 5
0
+ 5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
-35
-40
-45
-50
20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000 10,000
A
A
24
Octave Band Levels
More detai l i s requi red of the frequency
di stri buti on of a noi se than provi ded by a
A-wei ghted measurement. Measurements are
made wi th fi l ters subdi vi di ng sounds over the
enti re audi bl e range i nto standardi zed
frequency bands, permi tti ng the pressure
l evel s of onl y the sound wi thi n each
subdi vi si on to be measured. Each fi l ter spans
an octave; that i s, the upper frequency l i mi t i s
twi ce the l ower l i mi t as shown i n Fi gure 23.
Sound l evel s i n each octave are measured i n
deci bel s and are referred to as octave band
l evel s.
Noise Addition
When standi ng by an engi ne, the noi se heard
from other engi nes operati ng i n the same area
wi l l depend on the spaci ng of the engi nes and
where the person i s i n rel ati on to the spaci ng.
A chart showi ng the combi ned effect of up
to ten equal sound sources i s shown i n
Fi gure 24.
Fi gure 25 shows the versati l i ty of the deci bel
system. Al though cal cul ati ons are made on
the basi s of sound power, the system uses
measured or cal cul ated sound pressures. Use
the di fference i n the pressure l evel s of two
sounds to fi nd how thei r combi ned l evel
exceeds the hi gher of the two. Fi rst adjust the
l evel s for the di stances from the source to the
spot where the noi ses are bei ng added. To add
a thi rd l evel , use the same process to combi ne
i t wi th the total of the fi rst two.
Band
Designation
(Center
Frequency)
Band
Limits
Standard Octave Bands
ANSI Standard S1.11 IEC 225
8000 Hz
4000
2000
1000
500
250
125
63 Hz
44 Hz
88
176
353
707
1415
2830
5650
11300 Hz
Figure 23
0
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
2
4
6
8
10
2
Addition Of Equal Sounds
Increase In Sound Pressure
dB or dB(A)
I
n
c
r
e
a
s
e

i
n

d
B

o
r

d
B
(
A
)
Number of sources
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
x1
x1.5
x2
1
Relative Loudness In Sones
M
u
l
t
i
p
l
i
e
r
Number of sources
based on experimental data given in figure 27
2
Figure 24
0
.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Addition Of Unequal Sounds
D
e
c
i
b
e
l
s

a
d
d
e
d

t
o

h
i
g
h
e
r

o
f

t
w
o

n
o
i
s
e
s

t
o

o
b
t
a
i
n

t
o
t
a
l

i
n

d
B
Difference between two noises in dB
Figure 25
25
Noise Exposure
Exposure to excessi ve noi se causes permanent
heari ng damage and adversel y affects
worki ng effi ci ency and comfort. Recogni zi ng
thi s, the U.S. Government created the
Occupati onal Safety and Heal th Act (OSHA)
whi ch establ i shed l i mi ts for i ndustri al
envi ronments.
When an i ndi vi dual s dai l y noi se exposure,
desi gnated D(8), i s composed of two or more
peri ods of noi se at di fferent l evel s, the
combi ned effect i s cal cul ated by: D(8) =
(C1/T1) + (C2/T2) + ... + (Cn/Tn). Where Cn i s
durati on of exposure at a speci fi ed sound l evel
and Tn i s total ti me of exposure permi tted at
a speci fi ed sound l evel , Fi gure 26. The noi se
exposure i s acceptabl e when equal to or l ess
than 1.
Noise Control
Noi se can be ei ther ai rborne or structureborne
transmi tted. Structureborne noi se i s vi brati on
transmi tted through a structure; typi cal l y
that supporti ng the engi ne. Noi se control
methods are di fferent for the two sources.
Noi se cri teri a for typi cal areas are shown i n
Fi gure 27.
Mechanical Noise
Many techni ques for i sol ati ng generator set
vi brati ons are appl i cabl e to mechani cal noi se
i sol ati on. Modest noi se reducti ons resul t from
attenti on to noi se sources, i .e., reduci ng fan
speeds, coati ng casti ng areas, and ducti ng ai r
fl ows. But for attenuati on over 10 dB(A), uni ts
must be total l y i sol ated. One effecti ve method
uti l i zes concrete bl ocks fi l l ed wi th sand to
house the generator set. I n addi ti on, the uni t
must i ncorporate vi brati on i sol ati on
techni ques descri bed i n the Vi brati on Secti on.
A rough gui de compari ng vari ous i sol ati on
methods i s i l l ustrated i n Fi gure 28.
Compl etel y encl osed engi nes are i mpracti cal
due to openi ngs requi red for pi pes, ducts, and
venti l ati on. Encl osures wi th numerous
openi ngs rarel y attai n over 20 dB(A)
attenuati on.
Figure 27
Highly Critical Hospital or
Residential Zone 71 63 44 37 35 34 33 33 33
Night, Residential 73 69 52 44 39 38 38 38 38
Day, Residential 76 71 59 50 44 43 43 43 43
Commercial 81 75 65 58 54 50 47 44 43
Industrial-Commercial 81 77 71 64 60 58 56 55 54
Industrial 87 85 81 75 71 70 68 66 66
Ear Damage Risk 112 108 100 95 94 94 94 94 94
Figure 26
Duration Allowable
of Daily Exposure level
Hours dB(A)
8 90
6 92
4 95
3 97
2 100
11/2 102
1 105
1/2 110
1/4 or less 115
Octave Bands in Cycles Per Second 31.5 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000
26
Intake Noise
I ntake noi se attenuati on i s achi eved through
ei ther ai r cl eaner el ements or i ntake si l encers.
Noi se attenuati on due to vari ous ai r cl eaners
and si l encers can be suppl i ed by the
component manufacturer.
Exhaust Noise
Exhaust noi se i s typi cal l y ai rborne. Exhaust
noi se attenuati on i s commonl y achi eved wi th
a si l encer typi cal l y capabl e of reduci ng
exhaust noi se 15 dB(A) when measured 3.3 m
(10 ft) perpendi cul ar to the exhaust outl et.
Locati ng i t near the engi ne mi ni mi zes
transmi ssi on of sound to the exhaust pi pi ng.
Si nce the number of cyl i nders and engi ne
speeds resul t i n vari ed exhaust frequenci es,
speci fi c effects of muffl ers must be predi cted
by the muffl er manufacturer.
Original
Machine
Vibration
Isolators
Baffle
Absorption
Material
Only
Rigid
Sealed
Enclosure
Enclosure,
and
Isolators
Enclosure,
Absorption
and
Isolators
Double
Walled
Enclosure,
Absorption
and Isolators
Approximate
Sound Level
Reduction
dB(A)
0
2
5
5
15-20
25-30
35-40
60-80
Figure 28
Figure 29
27
Sound Level Conversion
Sound l evel i nformati on i s presented both i n
terms of sound power l evel dB(A) and sound
pressure l evel dB(A) at a gi ven di stance from
the noi se source.
Sound power l evel i s the total sound power
bei ng radi ated from a source and i ts
magni tude i s i ndependent of the di stance
from the source. Rel ati ve l oudness
compari sons between engi nes i s si mpl y a
compari son of thei r sound power l evel s at
equi val ent operati ng condi ti ons. When the
sound power l evel i s known, the sound
pressure l evel at any di stance from a poi nt
source (such as exhaust noi se) can be easi l y
cal cul ated. A di sadvantage of thi s system i s
that sound pressure l evel conversi on i s val i d
for a poi nt source onl y. I t cannot be used for
mechani cal noi se si nce the source (overal l
engi ne) i s qui te l arge.
The equati on for determi ni ng the sound
pressure l evel of exhaust noi se i s:
Sound Pressure Level , dB(A) =
Sound Power Level , dB(A) - 10 x Log
10
(CD
2
)
Where C = 2 For exhaust source adjacent to a fl at surface,
such as a hori zontal exhaust pi pe adjacent to a
fl at roof.
or C = 4 For exhaust source some di stance from
surroundi ng surfaces, such as a verti cal
exhaust stack some di stance above roof.
D = Di stance from exhaust noi se source (m).
I f the sound pressure l evel of a poi nt source at
some di stance i s known, the sound pressure
l evel at a second di stance can be cal cul ated
usi ng thi s formul a:
SPL
2
= SPL
1
- 20 x Log
10
(D
2
D
1
)
Where SPL
1
= known sound pressure l evel , dB(A)
SPL
2
= desi red sound pressure l evel , dB(A)
D
1
= known di stance, m (ft)
D
2
= desi red di stance, m (ft)

28

Air Intake System
Di esel engi nes requi re approxi matel y
0.09 m
3
/mi n (3.2 cfm) of ai r per brake
horsepower for combusti on, or 17 l b of ai r for
each pound of fuel . Vol umetri c (V) and mass
(M) i ntake ai r fl ow have the fol l owi ng general
rel ati onshi ps;
V (m
3
/mi n) = .01486

x M (kg/hr), or V (cfm) =
.2382 x M (l b/hr)
Heavy fuel engi nes requi re about 40% greater
i nl et ai r fl ow than those burni ng di sti l l ate
fuel s.

Air Cleaners
Combusti on ai r must be cl ean and cool .
Engi ne-mounted, dry-type ai r cl eaners are
consi derabl y more effi ci ent than oi l -bath types
and remove 99.5% of AC fi ne dust. Cl ean
fi l ters offer l i ttl e restri cti on so total ai r
restri cti on, i ncl udi ng ducti ng, shoul d not
exceed 1.2 kPa (5 i n. H
2
O) of water col umn.
Ai r cl eaner servi ce i ndi cators wi l l si gnal a
fi l ter change when a restri cti on of 6.2 kPa
(25 i n. H
2
O) devel ops. Ducti ng must have
suffi ci ent strength to wi thstand mi ni mum
restri cti ons of 12.5 kPa (50 i n. H
2
O), whi ch i s
al so the structural capabi l i ty of the
Caterpi l l ar pri me power ai r cl eaner.
Precleaners
Precl eaners adapt to standard ai r cl eaners to
extend fi l ter servi ce peri ods. They i mpose 0.25
to 0.75 kPa (1 to 3 i n. H
2
O) added restri cti ons
but i ncrease standard fi l ter l i fe about three
ti mes. Conventi onal precl eaners approach
70% effi ci ency, whi l e exhaust augmented
precl eaners exhi bi t 92% effi ci ency. They
further extend fi l ter el ement l i fe and are
mai ntenance free. Heavy-duty ai r cl eaners
provi de the same protecti on as standard
fi l ters but al l ow further extensi on of fi l ter
change peri ods. Servi ce peri ods i ncrease si x to
seven ti mes that of standard ai r cl eaners.

Cauti on

: Under no circumstances should the
engines be operated without air cleaners.
Ducting
When ducti ng i s necessary to obtai n cool er or
cl eaner ai r, fi l ters shoul d remai n on the
engi ne to prevent harmful di rt from l eaki ng
i nto the engi ne through ducti ng joi nts. When
ai r cl eaners must be remote-mounted i t i s
extremel y i mportant that al l joi nts be ai r
ti ght to prevent i ngesti on of di rt.
Gi ve careful attenti on to routi ng and support
of ai r i nl et ducti ng, where overhead cranes
are used to servi ce the engi nes. Provi de
adequate support for duct work so that i ts
wei ght i s not borne by the ai r cl eaner on
engi ne-mounted ai r cl eaners, or by the
turbocharger on remote-mounted ai r cl eaners.
Avoi d abrupt transi ti ons i n the i ntake
ducti ng to provi de the smoothest possi bl e
ai r fl ow path. Keep total duct head l oss
(restri cti on) bel ow 0.5 kPa (2 i n. H
2
O) for
maxi mum fi l ter l i fe. Any addi ti onal restri cti on
wi l l reduce fi l ter l i fe. See the Air I ntake
Restriction secti on.
Desi gn i nl et ducti ng to wi thstand a mi ni mum
vacuum of 12.5 kPa (50 i n. H
2
O) for structural
i ntegri ty.
I f requi red, al l pi pi ng must be desi gned and
supported to meet sei smi c requi rements.
Air Intake Restriction
Because excessi ve vacuum on the i nl et si de of
the turbocharger (or the ai r i nl et on NA
engi nes) can resul t i n reduced engi ne
performance, the ai r i ntake system restri cti on
(i ncl udi ng di rty fi l ters, duct work, vents, etc.)
i s l i mi ted to a maxi mum of 6.2 kPa
(25 i n. H
2
O). Si nce the maxi mum ai r i nl et
restri cti on i s l i mi ted, i t i s i mportant to
mi ni mi ze the ai r i nl et systems restri cti on to
1.2 kPa (5 i n. H
2
O) wi th cl ean fi l ters,
maxi mi zi ng fi l ter l i fe. External restri cti on
caused by the ai r i nl et system subtracts from
ai r fi l ter l i fe.
AC Dust (% total weight)
Micron Size Fine Course
0 - 5 39 2% 12 2%
6 - 10 18 3% 12 3%
11 - 20 16 3% 14 3%
21 - 40 18 3% 23 3%
41 - 80 9 3% 30 3%
81 - 200 0 92 3%
29
Cal cul ate Duct Head Losses By:
P(kPa) =
L x S x Q
2
x 3.6 x 10
6
D
5
P (i n. H
2
O) =
L x S x Q
2
187 x D
5
P = Restri cti on, kPa (i n. H
2
O)
psi = 0.0361 x i n. water col umn
kPa = 6.3246 x mm water col umn
L = Total equi val ent l ength of pi pe, m (ft)
Q = I nl et ai r fl ow, m
3
/mi n (cfm)-(found i n
TMI or performance book)
D = I nsi de di ameter of pi pe, mm (i n.)
I f duct i s rectangul ar:
Then:
D =
(2 x a x b)
a + b
S = Densi ty of ai r, kg/m
3
(l b/ft
3
)
S (kg/m
3
) =
352.5
Ai r Temperature
+273C
S (l b/ft
3
) =
39.6
Ai r Temperature
+460F
To obtai n equi val ent l ength of strai ght pi pe
for vari ous el bows:
L =
33D Standard El bow
X (Radi us of el bow equal s pi pe di ameter)
L =
20D
Long El bow (Radi us > 1.5 Di ameter)
X
L =
15D
45 El bow
X
L =
66D
Square El bow
X
Where x = 1000 mm or 12 i n.
As can be seen, i f 90 bends are requi red, a
radi us of two ti mes the pi pe di ameter hel ps to
l ower resi stance.
Flex Connections
Fl exi bl e connecti ons are requi red to i sol ate
engi ne vi brati on and noi se from the ducti ng
system. The fl ex shoul d be as cl ose to the
engi ne as practi cal . The fl ex engagement wi th
the ai r i ntake duct shoul d be a mi ni mum of
50 mm (2 i n.) and a maxi mum of 200 mm
(8 i n.). Care must be used to prevent exhaust
pi pi ng heat from deteri orati ng rubber fl ex
connecti ons.
Turbocharger Loading
When remote-mounted ai r cl eaners are used,
turbocharger l oadi ng from the wei ght of the
ai r i nl et components becomes a concern. Make
the fl exi bl e connecti on di rectl y to the
turbocharger ai r i nl et, as i n Fi gure 30. Al l
duct work to that poi nt must be supported.
Cleanliness
When appl yi ng remote-mounted ai r cl eaners,
ducti ng must be devoi d of al l debri s whi ch
coul d harm the turbocharger. Duct
constructi on shoul d not i ncl ude any
components, such as ri vets, whi ch coul d
l oosen and enter the engi ne.
I nstal l an i denti fi abl e bl anki ng pl ate ahead of
the turbocharger to prevent debri s from
enteri ng duri ng i ni ti al i nstal l ati on of the uni t.
Remove the pl ate pri or to starti ng the engi ne
and i nspect the ducti ng for cl eanl i ness just
pri or to i ni ti al start-up.
a
b
Air
Inlet
Pipe
Support
Flexible
Connection
Turbo
Charger
= 50 mm (2 in.) minimum
Figure 30
30
Inlet Air Duct Insulation
I nsul ati on may be needed on the i ntake
ducti ng for remote-mounted ai r cl eaners.
I nsul ati on reduces turbocharger noi se emi tted
i nto the engi ne room and mi ni mi zes heat
transfer from the room to the combusti on ai r.
Air Cleaner Icing
Saturated ai r wi th the dew poi nt near freezi ng
can cause i ci ng and cl oggi ng of the ai r cl eaner,
wi th resul ti ng power l oss and i ncreased fuel
consumpti on. Procedures to avoi d thi s
condi ti on i ncl ude prewarmi ng i ntake ai r or
bl ow-i n doors (wi th al arms) spri ng l oaded to
open at 12.5 kpa (50 i n. H
2
O) maxi mum.
Because contami nants coul d seri ousl y harm
the engi ne, bypassi ng the cl eaners i s onl y an
emergency procedure.
Extreme Cold
Heated engi ne room ai r may be requi red (for
starti ng purposes onl y) i n appl i cati ons at very
col d ambi ents, -25C (-13F). Thi s assumes
combusti on ai r i s bei ng drawn from outsi de
the engi ne bui l di ng, and the engi ne i s
precondi ti oned wi th pre-heaters for metal ,
water and oi l temperatures of 0C (32F).
Admi tti ng engi ne room ai r must be done
wi thout the possi bi l i ty of al l owi ng di rt or
debri s i nto the ai r i nl et system of the engi ne.

Exhaust Systems

Exhaust systems col l ect exhaust gases from
engi ne cyl i nders and di scharges them as
qui ckl y and si l entl y as possi bl e. A pri mary
desi gn consi derati on of the exhaust system i s
to mi ni mi ze backpressure si nce exhaust gas
restri cti ons cause performance l osses and
exhaust temperature i ncreases.

Manifolds
Engi ne exhaust mani fol ds col l ect exhaust
gases from each cyl i nder and channel s them
i nto an exhaust outl et. The mani fol d
encourages mi ni mum backpressure and
turbul ence. Several types are avai l abl e for
varyi ng i nstal l ati on requi rements.
Dry mani fol ds are usual l y standard equi pment
but may be repl aced by watercool ed,
watershi el ded or ACWS (ai r cool ed water
shi el ded mani fol ds). The opti onal mani fol d
protects the operator from contact wi th hot
metal but i s not parti cul arl y effecti ve i n
reduci ng radi ated heat. The Mi ni ng Safety &
Heal th Agency, MSHA, requi res watercool ed
mani fol ds to mai ntai n engi ne surface
temperatures bel ow 200C (400F). The
watercool ed type has passages al l owi ng
engi ne jacket cool ant to fl ow through the
mani fol d, thus removi ng heat otherwi se
carri ed by the exhaust gas. Heat rejecti on to
jacket water wi l l i ncrease 20-40%, whi l e l oss
of exhaust heat energy may cause engi ne
derati on and/or decreased al ti tude capabi l i ty.
Watershi el ded and ACWS mani fol ds
i ncorporate an auxi l i ary jacket or shi el d.
Engi ne water ci rcul ates through the shi el d
but does not come i nto di rect contact wi th the
i nner mani fol d. Watershi el di ng al l ows ai r to
ci rcul ate between the i nner and outer casi ngs,
addi ng l i ttl e to jacket water cool i ng l oad and
not affecti ng engi ne performance. ACWS
mani fol ds trap the ai r so, as wi th watercool ed,
jacket water and engi ne performance are
affected.
Piping
Physi cal characteri sti cs of the equi pment
room determi ne exhaust system l ayouts.
Arrangements wi th mi ni mum backpressures
are favored. Securel y support pi pes and
rubber dampers or spri ngs i nstal l ed i n the
braci ng to i sol ate vi brati ons.
Pi pi ng must be desi gned wi th engi ne
servi ce i n mi nd. I n many cases, an overhead
crane wi l l be used to servi ce the heavi er
engi ne components.
I nstal l pi pi ng wi th 229 mm (9 i n.) mi ni mum
cl earance from combusti bl e materi al s.
Laggi ng exhaust pi pes wi th sui tabl e, hi gh
temperature i nsul ati on or i nstal l i ng
prefabri cated i nsul ati on secti ons over the pi pe
prevents heat radi ati on. Exhaust pi pi ng
passi ng through wooden wal l s or roofs requi re
metal thi mbl e guards 305 mm (12 i n.) l arger
than the pi pe di ameter, see Fi gure 32.
Extend exhaust stacks to avoi d heat, fumes
and odors. Al so, the exhaust pi pes shoul d not
be i n cl ose proxi mi ty to the ai r i ntake system
for the engi ne or the crankcase venti l ati on
system. Engi ne ai r cl eaners, turbochargers,
and aftercool ers cl ogged wi th exhaust
products can cause premature fai l ures. Pi pe
outl ets cut at 30 to 45 angl es wi l l reduce gas
turbul ence and noi se. Rai n caps forced open
by exhaust pressure wi l l keep water from
enteri ng.
Long runs of exhaust pi pi ng requi re traps to
drai n moi sture. Traps i nstal l ed at the l owest
poi nt of the l i ne near the exhaust outl et
prevent rai n water from reachi ng the engi ne.
Sl ope exhaust l i nes from engi ne to the trap so
condensati on wi l l drai n, see Fi gure 32.
31
Water
Exhaust
Air
Passage
Water
Shielded
Air Cooled
Water Shielded
Exhaust
Dry
Water
Cooled
Figure 31
32
Muffl er pl acement greatl y affects si l enci ng
abi l i ty. Locati ng i t near the engi ne mi ni mi zes
transmi ssi on of sound to the exhaust pi pi ng.
Hi gher exhaust temperatures near the engi ne
al so reduces carbon bui l dup i n the muffl er; a
drai n removes condensati on.
Al though economi cal l y tempti ng,

a common
exhaust system for multiple installations is not
acceptable. Combi ned exhaust systems wi th
boi l ers or other engi nes al l ow operati ng
engi nes to force exhaust gases i nto engi nes
not operati ng. Water vapor created duri ng
combusti on wi l l condense i n col d engi nes and
qui ckl y causes engi ne damage. Duct val ves
separati ng engi ne exhausts i s al so
di scouraged. Hi gh temperatures warp val ve
seats causi ng l eakage.
Exhaust draft fans have been appl i ed
successful l y i n combi ned exhaust ducts, but
most operate onl y whenever exhaust i s
present. To prevent turbocharger wi ndmi l l i ng
(wi thout l ubri cati on), the fans shoul d not be
operabl e when the engi ne i s shut down. The
exhaust system of non-runni ng engi nes must
be cl osed and vented.
Exhaust Backpressure
Excessi ve exhaust restri cti ons can cause
performance l osses, parti cul arl y i n fuel
consumpti on and exhaust temperature.
Pressure drop across the exhaust system
shoul d not exceed 6.7 kPa (27 i n. H
2
O) of
water for most Caterpi l l ar engi nes. 3600
Di esel Natural l y Aspi rated (NA) Gas Engi nes
performances wi l l be adversel y affected above
2.5 kPa (10 i n. H
2
O). Exceedi ng thi s l i mi t on
3600 Engi nes wi l l i ncrease fuel consumpti on
approxi matel y 0.8% per each 2.5 kPa
(10 i n. H
2
O) of backpressure above the l i mi t.
Engi nes burni ng heavy fuel have an absol ute
backpressure l i mi tati on of 2.5 kPa
(10 i n. H
2
O) to avoi d excessi ve exhaust val ve
temperatures.
Pressure drop i ncl udes l osses due to pi pi ng,
muffl er, and rai n cap, and i s measured i n a
strai ght l ength of pi pe 3 to 5 di ameters from
the l ast transi ti on change after the
turbocharger outl et.
Calculating Exhaust Backpressure
These formul ae al l ow the exhaust system
desi gner to cal cul ate a pi pe di ameter whi ch,
when fabri cated i nto an exhaust system, wi l l
gi ve exhaust backpressure l ess than the
appropri ate l i mi t.
Long Sweep Elbow
Flexible Pipe
Connection
A
A
View A-A
Muffler
Piping Pitched Slightly
To Encourage Condensation
Away From Engine
Drain
Vibration
Isolators
Thimble
Figure 32
33
Cal cul ate the pi pe di ameter accordi ng to the
formul a, then choose the next l arger
commerci al l y avai l abl e pi pe si ze.
Backpressure l i mi ts of the exhaust system
i ncl udes l osses due to pi pi ng, muffl er, and
rai n cap.
Calculate backpressure by:
P (kPa) =
L

x S x Q
2
x 3.6 x 10
6
+ P
s
D5
P (i n. H
2
O) =
L x S x Q
2
+ P
s
187 x D5
P = Backpressure (kPa), (i n. H
2
O)
Ps = pressure drop of si l encer and rai n cap
psi = 0.0361 x i n. water col umn
kPa = 6.3246 x mm water col umn
L = Total Equi val ent Length of pi pe (m) (ft)
Q = Exhaust gas fl ow (m
3
/mi n), (cfm)
D = I nsi de di ameter of pi pe (mm), (i n.)
S = Densi ty of gas (kg/m
3
), (l b/ft
3
)
S (kg/m
3
) =
352.5
Stack Gas Temperature
+ 273C
S (l b/ft
3
) =
39.6
Stack Gas Temperature
+ 460F
To obtai n equi val ent l ength of strai ght pi pe
for vari ous el bows:
L =
33D
Standard El bow (Radi us of el bow equal s pi pe di ameter)
X
L =
20D
Long El bow (Radi us > 1.5 Di ameter)
X
L =
15D
45 El bow
X
L =
66D
Square El bow
X
Where X = 1000 mm or 12 i n.
As can be seen, i f 90 bends are requi red, a
radi us of two ti mes the pi pe di ameter hel ps to
l ower resi stance.
Restri cti ons i mposed by muffl ers rel ate to
exhaust fl ow vel oci ti es. Fi gure 34 i s appl i cabl e
for muffl ers.
V =
Q
A
V = Vel oci ty of Exhaust Gas (ft/mi n)
Q = Exhaust Gas Fl ow (CFM)
A = Area of Muffl er (Fi gure 33)
Figure 33
Area (ft
2
) Size (in.)
0.00546 1
0.0123 1 1/2
0.0218 2
0.0341 1 1/2
0.0491 3
0.0668 3 1/2
0.0872 4
0.136 5
0.196 6
0.349 8
0.545 10
0.785 12
1.07 14
1.39 16
1.77 18
2.18 20
2.64 22
3.14 24
3.68 26
4.28 28
4.91 30
7
0


F
5
0
0


F
8
0
0


F
1
0
0
0


F
1
2
0
0


F
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
25
20
15
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
1
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
7
0
0
0
8
0
0
0
9
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
S
i
l
e
n
c
e
r

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

D
r
o
p
,

i
n
.

H


O
2
Velocity
Figure 34
Flexible Connections
The exhaust pi pes are i sol ated from the
engi ne wi th fl exi bl e connecti ons. I nstal l the
fl exi bl e connecti ons cl ose to the engi ne
exhaust outl et. A fl exi bl e exhaust connecti on
has three pri mary functi ons:
To i sol ate the wei ght of the exhaust pi pi ng
from the engi ne.
To rel i eve exhaust components of excessi ve
vi brati onal fati gue stresses.
Al l ow rel ati ve shi fti ng of exhaust
components. Thi s may resul t from
expansi on and contracti on due to
temperature changes, by creep processes
that take pl ace throughout the l i fe
of any structure, or torque reacti ons when
the generator set mounts on spri ng type
i sol ators.
Pre-stretch the exhaust bel l ows duri ng
i nstal l ati on to al l ow for thermal growth. Four
small straps can be tack-welded between the
two end flanges to hold the engine exhaust
bellows in a rigid position during exhaust
piping installation. Thi s wi l l prevent the
bel l ows from bei ng i nstal l ed i n a fl exed
condi ti on. Attach a warni ng tag to the bel l ows
noti ng that the wel d straps must be removed
pri or to starti ng the engi ne.
The i nstal l ati on l i mi tati ons of the Caterpi l l ar
suppl i ed fl exi bl e exhaust bel l ows are shown
on Fi gure 35.
For maxi mum durabi l i ty, al l ow the bel l ows to
operate as cl ose as possi bl e to i ts free state.
Careful consideration must be given to the
loading external piping may induce on the
turbocharger.
34
Installation Limitations of Bellows-Type Flexible Exhaust Fittings
A B C
Bellows Maximum Offset Maximum Compression Maximum Extension
Diameter Between Flanges from Free Length from Free Length
mm in. mm in. mm in.
8 & 12 in. 19.05 0.75 38.1 1.50 25.40 1.00
14 in. 19.05 0.75 76.2 3.00 25.40 1.00
18 in. 22.86 0.90 76.2 3.00 44.45 1.75
Installation Limitations of Flexible Metal Hose-Type Exhaust Fittings
A B C
Hose Maximum Offset Maximum Compression Maximum Extension
Diameter Between Flanges from Free Length from Free Length
mm in. mm in. mm in.
4 & 5 in. 25.4 1.0 6.25 .25 6.25 2.5
6 in. 38.1 1.5 6.25 .25 6.25 2.5
Flanges Must Be
Parallel
Free Length
L
A
B OR C
Diameter
Figure 35
Spring Rate for
Bellows-Type Flexible Fittings
Spring Rate
Diameter kN/m lb/in.
8 in. 29.7 170
12 in. 33.9 194
14 in. 68.5 391
18 in. 19.3 110
35
Thermal growth of exhaust pi pi ng, must be
pl anned to avoi d excessi ve l oad on supporti ng
structures. Steel exhaust pi pe expands
1.13 mm/m/100C (0.0076 i n./ft /100F) ri se i n
exhaust temperature. A temperature ri se
from 35C to 510C (100F to 950F) wi l l
cause 16.mm (0.65 i n.) growth i n
3.05 m (10 ft.) l ength of pi pe.
Secti on l ong pi pe runs wi th expansi on joi nts.
Each secti on i s fi xed at one end and al l owed to
expand at the other. Supports are l ocated to
al l ow expansi on away from engi ne, avoi d
strai ns or di storti ons to connected equi pment,
and to al l ow equi pment removal wi thout
addi ti onal support. A restrai nt member i s
often used to keep the ends of a l ong pi pe run
fi xed i n pl ace, forci ng al l thermal growth
towards the expansi on joi nts, see Fi gure 36.
Fl exi bl e pi pe connecti ons, when i nsul ated,
must expand and contract freel y wi thi n the
i nsul ati on. Thi s general l y requi res a soft
materi al or i nsul ated sl eeve to encase the
connecti on.
Piping connected to generator sets requires
isolation, particularly when the sets are
mounted on spring isolators. These pi pes
coul d otherwi se transmi t vi brati ons l ong
di stances. I sol ator pi pe hangers, i f used,
shoul d have spri ngs to attenuate l ow
frequenci es, and rubber or cork to mi ni mi ze
hi gh frequency transmi ssi ons. To prevent
bui l d up of resonant pi pe vi brati ons, support
l ong pi pi ng runs at unequal di stances, see
Fi gure 37.
Drain
Long
Sweep
Elbow
Flexible
Pipe
Connection
Slight Pitch Away
from Engine
Rigid
Pipe
Support
Flexible
Pipe
Connection
Vertical
Pipe
Support
Thimble
with Spray Shield
Rigid
Pipe
Support
Long
Sweep
Elbow
Flexible Pipe Connection
Engine Exhaust Outlet
Roller Pipe Support
Figure 36
A A A A
A B C B
A B C D . . .etc.
= = = / / /
Good
Poor
Figure 37
Cleanliness
I nstall an identifiable blanking plate to
prevent debris from falling into the
turbocharger during installation. The
Caterpi l l ar shi ppi ng cover can be used for thi s
purpose. I nstal l i t di rectl y on top of the
turbi ne housi ng. Attach a warni ng tag to the
pl ate i ndi cati ng i t must be removed pri or to
starti ng the engi ne.
Exhaust heat must be di scharged wi thout
causi ng di scomfort to personnel or hazards to
bui l di ngs or equi pment. Locate exhaust
di scharge away from venti l ati ng ai r i ntakes
to prevent reentry of offensi ve fumes and
odors. Di recti ng exhaust emi ssi ons i n front
of a radi ator bl ower fan i s acceptabl e; but
avoi d premature cl oggi ng of the radi ator
core by preventi ng exhaust passi ng through
the radi ator.
Emissions
Speci al engi ne confi gurati ons al l ow operati on
wi th l ower exhaust emi ssi ons. Gaseous
exhaust emi ssi ons of di esel engi nes are the
l owest of modern i nternal combusti on
engi nes. Engi ne emi ssi ons are measured
usi ng a Hori ba or Beckman gas anal yzer, wi th
equi pment and data measurement techni ques
conformi ng toU.S. Code of Federal
Regul ati ons, Ti tl e 40, Part 53 or 86.
Caterpi l l ar Engi nes at rated l oad wi l l not
exceed:
DeNOx Catalyst System
NOx reducti on i s a pri mary goal to di scourage
exhaust emi ssi ons combi ni ng wi th
atmospheri c el ements to form smog. The
Caterpi l l ar DeNOx catal yst system i s a
computer-control l ed devi ce usi ng ethanol
i njecti on i n combi nati on wi th a propri etary
catal yst to reduce oxi des of ni trogen (NOx)
emi ssi ons from di esel engi nes. No ammoni a
addi ti ves are requi red. Engi ne confi gurati on
and aftercool er water temperature affect
engi ne exhaust emi ssi ons, but the DeNOx
system reduces these fi nal NOx emi ssi ons by
80% of the i nput l evel s. The system i s
desi gned for use wi th l ow sul fur fuel s wi th a
maxi mum sul fur content of 0.05%. Hi gher
l evel s di mi ni sh the catal ysts performance,
and may cause permanent harm.
The converter i s compri sed of a NOx catal yst
and an oxi dati on catal yst. A l i qui d
hydrocarbon, ethanol i s i njected i nto an
oxygen ri ch exhaust envi ronment. The NOx
beds reduce the NOx 80%, to beni gn N2 and
H
2
O el ements, whi l e the oxi dati on catal yst
reacts wi th HC and CO. The reduci ng agent i s
a fuel grade ethanol meeti ng ASTM-D 4806
speci fi cati ons, commonl y contai ni ng 95%
ethanol , 5% denaturants (typi cal l y unl eaded
gasol i ne) and corrosi on i nhi bi tors.
The storage tank i s si zed accordi ng to typi cal
operati ng condi ti ons and amount of NOx
reducti on requi red. The maxi mum
ethanol /NOx (grams) rati o i s 2, and ethanol
wei ghs 0.789 kg/L (6.6 l b/U.S. gal ). An
approxi mate gui de i s to si ze the tank for 5% of
di esel fuel consumed.
Emission Diesel Natural Gas
(g/bhp-h) (g/bhp-h)
NA TA Catalytic Low
Converter Emission
Nitrogen Oxide
(NOx) 12.0 15.0 19.0 1.2 2.0
Carbon Monoxide
(CO) 3.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 1.7
Hydrocarbons
(NMHC) 0.4 1.5 1.5 0.5 0.35
36

