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Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 1 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

Workshop

Design of Industrial Power Distribution Systems:

Shortcut Methods, Quick Estimation and Application Guidelines

Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

January, 2012

Prof. P.K. Sen, PhD, PE, Fellow IEEE

Professor, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401

Senior Consultant

NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc.

Denver, Colorado 80033

pksen@neiengineering.com

303.339.6750

P.O Box 1265 Arvada, CO 80001

Phone (303) 431-7895 Fax (303) 431-1836

www.neiengineering.com

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 2 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

Design of Industrial Power Distribution Systems:

Shortcut Methods, Quick Estimation and Application Guidelines

Dr. P.K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE

Professor of Electrical Engineering

Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401

This (multiple days) workshop has been designed for all practicing engineers (young or experienced), managers,

operation and plant maintenance personnel, advanced students interested in power and energy engineering career

and technical personnel interested in different aspects of Power Distribution Systems Design as applied to Electric

Power and Energy industry. The main objective of the workshop is to introduce the basic tools required and

utilized in designing industrial power distribution systems. The primary focus of this course is on the medium

voltage (MV) and low voltage (LV) power systems with some references to the sub-transmission system. It is

assumed that participants have some basic knowledge of fundamentals of electric power systems and electric

machinery. Practical experience is preferable, but not required. Emphasis is given on hand calculations and

estimations. Numerous real world design problems will be solved during the entire workshop. The workshop will

be divided into multiple modules. Extensive handouts will be provided at the workshop. This introductory

workshop is must for all power systems engineers, utility and no-utility alike, consulting firms, manufacturing and

process plant, and designed to facilitate in educating advanced students in power and energy engineering profession.

(Tentative) Course Outline

Day (Part) 1:

1) Logistics, Introduction, Background and Prerequisites, Expectations etc.

2) Scope of Electric Power Distribution Engineering and Characteristics of Power Distribution

Systems: Utility, Industrial and Commercial Users Perspective

3) Power System Fundamentals, Understanding Load and Key Design Tools:

3-Ph Power, Voltage-Current Calculations;

Active, Reactive Power, Apparent Power, Power Factor and Power Triangle;

Power Factor Correction and Shunt Capacitor Compensation;

Voltage Drop and Voltage Regulation

Load Characterization;

Understanding Electricity Bill;

Induction Motor Load, Torque-Speed Characteristics, Losses and Efficiency;

Selection of Plant Distribution Voltage;

Transformer Sizing; and

Motor Starting and Voltage Drop

4) Transformer Engineering, Basics and Procurement:

Equivalent Circuit and Design Fundamentals;

Performance Evaluation: Efficiency and Losses; % Impedance and Voltage Regulation;

Transformer Procurement, Specification Writing and Loss Evaluation; Testing;

Overloading, Life Assessment and Asset Management

5) Design of Industrial Power Distribution Systems and Problems:

Simplified Design Calculations, Transformer Sizing, Selection of Voltage;

Motor Starting;

One-line Diagram; Quick Cost Estimate

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 3 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

Day (Part) 2: (When Applicable)

1) Recap of Day 1, Questions and Answers

2) Induction Motor Performance and Procurement

Design Fundamentals, Equivalent Circuit and Performance Evaluation;

Torque-Speed Characteristics;

Motor Starting and Voltage Drop;

Variable Frequency Drive;

Testing, Specification and Applications Guidelines.

3) 3-Phase Fault (Short-Circuit) Calculations

Per-Unit Methods of Calculations;

Sub-transient Reactance;

Source Reactance;

Shortcut Methods of Calculations for Industrial Power Systems;

Fault Current Distributions.

4) Design of an Industrial Power Distribution System and Problems

Selection of Breakers and Switchgears;

Motor Control Center - Specification and Evaluation;

System Grounding;

Reliability, Safety and Design;

Quick Cost Estimate.

