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Republic of the Philippines

SUPREME COURT
Manila
EN BANC
G.R. No. 133685-86 May 20, 2004
PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, appellee,
vs.
AMAO !AGNATE, appellant.
D E C I S I O N
PER CURIAM:
Before the Court is an autoatic revie! of the "oint "u#$ent ren#ere# b% the Re$ional &rial Court 'Branch ()* of
&abaco, Alba%, fin#in$ appellant Aa#o Ba$nate $uilt% be%on# reasonable #oubt of Mur#er in Criinal Case No. &+
,-./ an# of Rape !ith 0oici#e in Criinal Case No. &+,-.), sentencin$ hi to suffer the penalt% of Death in each
case.
&he Inforation a$ainst appellant in Criinal Case No. &+,-./ rea#s as follo!s1
&hat on or about the .th #a% of Au$ust, (22. at (133 o4cloc5 in the ornin$, ore or less, at Baran$a%
Buhian, Municipalit% of &abaco, Province of Alba%, Philippines an# !ithin the 6uris#iction of this 0onorable
Court, the above+nae# accuse#, !ith intent to 5ill an# !hile are# !ith a bolo, !ith nocturnit%, treacher%,
superior stren$th, an# !ith #isre$ar# of the respect #ue to the victi on account of a$e an# se7, #i# then an#
there !illfull%, unla!full% an# feloniousl% assault, attac5 an# hac5 !ith sai# bolo one A8RIA BRO9A,(a .3+
%ear ol# blin# !oan, thereb% inflictin$ upon the latter ortal !oun#s, !hich cause# her #eath, to the
#aa$e an# pre6u#ice of her le$al heirs.
AC&S CON&AR: &O ;A<.,
&he Inforation in Criinal Case No. &+,-.) rea#s1
&hat on or about the .th #a% of Au$ust, (22. at (133 o4cloc5 in the ornin$, ore or less, at Baran$a%
Buhian, Municipalit% of &abaco, Province of Alba%, Philippines an# !ithin the 6uris#iction of this 0onorable
Court, the above+nae# accuse#, !ith le!# #esi$n an# b% eans of violence, force an# intii#ation, #i# then
an# there !illfull%, unla!full% an# feloniousl% have se7ual intercourse !ith ROSA;IE RA:A;A, a$ainst her
!ill an# consent, an# on the occasion thereof, !ith intent to 5ill, ta5in$ a#vanta$e of superior stren$th an#
!hile are# !ith a bolo, #i# then an# there !illfull%, unla!full% an# feloniousl% assault, attac5 an# hac5
aforenae# Rosalie Ra%ala, thereb% inflictin$ upon the latter ortal !oun#s on the #ifferent parts of her
bo#%, !hich cause# her #eath, to the #aa$e an# pre6u#ice of her heirs.
AC&S CON&RAR: &O ;A<.=
<hen arrai$ne# on Deceber (, (22., Ba$nate plea#e# >not $uilt%> to both char$es a$ainst hi, / an# 6oint trial on
the erits ensue#.