Ventilation

Si x to ten percent of fuel consumed by a di esel
engi ne i s l ost as heat radi ated to the
surroundi ng ai r. I n addi ti on, heat from
generator i neffi ci enci es and exhaust pi pi ng
can easi l y equal engi ne radi ated heat. The
resul ti ng el evated temperatures i n the engi ne
room adversel y affect mai ntenance personnel ,
swi tchgear, and generator set performance.
I nstal l ati ons uti l i zi ng remote or engi ne
mounted radi ators may provi de suffi ci ent ai r
fl ow for venti l ati on, but venti l ati on ai r fl ow
requi rements must be compared to radi ator
fan capabi l i ti es.
I deal l y, cl ean, cool , dry ai r ci rcul ates around
the swi tchgear, fl ows through the rear of the
generator, across the engi ne and di scharges
through the radi ator, see Fi gure 38. Cool ai r
shoul d al ways be avai l abl e for the engi ne ai r
cl eaner.
Locate room ai r i ntakes to provi de maxi mum
cool i ng ai r to the generator set, yet avoi d
hot, stagnant ai r i n other areas. Mul ti pl e
generator sets necessi tate addi ti onal openi ngs
and fans.
Uni ts not usi ng radi ators requi re a forced ai r
draft. Openi ngs for i ntake ai r shoul d be l ow,
near the rear of the engi ne. Outl ets are
posi ti oned hi gh on the opposi te wal l .
Ai r curtai ns, total l y envel opi ng the generator
set, provi de venti l ati on wi thout exposi ng the
equi pment room to hi gh ai r vel oci ti es, see
Fi gure 39. Radi ated heat i s removed wi th
approxi matel y hal f the ai r fl ow descri bed i n
Fi gure 38.
A 7 to 10C (15 to 20F) temperature ri se (T)
i s a reasonable target for engine rooms.
However, in cold climates this may cause
discomfort from the flow of cold air. Restrict
flow only if engine combustion air is available
and engine jacket water is adequately cooled.
Fi ri ng pressure forces sl i ght amounts of
combusti on gases past pi ston ri ngs i nto the
crankcase. Resul ti ng crankcase pressure i s
rel i eved to mai ntai n oi l control and seal l i fe.
Engi nes have crankcase breathers
exhausti ng fumes at the rate of 0.028-
0.042 m
3
(1-1.5 ft
3
)/hp-hr. Pi pe the breather
outl et to an outdoor vent and empl oy a dri pl eg
to col l ect condensati on. Fumes are thus
prevented from col l ecti ng i n the equi pment
room, cl oggi ng engi ne i ntake ai r fi l ters and
radi ator cores. Low operati ng hours of
standby appl i cati ons demand l i ttl e of ai r
fi l ters, so fumes can di scharge i mmedi atel y i n
front of the fi l ter. Al though shorteni ng servi ce
peri ods, the fi l ter removes crankcase fumes
from the engi ne room wi thout addi ti onal
pi pi ng and vents.
Each engi nes fumes di sposal shoul d have
separate di scharge pi pes. Avoi d l ow pl aces
al l owi ng condensati on to col l ect and bl ock the
fumes passage. Al l owabl e crankcase pressure
at ful l l oad i s pl us 0.25 kPa (1 i n. H
2
O).
37

Figure 38
Figure 39
I n unusual l y l ong runs of pi pe, as i n
bel ow-ground i nstal l ati ons, or i f forced to
combi ne mul ti pl e engi ne breathers, i ncrease
pi pe si ze to reduce backpressure. Excessi ve
restri cti ons may necessi tate i nstal l i ng a
sucti on devi ce i n the l i ne to ai d venti l ati on.
Fl exi bl e oi l and chemi cal resi stant tubi ng i s
connected (i n a nonai rti ght manner) to the
di sposal tube so crankcase vacuum i s l ess
than 0.06 kPa (0.25 i n. H
2
O).
I ntake and exhaust venti l ators may have
movabl e or fi xed l ouvers for weather
protecti on. I f movabl e, actuate by pneumati c
el ectri c, or hydraul i c motors. Never depend on
ai r pressure devel oped by the radi ator fan to
move the vanes.
I n col d cl i mates, movabl e l ouvers can be
arranged to provi de ci rcul ati on i nsi de the
room unti l jacket water temperatures reach
88C (190F).
At that ti me, the radi ator must be furni shed
wi th suffi ci ent cool i ng ai r. Use a number of
smal l venti l ati ng fans rather than a si ngl e
l arge uni t. Sel ecti ve fan operati on
compensates for varyi ng ambi ent
temperatures whi l e mai ntai ni ng engi ne room
temperatures.
I ncrease ai r fl ow 10% for every 765 m
(2500 ft) above sea l evel . Fi nal venti l ati on
cal cul ati ons must use preci se heat radi ati on of
sel ected engi ne, generator, and power output.
Whi l e engi ne room temperatures must be
control l ed, ai r vel oci ti es affect worker comfort.
Typi cal ai r moti on condi ti ons i ncl ude:
38
Figure 40
Air Velocity
m/min (fpm) Conditions

15.2 50 Offices, seated worker
30.5 100 Factory, standing worker
45.7 150 Capture velocity, light dust
396.0 1300 Capture velocity, rain
61.0 200 Maximum continuous
exposure
306.0 12000 Maximum intermittent
610.0 exposure

39

Cooling
As wi th al l i nternal combusti on engi nes,
Caterpi l l ar Engi nes produce heat as a by-
product of combusti on. As a general rul e, 20%
to 40% of the energy i nput i nto an engi ne
must be removed by the cool i ng system. The
three basi c systems used to reject thi s heat
are the aftercool er, oi l cool er, fuel cool er, and
jacket water ci rcui ts. Each of these systems
has speci fi c requi rements that must be met to
provi de a wel l desi gned cool i ng system.
Engine Considerations

Heat Rejection
Before a cool i ng system i s desi gned, the
desi gner must understand how much heat i s
bei ng rejected through each of the cool i ng
ci rcui ts. The fol l owi ng gui de wi l l hel p
i nterpret and appl y the heat rejecti on data.
Heat bal ance: The heat i nput i nto the engi ne
equal s the sum of the heat and work outputs.
Formul a: Total Heat I nput = Work Output +
Total Exhaust Heat + Radi ati on + Jacket
Water + Oi l Cool er + Aftercool er.
Total heat i nput can be cal cul ated by
mul ti pl yi ng the BSFC (Btu/hp/hr) and the
horsepower output to obtai n Btu/hr. To
obtai n Btu/mi n, di vi de by 60 mi n/hr.
Work output i s the total horsepower
devel oped. I t i s expressed i n Btu/mi n where
one horsepower = 42.4 Btu/mi n.
Total exhaust heat i s the total heat avai l abl e
i n the exhaust when i t i s cool ed from the
stack temperature down to standard
condi ti ons of 25C (77F). Val ues shown are
l ow heat val ue and do not i ncl ude the heat
of vapori zati on.
Radi ati on i s the amount of heat l oss from
the engi ne surface i nto the engi ne room or
surroundi ng ambi ent.
Jacket water heat i s the total amount of
heat pi cked up by the engi ne cool i ng system.
The aftercool er and oi l cool er heat rejecti on
i s usual l y i ncl uded i n thi s fi gure unl ess
otherwi se speci fi ed.
Aftercool er heat rejecti on i s gi ven for
standard condi ti ons of 25C (77F) and
150 m (500 ft) al ti tude. Thi s heat rejecti on i s
i ncreased for hi gher ambi ents and hi gher
al ti tudes. A constant aftercool er outl et
temperature i s requi red. As the ai r
temperature to the aftercool er goes up, so
does the heat that must be removed. As the
ai r pressure decreases, the turbocharger
i mparts more energy to the i ncomi ng ai r to
get i t up to the requi red boost pressure.
Fai l ure to properl y account for these factors
coul d cause engi ne shutdown or fai l ure.
Recoverabl e heat i n the exhaust i s not a
separate component of the heat bal ance
equati on, but i s the customary number used
i n heat recovery cal cul ati ons. I t represents
the heat avai l abl e when cool i ng the exhaust
from the stack temperature to 177C
(350F ).
Exhaust gas fl ow i s the fl ow at standard
pressure and exhaust stack temperature.
I n every cal cul ati on usi ng engi ne data, there
i s a tol erance band or a devi ati on from norm.
When usi ng the heat bal ance, use the
fol l owi ng tol erance.
Work Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3%
Heat Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5%
Exhaust Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0%
Exhaust Recoverabl e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10%
Jacket Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10%
Aftercool er . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5%
Fuel (Di esel ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10%
Radi ati on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25%
Temperature Limits
Caterpi l l ar Engi nes are desi gned to operate
wi th a jacket water temperature di fferenti al
of l ess than 8.3C (15F) measured across the
engi ne under ful l l oad. I f not usi ng a factory
suppl i ed package, match the external
resi stance of the cool i ng system wi th the
engi ne jacket water pump to provi de the
correct fl ow necessary to obtai n the desi red
temperature di fferenti al (T).
Fl ow (L/mi n) = Heat Rejecti on (kW)
T (C)

x Densi ty (kg/L x
Spec. Heat (kW-mi n/kg C)
Fl ow (gpm) = Heat Rejecti on (Btu/mi n)
T (F) x Densi ty (l b/gal ) x
Spec. Heat (Btu/l bF)
Pressure Limits
The fol l owi ng combi ned stati c and dynami c
pressure l i mi ts to engi ne components must be
observed or damage to the engi ne or i ts
components may occur.
Aftercool er core 276 kPa (40 psi g)
Engi ne bl ock 276 kPa (40 psi g)
Pump i nl ets 173 kPa (24.7 psi g) maxi mum
stati c head
Engi ne Outl et 196 kPa (28.5 psi g) maxi mum
total head (i .e. stati c and
dynami c head combi ned)
Separate Circuit Aftercooling
Separate ci rcui t aftercool i ng removes the
aftercool er from the jacket water ci rcui t and
provi des aftercool er cool i ng from an
i ndependent source. Whi l e jacket water
temperature to aftercool er approach 88C
(190F), a separate source provi des much
cool er water, al l owi ng the ai r charge
temperature to be further reduced, and
i mprove engi ne performance. SCAC i s
necessary on al l turbocharged gas engi nes and
hi gh temperature jacket water systems used
i n heat recovery appl i cati ons. A cl osed cool i ng
ci rcui t, i .e., heat exchanger or radi ator, i s
preferred to control water qual i ty. I f suppl i ed
from an open system, such as a cool i ng tower,
pond, etc., the aftercool er core and associ ated
pl umbi ng must be noncorrosi ve and cl eanabl e.
Treat cool i ng tower water wi th corrosi on
i nhi bi tors and protect agai nst freezi ng.
Separate ci rcui t aftercool i ng general l y
i mproves operati ng performance of al l
turbocharged engi nes, but gas engi nes must
have a separate cool i ng source. Cool i ng water
temperatures l ess than 54C (130F) i s
requi red to avoi d detonati on of the ai r/fuel
charge.
Spl i t or dual core radi ators wi l l usual l y
provi de 54C (130F) cool ant. Lower water
temperatures or ai r-to-ai r aftercool i ng wi l l
al l ow even greater performance benefi ts.
Dual ci rcui t aftercool i ng i s used to take
advantage of excess cool i ng capabi l i ti es of
si ngl e-core radi ators. Usi ng both jacket water
and auxi l i ary pumps, reserve radi ator cool i ng
can be di rected to the aftercool er when not
needed by the engi ne. Wi th oversi zed
radi ators or duri ng part l oad condi ti ons,
aftercool er water temperature can be reduced
and engi ne performance i mproved.
Cooling System
System Design
Engi ne cool i ng systems must:
Reject heat from the jacket water and
auxi l i ary ci rcui t i f equi pped, at greatest
engi ne l oad, hi ghest ambi ent temperature,
and al ti tude.
Al l ow fi l l i ng wi thout ai r entrapment
(fal se fi l l ).
Provi de suffi ci ent pressure head to prevent
pump cavi tati on.
Vent ai r i ntroduced i nto the system by
fi l l i ng, l eaks, and engi ne combusti on.
Mai ntai n a requi red mi ni mum operati ng
temperature.
Temperature Control
The functi on of the thermostat i s to control
mi ni mum operati ng temperature of the
engi ne. I f mi ni mum operati ng temperature i s
not mai ntai ned, severe mai ntenance probl ems
may resul t. Al l cool i ng systems must have a
method of mai ntai ni ng mi ni mum operati ng
temperature. Many appl i cati ons may requi re
hi gher temperature thermostats to mai ntai n
the desi red mi ni mum operati ng temperature.
Opti onal thermostats are avai l abl e through
parts servi ce for those appl i cati ons. There are
40
Pure 50/50
Water Water-Glycol
Density (kg/L) 0.98 1.03
Density (lb/gal) 8.1 8.6
Specific Heat (kW-min/kg-C) 0.071 0.06
Specific Heat (Btu/lb-F) 1.0 0.85
41
two basi c methods of thermostati c control of
mi ni mum temperature i n cool i ng systems:
i nl et regul ated and outl et regul ated.
I nl et regul ated cool i ng systems are desi gned
to provi de a consi stent temperature to the
i nl et jacket water, aftercool er, and/or oi l cool er,
as i n Fi gure 55a. Thi s i s done by pl aci ng the
sensi ng bul b of the thermostat i n the i nl et
fl ow to the engi ne. The thermostat then
bal ances the bypass fl ow (hot water di rectl y
from the engi ne) wi th the cool water from
some heat exchangi ng devi ce, i .e., radi ator,
heat exchanger, etc.
One potenti al probl em wi th i nl et control l ed
cool i ng systems and a radi ator i s that ful l
pump pressure i s fel t by the radi ator core.
Ful l pump pressure usual l y exceeds the
structural pressure of a sol der tube radi ator.
Therefore, i nl et control l ed systems are not
usual l y used wi th a radi ator.
Outl et regul ated cool i ng systems are desi gned
to provi de a constant outl et temperature from
the engi ne, see Fi gure 44. Thi s i s accompl i shed
by regul ati ng the fl ow between the bypass
ci rcui t and the cool i ng ci rcui t. I f the outl et
temperature becomes too hi gh, more water i s
al l owed to fl ow to the cool i ng system. I f the
water i s too cool , the water i s di rected through
the bypass and i s reci rcul ated to the engi ne
wi thout bei ng cool ed.
Types of Cooling
Radiator
Radi ator cool i ng i s the most common and
rel i abl e method used to cool engi nes. As wi th
al l cool i ng systems, radi ators are usual l y
si zed 15% greater than the engi nes maxi mum
ful l l oad heat rejecti on. Thi s al l ows for
overl oad condi ti ons and system deteri orati on.
Radi ators normal l y have top tanks for fi l l i ng,
expansi on, and deaerati ng of engi ne cool ant.
Extended systems usi ng added cool ant may
requi re enl arged expansi on tanks. Al ti tude
affects radi ator si zi ng. I ncreased ai r fl ow i s
requi red at hi gher al ti tudes to mai ntai n
cool i ng capabi l i ti es equi val ent to sea l evel .
Reduce radi ator performance 1.4C per m
(2.5F per 1000 ft) of el evati on to compensate
for l ower ai r densi ti es.
Radi ator ducti ng must be l arger than the
radi ator core, wi th i nl et ai r ducts 1.5 ti mes
greater than outl et ducts.
When l ouvers are used, i ncrease the duct si ze
25% due to l ouver assembl y restri cti ons. I f
common wi ndow screeni ng i s used, the si ze of
the openi ng may i ncrease 40%.
I f movabl e l ouvers are used, speci fy those
whi ch use mechani cal force. Pneumati c and
el ectri c-actuated l ouvers are sati sfactory. Use
of l ouvers whi ch open from the di scharge
pressure of the radi ator fan are di scouraged.
Rai n, i ce, and snow can render them
i noperati ve wi thi n a short ti me and cause an
unwanted engi ne shutdown due to
overheati ng.
Radiator Fans
Ai r densi ty, fl ow restri cti ons, and speed affect
fan performance, possi bl e l i mi ti ng radi ator
ambi ent temperature capabi l i ti es.
Performance changes are esti mated by the
fol l owi ng rel ati onshi ps.
42
Air Density
Revi sed Stati c Pressure =
Ori gi nal Stati c Pressure x
Revi sed Ai r Densi ty
Ori gi nal Ai r Densi ty
Revi sed Fan Horsepower =
Ori gi nal Fan Horsepower x
Revi sed Ai r Densi ty
Ori gi nal Ai r Densi ty
Speed
Revi sed Ai r Fl ow =
Ori gi nal Ai r Fl ow x
Revi sed Fan Speed
Ori gi nal Fan Speed
Revi sed Stati c Pressure =
Ori gi nal Stati c Pressure x
Revi sed Fan Speed
2
Ori gi nal Fan Speed
Revi sed Fan Horsepower =
Ori gi nal Fan Horsepower x
Revi sed Fan Speed
3
Ori gi nal Fan Speed
Temperature
Revi sed Cool ant Temp =
Ori gi nal Cool ant Temp x
Ori gi nal Ai r Fl ow
0.7
Revi sed Ai r Fl ow
Revi sed Cool ant Temp. =
Ori gi nal Cool ant Temp. x
Ori gi nal Fan Speed
0.7
Revi sed Fan Speed
Radi ator Ambi ent Capabi l i ty =
99 C Revi sed
Cool ant Temp.
Radi ator Ambi ent Capabi l i ty =
210F
Cool ant Temp.
Where:
Cool ant Temperature = Cool ant top tank
temp. 99C (210F) mi nus ai r temp. to
radi ator.
When sel ecti ng radi ator l ocati on, consi der fan
noi se. Noi se transmi ts through the ai r i nl et as
wel l as outl et. Soft fl exi bl e joi nts between
radi ator and duct wi l l prevent vi brati on and
noi se transmi ssi on. Posi ti on the radi ator so
prevai l i ng wi nds do not act agai nst the fan.
One form of wi nd protecti on for radi ators i s a
baffl e set several feet from the exhaust.
Another method i s to i nstal l an ai r duct
outsi de the wal l di recti ng the ai r outl et
(or i nl et) verti cal l y. Large radi us bends and
turni ng vanes prevent turbul ence and ai r fl ow
restri cti on. For basement i nstal l ati ons, pi ts
can be constructed for both ai r i ntakes and
outl ets wi th outl ets to the outsi de ai r.
When an engi ne-mounted radi ator i s used
and the generator set i s i nstal l ed i n a room, a
bl ower fan can be used and a radi ator duct
provi ded to the outsi de. Ducts di recti ng
radi ator ai r to the outsi de prevent
reci rcul ati on and hi gh equi pment room
temperatures, see Fi gure 41. Some generator
set packages have, as standard, radi ator duct
fl anges for i nstal l ati on ease. The duct l ength
i s short and di rect to mi ni mi ze back-pressure,
wi th total i nl et and outl et restri cti on on the
radi ator fan l ess than 635 mm (0.25 i n.) of
water.
Ensure the hot radi ator di scharge does not
reci rcul ate to i ts i nl et or the i nl et of another
radi ator, as i n Fi gures 42a and 42b. Radi ators
must be arranged so engi ne exhaust gases
and/or crankcase venti l ati on gase are not
drawn i nto the ai r i nl et of the radi ator, see
Fi gure 42c.
Encl osures trap radi ated heat and di rect i t
through the radi ator decreasi ng cool i ng
capaci ti es 8 to 10C (15 to 18F). Even wi th
doors open, radi ators can derate 6C (10F).
(
(
(
( )
)
)
)
)
(
Figure 41
Heat Exchanger
A heat exchanger i s someti mes preferred to
cool the engi ne when venti l ati on ai r i s l i mi ted,
or when excessi ve stati c head on the engi ne
must be avoi ded.
The most common type of heat exchanger i s
the shel l and tube type. I nsi de the exchanger,
the engi ne cool ant i s cool ed by the transfer of
heat to some other l i qui d at a l ower
temperature. Heat exchangers are si ngl e- or
mul ti pl e-pass type. Thi s refers to the fl ow i n
the raw water ci rcui t of the exchanger. I n the
two-pass exchanger, water fl ows twi ce
through the exchanger; si ngl e-pass types use
raw water once. Raw water i n si ngl e-pass
exchangers fl ows through the exchanger
opposi te cool ant fl ow to provi de maxi mum
di fferenti al temperature and heat transfer. I n
two-pass exchangers, rel ati ve di recti on fl ow i s
uni mportant.
Si ze the heat exchanger to accommodate a
heat rejecti on rate approxi matel y 10% greater
than the engi nes heat rejecti on. The
addi ti onal 10% wi l l compensate for possi bl e
vari ati ons from publ i shed or cal cul ated heat
rejecti on rates and engi ne overl oad. Di fferent
cool i ng medi ums have varyi ng heat transfer
capabi l i ti es, and tend to foul or reduce heat
transfer. A foul i ng factor i s assumed duri ng
equi pment si zi ng, whi ch affects the heat
transfer of a heat exchanger by the fol l owi ng
formul a:
FF =
1

1
U cool ant U cl ean core
Where:
FF = Foul i ng factor, Btu/h ft
2
F
U cool ant = Heat Transfer Coeffi ci ent of
core wi th cool ant, Btu/h ft
2
F
U cl ean core = Heat Transfer Coeffi ci ent of
cl ean core, Btu/h ft
2
F
Factors for common types of water can be
found i n the fol l owi ng tabl e.
43
Figure 42
Estimated Air to Core Rise
Blower Suction
Fan Fan
Engine-only, outside or
in a large engine room 3C (5.4F) None
Engine/gen, outside or
in a large engine room 4C (7.2F) Not
recommended
with generator
Engine/gen, in enclosure
with external muffler 7C (12.6F)
Engine, gen, in enclosure
with internal muffler 9C (16.2F)
Fouling Factor Chart for Water
Temperature of Engine Coolant up to 116C (240F)
Temperature of Water 52C (125F) or Less
Water Velocity
3 ft/sec Over
Types of Water or Less 3 ft/sec
Sea Water 0.0005 0.0005
Brackish Water 0.002 0.001
Cooling Tower and
Artificial Spray Pond:
Treated Mackup 0.001 0.001
Untreated 0.003 0.003
City or Well Water
(such as Great Lakes) 0.001 0.001
River Water 0.003 0.002
Hard (over 15 grains/gal) 0.003 0.003
Engine Jacket 0.001 0.001
Treated Boiler Feedwater 0.001 0.0005
Radiator Recirculation
44
Si nce heat exchanger tubes can be cl eaned
more easi l y than the surroundi ng jacket, the
raw water shoul d be passed through the tubes
and the engi ne cool i ng water through the
jacket or shel l .
I f sol enoi d val ves are i nstal l ed to control
cool i ng water, posi ti on them upstream of the
heat exchanger. The drai n for the exchanger
i s al ways open; and the heat exchanger i s
rel i eved of pressure when i noperati ve. I f
sol enoi d val ves were i nstal l ed on both si des,
raw water coul d be trapped i n the tubes i f the
sol enoi ds fai l to open. Water trapped duri ng
engi ne operati on expands and coul d rupture
the exchanger. Al l sol enoi d val ves shoul d
i ncl ude manual bypasses.
Do not add temperature regul ators i n raw
water suppl i es. Engi ne jacket water i s
control l ed by a thermostat. Addi ti onal
control s add expense, cause restri cti on, and
decrease rel i abi l i ty.
Expansion Tanks
An expansi on tank must meet the fol l owi ng
functi ons:
The tank must be the hi ghest poi nt i n the
system and must be connected to mai ntai n a
posi ti ve head on the water pump.
The si ze of the expansi on tank shoul d be at
l east 15% of the total system water vol ume.
Thi s provi des for expansi on pl us reserve.
Dependi ng on l ocati on, the tank must be
vented to the atmosphere or i ncorporate a
pressure cap to assure system pressure and
prevent boi l i ng of the cool ant.
The tank must provi de deaerati on and i s
usual l y the means of fi l l i ng a system.
Factory desi gned tanks are normal l y speci fi ed
to assure proper performance of the total
system.
Attachment engi ne-mounted radi ators and
most aftermarket-suppl i ed mounted radi ators
have the expansi on tank functi ons l i sted
above as an i ntegral part of the top tank
desi gn.
Figure 43
45
Engi ne-mounted expansi on tanks are
avai l abl e as an attachment and have the
fol l owi ng recommendati ons and gui del i nes.
The maxi mum pressure capabi l i ty i s 96 kPa
(14 psi ). The maxi mum pressure l i mi tati on
wi l l prohi bi t the attachment expansi on tank
from many hi gh temperature appl i cati ons.
The expansi on tank must be the hi ghest
poi nt i n the system. I f the attachment
expansi on tank i s not the hi ghest poi nt of
the system, an auxi l i ary expansi on tank wi l l
be requi red. The addi ti onal added stati c
head provi ded by the auxi l i ary expansi on
tank may rai se the system pressure above
the l i mi t for the attachment expansi on tank.
The auxi l i ary expansi on tank i s added cost
and may make the attachment expansi on
tank redundant. Those i nstal l ati ons may be
more successful l y desi gned wi th a remote
expansi on tank i nstead of the attachment
expansi on tank.
Attachment expansi on tanks have suffi ci ent
vol ume for a speci fi c total system vol ume.
Appl i cati on on l arger total systems wi l l
resul t i n cool ant l oss duri ng operati on from
the overfl ow and a l ow cool ant shutdown on
a subsequent restart.
Heat Recovery
Reci procati ng engi nes convert about 30-37%
of thei r i nput fuel energy i nto mechani cal
power. Another 20-40% i s rejected to the
jacket water, 30-40% to exhaust, and 5% to
the envi ronment.
The heat rejected by the jacket water can be
total l y recovered and 50-70% of the exhaust
energy i s economi cal l y recoverabl e. Total heat
recovery resul ts i n approxi matel y 80%
effi ci ency.
Heat recovery desi gn best sui ted for any
i nstal l ati on depends on many consi derati ons,
both techni cal and economi c. The chi ef
functi on of any desi gn i s to cool the engi ne.
The engi ne must be cool ed even when heat
demand i s l ow, but power i s sti l l requi red.
Heat recovery methods are grouped i nto
standard temperature up to 99C (210F)
outl et temperature and hi gh temperature
up to 126.7C (260F) outl et temperature
appl i cati ons. Hi gh temperature systems are
further di vi ded i nto sol i d water, water and
steam, and ebul l i ent steam systems.
All Engine Models
Return
Engine Driven
J.W. Pump
Bypass
Line
Outlet
Engine
Thermostat
R
a
d
i
a
t
o
r
C
B
Piping
AB: Cold Flow
AC: Full External Flow
Part of Engine
Figure 44
Radiator Cooling- Controlled Outlet Thermostats
46
Standard Temperature Heat Recovery
Heat recovery of a standard engi ne may
amount to nothi ng more than uti l i zi ng heat
transferred from the engi ne radi ator. Thi s ai r
i s usual l y 38-65C (100-150F). The recovered
heat i s qui te sui tabl e for preheati ng boi l er
combusti on ai r, space heati ng, or dryi ng grai n,
and l umber. The system cost i s mi ni mal and
overal l effi ci ency wi l l i ncrease to
approxi matel y 60%.
A more versati l e method of recoveri ng heat
from a standard temperature system uses a
shel l and tube heat exchanger to transfer
rejected engi ne heat to a secondary ci rcui t,
usual l y process water. The recommended
system i s i l l ustrated i n Fi gure 45. There are
many advantages i nherent wi th thi s desi gn;
the standard engi ne jacket water pump,
thermostati c confi gurati on, and water bypass
l i ne are retai ned. The engi ne system i s
i ndependent from the l oad process l oop, whi ch
al l ows operati on wi th anti freeze and cool ant
condi ti oner. Thi s al l evi ates concern for
probl ems associ ated wi th usi ng process water
to cool the engi ne.
When normal process l oad i s i nsuffi ci ent to
absorb enough heat, l oad bal anci ng
thermostati c val ve l i mi ts jacket water i nl et
temperature by di recti ng cool ant through a
secondary cool i ng source (l oad bal anci ng heat
exchanger).

Note:

The load balancing heat exchanger
must be incorporated in the engine loop, not
the load loop. The load balancing condenser
may be either a heat exchanger or radiator.
Heat Transfer through the load balancer is
usually cyclical. I f a radiator is used, it must
be designed to withstand thermal shocks
developed from cyclic loading.
An exhaust heat recovery devi ce may be
i ncl uded i n the system i n seri es, paral l el , or as
a separate water or steam ci rcui t. Consul t the
manufacturer for desi gn detai l s for the uni t i n
questi on. Fi gure 46 shows a muffl er i ncl uded
i n seri es wi th the engi ne system. Note the
engi ne l oop i s sti l l separate from the l oad
l oop. The engi ne expansi on tank may be
uti l i zed. General l y, boi l er water i s used as a
medi um i n the l oad l oop. Boi l er water i s
pumped through the jacket water heat
exchanger and exhaust heat recovery devi ce
i n seri es where i t i s heated to the desi red
temperature. As shown, water fl ow through
the expansi on tank provi des deaerati on.
Standard Temperature Water System
1 2 3
Engine
Generator
Exhaust
Heat Recovery
Device
Separate Circuit
Cooling
Load Balancing
Thermostatic Valve
Engine Coolant
Heat Exchanger
To Load
From Load
A/C
To Load
From Load
Engine Mounted
Expansion Tank
Load Balancing
Heat Exchanger
To Remote
Cooling Device
Thermostat
Figure 45
Standard Temperature Water System
47
A thi rd vari ati on on the standard
temperature system i s to i ncorporate the
exhaust heat recovery devi ce i nto the engi ne
cool i ng l oop, Fi gure 47. To ensure cool ant fl ow
through the muffl er, the engi ne thermostats
and the bypass l i ne must be removed and an
external warm-up thermostat i s added. The
added external head of the heat recovery
devi ce may exceed the al l owabl e head
avai l abl e from the engi ne-mounted pump. An
auxi l i ary ci rcul ati on pump may be requi red.
The advantages of thi s system are that the
obtai nabl e process water temperature i s
usual l y hi gher and there are fewer
components. The di sadvantages to thi s system
are the engi ne cool i ng system i s modi fi ed, and
the desi gn of the system becomes more cri ti cal
to successful engi ne operati on.
Cauti on: Any heat recovery system where the
process water circulates in the engine is not
recommended. Experience has shown that, in
most cases, the user cannot economically treat
the quantity of process water to the level
required to avoid maintenance problems with
the engine.
Standard Temperature Water System
With Series Exhaust Heat Recovery
Circulating
Pump
To Load
From Load
1 2 3
Engine
Generator Load Balancing
Heat Exchanger
Load Heat
Exchanger
Load Balancing Thermostatic
Control Valve
Jacket Water
Pump
JW Heat
Exchanger
Engine Mounted
Expansion Tank
To Remote
Cooling Device
A/C A/C A/C
Separate Circuit
Cooling
Pressure Cap &
Vacuum Breaker
Relief Valve
Low Water Level
Shut Down
Expansion Tank
Exhaust
Heat Recovery
Device
Excess Flow
Bypass Valve
Low Water Flow
Shut-Down
Air Vent &Deaeration Line
Figure 46
Standard Temperature Water System
1 2 3
Engine
Generator
Warm-up
Thermostatic
Valve
Exhaust
Heat Recovery
Device
Load Balancing
Thermostatic Valve
Circulating
Pump
Low Water
Flow
Shut-down
Engine Coolant
Heat Exchanger
Load Balancing
Heat Exchanger
Pressure Cap &
Vacuum Breaker
Relief Valve
Low Water
Level
Shut Down Expansion Tank
To Load
From Load
To Remote
Cooling Device
A/C
To Load
From Load
Air Vent &Deaeration Line
Figure 47
Standard Temperature Water System
With Series Exhaust Heat Recovery
Standard Temperature Water System
48
Critical Design Criteria
Standard Temperature Heat Recovery
The purpose of the fol l owi ng di scussi on i s to
cal l attenti on to certai n basi c cri teri a
necessary for proper operati on of a heat
recovery system. I n no way shoul d thi s be
construed as an al l i ncl usi ve l i st. Contact a
consul ti ng engi neer for speci fi c requi rements.
The system must provi de adequate cool ant
fl ow through the engi ne so the engi ne
cool ant temperature di fferenti al (outl et
mi nus i nl et) does not exceed 8.5C (15F).
The expansi on tank must be the hi ghest
poi nt i n both the engi ne and l oad l oop
cool i ng systems.
Use onl y treated water i n the engi ne cool i ng
ci rcui t.
I ncorporate ai r vents to el i mi nate ai r traps
and l ocks.
A l oad bal anci ng thermostati c val ve must be
used to di rect cool ant through a secondary
cool i ng source to l i mi t jacket water i nl et
temperature.
Cool ant must conti nual l y fl ow through the
exhaust heat recovery devi ce when the
engi ne i s operati ng to avoi d thermal shock
on hot muffl er surfaces.
I f the engi ne thermostats are removed, an
external warm-up thermostat i s requi red.
To keep external head wi thi n al l owabl e
l i mi ts for the engi ne mounted pump, l ocate
heat recovery muffl ers and heat exchangers
as near the engi ne as possi bl e. Whi l e stati c
head on the jacket water pump i s l i mi ted to
172 kPa (25 psi ) stati c head greater than
35 kPa (5 psi ) requi res the expansi on tank
to be vented to ai r, i .e., no pressure cap.
High Temperature Heat Recovery Circuits
To ensure proper cool i ng i n al l types of hi gh
temperature systems, the engi ne oi l cool er
and aftercool er requi re a cool i ng water ci rcui t
separate from the engi ne jacket water. A
thermostat i n the oi l system bypasses the oi l
cool er to control l ubri cati ng oi l mi ni mum
temperature and prevent overcool i ng. I f the
cool ant i n the oi l cool er ci rcui t can be bel ow
10C (50F), an external control val ve i s
recommended to al l ow the oi l to reach
operati ng temperature, prevent oi l gel l i ng,
and ensure oi l fl ow through the oi l cool er.
High Temperature Solid Water System
Thi s system functi ons si mi l ar to a standard
temperature water system except el evated
jacket water temperatures 99-126.7C
(210-260F) are used. The standard
thermostat and bypass are removed and
repl aced by an external control . A pressure
cap or stati c head must be provi ded i n the
engi ne cool ant ci rcui t to assure a pressure of
27.6-34.5 kPa (4-5 psi g) above the pressure at
whi ch steam forms. The source of thi s
pressure may be a stati c head i mposed by an
el evated expansi on tank or control l ed ai r
High Temperature Water System
1 2 3
Engine
Generator
Warm-up
Thermostatic
Valve
Exhaust
Heat Recovery
Device
Load Balancing
Thermostatic Valve
Circulating
Pump
Low Water
Flow
Shut-down
Engine Coolant
Heat Exchanger
Load Balancing
Heat Exchanger
Pressure Cap &
Vacuum Breaker
Relief Valve
Low Water
Level
Shut Down Expansion Tank
To Load
From Load
To Remote
Cooling Device
Separate Circuit
Cooling
O/C
A/C
To Load
From Load
Air Vent Line
Figure 48
High Temperature Water System
49
pressure i n the expansi on tank. For 126.7C
(260F) water, the pressure at the engi ne
shoul d be approxi matel y 172 kPa (25 psi g).
Maxi mum system pressure al l owed on the
engi ne water jacket i s 276 kPa (40 psi g). Thi s
i s measured by taki ng the total of ci rcul ati ng
di fferenti al pressure, system pressure, and
stati c head on the system. The standard
jacket water pump i s removed and must be
repl aced by one wi th hi gh temperature and
pressure capabi l i ti es, Fi gure 48.
Critical Design Criteria
High Temperature Solid Water
I ncl udes many of the same requi rements for a
standard temperature system:
The system must provi de adequate cool ant
fl ow through the engi ne so the engi ne
cool ant temperature di fferenti al (outl et
mi nus i nl et) does not exceed 8.5C (15F).
The expansi on tank must be the hi ghest
poi nt i n the cool i ng system.
Proper water treatment i s essenti al for
successful system operati on.
I ncorporate deaerati on ci rcui t and ai r vents
to el i mi nate ai r traps and l ocks.
A l oad bal anci ng thermostati c val ve must be
used to di rect cool ant through a secondary
cool i ng source to l i mi t jacket water outl et
temperature.
Cool ant must conti nual l y fl ow through the
exhaust heat recovery devi ce when the
engi ne i s operati ng to avoi d thermal shock
on hot muffl er surfaces. Thi s may be
accompl i shed usi ng a l ow water fl ow
shutdown devi ce.
A hi gh temperature system requi res a
pressure control for the engi ne cool ant
ci rcui t.
Water pumps must be sui tabl e for use wi th
el evated temperatures and pressures.
The engi ne oi l cool er requi res a cool i ng
ci rcui t separate from the engi ne jacket
water.
An external warm-up thermostat i s
requi red.
The l oad bal anci ng heat exchanger must be
i ncorporated i n the engi ne l oop, not the l oad
l oop. The l oad bal anci ng condenser may be
ei ther a heat exchanger or radi ator. Heat
transfer through the l oad bal ancer i s usual l y
cycl i c. Thus, i f a radi ator i s used, i t must be
desi gned to wi thstand thermal shocks
devel oped from cycl i c l oadi ng.
For mul ti pl e uni ts that share a si ngl e steam
separator, al l ci rcul ati ng pumps must run
when any one engi ne operates. Thi s practi ce
prevents a severe thermal shock i f a uni t i s
started l ater.
Hi gh jacket water temperatures wi l l resul t
i n after-boi l i f there i s a hot shutdown. Add
an addi ti onal 10% of system vol ume to the
normal expansi on tank si zi ng gui del i nes.
High Temperature Water-Steam System
The hi gh temperature water-steam system
provi des sol i d water to cool the engi ne, but
then fl ashes i t to steam to be used for l oads
requi ri ng l ow pressure steam, 96.5 kPa
(14 psi g). A ci rcul ati on pump forces water
through the cyl i nder bl ock to the steam
separator. I n the steam separator, some of the
water fl ashes to steam and the water returns
to the engi ne.
The pressures shown i n Fi gure 49 are
representati ve val ues. The rel i ef val ve
pressure 103 kPa (15 psi g) i s set by boi l er
codes qual i fyi ng l ow pressure steam. Pressure
i n the separator i s control l ed by the pressure
control val ve. Once pressure bui l ds to
96.5 kPa (14 psi g), the control val ve wi l l al l ow
steam to fl ow. The actual steam pressure i n
the l oad l i ne i s a functi on of l oad
requi rements. I f the l oad i s not consumi ng
steam, the pressure i n the steam l i ne wi l l
i ncrease. Once pressure reaches 89.6 kPa
(13 psi g), the excess steam val ve wi l l open to
transfer engi ne heat to the waste cool i ng
devi ce (l oad bal anci ng condenser). The excess
steam val ve must be l ocated downstream
from the pressure control val ve to functi on
properl y.
Critical Design Criteria
High Temperature Water-Steam
There are no el evati on or stati c head
requi rements for the steam separator other
than what sucti on head i s requi red for the
ci rcul ati on pump. Thus, thi s system may be
used i n l ocati ons wi th l i mi ted overhead
cl earance.
Pressure at the engi ne water jacket
pressure must be mai ntai ned between a
mi ni mum 55 kPa (8.0 psi g) to a maxi mum of
197 kPa (28.5 psi g). Maxi mum temperature
at engi ne outl et must not exceed 126.7C
(260F).
A l ow water fl ow shutdown devi ce i s
requi red on hi gh temperature cool i ng
engi nes. Thi s i s accompl i shed by usi ng a
di fferenti al pressure gauge across the
engi ne water jacket. When the water fl ow
rate sl ows or stops the l ack of a pressure
drop across the engi ne bl ock wi l l shutdown
the engi ne. Si nce an el ectri c motor dri ven
pump i s used, i t i s i mportant to i nsure the
pump i s operati ng whi l e the engi ne i s
runni ng. The pump shoul d conti nue runni ng
approxi matel y fi ve mi nutes after the engi ne
i s stopped to cool the engi ne.
Use onl y treated water i n the cool i ng ci rcui t.
Conti nuous water chemi stry moni tori ng
wi th automati c boi l er bl ow-down devi ces are
recommended.
A l ow water l evel shutdown on the steam
separator devi ce i s requi red. A l ow water
l evel pre-al arm i s al so recommended. Low
water l evel coul d cause engi ne overheati ng
and seri ous damage.
The excess steam val ve cannot be i n the
steam separator and must be downstream of
the pressure control val ve.
No warm-up thermostat i s requi red si nce
the pressure control val ve does not al l ow
any heat (steam) to exi t the system unti l the
engi ne has warmed up and the separator
has reached system pressure.
50
Circulating
Pump
Low Water
Level Shut-down
Low Water Flow
Shut-down
15 psig Maximum
Relief Pressure
To Waste
Cooling Device
Pressure Control
Valve
Air
Eliminator
Make-up
Water
13 PSIG
14 psig
Steam
Separator
Condensate Tank
High Temperature Water-Steam System
Load
Balancing
Condenser
To Load
Steam
From Load
Condensate
Water Level
Control
Condensate
Pump
Separate Circuit
Cooling
Engine
Generator
Exhaust
Heat Recovery
Device
1 2 3
To Load
From Load
O/C
A/C
Excess Steam
Valve
Figure 49
High Temperature Water- Stream System
51
Ebullient Cooling
The ebul l i ent system uti l i zes heat of
vapori zati on to remove heat from the engi ne.
Steam i s not col l ected wi thi n the engi ne, but
moves through the water passages al ong wi th
hi gh temperature water by a change i n
cool ant densi ty as i t gai ns heat. Therefore, no
jacket water pump i s used. The water/steam
mi xture fl ows to a steam separator l ocated
above the engi ne. A temperature di fferenti al
between engi ne-water-i n and engi ne-water-
out i s usual l y 1.1-1.7C (2-3F). Correct fl ow
requi res careful desi gn of pi pes and l i nes.
Because of cri ti cal desi gn requi rements,
ebul l i ent systems are l osi ng favor to posi ti ve
fl ow systems whi ch i ncorporate a hi gh
temperature pump that forces steam fl ow
through the engi ne.
Auxiliary Heat Sources
Exhaust
Heat recover muffl ers economi cal l y recover
about hal f the engi ne exhaust heat. Exhaust
exi t temperature above 149C (300F)
di scourage condensati on i n ducti ng.
Recoverabl e heat i s obtai ned from the engi ne
manufacturers but can be esti mated by:
Q = CpM (T
1
-T
2
)
Where:
Q = Recoverabl e Heat (kJ/h)
C
P
= Speci fi c Heat (Btu/l b per F)
Di esel Engi nes 1.081 kJ/kg per C
Gas Engi nes 1.170 kJ/kg per C
T
1
= Exhaust Gas Stack Temperature C
T
2
= Exhaust Gas Exi t Temperature C
M = Exhaust Mass Fl ow (l b/h)
M =
M
3
/mi n x 60 x 353.0
T
1
(C) + 273F
or
Q = CpM (T
1
T
2
)
Where:
Q = Recoverabl e Heat (Btu/h)
C
P
= Speci fi c Heat
Di esel Engi nes 0.258 Btu/l b per F
Gas Engi nes 0.279 Btu/l b per F
T
1
= Exhaust Gas Stack Temperature (F)
T
2
= Exhaust Gas Exi t Temperature (F)
M = Exhaust Mass Fl ow (l b/h)
M =
Exhaust Fl ow (cfm) x 60 x 39.6
T
1
(F) + 460F
Lubricating Oil
When recoveri ng heat from engi nes usi ng
hi gh temperature cool i ng systems, i t may be
worthwhi l e to uti l i ze heat rejected to
l ubri cati ng oi l . Thi s heat can be appl i ed to
prehead boi l er feed water, domesti c hot water,
or other l ow temperature requi rements. Heat
removed by l ubri cati ng oi l from engi nes
operati ng above 104C (220F) i s al ways
rejected to a cool i ng medi um other than the
jacket water. Heat rejecti on to the oi l for
Caterpi l l ar Engi nes i s approxi matel y
7.9 Btu/kWmi n (5.5 Btu/hp-mi n) for gas
engi nes, 12.2 Btu/kWmi n (8.5 Btu/hp-mi n)
for di esel engi nes.
Recovered heat equates to boi l er horsepower
by:
Boi l er hp =
Total Heat Recovered (Btu/h)
33,475
External Considerations
Remote Radiator
Remote systems i mpose added restri cti on on
cool i ng water fl ow by addi ti onal pi pi ng and
fi tti ngs. An auxi l i ary pump i n seri es wi th the
engi ne-mounted pump shoul d not be used to
overcome thi s restri cti on. Gi ve consi derati on
to radi ator desi gn and l arger pi pi ng. When
di stances separate the engi ne from the
radi ator, oversi zed pi pi ng may be requi red to
mi ni mi ze pi pi ng restri cti on.
52
Never l ocate remote-mounted radi ators more
than 17.5 m (57 ft) above the pump. At
greater hei ghts, the stati c head devel oped
may cause l eakage at the engi ne water pump
seal .
The radi ator i nl et tank l oses i ts ai r venti ng
capabi l i ty i f i t i s l ocated bel ow the l evel of the
engi ne regul ator housi ng. When a radi ator
must be mounted l ower than the engi ne, an
expansi on tank must be used, see Fi gure 50.
Do not use radi ator pressure caps. I t shoul d
be removed and the openi ng seal ed.
I f an engi ne-mounted expansi on tank i s used,
the radi ator must be sel ected wi th the i nl et
control l ed gui del i nes; and the core must
wi thstand ful l pump pressure. I f the core i s
verti cal reverse water fl ow through the
radi ator. Thi s ensures ai r i s not trapped i n the
radi ator i nl et tank.
Radi ator desi gn operati on pressure must be
i ncreased by 6.9 kPa (1 psi ) for every 600 mm
(2 ft) the engi ne i s above the radi ator.
Submerged Pipe Cooling
Thi s method i s perhaps the si mpl est to use i f
the engi ne i s stati onary and i s used to pump
water, or i s near a suppl y of rel ati vel y cool
water, preferabl y 29C (85F) or l ess. I n thi s
system, the engi ne cool ant water i s pumped
through coi l s or l engths of pi pe submerged i n
the cool er water. These coi l s can be pl aced i n a
concrete catch basi n or tank pl aced i n a
drai nage di tch. Care must be taken to protect
the coi l s from damage and to i nsure they do
not become buri ed i n mud or si l t. Fi gure 51
shows a typi cal submerged pi pe cool i ng
system.
Engi ne heat rejecti on and the temperature of
the cool i ng medi um must be careful l y
consi dered i n determi ni ng the correct amount
of pi pe to use. As a rul e-of-thumb, .003 m
2
(0.0353 ft
2
) of submerged pi pe surface area i s
requi red for every Btu/mi n of jacket water
heat rejecti on that must be removed. Thi s
rul e-of-thumb i s for raw water temperatures
up to 29C (85F).
Figure 50
53
A tri al -and-error method can be used i f jacket
water temperature i s too hi gh or too l ow. By
addi ng or removi ng pi pe as necessary, the
engi ne cool i ng water temperature can be
opti mi zed.
Pi pe must be kept out of mud and off the
bottom of the tank to i nsure maxi mum cool i ng
effi ci ency.
Connect the system so that jacket water fl ows
from the engi ne, to the cool i ng coi l s, and to
the expansi on tank, before returni ng to the
water pump i nl et.
Cooling Towers
Cool i ng towers are more economi cal than
radi ators when the approach between cool ant
and ai r temperatures i s under 5.5C (10F).
Towers cool water by evaporati on to
temperature wi thi n 2.7C (5F) of ambi ent ai r
wet bul b temperature. Approxi matel y 1% of
water ci rcul ated i s l ost to evaporati on.
When evaporati on occurs, about
252 kcal /0.453 kgm (1000 Btu) of heat
transfers per pound of water l ost. Heat
contai ned i n the water vapor i s the l atent
heat of vapori zati on.
Sel ecti on of cool i ng towers or radi ators
depends on several factors:
Avai l abi l i ty and qual i ty of water.
Water and ambi ent ai r temperatures.
Temperature and pressure of cool ant
temperature.
Fi rst costs and operati ng costs.
Space.
Locate towers so prevai l i ng wi nds are the
same di recti on as tower di scharge ai r.
Suffi ci ent si de cl earance encourages ai r
ci rcul ati on. Mi ni mi ze noi se by posi ti oni ng
away from wi ndows or bui l di ng vents. I ncl ude
water fi l ters i n tower return l i nes to prevent
cl oggi ng of the cool i ng system by tree and bi rd
refuse.
Remote Expansion Tanks
The fol l owi ng di scussi on on expansi on tanks
i s to gui de users i n speci fyi ng and i nstal l i ng
expansi on tanks for custom cool i ng systems
and/or remote radi ators.
Expansion Tank Location
The functi ons of the expansi on tank requi re
that i t be l ocated at the hi ghest poi nt of the
system.
Engine Mounted
Expansion Tank
Flexible Connectors
Galvanized Pipe
Drain Plug
Support Pipe In Water
To Allow Circulation Of
Water Around Pipe
Figure 51
Submerged Pipe Cooling
54
Expansion Tank Volume
The expansi on tank al l ows for thermal
expansi on of the cool ant. I n addi ti on to the
thermal expansi on, there shoul d al so be
vol ume for after-boi l and suffi ci ent reserve to
al l ow operati on wi th smal l l eaks unti l they
can be repai red. For standard temperature
systems, a vol ume of 15% i s suffi ci ent.
Ful l -fl ow expansi on tanks requi re greater
vol ume to perform the deaerati on functi on.
Venting and Filling
The fi l l er cap i s usual l y l ocated on the
expansi on tank. Si ze the l i ne connecti ng the
expansi on tank wi th the pump sucti on to
accept the maxi mum fi l l rate of the system.
The mi ni mum gui del i nes for fi l l i ng rate are
19 L/mi n (5 gal /mi n). Ai r trapped i n hi gh
poi nts of the cool i ng system duri ng i ni ti al fi l l
i s di ffi cul t to purge and requi res venti ng. A
cool i ng system that wi l l not purge i tsel f on
i ni ti al fi l l must have vent l i nes from the
hi ghest poi nts of the system to the expansi on
tank. Li nes must enter the tank bel ow normal
water l evel , have a conti nuous upward sl ope,
and contai n no ai r traps. An adequate vent
l i ne woul d be 6.3 mm (0.25 i n.) tubi ng.
Cauti on: The constant full level in the
expansion tank must be above all piping. Vent
high points of the engine to the expansion tank
to allow the fill rate and prevent a false fill.
The preferred system i s to have al l hi gh
poi nts vented to the expansi on tank. There
are some exampl es where that i s not possi bl e,
especi al l y when modi fyi ng exi sti ng
i nstal l ati ons. Mechani cal vent val ves can be
added to hi gh poi nts to vent ai r and gases
that accumul ate at hi gh poi nts. Vent val ves
requi re servi ci ng. Occasi onal l y they l eak
cool ant or al l ow ai r to enter the system duri ng
shutdown. I n some areas, cool ant may be
consi dered a hazardous l i qui d and cool ant
l eaks shoul d be mi ni mi zed. I n those l ocati ons
an acti ve venti ng system back to the
expansi on tank i s preferred over mechani cal
vent val ves.
55
Deaeration
Ai r can be trapped i n the cool i ng system at
i ni ti al fi l l or enter through combusti on
l eakage duri ng operati on. Thi s ai r and gas
must be vented from the system, or system
deteri orati on and water pump cavi tati on wi l l
resul t.
Entrai ned combusti on gas requi res that
deaerati on capabi l i ti es be bui l t i nto the
system. Deaerati on may be wi th a centri fugal
deaerati on gas separator wi th the gases
vented back to the expansi on tank, see Fi gure
52. I f a centri fugal deaerati on gas separator i s
not used, separati on of gas from a l i qui d
medi um requi res a l ow cool ant vel oci ty of
0.6 m/s (2 fps) wi th a di verted fl ow to the
expansi on tank, where the rel ati vel y stati c
vel oci ty i n the tank al l ows the gases to be
separated. The deaerati on fl ow i s regul ated by
a 10 mm (3/8 i n.) di ameter ori fi ce pl aced i n
the l i ne. Therefore, i n the areas where
deaerati on must take pl ace hol d the water
vel oci ty bel ow thi s l i mi t by i ncreasi ng the
di ameter of the water pi pe, see Fi gure 53. The
deaerati on l i ne i s usual l y connected to the
radi ator i nl et tank; most radi ator i nl et tanks
have suffi ci ent cross-secti onal area to meet
thi s vel oci ty requi rement, see Fi gure 54. Ful l -
fl ow expansi on tanks must be desi gned wi th
suffi ci ent cross-secti onal area to sl ow the
vel oci ty of the water, and have i nternal baffl es
desi gned to separate the gases from the
cool ant.
Figure 52
Deaerator Chamber (Modified)
To System
Expansion Tank
To System
Expansion Tank
To System
Expansion Tank
Water Velocity
Less Than
2 FPS (0.6 m/s)
Figure 53
All Engine Models
Engine
Thermostat
Bypass
Line
Outline
Return
Engine Driven
J.W. Pump
Fill Line
14 psi Cap
Expansion Tank
Deaeration and Vent Line
1/4 in. Diameter Vent Line, if Required
Alternate Connection Location
in Return Line
All Engine Models
Engine
Thermostat
Bypass
Line
Outline
Return
Engine Driven
J.W. Pump
Fill Line
Cap
14 psi
Deaeration and Vent Line
3/8 in. Diameter Minimum
1/4 in. Diameter Vent Line, if Required
Alternate Connection
in Return Line
All Engine Models
Return
Engine Driven
J.W. Pump
Bypass
Line
Outlet
Engine
Thermostat
R
a
d
i
a
t
o
r
14 psi Cap
Expansion Tank
1/4 in. Diameter Vent Line, if Required
Deaeration
and Vent Line
3/8 in. minimum
Fill Line
Connection
Line 1.0 in. min.
Fig 11.19a
Fig 11.19b
Fig 11.19c
Figure 54a
Outlet Controlled With Vertical Radiator Core
All Engine Models
Engine
Thermostat
Bypass
Line
Outline
Return
Engine Driven
J.W. Pump
Fill Line
14 psi Cap
Expansion Tank
Deaeration and Vent Line
1/4 in. Diameter Vent Line, if Required
Alternate Connection Location
in Return Line
All Engine Models
Engine
Thermostat
Bypass
Line
Outline
Return
Engine Driven
J.W. Pump
Fill Line
Cap
14 psi
Deaeration and Vent Line
3/8 in. Diameter Minimum
1/4 in. Diameter Vent Line, if Required
Alternate Connection
in Return Line
All Engine Models
Return
Engine Driven
J.W. Pump
Bypass
Line
Outlet
Engine
Thermostat
R
a
d
i
a
t
o
r
14 psi Cap
Expansion Tank
1/4 in. Diameter Vent Line, if Required
Deaeration
and Vent Line
3/8 in. minimum
Fill Line
Connection
Line 1.0 in. min.
Fig 11.19a
Fig 11.19b
Fig 11.19c
Figure 54c
All Engine Models
Engine
Thermostat
Bypass
Line
Outline
Return
Engine Driven
J.W. Pump
Fill Line
14 psi Cap
Expansion Tank
Deaeration and Vent Line
1/4 in. Diameter Vent Line, if Required
Alternate Connection Location
in Return Line
All Engine Models
Engine
Thermostat
Bypass
Line
Outline
Return
Engine Driven
J.W. Pump
Fill Line
Cap
14 psi
Deaeration and Vent Line
3/8 in. Diameter Minimum
1/4 in. Diameter Vent Line, if Required
Alternate Connection
in Return Line
All Engine Models
Return
Engine Driven
J.W. Pump
Bypass
Line
Outlet
Engine
Thermostat
R
a
d
i
a
t
o
r
14 psi Cap
Expansion Tank
1/4 in. Diameter Vent Line, if Required
Deaeration
and Vent Line
3/8 in. minimum
Fill Line
Connection
Line 1.0 in. min.
Fig 11.19a
Fig 11.19b
Fig 11.19c
Outlet Controlled With Vertical Cross Flow Radiator
Outlet Controlled With Horizontal Radiator
Figure 54b
56
57
Maintaining Pump Suction Head
with the Expansion Tank
An i mportant functi on of the expansi on tank
i s to mai ntai n head on the sucti on of the
ci rcul ati ng pump to prevent cavi tati on. Thi s
functi on i s the l east understood; the method
vari es dependi ng whether the system i s i nl et
regul ated or outl et regul ated.
Inlet Regulated Systems
I nl et regul ated systems have the thermostat
posi ti oned between the cool i ng devi ce and the
sucti on of the ci rcul ati ng pump. The
thermostat provi des a restri cti on on the pump
sucti on and can resul t i n pump cavi tati on. To
prevent the negati ve pressure and pump
cavi tati on, a shunt l i ne i s connected between
the bottom of the expansi on tank and the
pump sucti on, see Fi gure 55B. The hei ght
el evati on of the expansi on tank provi des stati c
head on the pump to rai se the sucti on
pressure and prevent cavi tati on. The shunt
l i ne shoul d be a mi ni mum of 25.4 mm (1.0 i n.)
di ameter. The area must be at l east four ti mes
the combi ned area of the total vent l i nes
connected to the tank. Thi s wi l l mi ni mi ze any
reducti on of the stati c head because of vent
and deaerati on fl ow. For a ful l fl ow or engi ne-
mounted expansi on tank, the tank i s l ocated
i n the sucti on l i ne to the pump and no shunt
l i ne i s needed, see Fi gure 55a.
Outlet Regulated Systems
Outl et regul ated systems di ffer from i nl et
regul ated systems i n the routi ng of the
expansi on tank connecti on. On an outl et
regul ated system, the expansi on tank
connecti on i s cal l ed the fi l l l i ne. Si nce there i s
no thermostat l ocated between the radi ator
outl et tank and the sucti on of the pump, the
fi l l l i ne does not need to be pl umbed back to
the i nl et of the pump. The rel ati ve si zes of the
return l i ne of the radi ator provi des mi ni mum
pressure l oss. Thi s means the expansi on tank
may be connected to ei ther the outl et tank or
anywhere i n the return l i ne to the pump, see
Fi gures 54a,b,c. Do not connect the fi l l l i ne to
the i nl et tank. There wi l l not be suffi ci ent
Return
Engine Driven
J.W. Pump
Engine
Thermostat
Heat Exchanger
Outlet
A
Full Flow
Expansion
Tank C
Figure 55a
Inlet Controlled System with Full or Engine Mounted Expansion Tank
Return
Engine Driven
J.W. Pump
Engine
Thermostat
Heat Exchanger
Shunt
Line
Outlet
Vent, if Required
Deaeration and Vent Line
3/8 in. Diameter
Remote
Expansion
Tank
Figure 55b
Inlet Controlled System with Non-Full Flow Expansion Tank with Deaeration Circuit
head for the deaerati on ci rcui t to functi on
properl y. Al so, there wi l l not be suffi ci ent
head on the pump sucti on and the pump head
may force cool ant to overfl ow the pressure
cap.
Piping Considerations
External Restrictions
Pi pi ng and heat transfer equi pment resi st
cool i ng water fl ow, causi ng an external
pressure head whi ch opposes the engi ne-
dri ven pump. Cool i ng water fl ow i s reduced as
external head i ncreases. Total system
resi stance to fl ow must be l i mi ted to ensure
adequate fl ow. Resi stance to fl ow i s
determi ned by si ze and l ength of pi pe, number
and type of fi tti ngs and val ves used, cool ant
fl ow rate, and l osses contri buted by heat
transfer devi ces. Excessi ve external heads
demand pumps wi th addi ti onal pressure
capaci ty.
The fi rst step i n establ i shi ng the external
head al l owabl e i s to determi ne the fl ow
necessary to provi de adequate cool i ng. See the
secti on on Temperature Limits. After
determi ni ng the requi red cool ant fl ow rate,
pump performance establ i shes maxi mum
al l owabl e external head. By fi ndi ng the
i ntersecti on of the desi red pump fl ow wi th the
appropri ate fl ow curve, the maxi mum
external resi stance can be found. For
exampl e, assume a 3516 Engi ne runni ng at
1200 rpm requi res a 350 gpm fl ow to provi de
cool i ng. The maxi mum external head
al l owabl e woul d be 35 ft of water, Fi gure 57.
Maxi mum external resi stance must not be
exceeded i n the cool i ng ci rcui t added by the
customer i n order to mai ntai n the mi ni mum
water fl ow for proper cool i ng.
When desi gni ng an engi ne cool i ng system,
pressure drop (resi stance) i n the external
cool i ng system can be cal cul ated by total i ng
the pressure drop i n each of the systems
components. Fi gures 58 and 59 can be used to
determi ne pressure drop through pi pe,
fi tti ngs, and val ves. Fi gure 60 esti mates fl ow
vel oci ti es i n tubes and pi pes for a gi ven
vol ume fl ow. The vel oci ti es shoul d remai n
wi thi n the l i mi ts set forth by the secti on on
Line Velocities. Suppl i ers of other components,
such as strai ners and heat transfer
equi pment, can provi de the requi red data on
thei r products.
I t i s al ways necessary to eval uate the desi gn
and i nstal l ati on of cool i ng ci rcui ts. An
i nstal l ati on audi t tests the operati on and
effecti veness of the compl eted system to
ensure proper performance and l i fe.
Maximum Velocity
Water vel oci ty gui del i nes are as fol l ows:
Observi ng these gui del i nes wi l l hel p i nsure
proper operati on of the cool i ng system and
extend i ts l i fe.
58
All Engine Models
Return
Engine Driven
J.W. Pump
Bypass
Line
Outlet
Engine
Thermostat
R
a
d
i
a
t
o
r
C
B
Piping
AB: Cold Flow
AC: Full External Flow
Part of Engine
Figure 56
Radiator Cooling- Controlled Outlet Thermostats
Maximum Velocity
(m/sec) (ft/sec)
Pressurized Lines 4.5 15
Pressurized Thin-Wall Tubes 2.5 8
Suction Lines (Pump Inlet) 1.5 5
Low Velocity Deaeration Line 0.6 2
59
A
B
C
D
E
F
250 300 350 400 450 500 550
gal min
E
x
t
e
r
n
a
l

R
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

m
e
t
e
r

o
f

W
a
t
e
r
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
Exernal Water Flow L/min
f
t

o
f

W
a
t
e
r
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Figure 57
Curve Data
Curve Label A B C D E F
Engine Speed rpm 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800
Pump Speed rpm 2600 2400 2200 2000 1800 160
External Flow External Resistance
L/min meter of water
800 5.8
900 7.4 4.4
1000 9.1 5.8 3.1
1100 11.0 7.3 4.4 1.8
1200 13.1 9.2 5.7 2.8 0.4
1400 13.2 9.0 5.4 2.4
1600 8.8 5.0 1.7
1800 4.4 1.0
1900 2.3
gal/min feet of water
211.4 19.0
237.8 24.3 14.6
269.2 29.9 19.1 10.2
290.6 36.1 24.1 14.3 5.7
317.0 43.0 30.0 18.8 9.2 1.3
364.9 43.2 29.5 17.8 7.8
422.7 28.7 16.4 5.6
475.6 14.5 3.3
Effective Serial No. 3RC00001
Engine equipped with water cooled exhaust
Manifolds or dry exhaust manifolds
JW Aftercooler
2W9729 JWPump
Drive ratio 2.0 to 1
For low speed (1300 rpm and below) ratings
Curves indicate maximum allowable external resistance.
Do not project curves.
Figure 58
Typical Friction Losses of Water in Pipe
(Old Pipe)
(Nominal Pipe Diameter)
60
Figure 59
Resistance of Valves and Fittings To Flow of Fluids
61
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
.5
12
10
8
6
4
2
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28
gpm
127 5.00
114 4.50
102 4.00
fps m/s
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
Velocity vs Flow
Standard Pipe Sizes (1.5 in. 5 in.) 38.1 127 mm
Flow
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
.5
12
10
8
6
4
2
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28
gpm
5.00 127
4.50 114
4.00 102
83
3.25
fps m/s
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
Velocity vs Flow
Tube Sizes 25.4 127 mm (1.5 in. 5 in.) O.D.
(Common Usage Wall Thickness)
Flow
4.75 121
V = Velocity (fps)
Q = Flow (gpm)
A = in (ID)
ID = Inside Diameter
2
V =
.321 Q
A
=
.408 Q
ID
For Other Wall
Thickness
NOM. Tube Size .065 Wall
31.8
1.25
1.00 1.50
38.1
41.5
1.75
2.00
50.5
53.3
2.12
2.25
57
60.05
2.38
2.50
63.5
70
2.75
76.2
3.00
89
3.50
95.3
3.75
25.4
mm
1/s
2
mm38.1 50.863.576.289
3.50 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 in.
Figure 60
Open System Closed System
(not recommended)
Radiator
Cooling Tower Heat Exchanger
(without heat exchanger) Cooling Tower
(with heat exchanger)
Spray Pond
Body of Water Evaporative Cooler
62
63
Coolant Considerations
Properties
Pri me consi derati on i n cl osed cool i ng systems
i s to ensure no corrosi on or scal e forms at any
poi nt. Sel ect the best qual i ty water avai l abl e,
but never use sal t water.
Usual l y water hardness i s descri bed i n grai ns
per gal l on one grai n bei ng equal to 17.1
parts per mi l l i on (ppm), or per mg/L, both
expressed as cal ci um carbonate. Water
contai ni ng up to 3.5 grai ns per gal l on
(60 ppm) i s consi dered soft and causes few
deposi ts.
Usabl e water must have the fol l owi ng
characteri sti cs as defi ned by i ndustry
standard speci fi cati on ASTM D4985:
pH 5.5-9.0
Chl ori de 40 ppm 2.4 grai ns/gal
Sul fate 100 ppm 5.9 grai ns/gal
Total Di ssol ved Sol i ds 340 ppm 20.0 grai ns/gal
Total Hardness 170 ppm 10.0 grai ns/gal
Water softened by removal of cal ci um and
magnesi um i s acceptabl e.
Treatment
Never use water al one as a cool ant.
Suppl emental cool ant addi ti ves are requi red
because water i s corrosi ve at engi ne operati ng
temperatures. Corrosi on i nhi bi tors added to
water or anti freeze sol uti on mai ntai n
cl eanl i ness, reduce scal e and foami ng, and
provi de pH control . A 3%-6% concentrati on of
i nhi bi tor i s recommended to mai ntai n a pH
l evel of 8.5 to 10. Sol ubl e oi l damages hoses,
gaskets, seal s, does not l ubri cate pump
beari ngs, or protect from damage caused by
cavi tati on erosi on. Avoi d sudden changes i n
cool ant composi ti on to mi ni mi ze fai l ure of
nonmetal l i c components.
Caterpi l l ar cool i ng i nhi bi tor i s compati bl e
wi th ethyl ene gl ycol and propyl ene gl ycol base
anti freezes but not wi th Dowtherm 209. Wi th
a 30% mi xture, no addi ti onal i nhi bi tors are
requi red. To mai ntai n constant protecti on,
addi ti ves shoul d be repl eni shed every 250
operati ng hours. Because modern anti freezes
contai n consi derabl e di ssol ved chemi cal sol i ds
to accommodate al umi num components, over-
concentrati ons can reduce heat transfer and
cause water pump seal l eakage or fai l ure.
Note: I f cooling water contacts domestic water
supplies, water treatment may be regulated by
local codes.
Engi ne cool i ng water for a l ow pressure steam
or hi gh temperature water systems i s
ci rcul ated wi thi n the engi ne water jacket at
temperatures above 100C (212F). On l ow
pressure steam confi gurati ons, the engi ne i s
cool ed by the formati on of steam wi thi n the
engi ne water jacket. Hi gh temperature sol i d
water appl i cati ons have si mi l ar temperature,
and there i s potenti al for steam to form.
Mi neral s i n the water can preci pi tate duri ng
the heati ng process and form deposi ts wi thi n
the cool i ng systems, restri cti ng heat transfer
and water ci rcul ati on. The engi ne cool ant
must be treated the same as boi l er feed water.
The engi ne cool ant (boi l er water) i s a mi xture
of feed water and resi dent water. I t shoul d not
exceed the fol l owi ng maxi mum concentrati ons.
Si l i ca concentrati on 150 ppm as Si O
2
Total al kal i ni ty 700 ppm as cal ci um CaCO
3
Total suspended sol i ds 10 ppm
Speci fi c conductance 3500 mi cromho per cm
(2680 ppm)
pH 10.0-11.5
I n addi ti on, the jacket water treatment shoul d
i ncl ude:
An oxygen scavenger wi th suffi ci ent reserve
to remove al l oxygen from the water.
Mai ntenance to l i mi t CaCO
3
equi val ent of
hydroxi de al kal i ni ty to 200-400 ppm.
A bl end of di spersants to condi ti on and
suspend the preci pi tated sol i ds.
Treatment of condensate return.
64
Makeup water shoul d not exceed the fol l owi ng
maxi mum concentrati ons:
I ron 0.1 ppm
Copper 0.05 ppm
Total hardness 0.3 ppm as CaCO
3
These stri ngent gui del i nes are based i n part
on establ i shed l i mi ts of the Ameri can Boi l er
Manufacturer s Associ ati on (ABMA) and
recommendati ons of the ASME Research
Commi ttee on Water i n Thermal Power
Systems.
Antifreeze
Exposi ng engi ne cool ant to freezi ng
temperatures requi res addi ti on of anti freeze.
Ethyl ene gl ycol or Dowtherm 209 are
recommended to protect agai nst freezi ng and
i nhi bi t corrosi on. Borate-ni tri te sol uti ons such
as Caterpi l l ar i nhi bi tor or NALCO 2000 are
compati bl e onl y wi th ethyl ene gl ycol and can
repl eni sh the ori gi nal corrosi on i nhi bi tors i n
the anti freeze.
Fi gure 61 defi nes the concentrati on of
ethyl ene gl ycol requi red for system protecti on.
I t al so descri bes the effect on cool ant boi l i ng
temperature whi ch reduces cool ant afterboi l .
The concentrati on shoul d exceed 30% to
assure protecti on agai nst corrosi on, but above
60% wi l l needl essl y penal i ze heat transfer
capabi l i ti es. General l y, a radi ator derates 2%
for each 10% of anti freeze concentrati on. Use
of anti freeze year around decreases radi ator
capabi l i ti es at l east 3.3C (6F).
Cleanliness
Al l pi pe and water passages, external to the
engi ne must be cl eaned before i ni ti al engi ne
operati on. There must be fl ow; any forei gn
materi al must be removed.
Strai ners are recommended for i nstal l ati on i n
al l pi pes l eadi ng to external l y added
equi pment. They are to be i nstal l ed on the
si te pri or to startup and removed after
commi ssi oni ng the uni t.
Si mi l ar precauti ons must be taken when
si gni fi cant modi fi cati ons are made to the
external cool i ng ci rcui t.
Serviceability
Access to the heat exchanger i s requi red for
tube roddi ng (cl eani ng) or removal of the tube-
bundl e assembl y. Engi ne water pumps must
be easy to remove. Remote water temperature
regul ators shoul d be accessi bl e, and have
appropri ate i sol ati on val ves to al l ow servi ci ng
the engi ne wi thout drai ni ng the enti re
system. Appl y si mi l ar gui del i nes to radi ators,
heat recovery uni ts, deaerati on uni ts, and
other components requi ri ng servi ce or
repl acement.
Figure 61