5) Protection Design Philosophy

6) Emergency Power and Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)

7) Design Problems: Simplified Calculations, Guidelines and Techniques

Day (Part) 3: (When Applicable)

1) Recap of Days 1 and 2, Questions and Answers

2) Power Systems Protection:

Symmetrical Components and Unsymmetrical Faults;

Instrument Transformers;

Grounding of Power Systems and Ground Fault Protection;

Utility Industry Interface;

Design of Protection Scheme;

Power Systems Protection:

o Transformer

o Induction Motor

o Distribution Feeder

3) Step-by-Step Procedure in Protection Coordination and Design

4) Case Studies and Design Problems

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 4 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

Prof. Pankaj K. (PK) Sen, PhD, PE, Fellow IEEE

Colorado School of Mines

Golden, Colorado 80401

Dr. P.K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE has over 45 years of combined teaching, administrative, research, and

consulting engineering experience. Prior to joining Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado in

2000, Dr. Sen taught for 21 years at the University of Colorado, Colorado. His industrial experience

includes power plants and substation engineering design,

system & feasibility studies, protection and relaying, training

technical personnel at all level and solving various aspects of

power systems engineering application problems. He has

published over 140 technical papers on a variety of subjects

related to Power Systems, Protection / and Relaying, Electric

Machines, Renewable Energy and Energy Policy, Power

Quality, Engineering Education and Arc Flash and Safety.

Dr. Sen has supervised and mentored over 150 graduate

students (including non-traditional students, and practicing

engineers from the Utility Industries, Rural Electric

Companys, Consulting Engineers, and others). He is an IEEE

Fellow and a Registered Professional Engineer (Electrical) in

the State of Colorado. Currently Dr. Sen is a Professor of

Electrical Engineering and the Site Director for the

(Originally NSF funded) Industry University Cooperative

Research Center (IUCRC) Power Systems Engineering

Research Center (www.pserc.org) at Colorado School of

Mines, Golden, Colorado. His current research interests

include application problems (safety, protection, equipment life, energy economics, asset

management and policy issues, etc.) in power systems engineering, renewable energy applications

and distributed generation, and engineering education. Dr. Sen is a very active member of a number

of Professional Societies including IEEE PES & IAS, Rocky Mountain Electrical League (RMEL)

and has been instrumental in providing seminars, short courses, conduct workshops, and provide

training for technical personnel in the Rocky Mountain Region and nationwide (USA) and

internationally for the past 34 years.

Dr. Sen is known in the industry, locally, nationally and internationally for providing educational

opportunities for practicing engineers at all level, and for both undergraduate and graduate students.

He is an inspiring and prolific teacher with passion. He has authored numerous prize winning papers

at the IEEE Conferences and IAS Magazine.

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 5 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

Design of Industrial Power Distribution Systems:

Shortcut Methods, Quick Estimation and Application Guidelines

Presentation Outline

Part 1

Introduction, and Scope of Electric Power Distribution Systems

Engineering

Characteristics of Power Distribution Systems: Utility and

Industrial/Commercial Users Perspective

Power System Fundamentals & Design Tools:

o (Review) 1-Phase and 3-Phase Power

o (Review) Power, Reactive Power, Power Factor

o Power Triangle

o Losses and Efficiency

Selection of Voltage

Power Factor Correction

Percentage Impedance, Voltage Regulation and % Voltage Drop

Understanding Electricity Bill

Transformer

o Procurement and Specification Writing

o Losses and Efficiency

o Bid Evaluation

o Application Guidelines

o Protection Basics

Quick Cost Estimate

Design Problems: Transformer Sizing, Power Factor Correction,

Voltage Drop and Voltage Regulation

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 6 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

Design of Industrial Power Distribution Systems:

Shortcut Methods, Quick Estimation and Application Guidelines

Presentation Outline

Part 2

Induction Motor: Characteristics, Performance

Evaluation, Specification

Quick and Simplified 3-Phase Short Circuit (Hand)

Calculations for Radial System

o Volt-Ampere Method

o Per-Unit Method

Power System Grounding

Application Guidelines -

o Motor Starting and Voltage Drop

o Sizing Transformers

o Capacitor Selection

o Simplified Transformer Protection Considerations

Conclusions, Questions and Answers

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 7 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

Design of Industrial Power Distribution Systems:

Shortcut Methods, Quick Estimation and Application Guidelines

Presentation Outline

Part 3

1) Recap of Day 1 and 2, Questions and Answers

2) Power Systems Protection

Symmetrical Components and Unsymmetrical Faults;

Instrument Transformers;

Grounding of Power Systems and Ground Fault Protection;

Utility Industry Interface;

