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Structure Pronunciation

Relevant grammatical structures and sentence patterns


are determined by language functions appropriate to the
task.
Assumes a dialect and/or accent intelligible to the
aeronautical community.
Expert 6
Vocabulary rangeand accuracy aresufficient
to communicateeffectively on awidevariety
of familiar and unfamiliar topics. Vocabulary
is idiomatic, nuanced, and sensitiveto
register.
Both basic and complex grammatical
structures and sentencepatterns are
consistently well controlled.
Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation,
though possibly influenced by thefirst
languageor regional variation, almost never
interferewith easeof understanding.
Ableto speak at length with anatural,
effortless flow. Varies speech flow for
stylistic effect, e.g. to emphasizeapoint.
Uses appropriatediscoursemarkers and
connectors spontaneously.
Comprehension is consistently accuratein
nearly all contexts and includes
comprehension of linguistic and cultural
subtleties.
Interacts with easein nearly all situations. Is
sensitiveto verbal and non-verbal cues, and
responds to themappropriately.
Extended 5
Vocabulary rangeand accuracy aresufficient
to communicateeffectively on common,
concrete, and work related topics.
Paraphrases consistently and successfully.
Vocabulary is sometimes idiomatic.
Basic grammatical structures and sentence
patterns areconsistently well controlled.
Complex structures areattempted but with
errors which sometimes interferewith
meaning.
Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation,
though influenced by thefirst languageor
regional variation, rarely interferewith ease
of understanding.
Ableto speak at length with relativeeaseon
familiar topics, but may not vary speech flow
as astylistic device. Can makeuseof
appropriatediscoursemarkers or connectors.
Comprehension is accurateon common,
concrete, and work related topics and mostly
accuratewhen thespeaker is confronted with
alinguistic or situational complication or an
unexpected turn of events. Is ableto
comprehend arangeof speech varieties
(dialect and/or accent) or registers.
Responses areimmediate, appropriate, and
informative. Manages thespeaker/listener
relationship effectively.
Operational 4
Vocabulary rangeand accuracy areusually
sufficient to communicateeffectively on
common, concrete, and work related topics.
Can often paraphrasesuccessfully when
lacking vocabulary in unusual or unexpected
circumstances.
Basic grammatical structures and sentence
patterns areused creatively and areusually
well controlled. Errors may occur,
particularly in unusual or unexpected
circumstances, but rarely interferewith
meaning.
Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation
areinfluenced by thefirst languageor
regional variation but only sometimes
interferewith easeof understanding.
Produces stretches of languageat an
appropriatetempo. Theremay beoccasional
loss of fluency on transition fromrehearsed
or formulaic speech to spontaneous
interaction, but this does not prevent effective
communication. Can makelimited useof
discoursemarkers or connectors. Fillers are
not distracting.
Comprehension is mostly accurateon
common, concrete, and work related topics
when theaccent or variety used is sufficiently
intelligiblefor an international community of
users. When thespeaker is confronted with a
linguistic or situational complication or an
unexpected turn of events, comprehension
may beslower or requireclarification
strategies.
Responses areusually immediate, appropriate,
and informative. Initiates and maintains
exchanges even when dealing with an unexpected
turn of events. Deals adequately with apparent
misunderstandings by checking, confirming, or
clarifying.
Pre-Operational 3
Vocabulary rangeand accuracy areoften
sufficient to communicateon common,
concrete, or work related topics but rangeis
limited and theword choiceoften
inappropriate. Is often unableto paraphrase
successfully when lacking vocabulary.
Basic grammatical structures and sentence
patterns associated with predictablesituations
arenot always well controlled. Errors
frequently interferewith meaning.
Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation
areinfluenced by thefirst languageor
regional variation and frequently interfere
with easeof understanding.
Produces stretches of language, but phrasing
and pausing areoften inappropriate.
Hesitations or slowness in language
Comprehension is often accurateon common,
concrete, and work related topics when the
accent or variety used is sufficiently
intelligiblefor an international community of
Responses aresometimes immediate,
appropriate, and informative. Can initiateand
maintain exchanges with reasonableeaseon
familiar topics and in predictablesituations.
Generally inadequatewhen dealing with an
unexpected turn of events.
Elementary 2
Limited vocabulary rangeconsisting only of
isolated words and memorized phrases.
Shows only limited control of afew simple
memorized grammatical structures and
sentencepatterns.
Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation
areheavily influenced by thefirst languageor
regional variation and usually interferewith
easeof understanding.
Can producevery short, isolated, memorized
utterances with frequent pausing and a
distracting useof fillers to search for
expressions and to articulateless familiar
words.
Comprehension is limited to isolated,
memorized phrases when they arecarefully
and slowly articulated.
Responsetimeis slow, and often inappropriate.
Interaction is limited to simpleroutineexchanges
Pre-Elementary 1
Performs at alevel below theElementary
level.
Performs at alevel below theElementary
level.
Performs at alevel below theElementary
level.
Performs at alevel below Performs at alevel below Performs at alevel below theElementary level.
ICAO has developed the following Holistic Descriptors
Proficient speakers shall:
a. communicateeffectively in voice-only (telephone/radiotelephone) and in face-to-facesituations;
b. communicateon common, concreteand work-related topics with accuracy and clarity;
c. useappropriatecommunicativestrategies to exchangemessages and to recognizeand resolvemisunderstandings (e.g. to check, confirm, or clarify information) in ageneral or work-related context;
d. handlesuccessfully and with relativeeasethelinguistic challenges presented by acomplication or unexpected turn of events that occurs within thecontext of aroutinework situation or communicativetask with which they areotherwisefamiliar; and
e. useadialect or accent which is intelligibleto theaeronautical community.
Interactions
Level
Vocabulary Fluency Comprehension
ICAO Language Proficiency Descriptors