Fuel System

Bulk Storage

Fuel suppl y systems assure conti nuous and
cl ean suppl y of fuel . Bul k fuel i s usual l y
stored i n l arge tanks and transferred to
smal l er tanks (day tank) near engi nes by
el ectri c motor-dri ven pumps. Fl exi bl e
nonmetal l i c l i nes routi ng fuel i nsi de bui l di ngs
shoul d meet fi re resi stant qual i fi cati ons
si mi l ar to U.S. Coast Guard Speci fi cati on
56.60-25(c).
Quanti ty of fuel stored may al so be regul ated.
The U.S. Nati onal El ectri c Code, Arti cl e 700,
cal l s for on-si te fuel suppl i es capabl e of
operati ng the pri me mover at ful l demand
l oad for at l east two hours. Nati onal Fi re
Protecti on Associ ati on (NFPA) 37 further
i denti fi es fuel storage methods and quanti ti es.
Large capaci ty storage tanks al l ow bul k
purchases and mi ni mi ze di rt contami nati on.
Mai ntai ni ng ful l tanks reduces condensati on,
parti cul arl y i f fuel i s sel dom used. Di esel fuel
i s prone to oxi di ze and form gums and resi ns
duri ng l ong term storage. Water i n fuel offers
a medi um for bacteri al growth whi ch may
cause fuel fi l ter pl uggi ng. Fuel has a fi ni te
storage l i fe of approxi matel y one year,
al though thi s may vary wi del y dependi ng
upon i ni ti al qual i ty, contami nant l evel s and
storage condi ti ons. Peri odi c exchange of fuel
and fi l teri ng/treati ng to remove water, scal e
and bacteri a growth wi l l extend fuel l i fe.
Tanks may be above or bel ow ground l evel ,
but hi gh fuel l evel general l y shoul d not exceed
engi ne i njector s hei ght. Thi s prevents
possi bl e fuel l eakage i nto cyl i nders.
Locate storage tank fi l l tubes for conveni ence
and safety of fi l l i ng operati ons. Vents rel i eve
ai r pressure created by fi l l i ng and prevent
vacuum as fuel i s consumed.
Water and sedi ment are drawn peri odi cal l y
from the tank, and contami nants can be
l ocal i zed by roundi ng the tank bottom and
ti l ti ng about 2 degrees toward the drai n.
Consi der ground settl i ng when i nstal l i ng
tanks so drai n cocks remai n l ow. Avoi d
seasonal settl i ng by buryi ng tanks bel ow frost
l i nes. I n underground tanks, remove water by
pumpi ng through a tube pl aced down the fi l l
pi pe. Copper-beari ng steel tanks are
preferred, but bl ack i ron tanks and fi tti ngs
are sati sfactory. Avoi d gal vani zed fi tti ngs or
tanks because reacti ons wi th fuel i mpuri ti es
wi l l cl og fuel fi l ters.
I f day tanks are not used, bul k tanks must
provi de a ready fuel suppl y to the engi ne-
mounted transfer pump. Caterpi l l ar fuel
pumps pri me 3 m (9 ft.), but pi pe si ze, bends,
and col d ambi ents modi fy thi s capabi l i ty.
65
Figure 62
Usi ng shutoff val ves i n the del i very l i ne may
pul l ai r i nto the system duri ng shutdown and
cause hard starti ng. The engi ne control
system provi des adequate shutdown opti ons
but, i f a shutdown sol enoi d i s speci fi ed i n the
suppl y l i ne, i t shoul d be ti med to cl ose after
the engi ne stops rotati ng.
The del i very l i ne carryi ng fuel to the fuel
transfer pump and the return l i ne carryi ng
excess fuel to the tank are no smal l er than
engi ne fi tti ngs. I f the fuel tank feeds mul ti pl e
engi ne over 9 m ft. (30 ft.) from the engi ne, or
temperatures are l ow, l arger fuel suppl y and
return l i nes ensure adequate fl ow.
Pi pi ng and fi tti ngs are seal ed to prevent ai r or
di rt contami nati on. Ai r i n the system causes
hard starti ng and errati c engi ne operati on.
Fuel l i nes are bl ack i ron pi pe, steel , or copper
tubi ng; gal vani zed pi pe or zi nc-beari ng al l oys
must not be used. The overfl ow l i ne from the
day tank (or, i f no day tank i s used, the engi ne
fuel return l i ne) i s one si ze l arger than the fi l l
l i ne.
The return l i ne enters the top of the tank
wi thout shutoff val ves. Thi s al l ows ai r to pass
freel y and prevents a vacuum i n the fuel
system. Fuel sucti on l i nes remove fuel about
50 mm (2 i n.) above the tank bottom and tank
end opposi te the return l i ne. Joi nt cement
affected by fuel i s not used, and connecti ons
are made wi thout gaskets. Fl exi bl e fuel l i nes
between fuel source (bul k storage or day tank)
and engi ne fuel i nl et and return i sol ate
vi brati on.
Auxiliary Tank
Auxi l i ary or

day tanks are desi rabl e i f mai n
fuel tanks are 15 m (50 ft.) from the engi ne,
1.8 m (6 ft.) bel ow the engi ne. Total sucti on
head shoul d not exceed 3 m (9 ft.). Al though
day tanks do not ai d fast starti ng, they do
offer conveni ent and ready storage. Day tanks
al so provi de a settl i ng reservoi r for water and
sedi ment.
Auxi l i ary tanks are l ocated to avoi d fuel l evel s
hi gher than engi ne fuel i njecti on val ves. I f
66
Figure 63
Auxiliary Fuel Tank
overhead mounti ng i s unavoi dabl e, as i n
NFPA Secti on 20 concerni ng fi re pumps,
i ncl ude 20 kPa (3 psi ) di fferenti al check val ve
i n suppl y l i ne and 3.5 kPa (0.5 psi ) di fferenti al
check val ve i n return l i ne.
Coolers
Engi nes i ncorporati ng uni t fuel i njectors
transfer about 42.2 kJ (40 Btu) per mi nute
per i njector i nto the return fuel . I f the fuel
tank i s i nsuffi ci ent to di ssi pate thi s heat, a
cool i ng source must mai ntai n fuel
temperatures bel ow 68C (155F). Heat al so
causes a vol umetri c change, resul ti ng i n a 1%
power l oss for each 6C (10F) above
38C (100F).
Filters
Cl ean fuel i s necessary for dependabl e engi ne
performance. Engi ne fi l ters protect the fuel
i njecti on pumps and nozzl es and are never
removed or bypassed.
Pri mary fi l ters wi th 0.30 mm (0.012 i n.)
screens extend engi ne fi l ter and transfer
pump l i fe. Water and sedi ment traps can be
i ncl uded upstream of the transfer pump, but
pump fl ow must not be restri cted.
I n warm cl i mates wi th l arge bul k storage,
di esel fuel requi res ful l fi l teri ng every si x
months to a year. Every two years fuel i s
compl etel y changed to remove water, scal e,
bacteri a growth, oxi di zed gums/resi ns, and
mi ni mi ze fi l ter cl oggi ng due to fuel separati on
i nto components such as asphal tenes.
I f necessary to store fuel l onger, kerosene may
be substi tuted for di esel fuel . A si mpl e engi ne
power adjustment i s needed for thi s fuel s
l ower Btu content.
Fuel Selection
Engine Requirements
Fuel normal l y recommended for di esel
generator sets i s No. 2 furnace oi l or No. 2D
di esel fuel . When thi s fuel i s used for heati ng,
common storage tanks for boi l ers and
generator sets are practi cal . I n addi ti on to
reduci ng i nstal l ati on costs, thi s arrangement
reduces fuel costs by quanti ty purchases and
mi ni mi zes fuel deteri orati on.
Caterpi l l ar Engi nes burn a vari ety of fuel s.
General l y, use the l owest pri ced di sti l l ate fuel
whi ch meets the fol l owi ng requi rements (fuel
condi ti on as del i vered to engi ne fuel fi l ters).
Fuel speci fi cati ons meeti ng the above
requi rements i ncl ude:
ASTM D396 No. 1 and No. 2 Fuel s
(Burner Fuel s)
ASTM D975 No. 1-D and No. 2-D Di esel
Fuel Oi l
BS2869 Cl ass A1, A2, B1, and B2 Engi ne
Fuel s
DI N51601 Di esel Fuel
DI N51603 EL Heati ng Oi l

Precombustion Chamber .................... 35 minimum
Direct Injection .................................... 40 minimum
Viscosity............................................... 100 SUS at 38C (100F) Maximum
Pour Point ............................................ 6C (10F) below ambient temperature
Cloud Point .......................................... Not higher than ambient temperature
Sulfur ................................................... Adjust oil change period for high sulfur fuel (greater than 0.5%)
Water and Sediment............................ 0.1% maximum
Cetane Number
67
68
The fol l owi ng addi ti onal i nformati on
descri bes fuel characteri sti cs and thei r
rel ati on to engi ne performance.
A. Cetane Number I ndex of i gni ti on qual i ty
determi ned by compari ng wi th fuel s used
as standards for hi gh and l ow cetane
numbers.
B. Sul fur Li mi t to 0.4% wi thout reduci ng
oi l change peri ods. Hi gher sul fur content
requi res usage of hi gh total base number
(TBN) oi l s or shorteni ng oi l change peri ods.
C. Gravi ty An i ndex of wei ght of a
measured vol ume of fuel Lower API
rati ngs i ndi cate heavi er fuel contai ni ng
greater heat content.
D. Vi scosi ty A ti me measure to resi stance
of fl ow. Hi gh vi scosi ti es cause poor fuel
atomi zati on thereby decreasi ng combusti on
effi ci ency. Low vi scosi ty may not provi de
adequate l ubri cati on to fuel system
components.
E. Di sti l l ati on Thi s i nvol ves heati ng crude
to rel ati vel y hi gh temperatures. Vapor
drawn at vari ous temperatures produce
fuel s of di fferent types. Li ghter fuel s, such
as gasol i ne, are drawn off fi rst and heavi er
fuel l ast.
F. Fl ash Poi nt Lowest temperature fuel
wi l l gi ve off suffi ci ent vapor to i gni te when
fl ame i s appl i ed.
G. Pour Poi nt Lowest temperature fuel wi l l
fl ow or pour.
H.Water and Sedi ment Percentage by
vol ume of water and forei gn materi al
removed by centri fugi ng.
I . Carbon Resi due Percentage by wei ght of
dry carbon remai ni ng when fuel i s burned
unti l no l i qui d remai ns.
J. Ash Percentage by wei ght of di rt, dust,
sand, and other forei gn matter remai ni ng
after combusti on.
K. Corrosi on A pol i shed copper stri p i s
i mmersed i n fuel for three hours at 50C
(122F). Fuel i mparti ng more than sl i ght
di scol orati on i s rejected.
The customer shoul d order as heavy a
di sti l l ate fuel as engi ne and temperature
condi ti ons permi t. Fuel costs can represent
approxi matel y 80% of total operati ng costs for
engi nes operati ng hi gh hours per year. I t i s
good economi cs to l ook cl osel y at the l argest
cost fi rst.

Note: Caterpillar Diesel Engine fuel rack
settings are based on 35API (specific gravity)
fuel. Fuel oil with a higher API (lower specific
gravity) number reduces power output unless
rack settings are corrected. When using
heavier fuels, a corrected rack setting prevents
power output above approved ratings. The
Caterpillar Dealer will correct rack settings
for nonstandard fuels.
Crude Oil Fuels
Crude oi l , i n some cases, i s a practi cal and
economi c fuel for di esel engi nes. Crude oi l s
are eval uated i ndi vi dual l y and speci al
equi pment may be needed to condi ti on the
fuel . Mi ni mum gui del i nes have been
establ i shed to determi ne the sui tabi l i ty of
crudes.
Kerosene or J P5 Fuels
Kerosene type fuel s may be used as a di esel
engi ne fuel provi ded i t meets acceptabl e
l i mi ts. Adequate vi scosi ty, parti cul arl y wi th
avi ati on kerosene type fuel s i s a major
concern. For Caterpi l l ar engi ne fuel systems,
a mi ni mum vi scosi ty of 1.4 cSt at 38C
(100F) i s requi red at the engi ne transfer
pump to properl y l ubri cate fuel system
components. Kerosene fuel s have l ower
energy content than di esel fuel s and therefore
wi l l produce l ess peak power output and/or
wi l l requi re more fuel vol ume to do an
equi val ent amount of work.
Gaseous Fuels
Caterpi l l ar Gas Engi nes can be confi gurated
to accommodate a wi de vari ety of fuel s and
embi ent condi ti ons, and can be adjusted to
achi eve opti mum performance. They are
equi pped wi th both carbureted or ai r-fuel
rati o control s to uti l i ze hi gh and l ow pressure
gases.
Carbureted systems are compl etel y
mechani cal and do not i nvol ve compl exi ti es
i nvol ved ai r-fuel rati o control s.
Fi gure 64
Guidelines of Crude Oil
API Gravity 45 maximum
Viscosity at 37.78C (100F) 20 cSt maximum
Gasoline and Naptha
Fraction 35% maximum
Kerosene and Distillate
Fraction 30% minimum
Water and Sediment 0.5% maximum
Cetane Number 35 minimum
(PC engines)
40 minimum
(DI engines)
Figure 65
Gas Pressure
Regulator
NOTE: Manual Shut-Off Or Shut-Off
Solenoid Is Required
An Electrically Operated Gas
Shut-Off Valve Is Required For
Use With Engine Safety Devices
Differential Here To
Point "A" Is Differential
Gas Pressure
Load Adjustment Valve
Air To Carburetor
Point "A"
Balance Line (12.7 mm ) 1/2 in. Tubing Minimum
Standard Natural Gas System
(Turbocharged-Aftercooler or Naturally Aspirated)
Carb
Figure 13.1
69
Standard Natural Gas System
(Turbocharged-Aftercooler or Naturally Aspirated)
70
Ai r-fuel rati o control s seek to mai ntai n a
desi red ai r-fuel rati o as operati ng condi ti ons
change. Thi s i s accompl i shed by measuri ng
and/or cal cul ati ng actual ai r-fuel rati o and
adjusti ng ai r or fuel fl ow.
Ai r-fuel rati o control s have consi derabl e
fl exi bi l i ty and can be programmed to opti mi ze
on-si te performance, such as bl ock l oad
acceptance or emi ssi on l evel s.
The gas suppl y pressure requi rements for
standard confi gurati ons are:
Air/Fuel
Throttle
Body
After-
cooler
Engine
Actuator
Oxygen
Sensor
Turbocharger
Air/ F
u
e
l
Fuel
Valve &
Actuator
Fuel Mass
Flow Sensor
Air Mass
Flow Sensor
Carburetor
Mixer
Balance
Line
Pressure
Regulator
Fuel
Desired Speed
Actual Speed
Air Flow
Fuel Flow
Oxygen Sensor
Electronic
Control
Flywheel
Fuel ValveActuator
Throttle Body Actuator
Speed
Sensor
Air
Simplified Example of an Air/Fuel Ratio Control
Figure 13.7
Exhaust
Stack
Figure 66
Figure 67
G3300
Low Pressure Gas 1.5 (10) 10 (69)
High Pressure Gas 12 (83) 25 (172)
G3400
Low Pressure Gas 1.5 (10) 5 (35)
High Pressure Gas 20 (138) 25 (172)
G3500
Low Pressure Gas (Deltec) 1.5 (10) 7 (48)
Low Pressure Gas (Impco) 1.5 (10) 5 (35)
High Pressure Gas
Low Emission 9:1 & 8:1 C/R 35 (241) 40 (276)
High Pressure Gas
Low Emission 11:1 C/R 31 (214) 40 (276)
High Pressure Gas
Standard TA 25 (172) 25 (172)
Naturally Aspirated 2 (14) 10 (69)
G3600
All G3600 Engines 48 (330) 150 (1030)
Minimum Maximum
Psig (kPa) Psig (kPa)
Simplified Example of an Air/Fuel Ratio Control
71
Propane/Butane Mixtures
Thi s gas can be stored for l ong peri ods
wi thout deteri orati on so i s an i deal backup for
other gaseous fuel s. I t i s suppl i ed as a l i qui d
and stored i n pressure tanks. Tank vol ume i s
cal cul ated by:
3.78 L (1 gal ) of Propane = 1.03 m
3
(36.39 ft
3
)
Butane = 0.88 m
3
(31.26 ft
3
)
10-12% of tank capaci ty i s al l owed for
expansi on duri ng vapori zati on.
Si nce propane/butane mi xture i s stored i n
l i qui d form, i t i s converted pri or to enteri ng
the engi ne carburetor. Auxi l i ary heati ng may
be needed for vapori zati on, parti cul arl y when
stored i n an outsi de tank i n col d weather.
Propane/butane mi xtures are heavi er than ai r
and settl es i n l ow areas. Venti l ati on i s
necessary to prevent formati on of expl osi ve
mi xtures.
Natural Gas
(Low Btu Gas)
*Solenoid
Valve
*An Electrically Operated Gas
Shut-Off Valve Is Required
For Use With Engine Safety
Devices
(139.7 mm) 5.5 in.
(127.0 mm) .5 in. H2O
Differential Here
To Point "A" For
Low Btu Gas
Low Btu Adjustment Valve
Carburetor
Point "A"
Balance Line (12.7 mm) 1/2 in.
Dual Fuel Turbocharged or Naturally Aspirated Engines
Carb
High Btu Adjustment Valve
(25.4mm)1 in. H2O Neg. Differential Here To Point "A"
Pressure
Switch
Differential
Regulator
*Manual Shut-
Off Valve (Or)
Solenoid
Valve &
Pressure
Switch
Vaporized Propane Gas
(High Btu Gas)
Balance Line
Must Be Kept
Separate
"A" Regulator
Figure 68
-40F
(-40C)
0F
(-18C)
+20F
(-7C)
+60F
(15C)
+100F
(-38C)
Vapor Pressure
(Approximate Values)
Temperature
Vapor-Pressure Curve
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Propane
50-50
Mixture
Butane
Figure 69
Dual Fuel Turbocharged or Naturally Aspirated Engines

72

Starting Systems
There are two types of starti ng systems
avai l abl e for Caterpi l l ar Engi nes ai r
and el ectri c.
The choi ce of systems depends on avai l abi l i ty
of the energy source. Space for energy storage
and ease of rechargi ng the energy banks are
consi derati ons for determi ni ng the type of
starti ng system to be used.
Startabi l i ty of a di esel engi ne i s affected
pri mari l y by ambi ent temperature and
l ubri cati ng oi l vi scosi ty. The di esel rel i es on
heat of compressi on to i gni te fuel , wi th the
heat resul ti ng from cranki ng speed and
cranki ng ti me. When col d, l onger cranki ng
peri ods are requi red to devel op i gni ti on
temperatures.
Heavy l ube oi l i mposes the greatest l oad on
the cranki ng motor. Oi l type and temperature
drasti cal l y al ter vi scosi ty. SAE 30 oi l
approaches the consi stency of grease bel ow
0C (32F).

Electric
El ectri c starti ng i s the most conveni ent to use.
I t i s l east expensi ve and i s most adaptabl e for
remote control and automati on.
Batteries
Batteri es provi de suffi ci ent power to crank
engi nes l ong and fast enough to start.
Lead-aci d types are common, have hi gh
output capabi l i ti es, and l owest fi rst cost.
Ni ckel -cadmi um batteri es are costl y, but have
l ong shel f l i fe and requi re mi ni mum
mai ntenance. Ni ckel -cadmi um types are
desi gned for l ong l i fe and may i ncorporate
thi ck pl ates whi ch decrease hi gh di scharge
capabi l i ty. Consul t the battery suppl i er for
speci fi c recommendati ons.
Two consi derati ons i n sel ecti ng proper battery
capaci ty are:
The l owest temperature at whi ch the engi ne
mi ght be cranked.
The parasi ti c l oad i mposed on the engi ne. A
good rul e of thumb i s to sel ect a battery
package whi ch wi l l provi de at l east four 30
second cranki ng peri ods (total of 2 mi nutes
cranki ng). An engi ne shoul d not be cranked
conti nuousl y for more than 30 seconds or
starter motors may overheat.
Ambi ent temperatures drasti cal l y affect
battery performance and chargi ng effi ci enci es.
Mai ntai n 32C (90F) maxi mum temperature
to assure rated output. I mpact of col der
temperatures i s descri bed i n the fol l owi ng
chart.
Locate cranki ng batteri es for easy vi sual
i nspecti on and mai ntenance. They must be
away from fl ame or spark sources and i sol ated
from vi brati on. Mount l evel on nonconducti ng
materi al and protect from spl ash and di rt.
Use short sl ack cabl e l engths and mi ni mi ze
vol tage drops by posi ti oni ng batteri es near the
starti ng motor.
Di sconnect the battery charger when
removi ng or connecti ng battery l eads. Sol i d-
state equi pment, i .e., el ectroni c governor,
speed swi tches, can be harmed i f subjected to
charger's ful l output.
Figure 70
Starting Motor
Batteries
Wall mount
battery charger
T
o
P
o
w
e
r In
p
u
t
Temperature vs Output
27C (80F)
C F Ampere Hours Output Rating

28 80 100
0 32 65
-18 0 40
Battery Charger
Vari ous chargers are avai l abl e to repl eni sh a
battery. Tri ckl e chargers are desi gned for
conti nuous servi ce on unl oaded batteri es.
They automati cal l y shut down to mi l l i ampere
current when batteri es are ful l y charged.
Fl oat-equal i ze chargers are more expensi ve
than tri ckl e chargers and are used i n
appl i cati ons demandi ng maxi mum battery
l i fe. These chargers i ncl ude l i ne and l oad
regul ati on, and current l i mi ti ng devi ces,
whi ch permi t conti nuous l oads at rated
output.
Both tri ckl e chargers and fl oat equal i ze
chargers requi re a source of A/C power whi l e
the engi ne i s not runni ng. Chargers must be
capabl e of l i mi ti ng peak currents duri ng
cranki ng cycl es or have a rel ay to di sconnect
duri ng cranki ng cycl es. Where engi ne-dri ven
al ternators and battery chargers are both
used, the di sconnect rel ay usual l y di sconnects
the battery charger duri ng engi ne cranki ng
and runni ng.
Engi ne-dri ven generators or al ternators can
be used, but have the di sadvantage of
chargi ng batteri es onl y whi l e the engi ne runs.
Where generator sets are subject to many
starts, i nsuffi ci ent battery capaci ty coul d
threaten dependabi l i ty.
Cable Size
The start ci rcui t between battery and starti ng
motor, and control ci rcui t between battery,
swi tch, and motor sol enoi d, must be wi thi n
maxi mum resi stance l i mi ts shown.
Not al l thi s resi stance i s al l owed for cabl es.
Connecti ons and contactors, except the motor
sol enoi d contactor, are i ncl uded i n the total
al l owabl e resi stance.
Contactors (rel ays, sol enoi d, swi tches)
0.0002 Ohm
Connecti ons (each seri es connectors)
0.0001 Ohm
The fi xed resi stance of connecti ons and
contactors i s determi ned by the cabl e routi ng.
Fi xed resi stance (Rf) subtracted from total
resi stance (Rt) equal al l owabl e cabl e
resi stance (Rc): Rt - Rf = Rc.
Exampl e:
73
Maximum Allowable Resistance
Magnetic Switch and Solenoid Starting
Series-Parallel Circuit Switch Circuit Motor Circuit
12 Volt System, 0.048 Ohm 0.0067 Ohm 0.0012 Ohm
24 Volt System, 0.10 Ohm 0.030 Ohm 0.002 Ohm
32 Volt System, 0.124 Ohm 0.070 Ohm 0.002 Ohm
System...................................................... 24-volt
Starting Motor Type................................. Heavy Duty
Maximum Allowable Resistance ............ .00200
Minus Fixed Resistance
6 Connections @ .00001 ...................... .00006 Ohm
Resistance Remaining For Cable........... .00194
Battery Cable Length .............................. 144 in.
This circuit uses four
12-volt batteries in a
24-volt system
56 in.
6 in.
76 in.
Figure 71
Wi th cabl e l ength and fi xed resi stance
determi ned, sel ect cabl e si ze usi ng the
fol l owi ng chart, Fi gure 72. Use onl y ful l -
stranded copper wi re.
Cabl e si ze must be No. 1 to meet cabl e l ength
and resi stance requi rements. To determi ne
fi xed resi stance i n a paral l el ci rcui t, onl y
seri es connecti ons i n one l eg of the paral l el
ci rcui t are counted.
Air Start
Ai r starti ng, ei ther manual or automati c, i s
hi ghl y rel i abl e. Torque avai l abl e from ai r
motors accel erates the engi ne to twi ce the
cranki ng speed i n about hal f the ti me
requi red by el ectri c starters.
Compressed ai r from a 758 to 1723 kPa
(110 to 250 psi ) source i s regul ated to 758 kPa
(110 psi ) and pi ped to the ai r motor. These
pressures are requi red at the regul ator.
Al l owances must be made for pressure drops
i n the ai r l i nes from the ai r source to the
regul ator. Pressure ai r may ori gi nate from ai r
recei vers and pl ant ai r.
A check val ve between pl ant ai r and recei ver
assures that fai l ure of pl ant ai r wi l l not
depl ete the backup suppl y. The ai r
compressors are dri ven by gasol i ne engi nes
and el ectri c motors wi red to the emergency
power source.
Tandem or compound engi nes use two motors
and sol enoi d val ves. Val ves are equal di stance
from thei r respecti ve motors for coordi nated
motor engagement. When a si ngl e sol enoi d
control s ai r to both motors, pi pi ng between
val ve and each motor must be equal l ength.
Ai r motor suppl y pi pes are short, di rect, and
at l east equal i n si ze to the motor i ntake
openi ng. Bl ack i ron pi pe i s preferabl e and
shoul d be supported to avoi d stresses on the
compressor. Fl exi bl e connecti ons between
motor and pi pi ng are requi red.
Deposi ts of an oi l -water mi xture accumul ati ng
i n recei ver and pi pi ng are removed by traps
i nstal l ed at i nterval s i n the l i nes. Li nes sl ope
toward these traps.
Ai r cranki ng systems may freeze at l ow
ambi ents. Water vapor i n compressed ai r
freezes duri ng expansi on i n temperatures
bel ow 0C (32F). A dryer at the compressor
outl et or a smal l quanti ty of al cohol i n the
starter ai r tank prevents freezi ng. Bel ow
-18C (0F) consul t the generator set suppl i er.
74
2
-
#
0
0
0
0

i
n

P
a
r
a
l
l
e
l
2
-
#
0
0
0

i
n

P
a
r
a
l
l
e
l
2
-
#
0
0

i
n

P
a
r
a
l
l
e
l
o
r

2
-
#
0

i
n

P
a
r
a
l
l
e
l
.00300
.00280
.00260
.00240
.00220
.00200
.00180
.00160
.00140
.00120
.00100
.00080
.00060
.00040
.00020
.00000
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Inches
0 2.54 5.08 7.62 10.16 12.70 15.24
Meters
R
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

I
n
.

O
H
M
S

A
t

8
0

F

(
2
7

C
)
#4 #2 #1 #0 #00 #000
Figure 72
R
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

i
n
.

O
h
m
s

a
t

2
7

C

(
8
0

F
)
Figure 73
Ai r recei vers shoul d meet ASME
speci fi cati ons and be equi pped wi th a safety
val ve and gauge. Check safety val ves
frequentl y to guard agai nst sti cki ng.
Recei vers are si zed for a speci fi ed number of
starts. Recei ver si ze i s esti mated by:
Rc =
N
s
(A
r
x A
p
)
Rp
_
7824 or 90
Where:
R
c
= Recei ver Capaci ty (m
3
) (ft
3
)
N
s
= Number of Starts
R
p
= Recei ver Pressure (kPa) (psi a)
A
r
= Free Ai r Requi rement per Start
(m
3
) (ft
3
)
A
p
= Atmospheri c Pressure (kPa) (psi a)
90 = (724 kPa) psi a mi ni mum
Mi ni mum Pressure = 724 kPa = (90 psi a)
75
Plant
Air
Supply
Check
Valve
Starting
Air
Engine
Starting
Motor
Engine
Generator
Oiler Solenoid
Valve
Regulator
Compressor
Motor
Air Starting Schematic
Figure 74
Starter
SV
Relay
Valve
Prelube Pump
Engine
Oil
Pressure
Solenoid Valve
Air or
Gas
Supply
Slave Valve
SV
Air Start Prelube
Figure 75
Air Starting Schematic
Air Start Prelube
76
Quanti ty of free ai r requi red per start (A
r
)
depends on:
Time required per start
Ti me per start depends on engi ne model ,
condi ti on, ambi ent ai r temperature, oi l
vi scosi ty, fuel type, condi ti on of fuel system,
and cranki ng speed. Fi ve to seven seconds
i s typi cal for di esel engi nes at 25C (80F),
but restarts of hot engi nes normal l y take
l ess than two seconds. Due to the ti me
necessary to devel op a combusti bl e mi xture
i n the i ntake mani fol d, natural gas engi nes
usual l y exhi bi t starti ng ti mes up to doubl e
that of a di esel .
Free air consumption
Free ai r consumpti on depends to some
extent on these same vari abl es and al so on
the pressure regul ator setti ng. The correct
setti ng i s 620 to 690 kPa (90 to 100 psi ),
wi th the hi gher pressure used to i mprove
starti ng under adverse condi ti ons. 0.14 to
0.42 m
3
(5 to 15 cu ft) per second i s typi cal
for engi nes from 37 kW to 1194 kW
(50 hp to 1600 hp).
Prompt manual or automatic air shutoff
after engine starting
I mmedi ate ai r shut-off after engi ne starti ng
i s necessary to mi ni mi ze ai r tank si ze.
Automatic Start-Stop
Automati c start-stop systems are pri mari l y
for unattended engi nes whi ch must start
automati cal l y, pi ck up the l oad, operate the
l oad, and stop automati cal l y when demand
ceases.
Caterpi l l ar offers both el ectri c and
ai r-powered systems.
Ten Second Starting
Ten second starti ng i s often requi red ei ther by
appl i cati on or l ocal regul ati on. Ten second
starti ng i s routi nel y obtai ned by deal ers
wi th careful attenti on to the vari ous systems.
Requi rements for 10-second automati c
starti ng:
Combusti on ai r must be a mi ni mum of
21C (70F).
Jacket water heaters mai ntai n a mi ni mum
of 32C (90F) water temperature.
Ful l y charged batteri es to provi de
60 seconds of conti nuous cranki ng, or ful l
ai r suppl y.
Readi l y avai l abl e fuel .
Starting Aids
Starti ng ai ds for temperatures bel ow 20C
(70F) reduce cranki ng ti me and assure
dependabl e starts.
J acket Water Heaters
Jacket Water heaters are used on both
manual and automati c starti ng systems, but
are essenti al for automati c starti ng bel ow
20C (70F). Heaters precondi ti on engi nes for
qui ck starti ng by mai ntai ni ng jacket water
temperature duri ng shutdown peri ods. Dual
heaters are used on l arge Vee-type engi nes to
ensure ci rcul ati on.
Heaters thermostati cal l y control jacket water
temperature near 30C (90F) to promote fast
starts. Hi gher temperatures accel erate agi ng
of gaskets and rubber materi al s.
Flame Start
Gl ow pl ugs project i nto the ai r i nl et mani fol d
and i gni te a smal l amount of di esel fuel
duri ng manual starti ng. The fl ame i s
mai ntai ned unti l smooth i dl i ng condi ti ons are
achi eved.
Ether
Ether starti ng ai ds are restri cted to manual
starti ng systems and are rarel y used for
generator sets. Ether i s hi ghl y vol ati l e wi th a
l ow i gni ti on poi nt. I ntroduced i nto the i ntake
ai r, i t i gni tes mi xture at l ow cyl i nder
temperatures. Hi gh pressure capsul es are the
safest and most posi ti ve i njecti on method. Do
not use ether i njecti on on 3600 Engi nes.
77
Oil Heaters
Heati ng el ements i n di rect contact wi th
nonci rcul ati ng l ubri cati ng oi l are usual l y not
recommended due to the danger of oi l coki ng.
I f speci fi ed, heater ski n temperatures shoul d
not exceed 150C (300F) and have maxi mum
heat densi ti es of 0.02 W/mm
2
(13 W/i n
2
).
Altitude/Temperature/Humidity
Considerations
Extremes i n cl i mate i mpact si gni fi cantl y on
generator sets. Al ti tude, barometri c pressure,
and temperature have a di rect rel ati onshi p to
ai r densi ty. Refer to the perti nent secti ons i n
thi s gui debook for detai l ed i nformati on on
speci fi c equi pment.
Engi ne combusti on ai r densi ty i s decreased
by hi gh temperatures and al ti tudes.
Turbocharged engi nes better tol erate these
condi ti ons, but capabi l i ti es of each engi ne
must be revi ewed. Hi gh al ti tudes general l y
exhi bi t l ow temperatures, so power derati ons
may be avoi ded by routi ng cool outsi de ai r
di rectl y to the engi ne ai r cl eaners. However,
when starti ng automati cal l y, combi nati ons of
hi gh al ti tude and col d ai r cause overfuel i ng
and di ffi cul ty accel erati ng to operati ng speed.
Factory consul tati on shoul d be sought for
uni ts started automati cal l y above 2440 m
(8000 ft).
Generator l i fe i s shortened by i nadequate
cool i ng. Al though hosti l e envi ronment, such
as hi gh heat and al ti tude, usual l y derate
engi ne performance more than the generator,
generator capabi l i ti es must be determi ned.
Generators may be sl i ghtl y oversi zed due to
auxi l i ary engi ne-dri ven equi pment, i .e.,
radi ator fans, compressors, temperature ri se
noted on namepl ate may be conservati ve.
These consi derati ons must be i nvesti gated
before appl yi ng derati on factors suggested by
NEMA MG1-22.40 (refer to secti on on
generators).
Wi ndi ng i nsul ati on of Caterpi l l ar Generators
i s moi sture resi stant but constant exposure to
hi gh humi di ty wi l l eventual l y break down the
i nsul ati on and shorten l i fe. Di rt and sal t
further threaten the wi ndi ngs by hol di ng and
absorbi ng ai rborne moi sture. Space heaters
offer the si ngl e best method for di scouragi ng
condensati on and shoul d be speci fi ed for any
hi gh humi di ty appl i cati on. Speci al i nsul ati on
systems al so ai d i n resi sti ng harsh
envi ronments.
Radi ators are affected on both water and ai r
si des. Col d temperatures requi re anti freeze,
whi ch decreases radi ator performance duri ng
warm weather operati on. Hi gh al ti tudes al so
di mi ni sh fan ai r fl ow and derate radi ator
capabi l i ty.
Jacket water heaters are necessary for
automati c starti ng. Thermostati cal l y
control l ed radi ator shutters encourage warm
engi ne room operati on.
Severe col d of -29 to -54C (-20 to -65F)
demands speci al arcti c l ubri cati ng oi l s and
greases. Engi ne oi l may conform to MI L-L
10295 whi l e MI L-G 23827 grease may be
speci fi ed.
V bel ts, hoses, wi ri ng, and other rubber
products must wi thstand extreme col d.
Mi l i tary speci fi cati on MI L-W 5086 i s a gui de
for col d weather operati on.
Battery performance i s dramati cal l y reduced
i n col d weather. Total battery capaci ty must
be i ncreased three ti mes to approach normal
temperature performance. Warm ai r or
el ectri c resi stor stri ps mai ntai n appropri ate
temperatures as wel l as coi l heaters uti l i zi ng
engi ne cool ant. Heati ng wi th engi ne exhaust
i s not recommended due to contami nants.
Hydraul i c or gasol i ne engi ne starti ng may be
practi cal i n speci fi c i nstal l ati ons. Hydraul i c
starti ng provi des hi gh torque at rel ati vel y
hi gh speeds, are compl etel y seal ed, and not
suscepti bl e to moi sture from condensati on.
Gasol i ne starti ng engi nes readi l y start i n col d
weather but cannot be used i n automati c
starti ng appl i cati ons.
78
Equipment Maintenance
Schedul ed mai ntenance depends on
equi pment confi gurati on and durati on of use.
Mai ntenance procedures for equi pment i n
conti nuous use i s wel l documented and can be
obtai ned from equi pment suppl i ers.
Requi rements for emergency or standby
generator sets are not wel l defi ned,
parti cul arl y for the di esel engi ne. The
Caterpi l l ar deal er can devel op operati on and
mai ntenance schedul es to sati sfy each
i nstal l ati on.
To assure rel i abi l i ty of emergency systems,
peri odi cal l y test the enti re system. Conduct
si mul ated power fai l ures monthl y wi th actual
transfer swi tch operati on to connect ful l
emergency power demand to the generator
set. The emergency system shoul d functi on
for one hour i n the presence of an authori zed
mechani c.
After test compl eti on, reset equi pment for
automati c operati on and recheck fuel l evel
and battery condi ti on.
The above schedul e may be i mpracti cal for
certai n i nstal l ati ons. However, mi ni mum
testi ng procedures are requi red by nati onal or
l ocal codes and l egi sl ati on. NFPA No. 110
(1993), states:
Level 1 EPSS, i ncl udi ng al l appurtenant
components, must be i nspected weekl y and
exerci sed under l oad at i nterval s of not more
than 30 days.