Design of Protection Scheme;

Power Systems Protection:

o Transformer

o Induction Motor

o Distribution Feeder

3) Step-by-Step Procedure in Protection Coordination and

Design;

4) Case Studies

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 8 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

Fault Contribution

Rotating Machines

Synchronous Machine

Direct-Axis Quantities:

Sub-Transient (x

d

, T

d

): ~ 3 Cycles**

Transient (x

d

, T

d

): ~ 0.6-1.0 Sec

Steady-State (x

d

)

** Normally Used in Fault Calculations

Typical Values 0.1 - 0.2 per-unit (Machine Base)

Induction Motor

Fault Contributions last usually 2-3

Cycles

Sub-transient Reactance varies typically

between 0.17 0.25 per-unit (Machine

Base)

If the starting current is 6.0 times the full-

load current, then the sub-transient

reactance is 1/6 = 0.167 pu.

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 9 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

Important!! Assume Zero

Source Reactance or Infinite

Bus always yields

Conservative Results in

Fault Calculations.

3-Phase Fault Calculations

(Design) Problem No. 3

Calculate the 3-Phase Fault Current at X

Total Fault Current @ x = 11,954 + 4,184 + 1,046 + 2,092 A

= 19,276 A

(= 3 13.8 19,276 = 460.7 MVA)

Assume: Finite Bus with 3-Ph Fault Level = 1,500 MVA @ 115 kV Bus

Source Reactance (X

s

) = 20 / 1,500 = 0.0133 pu

Fault Contribution by the Source = 1.0 / (0.0133 + 0.07) pu

= 12.00 pu = 12.0 x 836.8 A

= 10,045 A

Total Fault Current @ X = 10,045 + 4,184 + 1,046 + 2,092 A

= 17,367 A (Compared to 19,276 A)

A 418.4

13.8 3

10,000

I

b

= == =

= == =

1/0.1 = 10 pu

= 10 x 418.4 A = 4,184 A

Assume: 1 HP 1 kVA

A 209.2

13.8 3

5,000

I

b

= == =

= == =

1/0.1 = 10 pu

= 10 x 209.2 A = 2,092 A

A 836.8

13.8 3

20,000

I

b

= == =

= == =

1/0.07 = 14.3 pu

= 14.3 x 836.8 A

= 11,954 A

Assume: Infinite Bus

Source Reactance (X

s

) = 0

5,000 kVA

5,000 kVA

1/0.2 = 5 pu

= 5 x 209.2 A

= 1,046 A

0 A

A 209.2

13.8 3

5,000

I

b

= == =

= == =

1/0.07 = 14.3 pu

= 14.3 x 100.4 A

= 1,436 A

= 11,954x13.8/115 A

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 10 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

Important!! Assume Zero

Source Reactance or Infinite

Bus always yields Conservative

Results in Fault Calculations.

3-Phase Fault Calculations

(Design) Problem No. 4

Calculate the 3-Phase Fault Current at Y.

Total Fault Current @ Y = 1/0.06 = 16.7 pu

= 16.7 x 1,202 A = 20,047 A

(= 3 0.480 20.047 = 16.67 MVA)

Assuming Fault at X = 460.7 MVA (or 11,954 A)

Source Reactance (X

s

) = 1.0 MVA (Transf. Rating) / 460.7 MVA

= 0.0022 pu

Fault Current at Y = 1.0 / (0.0022 + 0.06) = 16.085 pu

= 16.085 x 1,202 A = 19,347 A

( = 16.08 MVA)

Assume: Infinite Bus

Source Reactance (X

s

) = 0

A 1,202

0.480 3

1,000

I

b

= == =

= == =

1/0.06 = 16.67 pu

= 16.67x1,202 A =

20,047 A

1/0.06 = 16.67 pu

= 16.67x41.9 A

= 698 A

499 A

93 A

71 A 35 A

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 11 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

3-Phase Fault Calculations

(Design) Practice Problem No. 7

For the given problem, calculate the fault currents at various locations (F

1

to F

4

)

using different assumptions, like using an infinite bus or neglect any other

impedance, etc. Please justify your assumptions.

Fault Calcula-

tions

Assumptions!

!

Fault Current

Values (A)

F

1

(a) 17,811

(b) 17,412

(c) 16,288

(d) 16,602

F

2

(e) 31,379

(f) 38,596

(g) ??