&he evi#ence for the prosecution establishe# the follo!in$ facts1
In the afternoon of Au$ust ., (22., appellant !as turne# over to SPO, "un!el Abion for custo#ial
investi$ation. <ithout as5in$ the nae of appellant, SPO, Abion infore# hi in the Bicol #ialect of his
ri$ht to reain silent, to be assiste# b% counsel, that !hatever he sa%s a% be use# a$ainst or in his favor, an#
that he cannot be torture# or oleste#. As5e# if he is !illin$ to cooperate, the accuse# assente# an# $ave his
nae as Aa#o Ma$nate. SPO, Abion later learne# that appellant4s real nae is Aa#o Ba$nate. <hen
appellant tol# SPO, Abion that he is !illin$ to confess, SPO, Abion a$ain infore# appellant of his
ri$hts, an# as5e# hi further if he !ants to be assiste# b% counsel but appellant sai# that his counsel !as in
Manila. SPO, Abion offere# the services of Att%. Paterno Brotaonte, !hich appellant accepte#. SPO,
Abion then left to fetch Att%. Brotaonte !hose office !as locate# several eters a!a% fro the police
station. 0o!ever, Att%. Brotaonte tol# SPO, Abion that he !ill 6ust follo! as he !as havin$ his office
blessin$ at that tie. After soe tie, Att%. Brotaonte arrive# at the police station. Before procee#in$ !ith
the investi$ation, Att%. Brotaonte as5e# the policeen to leave the investi$ation roo an# conferre# !ith
appellant. 0e intro#uce# hiself to appellant an# infore# hi of his ri$hts. 0e also as5e# an# e7aine#
appellant to see if he !as ph%sicall% hare# b% the policeen an# foun# none althou$h Att%. Brotaonte
notice# that appellant4s left han# !as han#cuffe# to the table. Appellant tol# Att%. Brotaonte that he is
!illin$ to $ive a stateent. &he investi$ation !as then con#ucte# in the Bicol #ialect, !ith SPO, Abion
as5in$ the ?uestions. It !as translate# thereafter into En$lish !ith the help of Att%. Brotaonte, for the
purpose of puttin$ it into !ritin$. After t%pin$ the first pa$e of the confession, Att%. Brotaonte translate#
an# e7plaine# the contents thereof to appellant, then Att%. Brotaonte an# appellant si$ne# thereon. <hile all
this !as $oin$ on, SPO( Ro$elio @onAales !as ta5in$ pictures.) &he first pa$e of the confession rea#s1
PRE;IMINAR: 1 Mr. Aa#o Ba$nate, %ou are in this office bein$ investi$ate# for %our involveent
in the cries ipute# a$ainst %ou particularl% the 5illin$ of Aurea Bronia an# Rosalie Ra%ala an# at
the sae tie havin$ carnal 5no!le#$e of the t!o in Buhian, &abaco, Alba%. But before !e procee#
in this investi$ation, a% I infor %ou that un#er our Ne! Constitution, %ou have the ri$ht to reain
silent, an# that an%thin$ %ou a% sa% a% be use# in %our favor or a$ainst %ou in an% court
procee#in$s in the entire PhilippinesB that %ou have the ri$ht to be assiste# b% a counsel of %our o!n
choice or if %ou cannot affor# to have one, the state represente# b% our office !ill provi#e %ou a
copetent counselB that %ou are free fro torture or an% for of ph%sical violence !hich !ill ten#
vitiate %our stateents. Do %ou clearl% un#erstan# %our constitutional ri$hts !hich !ere relate# to
%ou in Bicol #ialectC
ANS<ER 1 :es sir, I clearl% un#erstan# % Constitutional Ri$hts because it !as relate# to e in
Bicol #ialect.
INDES&I@A&OR 1 Do %ou !ant to avail of %our Constitutional ri$htsC
ANS<ER 1 I !ant to be assiste# b% a copetent counsel.
INDES&I@A&OR 1 Do %ou have a counsel of %our o!n choiceC
ANS<ER 1 I have none sir.
INDES&I@A&OR 1 Since %ou #o not have %our o!n counsel, our office !ill provi#e %ou one, is this
acceptable to %ouC
ANS<ER 1 :es sir.
INDES&I@A&OR 1 If our office !ill provi#e %ou the services of Att%. Paterno Brotaonte, !ho is a
copetent la!%er is this acceptable to %ouC
ANS<ER 1 :es sir.
INDES&I@A&OR 1 Ma% I a$ain rein# %ou that an%thin$ %ou sa% in this investi$ation a% be use#
in favor or a$ainst %ou in an% court procee#in$s in the entire Philippines. Do %ou still !ish to $ive
%our free an# voluntar% stateentsC
ANS<ER 1 :es sir.
INDES&I@A&OR 1 Do %ou un#erstan# the ?uestions that !ere as5e# fro %ouC
ANS<ER 1 :es sir, because the% !ere relate# to e in Bicol #ialect.