Exception: I f the generator set is used for
standby power or for peak load shaving, enter
these uses in the written record. I t may be
substituted for scheduled operations and
testing of the generator set if the appropriate
data is recorded.
Exerci se sets i n Level 1 servi ce under
operati ng temperature condi ti ons and at a
capaci ty not l ess than 50% of the total
connected EPSS l oad (not l ess than 30% of
EPS namepl ate rati ng and preferabl y at l east
50% of EPS namepl ate rati ng) at l east once
monthl y for a mi ni mum of thi rty mi nutes.
Gi ve consi derati on to more stri ngent
condi ti ons as recommended by the i ndi vi dual
energy converter manufacturer.
I f speci fi cati ons cal l for weekl y startups and
no l oad i s avai l abl e, runni ng ti me of 5 to 30
mi nutes i s suggested. Further operati on wi l l
be of no val ue. Compl ement thi s test annual l y
by at l east a 1-hour run wi th 30% of rated
l oad. Authori zed operators shoul d be present
for weekl y startups; the annual test i s
conducted by authori zed mechani cs.
Space between a generator set and wal l or
other uni ts shoul d not be l ess than the wi dth
of the engi ne. Anti ski d materi al s on fl oors
surroundi ng the uni t wi l l reduce the
possi bi l i ty of sl i ps and fal l s. Provi de overhead
space to permi t conveni ent removal of
generator or cyl i nder heads, mani fol ds,
exhaust pi pi ng, etc. Larger engi nes requi re
chai n hoi sts or overhead cranes to remove
heavi er components.
Provi de space between ei ther end of the
generator set and nearest obstructi on to
permi t removal of certai n components or
parts, such as camshafts, whi ch may need to
be pulled from one end of the engi ne. Access
doors to add and remove an enti re generator
set are desi rabl e.
Swi tchgear not generator mounted i s best
l ocated i n a separate room. Good venti l ati on
or ai r condi ti oni ng el i mi nates equi pment
derati on and mi ni mi zes mai ntenance. I sol ate
the room from engi ne room noi se and
vi brati on, but provi de wi ndows for vi ewi ng
from outsi de the room.
79
Generator Set Storage
Generator sets requi re speci al preparati on for
up to one year of storage. Detai l ed i nstructi on
i s avai l abl e through your Caterpi l l ar deal er
from Speci al I nstructi on, SEHS9031 and
SEBU5898.
The use of vol ati l e corrosi on i nhi bi tors
(VCI oi l ) i s recommended to prevent i nternal
engi ne damage due to moi sture. Thei r use
offers protecti on to surfaces that cannot be
reached for di rect appl i cati on, and i s easi l y
cl eaned from the engi ne when removi ng from
storage.
I f freezi ng temperatures are possi bl e, cl ean
the cool i ng system and fi l l wi th a 50/50
mi xture of Caterpi l l ar anti freeze and
approved water.
1. Appl y l ubri cant to al l poi nts i denti fi ed i n
the Operati on and Mai ntenance Manual , as
wel l as appl yi ng a protecti ve seal er to
wi ri ng, connectors and el ectri cal
components.
2. Drai n and repl ace crankcase oi l and fi l ters.
3. Drai n fuel from the fuel tank and pri mary
and secondary fi l ters. Fi l l the fi l ters wi th
cal i brati on oi l or kerosene and spray the
tank wi th a 50/50 VCI /engi ne oi l mi xture.
Add a commerci al bi oci de to the mi xture.
4. Loosen al l bel ts; Radi ator fan,
al ternator, etc.
5. Ensure that covers over the engi ne
openi ngs
_
ai r i ntake, exhaust, crankcase
breather, fl ywheel housi ng, etc., are ai rti ght
and waterproofed. Use a waterproof,
weather resi stant type tape (not duct tape).
Secure a waterproof cover over the engi ne
suffi ci entl y l oose to al l ow ai r ci rcul ati on.
6. Store the generator i n a dry area and seal
al l openi ngs. Perform a resi stance check of
the wi ndi ngs, record the fi ndi ngs, and
compare them to a resi stance check when
removi ng from storage.
7. Remove batteri es and, i f practi cal , use i n
other appl i cati ons. I f stored, di sconnect
battery termi nal s, cover wi th pl asti c and
charge peri odi cal l y.

Governors

Description

The engi ne governor control s engi ne speed,
and i n some generator appl i cati ons, generator
l oad. To sel ect correct governors for parti cul ar
appl i cati ons, governor capabi l i ti es must be
understood. The fol l owi ng terms are
commonl y encountered when descri bi ng
governors:
Droop, Speed Droop, or Regul ati on are terms
used i nterchangeabl y to descri be the
rel ati onshi p of engi ne speed change from no
l oad (hi gh i dl e) to ful l l oad (rated) i n steady
state operati on.
% Droop =
Speed at no l oad - Speed at ful l l oad
x 100
Speed at ful l l oad
Fi gure 76 descri bes vari ous degrees of droop
for both generator and i ndustri al appl i cati ons.
The percent droop remai ns constant and
i ndependent of operator speed change.
Many appl i cati ons can easi l y accept some
speed droop. Doi ng so al l ows the use of a l ess
costl y and compl ex governor and sti l l al l ows,
i n gen sets, the capabi l i ty of paral l el i ng wi th
other uni ts.
Isochronous 0% droop, i .e., constant
engi ne speed from no l oad to ful l l oad. Thi s
capabi l i ty i s often requi red on gen sets wi th
certai n l oads demandi ng preci se frequency
control or for automati c paral l el i ng.
Compensation Feedback al l owi ng stabl e
engi ne operati on wi th mi ni mum droop. Thi s
feature adds compl exi ty and cost to the
governor.
Speed Sensing Usi ng engi ne speed or
generator frequency as control i nput. Al l
engi ne governors are speed sensi ng i n some
form.
Transient Speed Temporary excursi ons
from steady-state speed caused by sudden
l oad changes.
Speed Band Tol erance on speed at any
steady l oad, Fi gure 77. Caterpi l l ar governors
have a speed tol erance of 0.33% whi l e
Woodward governors offer 0.25%.
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

(
H
z
)
0% (Isochronous)
3%
% Load
0
Droop
6%
63.6
61.8
62
60
58
50 100
Generator Applications
Generator Applications
Figure 76
S
p
e
e
d

r
p
m

o
r

H
z
Load
0
Speed Band
1/2 Full
Figure 77
80
81
Transient Response The ti me i nterval
requi red for the engi ne speed to recover from
a sudden l oad change. Overshoot i s the
maxi mum momentary i ncrease i n frequency
on sudden l oad removal . Fi gure 78 i s an
exampl e of how an engi ne reacts to sudden
l oad changes.
Governors are onl y one factor affecti ng
transi ent speed and response. Si ze of l oad,
engi ne confi gurati on, type of generator
vol tage regul ator, and rotati ng i nerti a of
engi ne and generator are greater i nfl uencers
of the engi nes recovery capabi l i ti es.
I SO Cl ass 1 and 2 are i nternati onal standards
for generator set response cri teri a. The two
di fferent I SO Cl asses refer to the performance
l evel or speci fi cati ons. Cl ass 2 has more
demandi ng performance speci fi cati ons than
Cl ass 1.
Caterpi l l ar gen sets are desi gned to perform
wi thi n cl ass 1 and cl ass 2 response cri teri a of
I SO 8528.
Types of Governors
Appl i cati on requi rements for governors
can range from the si mpl e to the compl ex.
And just as there are a wi de vari ety of
appl i cati ons, Caterpi l l ar offers a wi de vari ety
of governors to meet customer needs. Use the
si mpl est governor whi ch wi l l adequatel y
sati sfy the appl i cati on.
Caterpillar
Three percent droop, nonadjustabl e, wi th
manual speed control or synchroni zi ng motor
for remote speed control . Engi ne l ubri cati ng
oi l used for l ubri cati on and hydraul i c power.
Used i n most i nstal l ati ons under 500 kW.
Shares load with paralleled units within 10%.
ADEM II
Advanced Di esel Engi ne Management
(ADEM I I ) control governs engi nes uti l i zi ng
el ectroni c uni t i njecti on systems, wi th engi ne
performance adjusted for al ti tude,
temperature, aftercool er temperature, and
engi ne condi ti on. ADEM mai ntai ns steady
state speed regul ati on of 0.25%, wi th 0
(i sochonous) to 10% speed droop, and shares
l oad wi thi n 0.5% when used wi th the
Woodward di gi tal l oad share modul e. I t
di spl ays real ti me and hi stori cal data whi ch
can be moni tored remotel y.
Overshoot
Load
Applied
Speed Dip
Recovery
Time
Load
Removed
Time
Speed Band
Transient Load Response
Figure 78
Transient Load Response
Figure 79
82
Woodward
PSG
Zero percent (i sochronous) to 7% droop,
external l y adjustabl e, wi th 24V DC
synchroni zi ng motor for remote speed control .
Engi ne l ubri cati ng oi l used but contai ns
i nternal pump. Shares l oad wi th paral l el ed
uni ts wi thi n 5%.
3161
Zero percent (i sochronous) to 10% droop,
external l y adjustabl e, wi th 24V DC
synchroni zi ng motor for remote speed control .
Adjustabl e l oad l i mi t. Uses engi ne oi l suppl y
and i nternal pump whi ch devel ops output
force necessary to control l arge engi nes.
Opti onal manual , el ectri c, pneumati c and
hydraul i c shutdowns. Shares l oad wi thi n 5%.
8290/1724
El ectroni c governor, 0% (i sochronous) to 10%
droop. 1724 actuator i s total l y el ectri c,
requi ri ng 24V DC power. Wi th addi ti on of l oad
share modul e wi l l share l oad wi thi n 5%.
Figure 81
Figure 82
Figure 80
F. P. O.
Use Film from
LEBX3377
F
O
R

P
O
S
I
T
I
O
N

O
N
L
Y
U
s
e

F
i
l
m

f
r
o
m
L
E
B
X
3
3
7
7
FOR POSITION ONLY
Use Film from
Gas A&I Governors LEBX3377
Called in at 70%
83
2301A
El ectroni c governor, 0% (i sochronous) to 10%
droop. System i ncl udes magneti c speed
pi ckup, control for paral l el /non paral l el
operati on and hydraul i c EG3P actuator usi ng
engi ne l ubri cati ng oi l and i nternal pump.
Appl i ed where extreme frequency control i s
demanded or i n automati c paral l el i ng
i nstal l ati ons. Speed control (wi th 3%
mi ni mum speed droop, or l oad shari ng control
(i sochronous) share l oad wi thi n 5%.
Woodward 2301A Load Sharing Governor
The 2301A l oad shari ng governor i s a 2301A
Speed Control wi th the l oad share modul e
bui l t i nto the same control . I t al so uses the
EG3P actuator. When an appl i cati on requi res
l oad shari ng between paral l el ed AC
generators, or the uti l i ty, the 2301A l oad
shari ng governor i s l ess cost than the 2301A
i n combi nati on wi th a l oad control modul e.
Thi s governor i s i sochronous (wi th droop
adjustment) and i s speci fi cal l y desi gned to
provi de automati c and proporti onal l oad
di vi si on between paral l el ed AC generators
and sti l l mai ntai n i sochronous speed. Thi s
governor i s sati sfactory for si ngl e and
mul ti pl e-uni t power appl i cati ons, or when
used i ndi vi dual l y i n the standby mode.
Heinzmann
KG30/STG30
Offers si mi l ar functi onal and performance
characteri sti cs as the Woodward 2301, but
uti l i zes 24V DC el ectri c rather than hydraul i c
actuator.
Figure 84
FOR POSITION ONLY
LEBX3377
Figure 83a
F
O
R

P
O
S
I
T
I
O
N

O
N
L
Y
U
s
e

F
i
l
m

f
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o
m
L
E
B
X
3
3
7
7
Figure 83b
F
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P
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O
N
L
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U
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e

F
i
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f
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3
3
7
7

84

Electric Power Generation

System Design
The need for emergency and conti nuous
el ectri cal power i s i ncreasi ng rapi dl y.
Commerci al or publ i c structures are total l y
dependent on el ectri cal energy sources.
Personnel safety, envi ronment, and
producti on schedul es are adversel y affected
by l ack of power i ntegri ty.
Emergency or standby el ectri cal sources
usual l y conform to the normal uti l i ty suppl y,
but these restri cti ons are not i mposed wi th
on-si te power pl ants. On-si te systems are
tai l ored to exact i nstal l ati on requi rements.
Frequency, vol tage, power l evel s, and
di stri buti on are sel ected to maxi mi ze system
operati ng safety, rel i abi l i ty, and effi ci ency.
Equi pment sati sfyi ng exact i nstal l ati on
demands i s defi ned i n prel i mi nary pl anni ng of
bui l di ng desi gn. The power network extends
throughout an i nstal l ati on. Earl y
consi derati on of i ts requi rements and
capabi l i ti es avoi ds costl y and ti me consumi ng
desi gn changes.
Utility vs On-Site Power
Whi l e the qual i ty of uti l i ty power i s
consi dered acceptabl e for any appl i cati on,
certai n operati ng tol erances are defi ned by
organi zati ons such as Ameri can Nati onal
Standards I nsti tute (ANSI ) and I nternati onal
El ectro-techni cal Commi ssi on (I EC). These
are useful when compari ng capabi l i ti es of on-
si te generator sets.
I EC Standard 38 recommends that under
normal system condi ti ons, vol tage at suppl y
termi nal s shoul d not di ffer from nomi nal
vol tage by more than 10%.
Servi ce vol tage i s measured at the poi nt
where suppl i er and user systems are
connected. Uti l i zati on vol tage i s measured at
the l i ne termi nal s of the user s equi pment.
Generator Set Sizing
Capabi l i ti es of both engi ne and generator
are consi dered i ndi vi dual l y and col l ecti vel y
when sel ecti ng generator sets. Engi nes
produce horsepower (or ki l owatts) whi l e
control l i ng speed or frequency. Generators
i nfl uence engi ne behavi or, but are pri mari l y
responsi bl e for changi ng engi ne power i nto
ki l ovol t-amperes (kVA). They al so must
sati sfy hi gh magneti zi ng current draws
(kVAR) of el ectri cal equi pment.
Compl ete anal ysi s of l oads and the si zi ng,
appl yi ng, and speci fyi ng of generator sets i s
avai l abl e from EPG Desi gner software.
I ni ti al power system desi gn consi ders
generator set power requi red i n ki l owatts
(kW). Thi s summari zes al l generator-
connected l oads. Rarel y wi l l al l connected
devi ces operate si mul taneousl y, so total
connected l oad may not necessari l y be
Utility Power ANSI Standard

Service Voltage 95 - 105% Range A
(Supply) 91.7 - 105% Range B
Utilization Voltage 91.7 - 105% Range A
(User) 88.3 - 105.8% Range B
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
Average monthly kW load curve showing seasonal variation
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

k
W

L
o
a
d
85
requi red. For hospi tal s, however, Nati onal
El ectri c Code (NEC) requi res si zi ng to total
connected emergency l oads. I n most other
appl i cati ons, i f total connected l oad i s used to
si ze the generator set, system costs may be
unnecessari l y hi gh.
Where generator sets suppl y standby power,
separate ci rcui ts are provi ded for cri ti cal or
emergency l oads. These l oads must be total l y
sati sfi ed when normal power fai l s. Standby
sets are si zed to the emergency ci rcui ts total
connected l oad.
Rati on of actual l oad to connected l oad i s
demand factor. Thi s rati o changes wi th ti me.
Si ze of the connected l oad i s determi ned by
addi ng namepl ate rati ngs of al l connected
equi pment.
Durati on of l oad must be establ i shed to sel ect
and operate the system at maxi mum
effi ci ency. Chronol ogi cal and durati on l oad
profi l es best serve thi s purpose. Chronol ogi cal
dai l y l oad curve shows l oad demand
throughout the day. The curve i n fi gure 86
establ i shes peak dai l y demand and ai ds
sel ecti on of engi ne si ze. I t i s al so useful i n
programmi ng uni ts for operati ng
economi cal l y.
Durati on curves rearrange chronol ogi cal
curves and summari ze dai l y l oad. Such curves
are devel oped for a week, month, season, or
year.
Power and Power Factor
Power i s determi ned i n AC ci rcui ts much the
same way as DC ci rcui ts as l ong as the
current and vol tage are i n phase. For purel y
resi sti ve l oads, the power i n watts i s found by
mul ti pl yi ng the RMS vol tage by the RMS
current i n amperes. When i nducti ve or
capaci ti ve el ements are present i n the l oad,
the product of vol tage and current no l onger
gi ves a true i ndi cati on of the actual power
bei ng consumed. I n such cases a correcti on
factor must be appl i ed, known as the

power
factor of the l oad. The apparent power i s the
product of vol tage and current, expressed i n
vol t-amperes. The actual power i s expressed
i n watts. The power factor i s defi ned as the
rati o of the actual power to the apparent
power:
Total Connected Load
Peak Demand
Emergency
Connected Load
Average Load
AM PM
Time
L
o
a
d
Typical Load Profile
Figure 85
12 12 3 6 9 12 3 6 9
A
AMTimePM
Load,
Kilowatts
Chronological
0
0 24 3 6 9 12 15 18 21
B
Time (Hours)
Load,
Kilowatts
Duration
0
Figure 86
Typical Load Profile
Chronological Duration
86
Power Factor =
Actual Power (watts)
Apparent Power (VA)
I n magneti c ci rcui ts, current l ags vol tage.
Fi gure 87a represents current l aggi ng
correspondi ng vol tage by 60 (1/6 cycl e).
Where both are posi ti ve, or both negati ve,
resul ti ng power i s posi ti ve. Thi s i s
represented by shaded areas abovethe zero
l i ne, Fi gure 87c.
I n mathemati cal terms, the power factor i s
equal to the cosi ne of the angl e by whi ch the
current l eads or l ags the vol tage. I f the
current l ags the vol tage i n an i nducti ve ci rcui t
by 60 the power factor wi l l be 0.5 the
val ue of the cosi ne functi on at 60. I f the
phase of the current i n a l oad l eads the phase
of the vol tage, the l oad i s sai d to have a
leading power factor; i f i t l ags, i t has lagging
power factor. I f the vol tage and current are i n
phase, the ci rcui t has a unity power factor.
I t i s apparent from the precedi ng formul ae
that i f the power factor of a l oad i s l ow, more
current wi l l fl ow at a gi ven vol tage to del i ver
a speci fi ed power to the l oad than i f the power
factor i s uni ty. Thi s fact i s rel ati vel y
uni mportant i n an i deal ci rcui t where
generators and conductors have no resi stance.
I n practi cal appl i cati ons, however, resi stances
do exi st. The wi re wi th whi ch the generator
coi l s are wound and the wi res whi ch carry the
current from the generator to the l oad both
have fi ni te resi stance. The power di ssi pated i n
a resi stance i s a functi on of the square of the
current. A smal l i ncrease i n current wi l l cause
a much l arger i ncrease i n the power
di ssi pated and, i n thi s case, wasted. El ectri cal
equi pment, and i nsul ati on i n parti cul ar, can
wi thstand onl y a certai n amount of heat. I t i s
desi rabl e to reduce the current fl ow as much
as possi bl e when del i veri ng power to the l oad.
Wi th a power factor of 1.0, the current for a
gi ven power l oad i s mi ni mi zed. The ful l
capaci ty of the equi pment may be uti l i zed to
provi de useful power to the l oad.
I n si tuati ons where the l oad consi sts
pri mari l y of l arge el ectri c motors, i t may not
be practi cal to achi eve a uni ty power factor.
The generator then must be desi gned to
wi thstand l oads havi ng l ow power factors.
The excess current that fl ows i n a ci rcui t wi th
l ess than uni ty power factor i s known as the
reacti ve component of the total current. The
porti on of the apparent power whi ch i s due to
thi s reacti ve component i s termed the reactive
volt-amperes. I t represents the vector
di fference between the apparent power and
the actual power. I n power ci rcui ts, where
vol tages are often measured i n ki l o-vol ts
(thousands of vol ts), thi s reacti ve component
of the apparent power i s denoted by the
abbrevi ati on kVAR or rkVA reacti ve ki l o-
vol t amperes. (Fi gure 87c and 87d gi ves the
rel ati onshi p between kW, kVA and kVAR.)
87
Figure 87c
kW Power
kVAR
Voltage Current
The kW and kVAR do not occur at the same phase angle and to determine the kVA must be added
vectorily as represented below. The kVA can be calculated by taking the square root of the sum of
the squares of kW and kVAR or by dividing the kW by the cosine of the phase angle.
+
-
Figure 87d
Where equals the phase relationship between current and
voltage. Arc sine 36.87= 400/500 - .8 which is the power factor.
kW/COS = kVA
Sine kVA = kVAR
COSE kVA = kW

5
0
0

k
V

A
400 kW
300
kVAR
90
= 36.87

Inductive load is a load which causes the current to lag the voltage.
Capacitive load is a load which causes the current to lead the voltage.
Voltage Current
Figure 87a
Voltage Current
Reactive load is the net result of inductive and capacitive loads on the same circuit which causes
the current to shift out of phase with the voltage.
This, in turn, creates reactive load (kVAR) in combination with real power (kW).
Figure 87b
88
NEMA suggests 0.8 pf for standard generator
rati ng. Commerci al appl i cati ons combi ne
motor l oads wi th heati ng and l i ghti ng l oads,
so 0.8-0.9 pf may be assumed. Power factor of
common l oads i s shown above.
kW and kVA Requirements of Load
I n sel ecti ng the correct si ze generator set for a
gi ven l oad, the l oad kVA requi rements are
the most i mportant factor. The generator set
shoul d have suffi ci ent capaci ty to suppl y
maxi mum l oad condi ti ons after the l oad factor
has been taken i nto account. I t shoul d al so
have reserve capaci ty to al l ow for motor
starti ng and for some future expansi on i n l oad
where i ndi cated. Standard practi ce i s that the
generator set have 20 to 25 percent more
capaci ty than requi red for actual maxi mum
l oad condi ti ons. I t i s assumed that si ngl e-
phase l oads wi l l be evenl y bal anced on the
phases of a three-phase generator set. I f thi s
cannot be accompl i shed, a l arger capaci ty
generator may be requi red to handl e the extra
kVA l oad on the phases carryi ng si ngl e-phase
ci rcui ts, i n addi ti on to the normal three-phase
l oad. The probl em i s consi dered i n more detai l
l ater i n thi s secti on. I n si tuati ons where the
power factor of the l oad i s si gni fi cantl y bel ow
the val ue the generator set kW output i s
rated, a l arger capaci ty generator may be
requi red to suppl y the addi ti onal kVA. The
l i ne current requi rements of the actual l oad
must never exceed the generator namepl ate
rati ng.
Power Factor of Typical AC Loads
Unity (or near unity) Leading Power
Power Factor Lagging Power Factor Factor
Approximate Approximate
Load Power Factor Load Power Factor Load
Incandescent Lamps 1.0 Induction Motors Synchronous Motors
(Power factor of lamp circuits (Rated load and speed) (Are designed in stan-
operating off step-down trans- Split Phase Below 1 hp 0.55 to 0.75 dard ratings at unity,
formers will be somewhat Split Phase, 1 hp to 10 hp 0.75 to 0.85 0.9 and 0.8 leading
below unity) power factor)
Polyphase, Squirrel Cage
Fluorescent Lamps 0.95 to 0.97 High Speed, 1 hp to 10 hp 0.75 to 0.90 Synchronous Condensers
(with built-in capacitor) High Speed, 10 hp and Larger 0.85 to 0.92 (Nearly zero leading
Low Speed 0.70 to 0.85 power factor. Output
practically all leading
reactive kVA)
Resistor Heating Apparatus 1.0 Wound Rotor 0.80 to 0.90
Synchronous Motors 1.0 Groups of Induction Motors 0.50 to 0.90 Capacitors
(Operate at leading power (Zero leading power
factor at part loads; also built factor. Output practically
for leading power factor operation) all leading reactive kVA)
Welders
Motor Generator-Type 0.50 to 0.60
Transformer-Type 0.50 to 0.70
Rotary Converters 1.0
Arc Furnaces 0.80 to 0.90
Induction Furnaces 0.60 to 0.70
89
Generator vs Engine Size
Normal l y a generator set i s furni shed wi th a
generator whi ch matches the engi ne output
capabi l i ty. Where power factors are l ow,
however, i t may be advantageous to sel ect an
oversi zed generator rather that speci fy the
next l arger si ze generator set. Si nce the
engi ne horsepower output i s rel ated to kW
and not necessari l y to kVA, for a gi ven
engi ne output, an oversi zed generator wi l l
suppl y essenti al l y the same kW output as a
normal generator, but wi l l be abl e to tol erate a
hi gher val ue of reacti ve kVA because of i ts
greater current-carryi ng capaci ty. Engi ne and
generator performance are rel ated by:
ekW = pf x kVA
bkW =
ekW
eff
kVA = kVA output of generator
pf = power factor of connected l oad
ekW = el ectri cal power
bkW = engi ne power
eff = generator effi ci ency
Engine Sizing and Selection
Engi nes are si zed accordi ng to the actual
power i n kW requi red to meet the needs of the
faci l i ty. The generator, on the other hand,
must be capabl e of handl i ng the maxi mum
apparent power whi ch i s measured i n kVA.
There are several ways i n whi ch the actual
power can be i denti fi ed. I t can be cal cul ated
by addi ng the namepl ate rati ngs of the
equi pment to be powered by the generator. I f
thi s i s done, the effi ci enci es of the equi pment
must al so be added. The actual power can be
determi ned by performi ng a l oad anal ysi s on
the faci l i ty. Thi s i nvol ves maki ng a survey of
the power requi rements over a peri od of ti me.
Engine-Generator Set Load Factor
Load factor of a generator set i s the sum of
products of:
% of ti me x % of l oad
Wi th: % of ti me = ti me at speci fi c l oad/total
operati ng ti me
% of l oad = speci fi c l oad/rated l oad
Extended i dl i ng ti me and the ti me when the
generator set i s not operati ng does not enter
i nto the cal cul ati on for l oad factor. Rati ng
defi ni ti ons for Caterpi l l ar Generator Sets are
on the fol l owi ng page.
Figure 88
ENGINE LOAD GENERATOR
kW pf kVA
kW = pf x kVA
90
Caterpillar Rating Definitions
Standby Rating:
Output available with varying load for the duration of the interruption for the normal power source.*
Typical Load Factor = 60% or less
Typical Hours per Year = 100 hours
Typical Peak Demand = 80% of standby rated ekW with 100% of rating available for the duration of an emergency outage.
Typical Application = Building Services standby and enclosed/sheltered environment.
Prime Rating + 10%:
Output available with varying load for the duration of the interruption for the normal power source.*
Typical Load Factor = 60% or less
Typical Hours per Year = less than 500 hours
Typical Peak Demand = 80% of rated ekW with 100% of rating available for duration of an emergency outage.
Typical Application = uncovered standby, rental, power modules, unreliable utility.
Prime Rating:
Output available with varying load for an unlimited time.**
Typical Load Factor = 60% to 70%
Typical Hours per Year = no limit
Typical Peak Demand = 100% of prime rating used occasionally.
Typical Application = industrial, pumping, construction, peak shaving or cogeneration.
Continuous Rating:
Output available without varying load for an unlimited time.***
Typical Load Factor = 70% to 100%
Typical Hours per Year = no limit
Typical Peak Demand = 100% of continuous rating used 100% of the time.
Typical Application = base load, utility, cogeneration, parallel operation.
Load Management when not Paralleled with the Utility:
Output available with varying load for less than 6 hours per day*.
Typical Load Factor = 60% or less
Typical Hours per Year = less than 500 hours
Typical Peak Demand = 80% of rated ekW with 100% of rating available for duration of an emergency outage.
Typical Application = interruptible utility rates, peak sharing.
Load Management when Paralleled with the Utility Under 200 Hours per Year:
Output available without varying load for under 200 hours per year and less than 6 hours per day.**
Typical Load Factor = 60% to 70%
Typical Hours per Year = under 200 hours
Typical Peak Demand = 100% of prime plus 10% rating used occasionally.
Typical Application = peak sharing or co-generation.
Load Management when Paralleled with the Utility Under 500 Hours per Year:
Output available without varying load for under 500 hours per year.
Typical Load Factor = 60% to 70%
Typical Hours per Year = under 500 hours
Typical Peak Demand = 100% of prime rating used occasionally.
Typical Application = peak sharing or co-generation.
Load Management when Paralleled with the Utility Over 500 Hours per Year:
Output available without varying load for unlimited time.***
Typical Load Factor = 70% to 100%
Typical Hours per Year = no limit
Typical Peak Demand = 100% of continuous rating used 100% of the time.
Typical Application = base load, utility, peak sharing, cogeneration, parallel operation.