F

3

(h) 5,395

(i) ??

(j) 5,910

F

4

(k) 26,162

(l) 28,375

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 12 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

Important!! Assume Zero

Source Reactance or Infinite

Bus always yields Optimistic

Results in Voltage Drop

Calculations. Source Reactance

(for minimum fault current or

highest value of X

s

) must be

considered, in doing the real

calculations.

Induction Motor Starting

Voltage Drop Calculation

(Design) Problem No. 5

Assume: Full-load Efficiency = 0.92 and Full-load Power Factor =

0.93 (lag)

Approximate Full-load Current = 363 A

Assume Full Voltage (Direct-on-Line) Starting Current (I

st

) = 6.0 x

I

FL

= 2,178 A @ 0.0 lagging power factor (conservative assumption)

% Voltage Drop = [ % r Cos % x Sin ] I

pu

(Loading)

(+) Lagging Power Factor

Assume: Infinite Bus

Source Reactance (X

s

) = 0

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 13 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

(1) Assume: 1 HP 1 kVA, Constant Current

Model and 0.0 lag power factor, % Voltage

(Momentary) Drop = 28.8%

(2) Using Actual Efficiency and Power Factor in

calculating the full-load current, Constant

Current Model and 0.0 lag power factor,

% Voltage Drop = 25.12%

(3) Same as (2), but assuming a power factor (more

realistic) 0.25 lag,

% Voltage Drop = 24.4%

(4) Assume, 1 HP = 1 kVA and a Constant

Impedance Model and 0.0 lag power factor, %

Voltage (Momentary) Drop = 22.4%

All of the above simplified quick calculations (with various

assumptions) produce most likely an unacceptable voltage

drop (more than 20%) at the motor terminals. Since the

motor torque is proportional to the squared of the voltage

( T

m

V

2

), the starting torque will be drastically reduced

(e.g., for case (4) (V = 1.0 0.224 = 0.776), the torque will be

0.776

2

= 0.60 or 60% of the full-voltage starting torque).

So we have too much Voltage Drop!!

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 14 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

(1) Increase the transformer size Doubling the transformer

size to 10 MVA will reduce the voltage drop (approximately)

by a factor of 2 (to 12-13%).

(2) Buy an induction motor (Code Letter D) with starting

current less than 6.0 times (say 4.0 4.5). This will reduce

the % voltage drop proportionately (to about 14-16%).

(3) Use reduced voltage starter (Autotransformer) or soft

start. This will reduce the % voltage drop to a real value

(much less than 10%, depending on the design). However,

care must be taken to ensure that adequate motor torque is

produced during starting.

(4) Reduction of the % reactance of transformer may be

utilized to enhance the problem. However, this will increase

the fault current values, and may increase the cost of

switchgear, and other associated equipment.

.

(5) Redesign the process requirements, when appropriate

and possible, to reduce the motor output.

(6) Using higher plant distribution voltage.

Ultimately, application requirements and cost will probably

dictate the solution.

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 15 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

Fundamentals of Power Distribution Systems Design:

Review, Simplified and Shortcut Calculations and Guidelines

Symmetrical Components Fundamentals

Any Unbalanced set of 3-Phase Vectors (or Phasors) having a Phase

Sequence (or Rotation), say abc can be replaced by (or resolved into)

three Component set of Vectors

(3) A set of Balanced 3-Phase Vectors (120

o

out-of-phase) having the same

phase sequence (or rotation) of the original set of vectors (abc),

called Positive Sequence.

(4) A set of Balanced 3-Phase Vectors (120

o

out-of-phase) having the same

opposite (or negative) phase sequence (or rotation) of the original set

of vectors (acb), called Negative Sequence, and

(5) A set of 3, 1-phase Vectors (same phase and magnitude), called Zero

Sequence.

a

b

c

a

1

b

1

c

1

a

2

b

2

c

2

a

0

b

0

c

0

a

2

b

2

c

2

Positive

Negative Zero

Phase Quantities Sequence Quantities

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 16 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

Mathematically, say, for a set of three phase (phasor) currents (I

a

, I

b

and I

c

) and

the three sequence components of (phasor) currents (I

(a,b,c)1

, I

(a,b,c)2

and I

(a,b,c)0

):