INDES&I@A&OR 1 Are %ou !illin$ to si$n %our $iven stateentsC
ANS<ER 1 :es sir.E
SPO, Abion then procee#e# !ith the secon# an# thir# pa$es of the confession, follo!in$ the sae proce#ure of
propoun#in$ the ?uestions in the Bicol #ialect an# translatin$ it thereafter into En$lish for each pa$e.. Att%.
Brotaonte a$ain rea# an# e7plaine# the contents thereof to appellant- after !hich the% a$ain separatel% si$ne# on
pa$es t!o an# three thereof. &he secon# an# thir# pa$es are ?uote# in verbatim, to !it1
3=. F+ Please state %our nae an# other personal circustancesC
A+ AMADO BA@NA&E : BRONIA, ,- %ears ol#, sin$le, #uc5 careta5er presentl% !or5in$ in Balaton$
Pulilan, Bulacan an# a native of Buhian, &abaco, Alba%.
3/. F+ <hen an# !here #i# the inci#ent happene#C
A+ At on or about (,1=3 A.M. Au$ust ., (22. at Buhian, &abaco, Alba%.
3). F+ <ill %ou please narrate in #etail, %our 5no!le#$e of the sai# inci#entC
A+ At on or about E133 P.M. Au$ust E, (22. I to$ether !ith Gaustino Bufi2 an# Carlito Be$il #rin5 a bottle of
$in at the store of :olan#a Buban at Buhian, &abaco, Alba% an# !hile !e !ere #rin5in$ sai# Carlito Be$il
tol# us that he !ill have se7 !ith a !oan on that ni$ht, ho!ever he #i# not elaborate !ho the !oan is an#
at about -133 P.M. of sae #ate !e alrea#% consue# the bottle of $in an# !e #eci#e# to $o hoe.
3E. F+ Please continue
A+ So I procee#e# to the house of % brother+in+la! Roberto An$eles to spen# the ni$ht at the sai# house
ho!ever at on or about (,1=3 A.M. Au$ust ., (22. I $o out of the house an# procee#e# to % $ran#parents
house !hich is about five ars len$th fro the house of Roberto An$eles leavin$ the bolo on the $roun# an#
entere# % $ran#parents Aurea Bronia4s house an# $o #irectl% on the roo !here Rosalie Ra%ala is sleepin$
an# once insi#e the roo I ebrace# the sleepin$ Rosalie Ra%ala an# starte# on 5issin$ her ho!ever Rosalie
Ra%ala span5 an# bo7e# e but still I continue# on 5issin$ her but still he span5 e, so I $o out of the roo
an# sits on the #oor but Rosalie Ra%ala follo!e# e so I 5isse# her a$ain but she span5 e a$ain so I $ot
hol# of the bolo an# hac5 Rosalie Ra%ala hittin$ her on her nec5 !hich cause# her to fall on the $roun# an# I
pulle# Rosalie Ra%ala an# have carnal 5no!le#$e of her !hile she is still alive, !hile Carlito Be$il an#
Roberto An$eles !ere stan#in$ an# vie!in$ !hat I a #oin$ an# after satisf%in$ % lust sai# Carlito Be$il
$oes on to of Rosalie Ra%ala an# starte# on pupin$ her an# after satisf%in$ his lust, % $ran#parent Aurea
Bronia shoute# althou$h she !as blin# an# thin5s that % $ran#parent Aurea Bronia hear# !hat I a #oin$ I
hac5e# her on her nec5 an# !hen she fall I pulle# her a!a% fro the house to!ar#s the $rass% portion of the
%ar# !herein Carlito Be$il an# Roberto An$eles follo!e# e !herein I !as unable to #eterine !ho fro
the t!o ha# carnal 5no!le#$e of % $ran#parent because I alrea#% left the an# I procee#e# to the ain roa#
to &abaco, Alba%.
3.. F+ Please continue further.