Operating above these rating definitions will result in shorter life and higher generating costs per year. For conditions outside the
above limits, please contact your local Caterpillar Dealer.
* Fuel Stop Power in accordance with ISO 3046/1, AS2789, DIN6271, and BS5514.
** Prime Power in accordance with ISO 8528. Overload power in accordance with ISO 3046/1, AS2789, DIN6271, and BS5514.
*** Continuous Power in accordance with ISO 8528, ISO 3046/1, AS2789, DIN 6271, and BS5514.
91
Generator Sizing and Selection
Li ke engi nes, generators must meet l oad
demands. Whi l e engi nes provi de power (kW)
and frequency control , generators i nfl uence
kVA and vol tage control .
Thi s secti on i s i ntended to hel p the customer
through the generator sel ecti on and si zi ng
process. A software program, EPG Desi gner,
i s avai l abl e to consi der si zi ng, appl yi ng and
speci fyi ng opti ons. The topi cs to be covered
i ncl ude: equi pment consi derati ons (motors,
l i ghti ng, computers, etc.), appl i cati on
consi derati ons (mul ti pl e gen sets, paral l el i ng,
standby gen sets, etc.), desi gn consi derati ons
(generator set desi gn, NEMA, harmoni cs,
etc.), and transi ent response and stabi l i ty.
Equipment Considerations
Al l owabl e vol tage and frequency vari ati ons
depends on the type of equi pment on l i ne.
Motor starti ng contractors may open i f vol tage
drops bel ow 65% of rated. Vol tage di ps l ess
than 30% are someti mes commerci al l y
acceptabl e. The chart bel ow summari zes
typi cal equi pment tol erances.
Motors
AC el ectri c motors represent i nducti ve l oads
wi th l aggi ng power factors between 0.5 and
0.95, dependi ng on si ze, type, and l oadi ng.
Excepti ons are synchronous motors whi ch
have uni ty or even l eadi ng power factors,
dependi ng on exci tati on.
Typical Equipment Power Tolerances
Voltage
Duration of Frequency Harmonics
Device Variation Interruption Variation and Noise Remarks
NEMA Induction Motors + 10% Varies With Load + 5% Increases Heat Sum of Voltage
30 Cycle Reclosure and Frequency
Usually Acceptable Not to Exceed 10%
NEMA AC Control Relays + 10% Continuously Drops Out In One +5% Insensitive
Pickup On - 15% Cycle or Less
Hold in - 25%
(Approximate)
Solenoids-Valves, + 30% to 40% 1/2 Cycle
Brakes, Clutches
Starter Coils,
Motor Contactors
AC Pickup -15% Continuous
AC Dropout -40% to -60% Continuous
AC Burnout -15% to 10% Continuous
DC Pickup -20% Continuous
DC Dropout -30% to -40% Continuous
Fluorescent Lights -10% Erratic Start
Incandescent Lights -25% to +15% Short Life
Mercury Vapor Lights -50% 2 Cycles Extinguished
Communications +5% Variable Sensitive
Radio, TV, Telephone to Spike
Computers +10% 1 Cycle + 1/2 Hz 5%
-8%
Electronic Tubes +5% Variable
Inverters +5% at Full Load +2 Hz 2% Sensitive May Require
to Spikes Isolating Trans-
former, Filters
Thyristor (SCR) + 10% at No Load, Sensitive
-10% Transient
Rectifiers, Solid- +10% Sensitive
State Diode
Note: Final determination of power requirements must result from equipment supplier's specific recommendations
92
Motors draw starti ng currents two to ei ght
ti mes normal runni ng current. Prel oads on
motors do not vary maxi mum starti ng
currents, but do determi ne ti me requi red for
motors to achi eve rated speed and current and
to drop back to normal runni ng val ue. I f
motors are excessi vel y l oaded, they may not
start or may run at at reduced speed. Both
starti ng and runni ng current are consi dered
when anal yzi ng total kVA requi rement.
Each motor i s sel ected for parti cul ar
characteri sti cs, and each represents di fferent
types of starti ng and runni ng l oads.
Squirrel Cage
Most three-phase motors are squi rrel -cage
type. U.S. Nati onal El ectri c Manufacturers
Associ ati on (NEMA) uses two methods of
cl assi fi cati on -- desi gn and code. Motor
namepl ates normal l y carry both these
desi gnati ons, but there i s no di rect
rel ati onshi p. Most common NEMA desi gns
are shown i n chart bel ow.
Wound Rotor (Slip Ring)
Wound rotor motors use sl i p ri ngs, or col l ector
ri ngs, to connect rotor wi ndi ngs to an external
swi tch-control l ed resi stor for starti ng current
regul ati on. Usual l y these motors are started
near uni ty power factor. Starti ng current i s
l i mi ted to 130% of rated operati ng current.
They are appl i ed on equi pment starti ng under
heavy l oad, or for vari abl e speed operati on.
Because they have no code l etter, exact
operati ng performance must be obtai ned from
the motor namepl ate or manufacturer.
Synchronous
Synchronous motors mai ntai n constant speed,
synchroni zed wi th power l i ne frequency. They
are sel dom found i n si zes under 40 hp.
Synchronous motor power factor i s a functi on
of l oad and exci tati on. Some produce l eadi ng
power factors at ful l l oad to i mprove overal l
system power factor. Synchronous motors
start as i nducti on motors, so suffi ci ent system
capaci ty must be avai l abl e to sati sfy starti ng
current demands.
Characteri sti cs of speci fi c synchronous motors
are obtai ned from the motor manufacturer.
Design Performance Typical Uses
A Starting current 6-7 x rated General Purposes
Starting torque 150% rated
B Starting current 5.5-6 x rated General Purposes
Starting torque 150% rated Fans, blowers,compressors
(starting unloaded),
centrifugal pumps,
generators
C Double squirrel cage Reciprocating compressors
Starting current 5.5-6 x rated (starting loaded), conveyors,
Starting torque 225% rated (high) elevators (high breakaway),
crushers (starting loaded),
positive displacement pumps
D High resistance Chippers, punch presses,
Starting current 5.5-6 x rated hoists and cranes
Starting torque 275% rated (high)
high slip, not for continuous duty
F Starting current 3.5-3.75 x rated Limited to motors larger
Starting torque 125% rated than 30 hp
93
DC Motors
Motors operati ng from di rect current are used
where speed control or heavy l oad starti ng
capabi l i ty i s requi red, or where other system
el ements requi re a DC power source. Ful l l oad
effi ci enci es vary from 86% to 92%.
DC motors have no power factor but, when
dri ven through an SCR recti fi er by an AC
generator, the AC does have a power factor. To
determi ne DC l oads on an AC generator:
DC amps =
DC kW x 1000
DC vol ts
AC amps = DC amps x 0.816
AC kVA =
AC vol ts x AC amps x 1.732
1000
Power Factor =
DC kW
AC kVA
Appl y DC motors at as hi gh an rpm as
practi cal to maxi mi ze the system power factor.
Silicon Controlled Rectifier
(SCR) Systems
SCR control devi ces l end themsel ves to
i nfi ni te speed control of motors, recti fi ers,
and uni nterrupted power suppl i es (UPS).
Used wi th l i mi ted power sources, such as
engi ne-dri ven generator sets, SCR swi tchi ng
causes severe vol tage and current waveform
di storti on. Thi s adversel y affects performance
of the enti re system.
Generator regul ators can be confused by
waveform di storti on, causi ng vol tage surges.
Brushl ess generators wi th three-phase
vol tage sensi ng mi ni mi ze di storti on feedback.
Addi ti onal regul ator fi l ters provi de l i ttl e
i mprovement.
The SCR control may al so be confused.
Fi l teri ng of the control i nput i mproves
control l er performance.
Waveform notchi ng may troubl e other l oads
connected to the l i ne. sol i d-state ti mi ng
devi ces mi scount; zero-crossi ng swi tches may
mal functi on.
Current waveform di storti on can devel op
harmoni c resonances i n system equi pment.
Thi s causes heati ng i n motor and generator
coi l s.
Recti fi ers and UPS systems can l i mi t
di storti on by empl oyi ng mul ti pl e stages of
SCRs. Unfortunatel y, i ncreased costs
di scourage hi gh pul se desi gns.
When pl anni ng systems i ncorporati ng SCR
devi ces, the control manufacturer must be
i nformed that a l i mi ted power source
(generator set) wi l l be used. The system can
then be desi gned to mi ni mi ze di storti on
probl ems.
Li mi ti ng SCR l oads to 66% of a Caterpi l l ar
Generator s pri me power rati ng assures
regul ator control and avoi ds harmoni cs
caused overheati ng of the generator wi ndi ngs.
Appl i cati ons requi ri ng hi gher l oad factors
must be anal yzed on an i ndi vi dual basi s.
Motor Starting Load
Motors, ei ther l oaded or unl oaded, draw
several ti mes rated ful l l oad current when
starti ng. Thi s i s l ocked rotor current or
starti ng kVA (skVA). Refer to Fi gure 94 for
l ocked rotor current of three-phase i nducti on
motors. skVA can be cal cul ated from l ocked
rotor current.
skVA =
V x A x 1.732
1000
Motors general l y exhi bi t l ow power factors
(0.3 to 0.4) when starti ng. Load i mposed on
the engi ne duri ng starti ng i s cal cul ated by:
kW = Starti ng kVA x pf
The typi cal motor starti ng curve i n
Fi gure 89 i s affected by motor and generator
desi gn and l oad on the motor. I ni ti al vol tage
di p depends mostl y on motor and generator
wi ndi ngs. Addi ti on of seri es boost to the
regul ator, or use of a permanent magnet
exci ter, wi l l not si gni fi cantl y decrease thi s di p.
Al though unl oaded motors i mpose hi gh
i nrush current (skVA) i n generators whi l e
starti ng, kW l oad on the engi ne i s usual l y
smal l .
94
However, motors can draw more than rated
kW duri ng starti ng and accel erati on to rated
speed. Motors connected di rectl y to hi gh
i nerti a centri fugal devi ces or l oaded
reci procati ng compressors cause severe
frequency excursi ons and l engthy motor run
up. Compari ng starti ng currents between
l oaded and unl oaded motors shows the
extended ti me l oaded motors demand hi gh
current.
Effect of l oaded motors on both engi ne and
generator must be determi ned, parti cul arl y i f
l arge motors have hi gh i nerti a l oads and
i ncrease l oad duri ng accel erati on (for exampl e,
l arge centri fugal fans and pumps).
Motor Torque
Motor l oads are establ i shed to determi ne i f
generator and engi ne have, respecti vel y,
adequate kVA and kW. Motor l oad i s torque
requi red by l oad. Thi s torque, i n l b-ft (Nm),
i s usual l y rel ated to speed. Motor l oad i n
horsepower equal s:
hp =
l b-ft x rpm or (Nm x rpm)
5250 7350
The fol l owi ng torque requi rements must be
establ i shed (usual l y expressed as percent of
runni ng torque).
Starting (Breakaway) Torque
Maxi mum requi red to start rotati on (torque
avai l abl e i s a functi on of motor termi nal
vol tage).
Accelerating Torque
Net di fference at any speed between l oad
requi red torque and motor avai l abl e torque.
Mi ni mum motor torque must exceed
maxi mum torque demanded by connected
l oad. Ti me necessary to achi eve ful l rated
speed i s of utmost i mportance.
Smal l accel erati ng torque i s usual l y caused by
reduced vol tage at the motor. Prol onged
accel erati ng ti me wi th hi gh current draw wi l l
reduce useful motor l i fe. Fi gure 90 refl ects
typi cal motor capabi l i ti es.
Motor Starting
Unloaded
Running
Current
Amperes
6x Running
1 2 3 4
Loaded
5 6 7
Time (Seconds)
Figure 89
95
t* =
J (n
2
- n
1
)
9.55 Ta
Where: t = Accel erati ng Ti me, Seconds
n
2
= Fi nal Speed, rpm
n
1
= I ni ti al Speed, rpm
Ta = Avai l abl e Motor Accel erati ng
Torque ( at Resul tant Vol tage Di p)
l b-i n Nm (l b-i n)
J = Total I nerti a Load, Nms
2
(l b-i n-s
2
) (i ncl udi ng Motor Gear
Dri ve, Etc.)
* Consul t motor manufacturer i f t exceeds 15 seconds.
Synchronous Torque
The steady-state torque devel oped by a
synchronous motor at rated speed.
Peak Torque
Maxi mum a l oad requi res from i ts dri vi ng
motor.
Regenerative Power
Some motor appl i cati ons, such as hoi sti ng,
depend on motors for braki ng. Motors then act
as generators and feed power back to the
generator set. I f no other l oads are connected
to absorb thi s regenerati ve energy, onl y
engi ne fri cti onal horsepower can be rel i ed on
for braki ng. Exceedi ng fri cti onal horsepower
causes generator set overspeed.
Regenerati ve potenti al for a common
appl i cati on, el evators, i s esti mated by:
Regenerati on kW =
Hoi st Motor Horsepower x 1.8 x 0.746
0.9
Where: 0.9 = Motor Effi ci ency
1.8 = Ful l Load Decel erati on Factor
0.746 = Horsepower to kW Conversi on
When combi nati ons of connected l oad and
engi ne fri cti onal horsepower are not suffi ci ent
to restrai n regenerati ve energy, l oad banks
may be added. They acti vate by di recti onal
power rel ays.
1 2 5
6
12
30
60
Abnormal Accelerating
Or Momentary Loading
Running
Overload
8
Locked Rotor
Cold Start Time-Current Withstand Capability Of Squirrel Cage Motors
Operation In This Range Generally Results
From Reduced Voltage. Application
Assistance Required From Motor Supplier.
1
10
100
Time Withstand Capability Versus Multiples of Rated Amperes
for Continuous Duty 3 Phase Squirrel Cage Induction Motors,
Frames 140T-440T
1.0 S.F.
1.15 S.F.
Motors with:
M
i
n
u
t
e
s
S
e
c
o
n
d
s
Multiples Of Rated Ampreres
Figure 90
96
Motor Starting Voltage
I n-rush current to the motor causes a rapi d
drop of generator output vol tage. I n most
cases, 30% vol tage di p i s acceptabl e,
dependi ng on equi pment al ready on l i ne.
Degree of di p must be i denti fi ed by an
osci l l oscope. Meters or mechani cal recorders
are too sl ow for thi s measurement.
Most Motors are i denti fi ed by Nati onal
El ectri c Manufacturers Associ ati on (NEMA)
or Bri ti sh Standards to descri be thei r motor
starti ng characteri sti cs.
Starting kVA
Rated Output Ratio* Rated Output kW
kW Column 1 Column 2 Column 3
Over 1-0 up to 2-5 10-5
Over 2-5 up to 6-3 9-8
Over 6-3 up to 16 9-2
Over 16-0 up to 40 In Excess 8-7
Over 40 up to 100 of Ratios 8-2 6-2
Over 100 up to 250 Given in 7-8 6-0
Column 2
Over 250 up to 650 7-6 5-8
Over 630 up to 1600 7-4 5-6
Over 1600 up to 4000 7-2 5-4
Over 4000 up to 10000 7-0 5-2
* To obtain the ratio of starting current (locked rotor) to rated load current, multiply this ration by per unit efficiency and power factor at rated load.
Identifying Code Letters on AC Motors
NEMA
Code Letter Starting kVA/hp
A 0.00 - 3.14
B 3.15 - 3.54
C 3.55 - 3.99
D 4.00 - 4.49
E 4.50 - 4.99
F 5.00 - 5.59
G 5.60 - 6.29
H 6.30 - 7.09
J 7.10 - 7.99
K 8.00 - 8.99
L 9.00 - 9.99
M 10.00 - 11.19
N 11.20 - 12.49
P 12.50 - 13.99
R 14.00 - 15.99
S 16.00 - 17.99
T 18.00 - 19.99
U 20.00 - 22.39
V 22.40 -
British Standard 2613
Starting kVA
(Locked Rotor)
Design Not to Exceed
A Column 1
B Column 2
C Column 2
D Column 3
E Column 3
F Column 1
G Subject to Agreement
Note: Code letters apply to motors up to 200 hp.
Si ngl e-speed, three-phase, constant-speed
i nducti on motors, when measured wi th rated
source vol tage and frequency i mpressed and
wi th rotor l ocked, must not exceed the
fol l owi ng:
Starting Techniques
I f motor starti ng i s a probl em, consi der the
fol l owi ng:
Change starti ng sequence. Start l argest
motors fi rst. More starti ng kVA i s avai l abl e,
al though i t does not provi de better vol tage
recovery ti me.
Use reduced vol tage starters. Thi s reduces
the kVA requi red to start a gi ven motor. I f
starti ng under l oad, remember thi s starti ng
method al so reduces starti ng torque.
Speci fy oversi zed generators.
Use wound rotor motors. They requi re l ower
starti ng current, but are expensi ve.
Provi de cl utches so motors start before l oads
are appl i ed. Whi l e starti ng kVA demand i s
not reduced, ti me i nterval of hi gh kVA
demand i s shortened.
I mprove system power factor. Thi s reduces
the generator set requi rement to produce
reacti ve kVA, maki ng more kVA avai l abl e
for starti ng.
Locked Rotor Current - NEMA MG 1
60 Hz - 230 Volts 50 Hz - 380 Volts
Locked Rotor Design Locked Rotor Design
Horsepower Current, Amperes* Letters Horsepower Current, Amperes** Letters
1 1/2 20 B,D
1 3/4 25 B,D
1 30 B,D
1-1/2 40 B,D
2 50 B,D
3 64 B,C,D
5 92 B,C,D
7-1/2 127 B,C,D
10 162 B,C,D
15 232 B,C,D
20 290 B,C,D
25 365 B,C,D
30 435 B,C,D
40 580 B,C,D
50 725 B,C,D
60 870 B,C,D
75 1085 B,C,D
100 1450 B,C,D
125 1815 B,C,D
150 2170 B,C,D
200 2900 B,C
250 3650 B
300 4400 B
1 or less 20 B,D
1-1/2 27 B,D
2 34 B,D
3 43 B,C,D
5 61 B,C,D
7-1/2 84 B,C,D
10 107 B,C,D
15 154 B,C,D
20 194 B,C,D
25 243 B,C,D
30 289 B,C,D
40 387 B,C,D
50 482 B,C,D
60 578 B,C,D
75 722 B,C,D
100 965 B,C,D
125 1207 B,C,D
150 1441 B,C,D
200 1927 B,C
* Locked rotor current of motors designed for voltages other than 230
volts shall be inversely proportional to the voltages.
**The locked rotor current of motors designed for voltages other than
380 volts shall be inversely proportional to the voltages.
Figure 92
50
75
100
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

%
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
D
i
pU
n
l
o
a
d
e
d
L
o
a
d
e
d
2 Cycle
2-3 Seconds
Normal Recovery
15 Seconds Maximum
Time
Figure 91
97
98
Use a motor generator set. A motor dri ves
the generator whi ch, i n turn, suppl i es power
to the motor to be started. Thi s system i s
appl i ed i n el evator servi ce. The motor
generator set runs conti nuousl y, and current
surge caused by starti ng of the equi pment
motor i s i sol ated from the remai nder of the
l oad.
Full Voltage Starting
Ful l vol tage, across-l i ne starti ng i s si mpl e, l ow
cost, and preferred when system capaci ty and
performance permi ts. Ful l l i ne vol tage i s
suppl i ed to the motor i nstantl y when the
motor swi tch i s actuated, see Fi gure 94.
Maxi mum starti ng torque i s avai l abl e. The
generator set must have suffi ci ent motor
starti ng kVA capaci ty to l i mi t vol tage drop.
I f actual val ues of motor starti ng currents
cannot be determi ned, approxi matel y 600% of
ful l l oad rated current i s someti mes
esti mated.
Reduced Voltage Starting
Reduced vol tage starti ng decreases motor
starti ng torque, see Fi gure 94. Thi s detracts
from the motor's abi l i ty to start and achi eve
rated speed when burdened by a l oad. Ti me to
reach ful l operati ng speed al so i ncreases.
Reducti on i n motor torque i s cl ose to the
square of vol tage reducti on. An 80% reduced
vol tage starter al l ows the motor, at start-up,
to produce onl y 64% (80% vol tage
2
current
drawn vari es as the square of vol tage)
avai l abl e ful l speed torque.
Motor
Stator
Start: Close 1-2-3
Run: No Change
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

F
u
l
l

L
o
a
d

T
o
r
q
u
e

a
n
d

k
V

A
600
500
400
300
200
100
0 20 40 60 80 100
Percent Synchronous Speed
Motor kVA
Motor Torque
Power Factor
3
2
1
Line
Figure 93
Reduced Voltage Starters
Line Current Starting Torque
Motor Voltage % Full Voltage % of Full Voltage
Type of Starter % Line Voltage Starting Current Starting Torque
Full Voltage Starter 100 100 100
Autotransformer
80% Tap 80 68 64
65% Tap 65 46 42
50% Tap 50 29 25
Resistor Starter
Single Step (Adjusted for 80 80 64
motor voltage to be 80% of
line voltage)
Reactor
50% Tap 50 50 25
45% Tap 45 45 20
37.5% Tap 37.5 37.5 14
Part Winding
(Low speed motors only)
75% Winding 100 75 75
50% Winding 100 50 50
Star Delta 57 33 33
Solid State Adjustable
Figure 94
99
8
7
6
5
3
4
2
1
Motor
Stator
Line
Start: Close 2-3-5-6-7
Run: Open 2-3-5-6-7 Close: 1-4-8
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400
300
200
100
0 20 40 60 80 100
Percent Synchronous Speed
Motor kVA
Motor Torque
7
5
3
4
Motor
Startor
Line
Start: Close 6-7-2-3-4
Transfer: Open 6-7
Run: Close 1-5
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0 20 40 60 80 100
Percent Synchronous Speed
6
2
1
Motor kVA
Motor Torque
Motor
Startor
Start: Close 1-2-3
Run: Close 4-5-6
Reactor
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0 20 40 60 80 100
Percent Synchronous Speed
Motor kVA
Motor Torque
3
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6
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Line
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0 20 40 60 80 100
Percent Synchronous Speed
Motor kVA
Motor
Motor
Startor
Line
3
2
1
6
5
4
9
8
7
Start: Close 1-2-3
Second Step: Close 4-5-6
Third Step: Close 7-8-9
Resistor
Torque
Figure 95
Figure 96
Figure 97
Figure 98
100
Autotransformer Open
Autotransformer starters, al so cal l ed
autocompensators, provi de hi gher starti ng
torque per ampere than other types of reduced
vol tage starters. They are avai l abl e for very
l arge hi gh and l ow vol tage motors. The
autotransformer pri mary connects to the
suppl y l i ne and the motor-to-l ow-vol tage taps
unti l reachi ng predetermi ned speed, see
Fi gure 95. The autotransformer i s then
di sconnected and the motor i s connected
di rectl y to the l i ne.
The si mpl est arrangement i s open ci rcui t
transfer from reduced to ful l vol tage, but i t
causes severe el ectri cal and mechani cal
di sturbances. kVA, when connected di rectl y
to l i ne, coul d exceed starti ng kVA. Thi s
method i s not recommended.
Autotransformer Closed
An al ternati ve, and i ncreasi ngl y popul ar
method, i s cl osed transi ti on (Knorndorfer), see
Fi gure 96. Thi s techni que mi ni mi zes shock
and provi des conti nuous posi ti ve torque
duri ng transfer to ful l vol tage.
Autotransformer starters are magneti cal l y
control l ed. Three taps on the transformer
secondary are set for 50%, 65%, and 80% of
ful l l i ne vol tage. Current drawn from the l i ne
wi l l vary as the square of vol tage at motor
termi nal s. Thus, when the motor i s connected
to the thi rd (80%) tap, l i ne current wi l l be
80%
2
, or 64% of l i ne current that woul d be
drawn at ful l vol tage. The starter requi res
approxi matel y 25 kVA per 100 motor
horsepower as magneti zi ng current. Thi s i s
added to the starti ng kVA of the motor bei ng
started.
Reactor - Resistor
Reactor and resi stor starters reduce
vol tage across the stator wi ndi ngs by
i nserti ng resi stance or reactance i n each l eg
of the ci rcui t and short out when the motor
reaches operati ng speed, see Fi gures 97
and 98. The added resi stance i mposes
consi derabl e l oad on the engi ne. Thi s method
provi des smooth accel erati on as the starti ng
ci rcui t i s removed wi thout momentari l y
di sconnecti ng motor from l i ne. However, l i ne
current equal s motor coi l current, resul ti ng i n
poorer torque-to-kVA rati os than
autotransformer compensators. Reactor and
resi stor starters do provi de cl osed transi ti on
starti ng and are normal l y l ower pri ced than
autotransformer starters.
Part Winding
A speci al motor has the stator wound wi th
two or more paral l el ci rcui ts, see Fi gure 99.
These are successi vel y connected to the l i ne as
motor speed i ncreases. Cl osed transi ti on
starti ng and good torque-to-kVA rati o i s
possi bl e, but the techni que i s not sui tabl e for
smal l , hi gh speed motors.
Wye (Star) Delta
The motor starts as a wye-connected motor
and runs del ta connected, see Fi gure 100. I t
has a si mpl e motor connecti on wi th open
transi ti on transfer. Torque i s l i mi ted to 33%
of ful l vol tage torque.
Solid State
The control vari es the SCR conducti on angl e
from 20% to 100%, control l i ng the vol tage to
the motor, general l y from 40% to 80%. Some
have a bypass opti on al l owi ng across-l i ne
starti ng. Common control types i ncl ude:
Vol tage/ti me ramp - i ncreases vol tage unti l
ful l vol tage i s appl i ed across the motor
termi nal s.
Current l i mi t ramp - preset l i mi t to current to
150-450% of motor ful l l oad amperage hol ds
current constant duri ng hi gh torque start-up.
Constant kVA i s mai ntai ned, and sudden
torque changes are el i mi nated. I ni ti al vol tage
step, accel erati on ramp, and current l i mi t are
usual l y adjustabl e, Fi gure 101.
Li near speed/ti me ramp - compl ex control
wi th motor speed feedback whi ch fol l ows a
prescri bed speed ramp to ful l speed and l oad.
101
Lighting
I ncandescent l amps are rated by vol tage and
wattage requi rements. They operate on ei ther
al ternati ng or di rect current si nce power
factor i s uni ty. Current drawn by a l amp i s
found by di vi di ng wattage rati ng by speci fi ed
i nput vol tage.
A =
W
V
I ncandescents draw hi gh i n-rush currents and
are sui tabl e i n appl i cati ons whi ch requi re
fl ashi ng or di mmi ng, wi th operati on over wi de
vol tage ranges. Any vol tage fl uctuati on affects
l amp bri ghtness. Extreme vol tages shorten
fi l ament l i fe.
Fl uorescent l amps are al so rated by vol tage
and wattage. Due to thei r bal l ast transformer,
these l amps have sl i ghtl y l ower power factors
(0.95 to 0.97). When ei ther type l i ght operates
from stepdown transformers, power factor
contri buti on of the transformer must be
consi dered.
The human eye i s sensi ti ve to sl i ght l i ghti ng
fl uctuati ons. A decrease of 1/2 vol t on a
110-vol t i ncandescent bul b i s noti ceabl e. A
one-vol t di p, i f repeated, becomes
objecti onabl e. Fi gure 102 shows the range of
observabl e and objecti onabl e vol tage di ps,
assumi ng di rect i l l umi nati on and medi um-
si zed bul bs.
3
Motor
Startor
Line
Start: Close 1-2-3
Run: Close 4-5-6
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0 20 40 60 80 100
Percent Synchronous Speed
Motor kVA
Motor Torque
2
1
6
5
4
Line
Start: Close 1-2-3-4-5-6
Run: Open 4-5-6
Close 7-8-9
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0 20 40 60 80 100
Percent Synchronous Speed
Motor kVA
Motor Torque
3
2
1
7
9
8
6
5
4
Figure 100
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0 20 40 60 80 100
Percent Synchronous Speed
kVA
Torque
Solid State
Figure 101
Figure 99
102
I f i ndi rect l i ghti ng i s used wi th no
i ncandescent bul bs bel ow 100 watts, these
val ues may be broadened. Thi s i s al so true i f
al l l i ghti ng i s fl uorescent rather than
i ncandescent.
Reci procati ng compressors seri ousl y affect
l i ghti ng qual i ty. Torque pul sati ons vary
motor current, causi ng suffi ci ent vol tage
fl uctuati on to fl i cker l i ghts. Unfortunatel y,
thi s i s a frequency to whi ch eyes are
extremel y sensi ti ve.
A commonl y accepted fi gure for current
vari ati on l i mi ts for motor-dri ven reci procati ng
compressors i s 66% of ful l rated motor
current. Thi s l i mi ts horsepower rati ng of
compressor motors to about 6% of generator
kVA rati ng, objecti onabl e l i ght fl i cker. For
exampl e, a 30 hp motor may be used on
systems havi ng not l ess than 500 kVA of
generator capaci ty i n operati on.
Non-Cyclic Cyclic
Range In Which Eye Is
Most Sensitive To
Cycle Flicker
Threshold of Objection
Threshold of Perception
0
2
4
6
8
10
0.1 0.5 1.0 5.0 10.0 50 100 500 1000
Period of Flicker, Seconds
V
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0