I

a

= I

a1

+ I

a2

+ I

a0

I

b

= I

b1

+ I

b2

+ I

b0

I

c

= I

c1

+ I

c2

+ I

c0

Conversely, it can be shown by simple mathematical manipulation that the three

sequence components of currents (I

a1

, I

a2

, and I

a0

) for phase-a can be calculated:

I

a1

= 1/3 [ I

a

+ a I

b

+ a

2

I

c

]

I

a2

= 1/3 [ I

a

+ a

2

I

b

+ a I

c

]

I

a0

= 1/3 [ I

a

+ I

b

+ I

c

]

where, a is a unit vector defined by, a = 1.0 120

o

.

Simple Numerical Examples (Graphical and Analytical Solutions):

(1) I

a

= 3.0 0

o

, I

b

= 0 and I

c

= 0. [Incidentally, this happens when we have a

single-line-to-ground (an unsymmetrical) fault in power systems.]

(2) I

a

= 0, I

b

= 1.732 90

o

and I

c

= -1.732 90

o

. [Incidentally, this happens

when we have a line-to-line (another unsymmetrical) fault in power

systems.]

(3) Find (both graphically and analytically) all the (nine) sequence components

of currents [positive: (I

a1

, I

b1

, I

c1

), negative: (I

a2

, I

b2

, I

c2

) and zero: (I

a0

, I

b0

,

I

c0

) ] from the following set of three currents in a power system.

I

a

= 100 90

o

(A), I

b

= 200 0

o

(A) and I

c

= 300 - 90

o

(A)

(4) Calculate (both analytically and graphically) the phase currents (I

a

, I

b

, I

c

)

from the following sequence components of currents.

I

a1

= 10 0

o

(A), I

b2

= 20 120

o

(A), and I

c0

= 10 - 90

o

(A)

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 17 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

Understanding the Physical Significance of (and other Basic Facts about) the

Sequence (components) Currents:

(1) Vector summation of the positive sequence currents = 0. (Three vectors,

equal in magnitude and 120

o

out-of-phase, and phase sequence, abc).

(2) Statement (1) is equally true for the negative sequence of currents.

(except the phase sequence is, acb).

(3) Vector summation of the three zero sequence currents (I

0

, same in

magnitude and phase) = 3I

0

(4) Any 3-phase power system under normal operating conditions is considered

to be the positive sequence network conditions, even though we do not

explicitly say so.

(5) Negative sequence network (or power system) conditions could be dealt

with in the same fashion as the positive sequence network, except for a

major difference: the voltage sources have a phase sequence opposite to the

positive sequence.

(6) Synchronous generators (or alternators) connected to the normal 3-phase

power network produces only positive sequence voltage (in an ideal

condition).

(7) Static devices connected in a 3-phase power network (like transformers,

transmission and distribution lines, capacitors, etc.) do not see any

difference between positive and a negative sequence quantities. However,

they behave completely differently for zero sequence quantities.

(8) For a balanced 3-phase conditions (like positive and negative sequence

conditions), neutral connections for Y-connections (transformer neutral,

loads, generator neutrals, etc.) is immaterial. The system doesnt see the

difference between grounded (any form) and ungrounded system, since

vector summation of three vectors 120

o

is zero. In case of currents, no

current flow through the neutral conductor or ground (Kirchoffs Current

Law).

(8) However, in case of zero sequence current, as an example, the current

flowing through the neutral (and/or ground) equals the 3 times the zero

sequence current (Kirchoffs Current Law). This can be seen from the

fundamental definition of zero sequence quantities.

(9) The sequence quantities are always line-to-neutral or line-to-ground (or

phase quantities).

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 18 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

Sequence Networks (Thevenin Equivalent):

V

a1

= V

f

I

a1

Z

1

where, Z

1

is the positive sequence impedance

V

a2

= I

a2

Z

2

Z

2

is the negative sequence impedance

V

a0

= I

a0

Z

0

Z

0

is the zero sequence impedance

Note:

(1) Only positive sequence network has any voltage source for fault

calculations.

(2) For all practical conditions in power system, we assume (will be discussed

briefly in the class), Z

1

= Z

2

(3) Zero Sequence Impedance (Z

0

) is usually totally different and depends

on the grounding (or neutral) connections.