A+ Before I finall% procee#e# to the ain roa# I passe# b% the house of "ose !hich I ha# for$otten his fail%
nae an# Aran#o Bos?ue both Baran$a% &ano#s of our place an# tol# the t!o that is bein$ !ante# b% %
$o#father "ulian Balolo% that there !as soethin$ that happene# in the house of % $ran#parents house, an#
the t!o $oes !ith e an# because I !as alrea#% then fri$htene# I 6ust $o !ith the an# hurrie#l% left the
place an# procee#e# to Roberto An$eles house an# calle# % sister an# I !as allo!e# to enter an# I prepare#
a cup of coffee an# after #rin5in$ sae I hurrie#l% left the house an# finall% procee#e# to the hi$h!a% an#
boar#e# a 6eep boun# for the to!n proper an# spen# the rest of the ni$ht at the to!n plaAa an# at about E133
A.M. Au$ust ., (22. I procee#e# to the church to hear ass an# after that I !ent to % sister4s house at
&a%hi, &abaco, Alba% an# I eat % brea5fast an# after eatin$ I left % sister4s house nae# Avelina Calla an#
it cae to % in# that I !ill eva#e arrest an# #eci#e# to procee# to Metro Manila then to % place of !or5
in Pulilan, Bulacan.
3-. F+ 0o! !ere %ou able to reach the &abaco Police StationC
A+ I !as apprehen#e# b% resi#ents of Ban5ilin$an, &abaco, Alba% for accor#in$l% an alar to apprehen# e
!as set b% eleents of the &abaco Police !herein one of the !as able to trace e but luc5il% I !as able to
eva#e the but finall% I !as apprehen#e# at Ban5ilin$an, &abaco, Alba% an# later on !as brou$ht to the
&abaco Police.
32. F+ 0o! are %ou relate# !ith the victis nael% Rosalie Ra%ala an# Aurea BroniaC
A+ &his Rosalie Ra%ala she is % nephe! an# Aurea Bronia she is % $ran#parent.
(3. F+ &his investi$ator, ha# no ore ?uestion to as5 fro %ou, #o %ou have an%thin$ ore to a## in this
stateent of %oursC
A+ No! no ore sir, but I !ill 6ust relate other #etails if the nee# arises.
((. F+ Are %ou !illin$ to si$n this stateent of %oursC
A+ :es sir.(3
After appellant4s confession !as t%pe# an# si$ne#, Att%. Brotaonte left the police station an# !ent bac5 to his office.
As far as he coul# recall, the entire process too5 ore than an hour.((
&he ne7t #a%, Au$ust -, (22., appellant !as brou$ht before "u#$e Arsenio Base, "r. of the Municipal &rial Court of
&abaco, Alba%. "u#$e Base re?ueste# the presence of Att%. Brotaonte an# subse?uentl% e7aine# the voluntariness
an# veracit% of the confession as !ell as the authenticit% of the si$natures of appellant an# Att%. Brotaonte. 0e also
e7plaine# to appellant the conse?uences of his confession to the cries char$e# an# as5e# hi if he !as coerce# into
a#ittin$ the. "u#$e Base inspecte# appellant4s bo#% an# as5e# hi if he !as force# or coerce#. "u#$e Base then
as5e# appellant if he !as still !illin$ to si$n it a$ain an# appellant ans!ere# in the affirative sa%in$ that his
conscience bothere# hi. "u#$e Base as5e# hi to si$n the confession a$ain in the presence of Att%. Brotaonte, after
!hich appellant affi7e# his si$nature.(,
&here !ere no e%e!itnesses to the inci#entB onl% the e7tra+6u#icial confession of appellant sho!e# ho! the cries
!ere coitte# b% hi.