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s
t
e
m
10
Frequency, Cycles/sec
5 2 1 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.05 0.02 0.01 0.005 0.002 0.001
Voltage Level Fluctuation Limits
Cyclic Cyclic Low Frequency Frequent Infrequent
10/sec 2/sec 2/sec 12/min 12/min 1/min 1/min 3/hr
Reciprocating Flashing Signs Single Elevators House Pumps
Pumps Arc-Welders Hoists Sump Pumps
Compressors Manual Spot Cranes Air Conditioning
Automatic Welders Wye-Delta Changes Equipment
Spot Welder Drop Hammers on Elevator Motor Theatrical Lighting
Planers Generator Sets Domestic
Saws X-Ray Equipment Refrigerators
Shears Oil Burners
Group Elevators
Figure 102
103
Typi cal i nstal l ati on requi rements are l i sted.
Transformers
Transformers have i nducti ve characteri sti cs
si mi l ar to motors when chargi ng, wi th i nrush
(magneti zi ng) current as much as 20 ti mes
ful l l oad current when connected to an i nfi ni te
power source. However, when energi zed from
a l i mi ted source such as a generator set, the
transformer fl ux wi l l bui l d i n a few cycl es
even i f the ful l i nrush current i s not avai l abl e.
The affect on the generator set can be i gnored
but, i f vol tage fl uctuati on to hi ghl y sensi ti ve
equi pment must be cl osel y control l ed, kVA
capabi l i ty of the power source must i ncl ude
starti ng of thi s l ow power factor l oad.
Computers
When computers are a porti on of the l oad,
requi red power qual i ty shoul d be speci fi ed by
the computer manufacturer pri or to power
system desi gn. As a general rul e, avoi d heavy
SCR l oads, bl ock l oads, and l arge motor skVA
on computer power l i nes.
Communications Equipment
Communi cati on equi pment i ncl udes broad
ranges of el ectroni c devi ces for transmi ssi on of
i nformati on. Most common are radi o and
tel evi si on broadcasti ng equi pment, i ncl udi ng
studi o uni ts and transmi tters, tel ephone
equi pment, and mi crowave rel ay
transmi tters. General l y, al l devi ces pass thei r
power suppl y through transformers.
Therefore, the power factor i s sl i ghtl y l ess
than uni ty. Most equi pment tol erates
frequency vari ati ons of 5%, except where
synchronous ti mi ng devi ces are used. Vol tage
vari ati ons of 10% are usual l y acceptabl e
si nce el ectroni c ci rcui ts sensi ti ve to vol tage
vari ati ons contai n i nternal vol tage regul ati on
devi ces.
Power for compl ex tel ephone systems i s
frequentl y suppl i ed from bui l di ng power
mai ns. Si nce tel ephone operati on can be
essenti al to publ i c safety, some uni ts are
supported from emergency power sources.
Vol tage and frequency stabi l i ty requi rements
for tel ephone equi pment are not severe, but
sol i d-state battery chargers di sturb system
moni tori ng servi ces.
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)
El ectri cal l oads sensi ti ve to power
di sturbances duri ng substati on swi tchi ng,
vol tage fl uctuati ons, or total outages requi re
absol ute conti nui ty of power. Conti nui ty can
be assured by i sol ati ng cri ti cal l oads and
i ncorporati ng one of the fol l owi ng:
Assi gn a generator set sol el y to the cri ti cal
l oad. Sudden l oad changes are suffi ci entl y
smal l to avoi d speed changes.
I sol ate cri ti cal l oad through motor-generator
set to avoi d fi ve-cycl e power i nterrupti ons of
uti l i ty, see Fi gure 103.
Typical Voltage Dip Limitations
Facility Application *Permissible
Voltage Dip
Hospital, hotel Lighting load, large 2%
motel, apartments, Power load, large Infrequent
libraries, schools, Flickering highly
and stores. objectionable.
Movie Theaters Lighting load, large 3%
(sound tone requires Flickering Infrequent
constant frequency. objectionable.
Neon flashers
erratic.)
Bars and resorts. Power load, large 5% - 10%
Some flicker Infrequent
acceptable.
Shops, factories, Power load, large 3% - 5%
mills, laundries. Some flicker Frequent
acceptable.
Mines, oil field, Power load, large 25% - 30%
quarries, asphalt, Flicker acceptable. Frequent
plants.
* Greater voltage fluctuations permitted with emergency
power systems.
Utility
Standby
Generator
Motor Generator
Load
Figure 103
104
Longer power i nterrupti ons requi re added
i nerti a to mai ntai n frequency unti l stand-by
uni t can assume l oad. Extreme control
i ncorporates eddy-current coupl i ng
between over-frequency motor and
synchronous generator, see Fi gure 104.
Stati c systems i sol ate cri ti cal l oad
through sol i d-state devi ces whi ch use
batteri es to bri dge power i nterrupti on.
Refer to di scussi on of SCR systems, See
Fi gure 105.
X-Ray Equipment
Al though thi s equi pment typi cal l y exhi bi ts
very hi gh vol tage requi rements, current draw
i s smal l . Total kVA at near-uni ty power factor
resul ts i n l ow kW l oad demand.
These l oads general l y represent onl y a smal l
part of generator set l oad, so x-ray pi ctures
are not affected. As x-ray equi pment i s
acti vated, i n-rush kVA shoul d cause l ess than
10% vol tage di p to mai ntai n pi cture qual i ty.
Application Considerations
Multiple Generator Sets
I n some si tuati ons, the use of more than one
generator set i s mandatory. I n others, i t may
prove more economi cal . Cri ti cal i nstal l ati ons
i n whi ch the pri me power source i s a
generator set, requi res backup power. A
second generator set capabl e of carryi ng
cri ti cal l oads shoul d be made avai l abl e i n case
of pri mary set fai l ure and for use duri ng
pri me set mai ntenance peri ods.
Cases where mul ti pl e generator set
i nstal l ati ons may prove more economi cal are
those where there i s a l arge vari ati on i n l oad
duri ng the course of a day, week, month, or
year. Such vari ati on i s typi cal i n pl ants i n
whi ch operati ons are carri ed on pri mari l y
duri ng the day, whi l e onl y smal l l oads exi st at
ni ght. The more cl osel y a generator set comes
to bei ng ful l y l oaded, the greater the fuel
economy per ki l owatt produced. Therefore,
the use of a smal l uni t to power l i ght off-hour
l oads wi l l often resul t i n l ong-term fuel
economy.
Motor
Speed
Increaser
Utility
Standby
Generator
Inertia
Eddy
Current
Coupling Generator
Load
Figure 104
Utility
4160V-AC
(Example)
480VAC
Transformer
120VAC
Rectifier
120VAC
Battery
120VAC
Inverter
120VAC
Load
Power Flow
Normal During
Outage
Figure 105
105
I n i nstal l ati ons where the l oad does not vary
to the extremes encountered between day and
ni ght condi ti ons, i t i s someti mes profi tabl e to
share the l oad between several smal l uni ts
operati ng i n paral l el . One or more of the uni ts
may then be shut down when the l oad i s
l i ghter, thereby l oadi ng the other uni ts cl oser
to capaci ty. For exampl e, thi s type of system i s
advantageous where l oad demand i s seasonal .
Paralleling
Usual l y i denti cal generator sets operate i n
paral l el wi thout probl ems but, when
paral l el i ng unl i ke uni ts, consi der the
effects of:
Engi ne Confi gurati on Response to l oad
changes wi l l be affected by engi ne si ze,
turbocharger, governor type, and
adjustment. Temporary unbalance of kW
loads during load change is likely, but
quickly stabilizes.
Generator Desi gn Ci rcul ati ng currents
and harmoni c currents add to basi c l oad
current, i ncreasi ng coi l temperatures, and
causi ng ci rcui t breaker tri ppi ng. Circulating
current is minimized by correct regulator
adjustment. Harmonic interaction between
generators must be calculated to determine
compatibility.
Regul ator Desi gn Automati c vol tage
regul ati on (AVR) of di ssi mi l ar desi gn may be
used when paral l el i ng generators. When
constant voltage regulators are paralleled
with volts-per-Hertz types, imbalance during
transient load changes can be anticipated.
As l oad i s suddenl y appl i ed, constant
vol tage uni ts attempt to suppl y the total
requi rement. As the constant vol tage
generator drops frequency, the vol ts-per-
Hertz uni t begi ns to share l oad. The
temporary l oad i mbal ance passes, and kW
l oad i s shared between generators.
Regulator Compensation
When two or more uni ts are operati ng i n
paral l el , the regul ators must control the
exci tati on of the al ternators so they share the
reacti ve l oad. Two ways are: Reacti ve Droop
Compensati on and Reacti ve Di fferenti al (cross
current) Compensati on.
Reactive droop compensation does not
requi re wi ri ng i nterconnecti on between
regul ators. Duri ng paral l el droop
compensati on operati on, the bus vol tage
droops (decreases) as the reacti ve l aggi ng
power factor l oad i s i ncreased.
Reactive differential (cross current)
compensation requi res the addi ti on of
i nterconnecti ng l eads between the current
transformer secondari es and al l ows operati on
i n paral l el wi thout vol tage droop wi th reacti ve
l oad.
Cross current compensati on can onl y be used
when al l the paral l el i ng current transformers
on al l the generators del i veri ng power to the
bus are i n the CT secondary i nterconnecti on
l oop. Because of thi s requi rement, cross
current compensati on operati on cannot be
used when a generating system is operating in
parallel with the utility power grid. Utility
voltage can vary enough to cause high
circulating current in a paralleled generator.
kVAR control l ers must be used to adjust
generator vol tage to match uti l i ty and
mi ni mi ze ci rcul ati ng current.
Balancing Loads on Available Phases
I f the el ectri cal di stri buti on system served by
a three-phase generator set consi sts enti rel y
of three-phase l oads, the system i s bal anced.
The coi l s maki ng up the generator's three
phases each suppl y the same amount of
current to the l oad. I f si ngl e-phase l oads are
added to the three-phase l oad, a condi ti on of
unbal ance wi l l exi st unl ess the si ngl e-phase
l oads are equal l y di stri buted among each of
the three phases of the generator set.
I n many appl i cati ons, bal anci ng the
si ngl e-phase l oads may not be practi cal . I f
these l oads are rel ati vel y smal l (10% or l ess of
the generator set three-phase kVA capaci ty),
unbal anced si ngl e-phase l oadi ng i s not cause
for concern provi ded each of the three l i ne
currents does not exceed the generator set
rati ng. The fol l owi ng probl ems i l l ustrate the
method of determi ni ng maxi mum si ngl e-
phase l oad whi ch may be safel y drawn from a
generator set si mul taneousl y suppl yi ng
si ngl e-phase and three-phase power.
106
Problem 1:
Fi nd the amount of si ngl e-phase power whi ch
can be safel y drawn from a three-phase,
125/216 vol t, four-wi re generator set, rated to
del i ver 100 kW at 0.8 pf. The coi l current
rati ng of the generator set i s 334 amperes.
Assume the si ngl e-phase l oad i s connected
from one l i ne to neutral and has an operati ng
power factor of 0.9 l aggi ng, and that the
generator set i s al so suppl yi ng a three-phase
l oad of 50 kW at a 0.8 pf.
Sol uti on:
1. Fi nd the current drawn from each of the
l i nes by the three-phase l oad.
P=
3V x I x pf
1000
I =
P x 1000
=
50 x 1000
= 167 amperes
3V x pf 1.73 x 216 x 0.8
2. Fi nd the coi l current capaci ty remai ni ng for
the si ngl e-phase l oad.
334 - 167 = 167 amperes
3. Fi nd the si ngl e-phase power avai l abl e.
P =
V x I x pf
=
125 x 167 x 0.9
= 18.8 kW
1000 1000
Problem 2:
The generator set i s rated to del i ver 100 kW
at a 0.8 pf. I t i s a three-phase machi ne wi th a
coi l current rati ng of 334 amperes. The
three-phase l oad to be suppl i ed i s 50 kW at
0.8 pf. The si ngl e-phase l oad consi sts of both
125 and 216 vol ts ci rcui ts. The 125 vol ts l oad
has a 0.9 pf and i s connected from neutral
to one l eg. Thi s l eg i s common wi th one of
the two suppl yi ng 10 kW at a 0.8 pf to the
216 vol ts l oad, see Fi gure 106.
Sol uti on:
1. The current drawn from each l i ne by the
three-phase l oad i s found by the procedure
used i n step 1 of probl em 1 to be 167
amperes.
2. The coi l capaci ty avai l abl e for si ngl e-phase
l oads i s agai n 167 amperes.
3. Fi nd the 216 vol t si ngl e-phase l oad current.
I =
P x 1000
=
10 x 1000
= 58 amperes
V x pf 216 x 0.8
4. Fi nd the coi l current capaci ty remai ni ng for
the si ngl e-phase 125 vol t l oad.
167 - 58 = 109 amperes
5. Fi nd the 125 vol t si ngl e-phase power
avai l abl e.
P =
V x I x pf
=
125 x 109 x 0.9
= 12.3 kW
1000 1000
Circuit Diagram, Problem 2
125 volt
Single-Phase
.9 pf Load
216 volt
Single-Phase
10 kW @ .8 pf Load
Three-Phase
50 kW 216 volt
.8 pf Load
Figure 106
107
Standby Generator Sets
When appl yi ng and i nstal l i ng standby
generator sets, make certai n consi derati ons to
ensure rel i abl e operati on and l ong, troubl e-
free l i fe. These i ncl ude:
Ori gi nal i nstal l ati on
Operati ng personnel trai ni ng
Peri odi c runni ng and testi ng the uni t
Proper mai ntenance
Proper appl i cati on and i nstal l ati on of the
standby generator set wi l l ensure i ts starti ng
and pi cki ng up the l oad for the durati on of
any normal power outage.
A standby generator set i s used to suppl y
needed el ectri cal l oads when there i s an
i nterrupti on of the normal source of el ectri cal
power. An outage can vary from a few mi nutes
to several days. The generator set i s usual l y
oversi zed for the actual runni ng l oad to al l ow
for opti mal l oad acceptance and l oad
expansi on over the l i fe of the uni t. General l y,
a separate el ectri cal ci rcui t i s provi ded for
cri ti cal emergency l oads whi ch must be
sati sfi ed when normal power fai l s. Standby
sets are si zed to the emergency ci rcui t's total
connected l oad. For hospi tal s, the Nati onal
El ectri cal Code (NEC) requi res a generator
set si ze equal to the total connected
emergency l oad, even though al l may not
operate at the same ti me.
Pl ace the generator set i n a conveni ent
l ocati on where i t i s protected, ensuri ng that
the el ements wi l l not deter the operator from
carryi ng out peri odi c mai ntenance. The
greatest si ngl e cause of i noperabl e standby
generator sets i s l ack of mai ntenance
usual l y di scharged or dry batteri es.
When standby generator sets cannot be
i nstal l ed i n a warm, i ndoor room, they must
be equi pped and mai ntai ned to functi on i n the
outsi de ambi ent temperatures. I f the uni t i s
l ocated i n a very col d envi ronment, the correct
wei ght l ubri cati ng oi l and amount of gl ycol i n
the cool ant must be used. Damage can occur i f
an engi ne i s brought qui ckl y to operati ng
speed and put under l oad when very col d.
Jacket water heaters are avai l abl e to
mai ntai n a mi ni mum jacket water
temperature of 90F (32C). When the uni t i s
outdoors, or where i t i s subject to moi sture
dropl ets i n the ai r, i t must be equi pped wi th
an encl osure. The l ockabl e encl osure can be
used as a securi ty protecti on devi ce. I t seal s
the uni t, i t i s tamper proof, and i t al so
enhances the appearance.
Regulator
The generator regul ator must be compati bl e
wi th the engi ne/generator package . Most
modern generators uti l i ze sol i d-state types.
Constant vol tage regul ators al l ow fi el d forci ng
to the saturati on poi nt to mai ntai n l i ne
vol tage but al l ows the engi ne to be overl oaded
to the extent i t may not recover on appl i cati on
of l arge bl ock l oads.
Vol ts-per-Hertz regul ators di rect vol tage to
fol l ow frequency proporti onal l y, al l owi ng
engi ne recovery from l arge bl ock l oads. Smal l
vol tage changes whi ch occur wi th normal
frequency change (speed droop) are overcome
by gai n control (over compoundi ng)
adjustment. Preci se vol tage l evel s are,
therefore, mai ntai ned duri ng operati on under
steady l oad.
Hertz
Volts
Constant
Volts
Regulators
Volts per
Hertz
Figure 107
Time
108
Modern generator sets bel ow 2000 kW have
l ow i nerti a, and frequency i s severel y affected
by l arge bl ock l oads. Generator sets accepti ng
sudden zero to ful l l oad changes may stal l or
acti vate under-frequency tri ps. Thi s i s avoi ded
by:
1. Sl owi ng regul ator response.
2 Changi ng vol tage proporti onal to frequency
(vol ts-per-hertz). As engi ne reduces speed
due to sudden appl i cati on of l oad, vol tage i s
reduced to rel i eve engi ne of l oad. Vol tage i s
returned as engi ne recovers speed.
To avoi d sl uggi sh regul ator response whi l e
retai ni ng zero to ful l l oad capabi l i ti es,
Caterpi l l ar regul ators are vol ts-per-Hertz
compensated.
Mechani cal vol tage regul ators, common i n
ol der i nstal l ati ons, are sel dom used due to
rel ati vel y sl ow response and hi gh
mai ntenance. They are basi cal l y vari abl e
resi stors (wi re or carbon) i n the exci ter control
ci rcui ts.
Phase Arrangement
The armature of a generator may be si ngl e
coi l , Fi gure 108, or there may be three coi l s
spaced at 120 i nterval s around the frame,
Fi gure 109. I n the l atter case, the output of
the three coi l s wi l l exhi bi t a phase di fference,
si nce the magneti c pol es of the fi el d coi l pass
the three armature coi l s at di fferent ti mes.
Generators constructed i n thi s manner are
cal l ed three-phasegenerators, whi l e those
havi ng onl y one armature coi l are cal l ed
single-phase generators. Three-phase
machi nes are common where a l arge amount
of el ectri cal power i s to be generated.
A three-phase systemi s an AC ci rcui t to whi ch
three vol tages of the same frequency i s
appl i ed. I t i s di spl aced el ectri cal l y by one
thi rd of a cycl e, or 120. The three generator
wi ndi ngs used may be connected i n ei ther a
del ta or a wye (star) confi gurati on.
The wye(star) connecti on, Fi gure 109a, c, has
a neutral poi nt, often connected to earth. The
delta (mesh) connecti on, Fi gure 109b, d, does
not have a neutral poi nt. Coi l s general l y have
a mi dpoi nt. A mi dpoi nt of one coil may be
connected to earth. Generators rated above
500 kW are general l y wye confi gurati on.
Generators rated bel ow 500 kW may be ei ther
wye or del ta. I f al l the coi l ends termi nate i n
accessi bl e connecti ons, fi el d reconnecti on from
wye-to-del ta or del ta-to-wye i s possi bl e.
Termi nal vol tages woul d change.
115V
115V
115V
Neutral
Neutral
Line
Line 1
Line 2
Figure 108
240 Volts
140 Volts
240 Volts
Phase Three-Wire (WYE)
A
216 Volts
125 Volts
216 Volts
Phase Four-Wire (WYE)
C
125 Volts
125 Volts
216 Volts
230 Volts
230 Volts
230 Volts
115 Volts
115 Volts
Phase Four-Wire (DELTA)
D
Phase Three-Wire (DELTA)
B
240 Volts
240 Volts
240 Volts
Figure 109
109
Si ngl e-phase AC ci rcui ts have one vol tage at a
gi ven frequency. These ci rcui ts are used for
l i ghti ng and fracti onal horsepower motor
l oads. They are served by ei ther two or three
wi res.
Two wi res = one neutral (earth or ground),
one l i ne.
Three wi res = one neutral , the other two wi th
equal vol tage, referred to l i nes.
These two types of si ngl e-phase ci rcui ts are
shown i n Fi gure 109. Coi l s suppl yi ng power
may be ei ther the secondari es of step-down
transformers or the stator wi ndi ngs of a
generator set.
I t i s al so common to fi nd combi nati on servi ces
enteri ng an exi sti ng bui l di ng. An exampl e i s
the use of a si ngl e-phase, three-wi re servi ce
for l i ghti ng l oads and a three-phase,
three-wi re servi ce for motor l oads. Determi ne
the l oad di stri buti on on each of the three
phases i n a gi ven i nstal l ati on. The amount of
si ngl e-phase power requi red and the manner
i n whi ch i t i s to be di stri buted on the three
avai l abl e phases of the generator set must
al so be determi ned. I f any of the three phases
i s requi red to suppl y excessi ve si ngl e-phase
power i n addi ti on to the porti on of the three-
phase l oad whi ch i t carri es, the generator may
be overl oaded. The connecti on of si ngl e-phase
l oads wi l l then have to be redi stri buted more
evenl y among the avai l abl e phase. I f exi sti ng
wi ri ng makes thi s i mpracti cal , a l arger si ze
generator must to be speci fi ed to carry the
extra si ngl e-phase l oad.
Rated Amperes
The smal l er ampere fi gure l i sted on the
i nformati on pl ate for al l SR4 Generators
descri bes the l i ne ampere rati ng (when the
generator i s connected) for the l i sted hi gh
vol tage. Li ne ampere rati ngs general l y l i mi t
the kVA rati ng of a generator. The product of
the l i sted l i ne amperes, the rel ated l i ne-to-l i ne
vol tage, and 1.732, equal s the kVA. Exceedi ng
the l i ne ampere rati ng can reduce generator
l i fe because of excessi ve wi ndi ng temperature.
Heat i nput of the generator armature
i ncreases wi th the square of the current.
Doubl i ng the current wi l l resul t i n about four
ti mes the heat i nput.
As a rul e, the l i sted l i ne ampere rati ng shoul d
not be exceeded to gai n the l i sted kVA rati ng
when the vol tage l evel i s reduced to i ts
mi ni mum adjustment. I t i s not necessary to
reduce the l i ne ampere l oad to keep wi thi n
the kVA l i mi t when the vol tage l evel i s at
maxi mum adjustment.
Generator set ki l owatt rati ng wi l l be exceeded
before the l i ne ampere rati ng i s reached when
suppl yi ng a resi sti ve l oad Power factor
greater than 0.8.
Number of Poles/Synchronous Speed
Caterpi l l ar generators are four-, si x-, or ei ght-
pol e, whi ch rel ates to the number of magneti c
pol es devel oped i n the rotati ng fi el d. Magneti c
pol es i n a four-pol e generator are arranged
north-south-north-south around the
ci rcumference of the rotor, Fi gure 110.
Magneti c pol es i n a si x-pol e generator are
arranged north-south-north-south-north-
south. The number of pol es (north-south-
north-south) and the desi red frequency (cycles
per second or Hertz) determi ne the
synchronous speed i n revol uti on per mi nute
(rpm):
rpm =
120 x f
number of pol es
I f 50 Hz i s desi red from a four-pol e generator,
the generator must be dri ven at 1500 rpm. I f
a si x-pol e generator i s dri ven at 1000 rpm:
1000 rpm =
120 x f
f = 50
6
Figure 110
110
Generator Characteristics
Fault Current
Maxi mum faul t current devel oped by systems
can be cal cul ated at any poi nt i n that system.
I nterrupti ng capaci ty of overcurrent devi ces
must be greater than faul t current del i vered
where the devi ce i s appl i ed.
Maxi mum short ci rcui t current whi ch
generators produce i s sl i ghtl y affected by
regul ator desi gn, so onl y el ectri cal properti es
of the generator are consi dered. Three-phase
fi rst cycl e, symmetri cal , RMS short ci rcui t
current devel oped by a generator i s:
I sc =
I g
x"d
I sc = Short ci rcui t current
I g = Generator rated amperage
x"d = Di rect axi s subtransi ent reactance per
uni t val ue.
Li ne-to-neutral short ci rcui t val ves may
exceed those of three phase shorts.
Caterpi l l ar Generators typi cal l y produce ei ght
ti mes rated current on a three-phase faul t. I f
generators are i n paral l el , or paral l el ed to
uti l i ty bus, overcurrent devi ces must
wi thstand the total short ci rcui t current
devel oped by al l generati ng devi ces.
Synchronous and i nducti on motors feed
addi ti onal short ci rcui t current to the faul t at
a val ue approxi matel y equal to thei r l ocked
rotor rati ng. I f a ci rcui t breaker i s used,
addi ti onal protecti ve devi ces upstream of the
breaker may be requi red when connected to
uti l i ty.
Wi thout outsi de i nfl uence, short ci rcui t
current devel oped by the generator decays
wi thi n three to fi ve cycl es bel ow the acti vati ng
range of the overcurrent devi ce. Whi l e
cl eari ng ti me of ci rcui t breaker contacts may
range from 1-1/2 to 3 cycl es, actual unl atchi ng
ti me i s l ess than 1 cycl e. Thi s rapi d reacti on
al l ows the breaker to separate the faul t from
the bus.
Coordi nati on, or sel ecti vi ty, of al l overcurrent
devi ces i n the di stri buti on system i s requi red
to protect agai nst total system fai l ure on short
ci rcui t faul ts. When thi s capabi l i ty i s
requi red, both overcurrent devi ces and
generator characteri sti cs must be expanded.
Ci rcui t breakers or fuses must i ncl ude short
ti me del ays. Del ays between unl atchi ng and
actual cl eari ng of the overcurrent are the
major obstacl e i n coordi nati ng breakers.
These del ays al so al l ow current to fl ow
through a breaker unti l contacts cl ear and
exti ngui sh the arc. I n a poorl y coordi nated
system wi th several breakers may start to
unl atch pri or to the faul t bei ng cl eared by
smal l er breaker. Thi s coul d di sabl e the enti re
system.
The generator must conti nue to suppl y hi gh
current l evel s duri ng the faul t to al l ow ti me
for coordi nati ng al l protecti ve devi ces. Actual
ti me requi red i s usual l y l ess than three
seconds, but certai n speci fi cati ons requi re ten
seconds mi ni mum for mai ntai ni ng current
l evel s 300% above rated. The generator
requi res a seri es boost opti on on the regul ator
ci rcui t or a permanent magnet exci ter to
sati sfy these requi rements. The graphi c
descri bes the effect of seri es boost or PM on a
typi cal decrement curve.
111
Generator Grounding

Warni ng: Generator must be properly
grounded prior to operation. NEC
recommends 25 Ohm maximum resistance to
ground. Reference ANSI / I EEE C37-101-1985,
"Guide for Generator Ground Protection".
Single Bearing Generator Sets
Si ngl e beari ng generator rotors are rear
supported by a beari ng i n the generator
frame, and front supported by the rear
crankshaft mai n beari ng. A fl exi bl e metal
coupl i ng i s used to dri ve the generator. The
wei ght supported by the crankshaft beari ng i s
l i mi ted. Rotor wei ght must be compared to the
capabi l i ty of the speci fi c engi ne.
The fol l owi ng chart shows al l owabl e l oad at
the fl ywheel . Fi gure 112 shows how to
cal cul ate the rotor l oad at the fl ywheel .
Typical Generator Short Circuit Current
1200
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
%
Amperes
-Level Specified
by Marine Societies for
Selective Circuit
Breaker Tripping
Rated Current
0.05
3
0.10
6
0.15
9
0.20
12
0.25
15
0.30
18
0.35
21
0.40
24
With Series Boost or PM
Cycles
Seconds
W/O Series Boost or PM
Figure 111
Maximum Weight at Flywheel
lb kg
3600 (Vee) 7500 3410
3600 (In-Line) 7100 3220
3500 (All) 2000 910
3412 1420 642
3408B 1230 556
3406B 1750 795
3300B (All) 932 424
112
NEMAIEC Design Considerations
Most generators manufactured i n the Uni ted
States fol l ow desi gn cri teri a descri bed by
Nati onal El ectri c Manufacturers Associ ati on
(NEMA), i ncl udi ng temperature l i mi tati ons of
vari ous wi re i nsul ati ons.
Manufacturers i n other countri es commonl y
refer to I nternati onal El ectro-techni cal
Commi ssi on (I EC) standards.
NEMA Considerations
Temperature Rise MG 1-22.40
When l ow al ti tude testi ng generators that wi l l
ul ti matel y be appl i ed above 1007 m (3300 ft),
the above temperature ri se fi gures must be
reduced 1% per 101 m (330 ft) to a maxi mum
al ti tude of 3963 m (13,000 ft).
Temperature ri ses i n the foregoi ng tabl e are
based on a reference ambi ent temperature of
40C, (104F). For successful generator
operati on i n ambi ent temperatures hi gher
than 40C, (104F), the temperature ri se of
the generators gi ven i n the foregoi ng tabl e
shoul d be reduced as i ndi cated bel ow.
Usabl e l i fe of wi re i nsul ati on i s di rectl y
rel ated to temperature, but cannot be used to
predi ct total generator l i fe. The many
subassembl i es whi ch make up the generator
wi l l have far greater effect on generator l i fe.
Maximum Momentary
Overloads MG 1-22.41
Synchronous generators shal l be capabl e of
carryi ng a one-mi nute overl oad of 50% of
normal rated current, wi th the fi el d set for
normal rated l oad exci tati on.
Maximum Deviation Factor MG 1-22.42
The devi ati on factor of the open ci rcui t,
l i ne-to-l i ne termi nal vol tage of synchronous
generators shal l not exceed 0.1.
Telephone Influence
Factor (TIF) MG 1-22.43
Thi s i s a cri teri a ori gi nal l y devel oped by
AT&T to measure the potenti al effect of
waveform di storti on and AC suppl y i n
produci ng noi se on a tel ephone system a
measure of the qual i ty of el ectri cal power.
The TI F i s the sum of al l the el ectri cal noi se
(harmoni cs) produced by a source of
el ectri ci ty, wei ghted most heavi l y by those
frequenci es most audi bl e to the human ear.
The human ear can detect a wi de range of
frequenci es, but i s most sensi ti ve to the range
of 1000 to 3000 Hz, correspondi ng to the 17th
through 49th (odd numbered) harmoni cs.
X Y
C.G.
Generator
Bearing
Weight to be
Supported by the
Generator Bearing Rotor Weight
Weight to be
Supported by the
Engine Flywheel
Weight Supported by Flywheel =
(Rotor Weight) x (Length Y)

(Length X) + (Length Y)
Figure 112
Temperature Rise, C*
Generator Class of Insulation
Windings A B F H
Continuous 60 80 105 125
Standby Duty 85 105 130 150
*Measured by resistance. Air entering generator, 40C, (104F), maximum.
(Cat. Insulation Class F.)
Reduction in
Ambient Temperature Temperature Rise C
Above 40Up to and
Including 50C 10
Above 50Up to and
Including 60C 20
113
The communi cati ons i ndustry has establ i shed
l i mi ts for TI F based on the power output of
the generator, rangi ng from 250 on smal l er
sets to 50 on l arger uni ts. They are
attempti ng to prevent the wei ghted
harmoni cs from affecti ng the qual i ty of the
message transmi tted on the tel ephone l i nes
(stati c or hummi ng). Most commerci al l y
avai l abl e generators have a sati sfactory TI F.
A l ower TI F than competi ti on may be an asset
when generator noi se emi ssi ons are cri ti cal
i n communi cati ons i nstal l ati ons whi ch are
hi ghl y sensi ti ve to such frequenci es. A TI F of
50 i s general l y acknowl edged as an i ndustry
standard. Caterpi l l ar Generators are wel l
bel ow thi s l evel .
Short Circuit Requirements MG 1-22.45
A synchronous generator i s capabl e of
wi thstandi ng, wi thout i njury, a 30-second,
three-phase short ci rcui t at i ts termi nal s
when operati ng at rated kVA and power
factor, at 5% over-vol tage, wi th fi xed
exci tati on.
Overspeed MG 1-22.47
Sal i ent-pol e synchronous generators shal l be
constructed so they wi l l wi thstand an
overspeed of 25% wi thout mechani cal i njury.
Harmonic Content
Harmoni cs are the mul ti pl es of the
fundamental waveform frequency produced
by the generator. Because generators are
magneti cal l y symmetri cal , onl y odd
harmoni cs are normal l y of any si gni fi cance.
For exampl e, a 60 Hz generated waveform
wi l l contai n the 60 Hz fundamental , a 180 Hz
thi rd-harmoni c, a 300 Hz fi fth-harmoni c, a
420 Hz seventh-harmoni c, I n general , the
hi gher the harmoni c order, the l ower the
magni tude of the harmoni c. Except for
tel ephone or radi o frequency i nterference
(RFI ) noi se consi derati ons, hi gher harmoni cs
are of l i ttl e si gni fi cance.
MG 1-22.43 Telephone Influence Factor (TIF)
kVA Rating of TIF
Generator Balanced
62.5 to 299 350
300 to 699 250
700 to 4999 150
5000 to 19999 100
10 000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200 3600 4000 4400 4800
Frequency In Hz
TIF Weighting Characteristics
T
e
l
e
p
h
o
n
e