(4) Calculations of Z

1

(= Z

2

) is straight forward and is the same value used for

3-phase fault calculations.

(5) The sequence network used are always for Phase-a values and deals with

phase quantities.

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 19 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

Symmetrical Components Fundamentals

Sequence Connections for Typical Two-Winding Transformer Banks

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 20 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

Reduced Sequence Networks where Z

1

, Z

2

and Z

0

are the Equivalent Impedances of the Network to the

Fault Point

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 21 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

System Grounding and Ground Fault

Protection

39

Delta - Wye Solidly Grounded

Transformer

System Grounding and Ground Fault

Protection

40

Delta Wye

Solidly Grounded

P

T

Z

S

Zero Sequence Bus

OS

I

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 22 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

System Grounding and Ground Fault

Protection

44

Wye (Grounded)

Wye (Grounded)

Zero Sequence Bus

P S

I

OS

Z

T

System Grounding and Ground Fault

Protection

46

3-Winding Transformer

Wye (Grounded) - Delta - Wye (Grounded)

Zero Sequence Bus

P

T

S

I

OS OP

I

OT

I

Z

T

Z

P

Z

S

N

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 23 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

Reduced Sequence Networks where Z

1

, Z

2

and Z

0

are the Equivalent Impedances of the Network to the

Fault Point

System Grounding and Ground Fault

Protection

37

Network Connections for Unsymmetrical Faults

Single-Line-to-

Ground Fault

Positive

Negative

Zero

Line-to-Line-

Fault

Line-to-Line-to-

Ground Fault

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 24 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

Brain Tinker No.1

(1) A small industrial plant (receiving power at 12.47kV) has the following loads:

(a) 3 x 100 HP Induction Motors

(b) 2 x 50 HP Induction Motors, and

(c) 300 kW of lighting, heating and other small plant loads

Estimate the total plant load, typical running power factor, and size (specify) a

transformer. Discuss the protection philosophy for such a plant.

(2) A 3-phase transformer is rated at 5/7.5 MVA, 13.8 kV (Delta) 4.16 kV

(Grounded-Wye). Calculate (estimate) the full-load phase and line currents on

both high-side and low-side of the transformer at maximum loading. What will be

a typical % reactance and X/R ratio values? Also calculate the maximum available

fault current on the low-side of the transformer. Discuss the protection philosophy

for this transformer.

(3) What is the meaning of the following ANSI/IEEE device nos.?

a) Device No. 27 ___________________________

b) Device No. 51 ___________________________

c) Device No. 81 ___________________________

d) Device No. 87 ___________________________

e) Device No. 38 ___________________________

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 25 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

(4) Put a check (x) in front of each factor affecting transformer protection:

________ Magnetizing Inrush Current

________ Load Tap Changer

________ No-Load Tap Changer

________ Transformer Voltage Level

________ Current Transformer (CT) Ratios

________ Transformer Winding Connections

(5) Draw a (typical) simple motor thermal load capability. How would you protect

a 200HP induction motor? Discuss the key information you must identify in

protecting the motor.

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 26 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

Brain Tinker No. 2

1) Draw a typical symmetrical short-circuit current supplied by a

synchronous generator. Identify and briefly discuss the key points in the

drawing. Also show the rms value of the current.

2) What causes the dc offset in a short-circuit current fed by a synchronous

generator?

3) What is the worst possible (theoretical maximum) dc offset one can expect in a

synchronous machine?

4) What is the difference between the interrupting (short-circuit capability)

current and closing and latching current in a circuit breaker?

5) Draw a typical symmetrical short circuit current supplied by an induction

motor. Discuss briefly why this is distinctly different from the synchronous

machine? What are typical sub-transient reactance values?

6) Identify some of the key parameters one should specify and check while

procuring a medium voltage power circuit breaker.

7) How do you define the total asymmetrical fault current? Draw and explain.