I
n
f
l
u
e
n
c
e

F
a
c
t
o
r

(
T
I
F
)
Figure 113
114
Harmoni cs produce undesi rabl e effects i n the
generator, but motors al so suffer from
excessi ve harmoni cs. Those wi th si gni fi cant
magni tudes, are the thi rd, fi fth and seventh
because three phase motors have no neutral
connecti on, onl y fi fth, seventh, and ni nth are
of concern.
Each of these harmoni c vol tages generated
are i n the wi ndi ngs, but a thi rd-harmoni c
current wi l l not fl ow i n a three-phase, wye-
connected wi ndi ng unl ess the neutral i s
connected. The thi rd-harmoni c current wi l l
fl ow i n a del ta-connected generator wi ndi ng
as shown i n Fi gure 114. Both fi fth and
seventh wi l l fl ow i n ei ther wi ndi ng si nce they
are l i ne harmoni cs.
The major di ffi cul ty caused by harmoni cs
current i s heat generated i n the wi ndi ng, core,
and rotor. Si nce generator rati ngs are l i mi ted
by al l owabl e temperature ri se, harmoni cs are,
i n effect, derati ng factors. I n derati ng, the
magni tude of the current i s of obvi ous
i mportance, because l osses are proporti onal to
the square of current. I ncreased frequency
causes i ncreased core l osses and i ncreased
copper l oss from ski n effect. Fi fth- and
seventh-harmoni cs are the offenders because
they are i n the 600 Hz range.
Generator 1 Generator 2
Third Harmonic Circulates Through Neutral With Wye-Connected Machines
Generator 1 Generator 2
Third Harmonic Does Not Circulate In Wye-Connected Machines Without Neutral
Third Harmonic Circulates In Delta-Connected Machine
Figure 114
115
Another di ffi cul ty caused by harmoni cs i s
waveform. The more harmoni c content i n a
generated wave, the more di storti on from a
si ne wave occurs. I f severe enough, i t can
cause vol tage regul ator sensi ng probl ems and
i naccurate i nstrument readi ngs.
The choi ce of coi l pi tch has a l ot to do wi th
harmoni c generati on. A two-thi rd pi tch
wi ndi ng el i mi nates most thi rd-harmoni c, four-
fi fths pi tch el i mi nates fi fth, and si x-sevenths
el i mi nates seventh. Unfortunatel y, coi l pi tch
cannot el i mi nate al l harmoni cs
si mul taneousl y. As one i s el i mi nated, others
i ncrease. For exampl e, refer to Fi gure 116.
Pi tch =
Number of sl ots i n Coi l Throw
Number of Sl ots
Number of Pol es
Number of Sl ots = Coi l Throw -1;
i .e., 1 i n 15 = 14 Sl ots
As i ndi cated i n Fi gure 114, the coi l pi tch
i s onl y one el ement i n determi ni ng the
vol tage harmoni c content. Reducti on of
thi rd-harmoni cs i n the fl ux wave wi l l reduce
vol tage thi rd-harmoni cs. Harmoni c reducti on
i n the fl ux wave i s accompl i shed by shapi ng
the pol e head. The pol e head i s shaped to
cause a l onger ai r gap at the pol e ti ps than i n
the center of the pol e. The wi dth of the pol e
head i n proporti on to pol e center i s a factor i n
harmoni c control .
Caterpi l l ar generator have l ow thi rd-
harmoni c vol tages because pol e embrace and
the pol e pi ece head shape has been
proporti oned to produce l ow thi rd-harmoni c
fl ux pattern. I f the thi rd does not exi st or has
been mi ni mi zed, i t does not need to be
suppressed by wi ndi ng two-thi rds pi tch. A
more rati onal pi tch can be empl oyed l i ke
fi ve-si xths to reduce fi fth- and seventh-
harmoni cs.
Fundamental Wave Form
Example: 60 cycles/sec (cps)
Composite Wave Form
Third Harmonic
180 cps
Third Harmonic
300 cps
Time
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
Figure 115
Pitch Kp
1
Kp
3
Kp
5
Kp
7
Two- thirds (67%) 0.866 0.000 0.866 0.866
Four- fifths (80%) 0.951 0.588 0.000 0.588
Six-sevenths (86%) 0.975 0.782 0.434 0.000
Five-sixths (83%) 0.966 0.707 0.259 0.259
Note: Pitch factors for the fundamental (Kp
1
), third-harmonic (Kp
3
), fifth-harmonic (Kp
5
), and seventh-harmonic (Kp
7
). These pitch factors are
multiplied by the respective harmonic fluxes to predict harmonic voltages.
Figure 116
116
As stated earl i er, thi rd harmoni c currents
have no path except i n del ta-connected
generators or i n four-wi re, wye-connected
neutral s. The thi rd-harmoni cs are el i mi nated
by a three-wi re, wye connecti on. By judi ci ous
choi ce of coi l pi tch, say fi ve-si xths, as shown
i n Fi gure114, the fi fth- and seventh-
harmoni cs are qui te l ow. Therefore, a three-
wi re, wye-connected, fi ve-si xths pi tch
generator i s about as harmoni c-free as
standard wi ndi ng can make i t. The thi rd-
harmoni c i s el i mi nated, whi l e the
fi fth- and seventh-harmoni cs are at l ow
val ues.
As noted earl i er, thi rd-harmoni c current wi l l
fl ow i n a wye-connected neutral . Thi s i s
usual l y of l i ttl e si gni fi cance from a heati ng or
derati ng standpoi nt because thi s current
spl i ts three ways i n the wye-connected
machi ne. A neutral current of 30% rated
current wi l l have 30/3 = 10% thi rd-harmoni c
phase coi l current. Addi ti onal armature l osses
are another 1%.
Thi rd-harmoni c neutral current can be an
annoyance to swi tchgear desi gners.
Li ne-to-neutral vol tage may not read properl y
except on true RMS readi ng i nstruments. And
protecti ve rel ays may not react properl y.
The amount of thi rd-harmoni c neutral current
between paral l el ed generators depends on the
di fference i n thi rd-harmoni c vol tages
generated and the reactance between them.
Two machi nes wi th i denti cal thi rd-harmoni c
vol tages (ei ther hi gh or l ow) wi l l have no
thi rd-harmoni c current i n the neutral . Thi s i s
shown by the equati on:
=
3 (X
01
+ X
02
+ X
2
)
= Total thi rd-harmoni c current
=
Thi rd-harmoni c content of fi rst
generator, i n vol ts
= Thi rd-harmoni c content of second
generator
3 = Mul ti pl i er for thi rd-harmoni c
X
01
= Zero sequence reactance of fi rst
generator, i n Ohms at rated frequency
X
02
= Zero sequence reactance of second
generator at rated frequency
X
L
= I nducti ve reactance of connecti ng l i ne
at rated frequency
I f the thi rd-harmoni c vol tages are not equal ,
thi rd-harmoni c current wi l l ci rcul ate. The
l ower the zero sequence reactance, the hi gher
the ci rcul ati ng current. I t i s i nherent for a
two-thi rds pi tch wi ndi ng to have far l ower
zero sequence reactance than hi gher pi tch
machi nes.
I t i s the di fference i n vol tage that causes
neutral ci rcul ati on currents. Both generators
are contri butors. There i s no advantage to a
two-thi rds pi tch wi ndi ng when paral l el i ng
generators. When paral l el i ng wi th the uti l i ty
l i nes, the two-thi rds pi tch wi ndi ng may be a
di sadvantage due to l ow zero sequence
reactance.
Compare a four-fi fths pi tch generator and a
two-thi rds generator paral l el ed to the uti l i ty
l i ne. Consi der a 480 vol t, 100 kW generator
paral l el ed to a uti l i ty bus wi th the neutral s
ti ed together. Typi cal val ues for the zero
sequence reactance are:
Two-thi rds Pi tch Generator
0.015 Ohms at 180 Hz
Four-fi fths Pi tch Generator
0.400 Ohms at 180 Hz
Uti l i ty Transformer
0.001 Ohms at 180 Hz
Typi cal thi rd-harmoni c vol tages:
Two-thi rds Pi tch Generator
0.1% or 0.28 Vol ts
Four-fi fths Pi tch Generator
2.5% or 6.9 Vol ts
Uti l i ty
0.2% or 0.56 Vol ts
'
V
3
'
V
3
"
V
3
"
V
3
T
I
3
T
I
3
117
Thi rd-harmoni c currents wi l l be
(neutral s ti ed sol i dl y):
Two-thi rds
Pi tch Generator
(0.56 - 0.28)
= 17.5 amps
0.015 + 0.001
Four-fi fths
Pi tch Generator
6.9 - 0.56
= 15.8 amps
0.4 + 0.001
The current-per-phase i s one-thi rd of the
neutral current, or 5.8 amps for the two-thi rds
pi tch machi ne and 5.3 amps for the four-fi fths
pi tch machi ne. Thi s current woul d i ncrease
the l osses i n these generators l ess than 1%. I f
we l ook at the two-thi rds pi tch generator
because i t has the hi ghest thi rd-harmoni c
current, then:
150 amps = 100% Rated amps
(150
2
+ 5.3
2
)
= 1.000627 or 0.0627%
150 Addi ti onal l osses
Two-thi rds pi tch generators are occasi onal l y
speci fi ed for systems where the machi ne i s to
be paral l el ed wi th the uti l i ty or other
generators i n the bel i ef that thi s wi l l
el i mi nate thi rd-harmoni c currents i n the
neutral . As the foregoi ng exampl e
demonstrates, due to the i nherent l ow zero
sequence reactance of the two-thi rds pi tch
wi ndi ng, any source of thi rd-harmoni c vol tage
i n the system can resul t i n hi gh thi rd-
harmoni c currents.
The two-thi rds pi tch wi ndi ng i s not a cure all
for thi rd-harmoni c current probl ems.
Generators havi ng any pi tch can successful l y
paral l el wi th each other and wi th a uti l i ty
source. I f the neutral s are to be ti ed together,
the effects of thi rd-harmoni c currents i n the
neutral must be consi dered. I f necessary,
reactors, resistors, or switches must be
installed to limit these currents.
Phase-to-neutral faul ts account for
approxi matel y 65% of al l faul ts i n an
el ectri cal power system. Si nce the zero
sequence reactance i s l ower i n two-thi rds
pi tch wi ndi ngs than hi gher pi tch wi ndi ngs,
and i t i s used i n cal cul ati ng phase to neutral
faul t current, thi s faul t current wi l l be
consi derabl y greater i n magni tude. Thi s
means there i s a greater potenti al for damage
i f a faul t occurs. Possi bl y hi gher i nterrupti ng-
capaci ty ci rcui t breakers wi l l be requi red.
Addi ti onal bus bar braci ng may be i n order.
Switchgear
Swi tchgear desi gn for any i nstal l ati on
depends on both techni cal and economi c
consi derati ons. The content of the swi tchgear
can vary from onl y hi gh vol tage components
to control s and annunci ati on. Di scuss content
consi derati ons between al l parti es i nvol ved to
assure proper operati onal capabi l i ty. Vari ous
arrangements of systems are possi bl e. Onl y
the basi c poi nts wi l l be covered i n thi s topi c.
Speci fi c detai l s have been i ntenti onal l y
omi tted.
Start-Stop
Compl exi ty of start-stop control s vary
accordi ng to appl i cati on and cal i ber of
operati ng personnel . There are two general
categori es of control s manual and
automati c.
Operators must determi ne the appropri ate
ti me to di sengage the starter i n manual
systems. Cranki ng l ogi c i s used to sense
engi ne starti ng unl ess the operator i s
physi cal l y near the engi ne duri ng starti ng. I n
automati c systems, a cranki ng panel
i ncorporates thi s abi l i ty.
Manual control systems requi re rel ati vel y
si mpl e control s. Wi th competent operators,
the l east compl ex swi tchgear resul ts i n the
most rel i abl e system parti cul arl y when
supported by automati c engi ne shutdown
devi ces.
118
Cranking Panel
Cranki ng panel s are the l ogi c ci rcui try, or
i ntel l i gence, of starti ng systems. Cranki ng
panel s can be uni t mounted, wal l mounted or
i nstal l ed i n other swi tchgear. When gi ven a
si gnal , the cranki ng panel engages the engi ne
cranki ng motor, di sengages when the engi ne
starts, and moni tors condi ti ons cri ti cal to
engi ne operati on. I t shoul d i ncl ude an
annunci ator system for vi sual and audi bl e
si gnal s.
The cranki ng panel al l ows the engi ne to crank
a gi ven ti me. I t can al so i ncl ude ti mers to
al l ow shorter cranki ng cycl es wi th rest
peri ods between each cycl e. Si ngl e cranki ng
peri ods shoul d not be l onger than 30 seconds.
Cycl e cranki ng ti mers are general l y
adjustabl e to gi ve 10 seconds of cranki ng wi th
10-second rests between cycl es and a
maxi mum of fi ve cranki ng peri ods. Meri ts of
cycl e cranki ng on di esel engi nes are
questi onabl e. General l y, di esel engi nes start
duri ng the fi rst cranki ng peri od or not at al l .
Further cranki ng attempts needl essl y
di scharge cranki ng batteri es. Reasons for
hard starti ng shoul d be i nvesti gated before
further starti ng attempts.
Shutdown Devices
Mi ni mum protecti on for any generator set
i ncl udes l ow l ubri cati ng oi l pressure, hi gh
water temperature, and overspeed
shutdowns. I f remotel y started, overcrank
protecti on i s needed. I ndi cati ons of engi ne
water l evel and fl ow are desi rabl e, ei ther for
warni ngs or shutdowns. Any equi pment
operati ng functi on can be moni tored,
dependi ng upon i ndi vi dual i nstal l ati on
requi rements.
Cranki ng panel s can i ncl ude al arms whi ch, i n
conjuncti on wi th engi ne-mounted sensors,
moni tor deteri orati ng operati ng condi ti ons.
Preal arms are effecti vel y used i n cri ti cal
i nstal l ati ons to i ndi cate deteri orati ng
condi ti ons before shutdown. Thi s al l ows
operati ng personnel to remedy the probl em
and prevent unnecessary stoppage.
Cool -down ti mi ng ci rcui ts al l ow no-l oad
operati ons for at l east two mi nutes before
normal shutdown.
A protecti ve rel ay coordi nati on study i s
necessary to ensure the compati bi l i ty of the
system and the protecti on of the generator.
Caterpi l l ar does not provi de thi s servi ce but
recommends contacti ng qual i fi ed personnel ,
such as the swi tchgear manufacturer for thi s
type of i nformati on.
Figure 117
EMCP I EMCP II
119
Control Panel Types
Control panel s normal l y i ncl ude
engi ne/generator i nstrumentati on and
control s for manual or automati c operati on.
Accordi ng to si ze and compl exi ty, they may be
mounted on the generator set or remote-
mounted on wal l s or fl oors. The generator-
mounted panel as shown i n Fi gure 118
di spl ays equi pment typi cal for automati c and
manual paral l el appl i cati ons.
Fl oor-standi ng or wal l -mounted panel s al l ow
room for compl ex control s and components
carryi ng hi gher currents. A mi ni mum
worki ng area of 1 m (3 ft) wi l l al l ow access to
the rear of the swi tchgear, whi l e provi si ons
must be made for entrance and exi t of power
and control l eads. A typi cal fl oor-standi ng
control i s shown i n Fi gure 118.
Remote swi tchgear offers advantages i f
l ocated i n a separate room. Al though
swi tchgear operates i n engi ne rooms, servi ce
l i fe i s greatl y i mproved by mounti ng a cl ean,
dry, wel l -venti l ated room wi th 30C (85F)
maxi mum temperature. I t i s al so benefi ci al to
fi l ter i ncomi ng ai r and mai ntai n the room
under sl i ght ai r pressure to encourage
cl eanl i ness.
Annunci ators for al arms and preal arms can
be i ncorporated i nto the mai n control panel ,
Fi gure 117 or remote mounted, Fi gure 119.
Shunt tri ps al l ow tri ppi ng of ci rcui t breakers
from remote l ocati ons by operators or al arm
si gnal s. Cl osi ng breakers from remote
l ocati ons i s accompl i shed by addi ng motor
operators, or repl aci ng conventi onal breakers
wi th ones i ncorporati ng stored energy devi ces.
Scope of Supply
Components that makeup the swi tchgear are
provi ded by numerous suppl i ers. For exampl e,
the el ectroni c governor, vol tage regul ator,
generator meteri ng CTs, and cross-current
compensati on CTs, may be suppl i ed from
di fferent sources. Thi s requi res
communi cati on between al l parti es for
compati bl e components to be suppl i ed.
I t i s i mportant to cl earl y defi ne who i s
suppl yi ng annunci ati on equi pment and what
functi ons are to be si gnal ed. For exampl e, wi l l
engi ne functi ons be annunci ated at the
swi tchgear? I f so, i s one or mul ti pl e
annunci ator l i ghts requi red? Wi l l generator
wi ndi ng and temperatures be annunci ated as
an alarm, shutdown, or both? The generator
suppl i er can provi de the temperature
detectors, but i t wi l l normal l y be l eft to others
to suppl y the annunci ati on equi pment.
Figure 118
Figure 119
Electrical Codes
Cl earl y defi ne the requi red el ectri cal codes for
al l equi pment.
DC Protection and Control
Thi s i ncl udes engi ne protecti on, start stop
l ogi c, annunci ati on, paral l el i ng, etc. The
suppl i er of thi s equi pment shoul d ensure the
governor control i s i nstal l ed i n an accessi bl e
l ocati on.
AC Protection Distribution
and Metering
Ensure proper CT-PT rati os are provi ded for
el ectroni c governors and protecti ve rel ays.
Adjustment ranges of the protecti on devi ces
must be compati bl e wi th the el ectri cal
performance characteri sti cs of the generator
set.
Engine
Engine
Generator
Control
Generator
Current
Protective
Device
Main
Service
Disconnect
Normal
Power
Source
Current
Protective
Device
Transfer
Switch
Non-Emergency
Loads
Emergency
Loads
Wall-mounted Automatic Transfer Switch
Figure 120
120
121
Automatic Transfer Switch
An automati c transfer swi tch transfers
el ectri cal l oads from a normal source, usual l y
uti l i ty, to an emergency source, often a
generator set, when normal source vol tage
fai l s. When normal power i s restored, the
swi tch automati cal l y retransfers to the
normal source.
The swi tch senses power i nterrupti on and
si gnal s the engi ne cranki ng panel to start. I t
moni tors generator vol tage and frequency. I t
transfers the l oad when they are acceptabl e.
The swi tch conti nues to sense normal power
and, when restored, retransfers to normal and
shuts down the generator set.
Ti me to swi tch from one power source to
another can be extremel y short. A transfer
swi tch can typi cal l y acti vate i n l ess than 30
cycl es. Use cauti on when transferri ng l oads,
parti cul arl y synchronous motors dri vi ng hi gh
i nerti a equi pment. When di sconnected from
the power source, magneti c fl ux devel oped by
these motors temporari l y mai ntai ns vol tage.
Thi s can cause seri ous mechani cal or
magneti c probl ems as a power source i s
reconnected. I t can be compared to out-of-
phase paral l el i ng and produce transi ent
torque ten ti mes that of rated.
To avoi d thi s probl em, del ay transfer
whenever possi bl e unti l resi dual vol tage i s
l ess than 25% of rated. Synchronous motors
shoul d remai n off-l i ne unti l rotati on ceases.
I n standby appl i cati ons, the emergency
generator set requi res fi ve to ten seconds to
start and devel op rated frequency and vol tage.
Usual l y, thi s i s suffi ci ent ti me for regenerati ve
vol tage to decay.
On retransfer to normal power, thi s
out-of-phase condi ti on must agai n be avoi ded.
When rapi d transfer i s requi red and transfer
takes pl ace, the emergency power source must
match vol tage, frequency, and phase angl e.
Ambient Conditions
Excessi ve heat, di rt, moi sture, and
contami nated atmospheres reduce el ectroni c
component rel i abi l i ty. Certai n equi pment,
such as ci rcui t breakers and fuses, begi n
derati ng above 40C (104F) or 1830 m
(6000 ft) al ti tude.
Swi tchgear i deal l y i s l ocated i n cl ean, dry,
wel l venti l ated areas. Where generator sets
operate conti nuousl y, compl ete i sol ati on i n an
ai r condi ti oned control room may be
appropri ate. Adequate worki ng area provi des
access to both front and rear of panel s.
Circuit Protective Devices
Maxi mum faul t current devel oped by systems
can be cal cul ated at any poi nt i n that system.
I nterrupti ng capaci ty of overcurrent devi ces
must be greater than faul t current del i vered
where the devi ce i s appl i ed.
Maxi mum short ci rcui t current whi ch
generators produce i s sl i ghtl y affected by
regul ator desi gn, so onl y el ectri cal properti es
of the generator are consi dered. Three-phase
fi rst cycl e, symmetri cal , RMS short ci rcui t
current devel oped by a generator i s:
I sc =
I r
x"d
I sc =Short ci rcui t current.
I r =Generator rated amperage.
x"d =Di rect axi s subtransi ent reactance per
uni t val ue.
Li ne-to-neutral short ci rcui t val ves may
exceed those of three-phase shorts.
Caterpi l l ar Generators typi cal l y produce ei ght
ti mes rated current on a three-phase faul t. I f
generators are i n paral l el , or i f paral l el ed to
uti l i ty bus, overcurrent devi ces must
wi thstand the total short ci rcui t current
devel oped by al l generati ng devi ces.
Synchronous and i nducti on motors feed
addi ti onal short ci rcui t current to the faul t at
a val ue approxi matel y equal to thei r l ocked
rotor rati ng. I f a ci rcui t breaker i s used,
addi ti onal protecti ve devi ces upstream of the
breaker may be requi red when connected to
the uti l i ty.
122
Wi thout outsi de i nfl uence, short ci rcui t
current devel oped by the generator decays
wi thi n three to fi ve cycl es bel ow the acti vati ng
range of the overcurrent devi ce. Refer to
Fi gure 111, page 107. Whi l e cl eari ng ti me of
ci rcui t breaker contacts may range for 1-1/2 to
3 cycl es, actual unl atchi ng ti me i s l ess than 1
cycl e. Thi s rapi d reacti on al l ows the breaker
to separate the faul t from the bus.
Coordi nati on, or sel ecti vi ty, of al l overcurrent
devi ces i n the di stri buti on system i s requi red
to protect agai nst total system fai l ure on short
ci rcui t faul ts. When thi s capabi l i ty i s
requi red, both overcurrent devi ces and
generator characteri sti cs must be expanded.
Ci rcui t breakers or fuses must i ncl ude short
ti me del ays. Del ays between unl atchi ng and
actual cl eari ng of the overcurrent are the
major obstacl e i n coordi nati ng breakers.
These del ays al so al l ow current to fl ow
through a breaker unti l contacts cl ear and
exti ngui sh the arc. I n a poorl y coordi nated
system wi th several breakers i n seri es, the
l arger upstream breaker may start to unl atch
pri or to the faul t bei ng cl eared by smal l er
breaker. Thi s coul d di sabl e the enti re system.
The generator must conti nue to suppl y hi gh
current l evel s duri ng the faul t to al l ow ti me
for coordi nati ng al l protecti ve devi ces. Actual
ti me requi red i s usual l y l ess than three
seconds. Certai n speci fi cati on requi re ten
seconds for mai ntai ni ng current l evel s 300%
above rated. The generator requi res a seri es
boost opti on on the regul ator ci rcui t or a
permanent magnet exci ter to sati sfy these
requi rements. Fi gure 112 descri bes the effect
of seri es boost on a typi cal decrement curve.
Parti al grounds may cause current fl ow
suffi ci entl y l arge to cause damage even i f i t i s
bel ow the current rati ng of protecti ve devi ces.
To guard agai nst thi s faul t, ground faul t
protecti ve devi ces are used. They sense
abnormal current fl ow and cl ear the ci rcui t by
the ci rcui t breaker shunt tri p.
Ground faul t rel ays respond to current fl ows
of 50 to 400 amperes, dependi ng on l oad
characteri sti cs of the di stri buti on ci rcui t.
Nui sance tri ppi ng from normal changes i n
l oad current must be avoi ded. Unwanted
tri ppi ng may al so be caused by SCR l oads
i ncompati bl e wi th ground faul t protecti ve
devi ces.
The system descri bed pertai ns onl y to
equi pment protecti on and affords no
protecti on to personnel . Current as small as
7-1/ 2 milliamps is sufficient to arrest heart
muscles.
Fuses vs Circuit Breakers
Speci fi c requi rements for each el ectri cal
system must be anal yzed to determi ne the
overcurrent protecti on best sui ted for the
appl i cati on. Not onl y must the system be safe
under al l servi ce condi ti ons, but ensure
conti nui ty of servi ce as wel l . I ntel l i gent
sel ecti on and combi nati on of fuses and ci rcui t
breakers resul t i n systems of maxi mum safety
wi th mi ni mum outages.
Each protecti ve devi ce offers many desi gns
and exhi bi ts overl ayi ng capabi l i ti es. The
fol l owi ng compari son has been made onl y of
basi c devi ces. Fuses are consi dered to be dual
el ement wi th hi gh i nterrupti ng capaci ti es.
Ci rcui t breakers are three-pol e
thermomagneti c mol ded case.
Fuses
(Including Switch)
Advantages Disadvantages
Simple Switch Required
Fireproof Nonresetable
Precise Characteristics Nonreusable
Initial Economy Nonadjustable
Very High Interrupt Capability Nonindicating
High Current Limiting Single Pole Only*
No Maintenance
Fast Opening
*Normally a disadvantage because single-phasing of three-phase
motor may occur. May be advantage in emergency conditions
where limited power is desired even when one phase is inoperative.
123
Fuses
Fuse appl i cati on for overcurrent protecti on i n
el ectri cal systems i s popul ar, parti cul arl y
outsi de the Uni ted States. Vari ous types are
avai l abl e. Sel ect by consi deri ng the fol l owi ng:
Voltage Rating
A vol tage rati ng must be equal or greater
than vol tage of the ci rcui t i n whi ch the fuse
i s appl i ed. Thi s rati ng i s not a measure of i ts
abi l i ty to wi thstand a speci fi ed vol tage whi l e
carryi ng current. Rather, i t defi nes the
fuse's abi l i ty to prevent the open ci rcui t
vol tage of the system from restri ki ng and
establ i shi ng an arc once the fuse l i nk has
parted.
Continuous Current Rating
Conti nuous current rati ng shoul d equal or
be sl i ghtl y greater than the current carryi ng
capaci ty of the ci rcui t whi ch i t protects.
Onl y i n speci al cases where connected
equi pment has unusual characteri sti cs, or
where ambi ent temperature i s qui te hi gh,
shoul d the fuse rati ng be greater than the
current-carryi ng capaci ty of the ci rcui t.
Interrupting Rating
For power appl i cati on under 600 vol t, hi gh
qual i ty fuses whi ch have a 200,000 rms
symmetri cal ampere i nterrupti ng rati ng are
adequate for l arge power systems.
El ectroni c appl i cati ons requi re smal l
di mensi on fuses whi ch have suffi ci ent
i nterrupti ng rati ng.
Degree of Current Limitation
Fuses for ci rcui ts contai ni ng motors,
transformers, or any i nducti ve devi ce are
usual l y dual el ement, Fi gure 121. Thi s
provi des a ti me del ay secti on to carry
i n-rush current whi ch opens after a
speci fi ed del ay for overl oad protecti on. A
second secti on l i mi ts the hi gh energy of a
short ci rcui t.
Ci rcui t breakers are often protected by
fast-acti ng fuses because of thei r hi gh current
l i mi tati on. Fuses l i mi t short ci rcui t current to
val ues whi ch can be safel y absorbed by the
breaker or other system component. Thi s i s
parti cul arl y i mportant when the ci rcui t i s
paral l el ed to l arge power sources, such as
uti l i ti es. Fuses are al so used for swi tchgear
meter and i nstrument protecti on.
The graph i n Fi gure 122 i l l ustrates current
l i mi ti ng properti es of fast-acti ng fuses. I n the
exampl e, the rms val ue of a potenti al short
ci rcui t current, cal cul ated from ci rcui t
constants, i s 100,000 amperes symmetri cal .
From the i ntersecti on of thi s val ue wi th l i ne
A-B, i nstantaneous peak val ue i s 230,000
amperes. I f typi cal 100-ampere fuses were
used, peak l et through current approxi mates
7500 amperes about 4% of current that
woul d fl ow i f the fuse were not protecti ng the
ci rcui t.
Circuit Breakers
Multipole Complex Construction
Small, Convenient Periodic Maintenance
Resetable High Initial Cost
Mode Indicator Medium Interrupt
Capability
Testable
Adjustable
Auxiliary Contacts
Multi-Options
Remote Control
Figure 121
124
El ectroni c ci rcui ts whi ch carry transi ent
currents use ti me del ay-type fuses. They open
qui ckl y on a short, but sti l l retai n ci rcui t
i ntegri ty for normal current fl uctuati ons.
Circuit Breaker
Ci rcui t breakers open and cl ose a ci rcui t by
nonautomati c means. They open
automati cal l y on a speci fi c overcurrent
wi thout damage. Most common i s the mol ded
case type, whi ch i s an i ntegral uni t i n a
supporti ng and encl osi ng housi ng of
i nsul ati ng materi al s. I t protects l ow vol tage
di stri buti on systems agai nst overl oads and
short ci rcui ts.
A
B
Ampere
Ratings
600
400
200
100
60
30
15
400,000
300,000
200,000
100,000
80,000
60,000
40,000
30,000
20,000
10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
800
600
400
300
200
100
1
0
0
2
0
0
3
0
0
4
0
0
6
0
0
8
0
0
1
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
8
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
2
0
,
0
0
0
3
0
,
0
0
0
4
0
,
0
0
0
6
0
,
0
0
0
8
0
,
0
0
0
1
0
0
,
0
0
0
2
0
0
,
0
0
0
I
n
s
t
a
n
t
a
n
e
o
u
s

P
e
a
k

L
e
t

T
h
r
u

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

i
n

a
m
p
s
Prospective Short Circuit Current Symetrical RMS amps
Figure 123
Figure 122
125
Generator fi el d breakers cause l oss of
exci tati on and are useful as generator
di sconnect devi ces. They are not adequate
main line disconnect devices.
Conventi onal breakers are referred to as
thermomagneti c type. A bi metal stri p defl ects
duri ng sustai ned overl oad and an
el ectromagneti c coi l acti vates from hi gh short
ci rcui t current. Ei ther devi ce opens al l pol es of
the breaker, preventi ng si ngl e-phase
operati on of three-phase motors.
Breakers are avai l abl e wi th fi xed or
i nterchangeabl e el ectromechani cal tri p uni ts.
I nterchangeabl e uni ts are most common and
have adjustabl e magneti c el ements. Thermal
setti ngs are fi xed. A typi cal tri p curve for a
Westi nghouse 100 amp thermomagneti c
breaker depi cts dual el ement tri p
characteri sti cs, see Fi gure 125.
Mol ded case ci rcui t breakers are current rated
at a speci fi c ambi ent temperature. Thi s rati ng
i s the conti nuous current the breaker wi l l
carry i n the cal i brated ambi ent temperature.
Most manufacturers cal i brate for 40C
(104F) ambi ent.
A breaker's i nterrupti ng rate i s maxi mum
faul t current i nterrupti bl e wi thout damagi ng
the breaker.
A shunt tri p can remotel y tri p the ci rcui t
breaker. I t uses an AC or DC el ectri cal si gnal
i ni ti ated manual l y, or by a contact cl osure
si gnal i ng engi ne/generator mal functi on. To
recl ose after shunt tri ppi ng, manual l y reset
the breaker handl e.
A motor operator remotel y opens and cl oses
the breaker by engagi ng the operator dri ve to
the breaker handl e. The handl e i s posi ti oned
by motor acti on. The motor operator i s
i ntended for i nfrequent use i n l i ne wi th UL
endurance standards for mol ded case
breakers. Mol ded case breakers wi l l
wi thstand a mi ni mum 6000 cycl es at rated
l oad and an addi ti onal 4000 cycl es at no l oad.
60
.016
250% 4000%
Current In % Of
Breaker Rating
Magnetic
Action
Thermal
Action
Time
Seconds
Figure 125
Load
Bimetal
Lime
Latch
Contacts
Closed
Trip Bar
Magnetic Element
Lime
Load
Contacts
Open
Figure 124
CONVERSION FACTORS
Length
Unit mm in ft yd m km mi
mm 1 .03937 .003281 .001094 .001 .0000 01
in 25.4 1 0.083 33 0.027 78 0.0254 0.000 03
ft 304.8 12 1 0.333 33 0.3048 0.000 30
yd 914.4 36 3 1 0.9144 0.000 91
m 1000 39.3701 3.280 84 1.093 61 1 0.001 0.000 62
km 100 0000 39 370.1 3208.84 1093.61 1000 1 0.621 37
mi 160 9340 63 360 5280 1760 1609.34 1.609 34 1
Area
Unit mm
2
in
2
m
2
ft
2
mm
2
1 0.00155
in
2
645.16 1 0.000 645 16 0.006 944
m
2
10 00000 1550 1 10.764
ft
2
92903 144 0.0929 1
1 sq mile = 640 acres
1 acre = 4840 yd
2
1 cir mil = 7.854 x 10-
7
in
2
1 cir mil = .7854 mils
2
1 cir mil = 5.067 x 10-
6
cm
2
Volume and Capacity
Unit in
3
ft
3
yd
3
mm
3
m
3
U.S. gal Imp gal liter
in
3
1 .000 58 0.000 02 16387.1 0.000 02 0.004 32 0.003 61 0.016 39
ft
3
1728 1 0.037 04 28,320,000 0.028 32 7.480 52 5.228 83 28.3169
yd
3
46656 27 1 764,554,858 0.76455 201.974 168.178 764.555
mm
3
6.1x10
-5
4.0x10
-8
1 2.6x10
-7
2.2x10
-7
1.0x10
-6
m
3
61 023.7 35.3147 1.307 95 1 000 000 000 1 264.192 219.969 1000
U.S. gal 231 0.133 68 0.004 95 3785420 0.003 78 1 0.832 67 3.785 41
Imp gal 277.419 0.160 54 0.005 95 4540090 0.004 55 1.200 95 1 4.546 09
liter 61.023 7 0.035 31 0.001 31 1000 000 0.001 0.264 17 0.219 97 1
acre-ft 43 560 1613.33 1233.48 325 851 271 335
1 board-foot = 144 in
3
1 bushel = 1.244 ft
3
1 bushel = 4 pecks
Weight
Ounces Pounds _______________Tons_________________
Unit Kilograms Avoirdupois Avoirdupois Short Long Metric
1 Kilogram 1 35.27 2.205
1 Ounce 0.02835 1 0.0625
1 Pound 0.4536 16 1
1 Short Ton 907.2 32,000 2,000 1 0.8929 0.9072
1 Long Ton 1,016 35,840 2,240 1.12 1 1.016
1 Metric Ton 1,000 35,300 2,205 1.102 0.9842 1
1 grain = 0.064799 gram
126
Flow
million
Unit U.S. gal/min U.S. gal/day ft
3
/s m
3
/h L/s
1 U.S. gpm 1 0.001 440 0.002 23 0.2270 0.0631
1 million gal/day 694.5 1 1.547 157.73 43.8
1 ft
3
/s 448.8 0.646 1 101.9 28.32
1 m
3
/h 4.403 0.006 34 0.009 81 1 0.2778
1 L/s 15.85 0.0228 0.0353 3.60 1
MCFD = 1000 ft
3
/day
MMCFD = 1,000,000 ft
3
/day
lb/bhp-hr x 607.73 = g/kW-hr
Pressure and Head
mm/Hg in./Hg in. H
2
O ft H
2
O Atmospheres
Unit (0C) (0C) (60F) (60F) lb/in
2
kg/cm
2
bar 101.4kPa(14.7psi) kPa
mm/hg 1 0.039 37 0.5357 0.04464 0.019 34 0.001 36 0.001 33 0.001 315
in/hg 25.4 1 13.61 1.134 0.491 15 0.034 53 0.033 86 0.033 42
in H
2
0 1.868 27 0.07 355 1 0.083 33 0.036 13 0.002 54 0.002 49 0.002 46 0.249
ft H
2
0 22.4192 0.882 65 12 1 0.433 52 0.030 479 0.029 89 0.029 50 2.989
lb/in
2
51.7149 2.036 02 27.70 2.309 1 0.070 31 0.068 95 0.068 05 6.895
kg/cm
2
735.559 28.959 394.7 32.84 14.2257 1 0.980 67 0.967 84 98.067
bar 750.062 29.530 401.8 33.49 14.504 1.019 72 1 0.98692 101.325
kPa 7.500 62 0.295 30 4.01835 0.33486 0.145 038 0.010 1972 0.010 000 0.009 869 20 1
Energy
Btu Cal ft-lb J Therm Kcal
British Thermal Unit 1 252 778 1055.056 0.00001 0.252
Calorie 0.00397 1 3.08866 4.187 0.002519 0.001
Foot-Pound 0.001285 0.323765 1 1.356 0.000816 0.003089
Joule 0.000948 0.23895 0.73745 1 0.01055 0.000239
Kilocalorie 3.96825 1000 3089 4185.0 2.519 1
Therm 100,000 396.8254 128.5347 94.78169 1 0.39682
1 Therm = 1,000,000 Btu
Btu/ft
2
/min = 0.1220 Watts/in.
2
Btu/ft
3
/ = 8.899 kg-cal/m
3
Btu/lb = .5556 kg-cal/kg
Power
Metric
Btu/min ft-lb/min hp J/min hp kW W
Btu/min 1 778.2 0.02358 1055.0 0.02391 0.017584 17.5843
ft-lb/min 0.00128 1 0.00003 1.3504 0.00003 0.00002 0.0226
Horsepower 42.456 33000 1 44791 1.014 0.74570 745.7
Joules/min 0.00095 0.7405 0.0000223 1 0.0000226 0.0000166 0.016668
Metric hp 41.827 32550 0.98632 44127 1 0.73549 735.498
Kilowatt 56.8690 44250 1.34102 59997 1.35962 1 1000
Watt 0.05687 44.25 0.00134 59.9968 0.00136 0.001 1
Angle
1 quadrant = 90 degrees 1 degree= 60 minutes
1 quadrant = 1.57 radians 1 minute = 2.9 x 10 radian
1 radian = 57.3
127
128
TEMPERATURE CONVERSION
F = (1.8 x C) + 32
C = 0.5555 (F - 32)
On-Site Power Requirements
Based on 100,000 sq. ft. of office bldg., etc., and 40N.
latitudes
Electric Requirements:
600 kW continuous load
(Air conditioning is absorption)
Use three - 300 kW units
(2 prime and 1 standby)
Air Conditioning Compressor:
400 tons prime load
Use two - 200 hp engines
(No standby)
Refrigeration:
One ton refrigeration = 200 Btu/min = 12,000 Btu/h
One boiler hp = 33,475 Btu/h
One ton compressor rating = One engine hp
Auxiliary air conditioning equipment requires 1/4 hp/ton
of compressor rating
Ice plant:
Complete power requires 4-5 hp per daily ton capacity
Air Compressors:
hp = 1/4 x cu ft m/min at 100 psi
Increase bhp 10% for 125 psi
Decrease bhp 10% for 80 psi
Conveyors: 15 to 20incline.
bhp =
Vertical lift in ft x tons/hr
500
Pumps:
Deep Well bhp =
ft of lift/1000 gpm
3
Pipe Line bhp = Barrels per hour x psi x 0.00053
Any Liquid bhp =
gpm x lb/gal (liquid) x ft of head
33,000 x pump efficiency*
* Efficiency: Centrifugal
Single impeller, double suction 65-80%
Single impeller, side suction 55-75%
Deep well turbine 65-80%
Reciprocating 75%
Centrifugal Fans and Pumps:
Q
2
= Q
1
N
2
Q = flow

(
N
1
)
2
P
2
= P
1
N
2
N = speed
(
N
1
)
P = Static pressure of head
3
hp
2
= hp
1
N
2
hp = Horsepower
(
N
1
)
FANS AND BLOWERS
Oilfield Drilling:
Hoisting
bhp =
wt x fpm (assume 100 is unknown)
33,000 x 0.85 (eff.)
Mud Pumps
bhp =
gpm x lb/gal x (ft of head)
33,000 x pump efficiency (see pumps)
Dry Table
Depth in ft bhp Required
0 - 4000 75
4000 - 8000 100
8000 - 12000 150
12000 - 16000 200
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
-10
-20
-30
260
250
240
230
220
212
200
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
32
20
10
0
-10
-20
Temperature Conversion
F C
129
Sawmill:
1-1/2 bhp per inch of saw diameter at 500 rpm
Increase or decrease in proportion to rpm
Swing Cut-Off Saw
24-inch 3 bhp
36-inch 7-1/2 bhp
42-inch 10 bhp
Table Trimmer 7-1/2 to 10 bhp
Blower Fan, 12-foot sawdust 3 to 5 bhp
Planer Mill 2 to 4 bhp per 100 board feet per hour
24 to 30-inch planers 15 to 25 bhp
Edger
2 saws 12 to 15 bhp
3 saws 15 to 25 bhp
Slab Saw 10 bhp
Jack Ladder 10 bhp
Approximate fuel consumption
Softwood 1 gal. per 1000 board feet
Hardwood 1 gal. per 750 board feet
Brake Mean Effective Pressure:
bmep psi (4-cycle) =
792,000 x hp
rpm x Displacement
bmep psi (2-cycle) =
396,000 x hp
rpm x Displacement
bmep psi =
150.8 x Torque
Displacement
Torque:
T (lb ft) =
Displacement x bmep
150.8
T (lb ft) =
33000 x hp = 5252 x hp
2 x rpm rpm
Miscellaneous Relationships
Acceleration Due to Gravity
g = 32.2 ft/s
2
or
g = 9.81 m/s
2
Force (F)
1 N = 1 kgm
2
/s
2
- or -
1 N = 0.225 lb
Mass (M)
1 kg = 0.0685 lb-s
2
/ft
1 lb -s
2
/ft = 14.6 kg
Moment of Inertial (WR
2
)
lb/in-s
2
= Rotor Weight x Diameter (ft)
2
x 12
64.4 ft/s
2
4
1 lb/in-s
2
= 0.113 kgm
2
Torque (T)
1 Nm = 1 kgh
2
- or -
1 Nm = 8.85 lb/in.
130
kVA/kWAMPERAGE CHART
80% Power Factor
kVA kW 208V 220V 240V 380V 400V 440V 460V 480V 600V 2400V 3300V 4160V
6.3 5 17.5 16.5 15.2 9.6 9.1 8.3 8.1 7.6 6.1
9.4 7.5 26.1 24.7 22.6 14.3 13.6 12.3 12 11.3 9.1
12.5 10 34.7 33 30.1 19.2 18.2 16.6 16.2 15.1 12
18.7 15 52 49.5 45 28.8 27.3 24.9 24.4 22.5 18
25 20 69.5 66 60.2 38.4 36.4 33.2 32.4 30.1 24 6 4.4 3.5
31.3 25 87 82.5 75.5 48 45.5 41.5 40.5 37.8 30 7.5 5.5 4.4
37.5 30 104 99 90.3 57.6 54.6 49.8 48.7 45.2 36 9.1 6.6 5.2
50 40 139 132 120 77 73 66.5 65 60 48 12.1 8.8 7
62.5 50 173 165 152 96 91 83 81 76 61 15.1 10.9 8.7
75 60 208 198 181 115 109 99.6 97.5 91 72 18.1 13.1 10.5
93.8 75 261 247 226 143 136 123 120 113 90 22.6 16.4 13
100 80 278 264 240 154 146 133 130 120 96 24.1 17.6 13.9
125 100 347 330 301 192 182 166 162 150 120 30 21.8 17.5
156 125 433 413 375 240 228 208 204 188 150 38 27.3 22
187 150 520 495 450 288 273 249 244 225 180 45 33 26
219 175 608 577 527 335 318 289 283 264 211 53 38 31
250 200 694 660 601 384 364 332 324 301 241 60 44 35
312 250 866 825 751 480 455 415 405 376 300 75 55 43
375 300 1040 990 903 576 546 498 487 451 361 90 66 52
438 350 1220 1155 1053 672 637 581 568 527 422 105 77 61
500 400 1390 1320 1203 770 730 665 650 602 481 120 88 69
625 500 1735 1650 1504 960 910 830 810 752 602 150 109 87
750 600 2080 1980 1803 1150 1090 996 975 902 721 180 131 104
875 700 2430 2310 2104 1344 1274 1162 1136 1052 842 210 153 121
1000 800 2780 2640 2405 1540 1460 1330 1300 1203 962 241 176 139
1125 900 3120 2970 2709 1730 1640 1495 1460 1354 1082 271 197 156
1250 1000 3470 3300 3009 1920 1820 1660 1620 1504 1202 301 218 174
1563 1250 4350 4130 3765 2400 2280 2080 2040 1885 1503 376 273 218
1875 1500 5205 4950 4520 2880 2730 2490 2440 2260 1805 452 327 261
2188 1750 5280 2250 3180 2890 2830 2640 2106 528 380 304
2500 2000 6020 3840 3640 3320 3240 3015 2405 602 436 348
2812 2250 6780 4320 4095 3735 3645 3400 2710 678 491 392
3125 2500 7520 4800 4560 4160 4080 3765 3005 752 546 435
3750 3000 9040 5760 5460 4980 4880 4525 3610 904 654 522
375 3500 10550 6700 6360 5780 5660 5285 4220 1055 760 610
5000 4000 12040 7680 7280 6640 6480 6035 4810 1204 872 695
ELECTRICAL FORMULAE
Alternating Current
To Obtain Single-Phase Three-Phase Direct Current
KiloWatts V x l x pf 1.732 x V x l x pf V x l (Eq. 1)
1,000 1,000 1,000
kVA V x l 1.732 x V x l (Eq. 2)
1,000 1,000
Horsepower Required kW kW kW (Eq. 3)
To Drive Known kW .746 x Eff. (Gen.) .746 x Eff. (Gen.) .746 x Eff. (Gen.)
Generator
kW Input To a Motor hp x .746 hp x .746 hp x .746 (Eq. 4)
of known hp Eff. (Motor) Eff. (Motor) Eff. (Motor)
Full Load Amperes hp x 746 hp x 746 hp x 746 (Eq. 5)
When Motor Horsepower V x pf x Eff. 1.732 x V x Eff. x pf V x Eff.
is known
Amperes When kW kW x 1,000 kW x 1,000 kW x 1,000 (Eq. 6)
is known V x pf 1.732 x V x pf V
Amperes When kVA kVA x 1,000 kVA x 1,000 (Eq. 7)
is known V 1.732 x V
Frequency (cps) Poles x rpm *Poles x rpm (Eq. 8)
120 120
Reactive kVA (kVAR) V x l x 1 - (pf)
2
1.732 x V x l x 1 - (pf)
2
(Eq. 9)
1,000 1,000
% Voltage Regulation 100 (VNL - VFL) 100 (VNL - VFL) 100 (VNL - VFL) (Eq. 10)
VFL VFL VFL
Where: V = Volts
l = Line Current Amperes
pf = Power Factor
*Poles = Pair of Poles
131