8) What are the typical sub-transient reactance values?

a. Large Alternators Steam or Gas Turbine (2-pole or 4-pole) _________

b. Large Alternators Hydro (Salient Pole, slow speed) _________

c. Large (MV) Induction Motors (say, 1000 HP and above) _________

d. Smaller (LV) Induction Motors (say, 50-200 HP) _________

e. Smaller (LV) Induction Motor (say, below, 50 HP) _________

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 27 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

9) Answer the following questions:

(a) What are the typical reactance and X/R values?

o 12.47 kV Overhead Distribution Lines ____________

o Small Distribution Transformers ____________

(Say, 500 kVA or less, 4.16 kV 480 V)

o Large Power Transformers ____________

(Say, 30/40/50 MVA, 230 kV-12.47 kV)

o 115 kV Overhead Transmission Line ____________

o 500 kV Overhead Transmission Line ____________

(b) What are the typical values (@ Rated Load Condition)?

o Efficiency of a 500 MVA Generator __________

o Efficiency of a 100 MVA Transformer __________

o Efficiency of a 5,000 HP Induction Motor __________

o Efficiency of a 5 HP Motor __________

o Operating Range of Power Factor for a Large Generator __________

o Voltage of a 3,000 HP Induction Motor __________

o HP Limit of Induction Motor for 480 V System __________

10) In a large distribution power system, 3-phase fault current reported by the

utility at the incoming 69 kV point is 24.5 kA rms symmetrical. Calculate the

source impedance in . Also calculate the source impedance in per-unit,

assume a base of 10 MVA.

11) Estimate the full-load current of a 50 HP induction motor.

12) What limits the output of a power transformer? Explain briefly.

13) What are instrument transformers? Why is it used in large scale power

systems?

14) Calculate the line and phase currents (both magnitude and phase angle) in a 2

MVA, 12.47 kV (Delta) 480 V (Wye) transformer. Assume the load is

purely resistive and the transformer is fully loaded. Use the load voltage as the

reference.

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 28 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

More Brain Tinker

Identify True (T), False (F) or Unclear, Unknown or Subjected to

Conditions and Add Brief Comments, as Appropriate.

1) Protective relaying is utilized to protect major power equipment against the

maximum fault current (short-circuit) only.

2) Per-unit values of currents on both sides of a two-winding transformer are

same.

3) Protective relays always use both the current and voltage signals for its

operation.

4) Protective relaying costs about 30% of the major power equipment it is

protecting.

5) In order to do proper relay settings calculations in a large scale (utility

oriented) power system, it is essential that you should have both 3-phase and

single-line-to-ground faults (bolted) information available at appropriate

locations including the current distribution.

6) Some form of polarizing (current and/or voltage) is needed for all directional

relays.

7) In a three-phase power system (under normal operation), at any point in the

system, both positive- and zero-sequence voltages are zero.

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 29 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

8) To measure a 10,000A current in a normal power system application, we

need to use a CT. However, if the current is 100 A only, there is no need for

a CT.

9) To design a protective relaying scheme (during the conceptual design stage),

the three-line diagram and the AC, DC schematics, are absolutely essential.

10) In modern microprocessor based relaying scheme, auxiliary relays are not

used extensively to perform a variety of control functions and logic.

11) Modern day microprocessor relays perform more than relaying like event

recording, fault location detection, other control and monitoring functions.

12) In microprocessor based relays, for each function (defined by ANSI

Numbers), you need a separate relay.

13) Knowledge of polarity and phase-sequence is essential for proper relay

applications (selection).

14) In an ungrounded wye connected system, if one phase goes to ground, the

voltages of the other two phases goes up to the line voltages (with respect to

ground) of the system.

Dr. P. K. Sen, PE, Fellow IEEE 30 [2012] IEEE IAS Distinguished Lecture Series

Professor, Colorado School of Mines Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Delhi: India

Senior Consultant, NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. January, 2012

15) In an ungrounded wye-connected power system, the neutral is always at

ground potential.

16) In a delta-wye connected two-winding transformer, there is a phase-shift of

30

o

(for positive sequence) between the primary and secondary line

quantities (voltage and currents), and the standard ANSI connection

recommends the low-voltage quantities to lead the high-voltage quantities.

17) In a 3-phase power system, zero-sequence currents for all three phases are

same.

18) In a three-phase power system with a delta-wye (grounded) transformer,

zero-sequence current flows (confined) within the delta windings (in the

loop).

19) For all faults involving ground, there will always be (in general) some zero-

sequence current in line.

20) Transformers of all sizes are always protected by differential relay.

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