Appellant repu#iate# his e7tra+6u#icial confession before the trial court an# assaile# its a#issibilit% alle$in$ that it
!as e7ecute# in violation of his constitutional ri$hts, particularl% his ri$ht to a copetent an# in#epen#ent counsel of
his o!n choiceB an# that he !as not full% apprise# of the conse?uences of his confession. 0e testifie# that the real
perpetrators of the crie !ere his brother+in+la!, Roberto An$eles, an# a certain Carlito Be$il, an# that he !as onl%
force# into o!nin$ up to the cries because An$eles threatene# to har hi or his sister, An$eles4s !ife, if he #i# not
#o so.
Appellant recounte# on the !itness stan# that in the afternoon of Au$ust E, (22., he !as havin$ a #rin5 !ith Carlito
Be$il an# Gaustino Bufe at the store of :olan#a Bulan in Buhian, &abaco, Alba%. <hile the% !ere #rin5in$, Be$il
entione# that he is plannin$ to have se7 !ith soeone he #i# not i#entif%. &he% finishe# #rin5in$ at aroun# -133 in
the evenin$ an# starte# !al5in$ hoe. <hile he an# Be$il !ere !al5in$, Be$il as5e# hi to accopan% hi to
Rosalie Ra%ala4s house but he #ecline# because he !as alrea#% hun$r% an# he !ante# to eat first. 0e then !ent to the
house of Roberto An$eles !ho is arrie# to his sister Maria Nellie Ba$nate. <hile he !as on the porch havin$ a
so5e, An$eles arrive# ver% #run5. Be$il arrive# later. Be$il an# An$eles #ran5 >5alapuna%>. 0e too5 onl% one
$lass of the #rin5 an# !ent insi#e the house to $et a ci$arette. <hen he !ent bac5 to the porch, An$eles an# Be$il
!ere alrea#% $one. At aroun# (,1=3 in the ornin$, he !ent insi#e an# slept. &he shout of his ninon$, "ulian Balolo%,
tellin$ hi to fetch a baran$a% tano#, a!a5ene# hi. 0e fetche# "ose Ro#ri?ueA an# Aran#o Bos?ue an# the% !ent
to the house of Rosalie, locate# thirt% eters a!a%. 0e !as tol# to buil# a fire !hile the rest searche# for >soethin$.>
After i#lin$ in the %ar# for soe tie, he !ent bac5 to An$eles4s house to have coffee. An$eles an# Be$il then arrive#
an# An$eles tol# hi to flee or he 'An$eles* !ill 5ill his 'appellant4s* sister. An$eles $ave hi P(3.33. 0e too5 a 6eep
to &abaco an# reache# the &abaco plaAa at ,133 in the ornin$. 0e procee#e# to his sister4s house, Avelina Ba$nate, in
&a%hi, &abaco, Alba%, an# passe# the tie there. &hen he !ent to the &abaco to!n proper. 0e !as finall% arreste# in
Ban$5ilin$an, &abaco an# brou$ht to the police hea#?uarters at )133 in the ornin$ of Au$ust ., (22..(=
&he trial court foun# appellant4s e7tra+6u#icial confession a#issible in evi#ence on !hich basis, it convicte#
appellant of the cries char$e# a$ainst hi. &he #ispositive portion of its #ecision rea#s1
<0EREGORE, 6u#$ent is hereb% ren#ere#, as follo!s1
(. Gin#in$ accuse# Aa#o Ba$nate $uilt% be%on# reasonable #oubt of the crie of Mur#er as
char$e# in Criinal Case No. &+,-./ an# sentences hi to suffer the penalt% of DEA&0 an# to
in#enif% the heirs of Auria BroHa the aount of P)3,333.33 as #aa$esB an#,
,. Gin#in$ accuse# Aa#o Ba$nate $uilt% be%on# reasonable #oubt of the crie of Rape !ith
0oici#e as char$e# in Criinal Case No. &+,-.) an# hereb% sentences hi to suffer the penalt% of
DEA&0 an# to in#enif% the heirs of Rosalie Ra%ala in the aount of P)3,333.33 as #aa$es.
SO ORDERED.(/
In his Brief, appellant raises the follo!in$ Assi$nent of Errors1
I
&0E &RIA; CO8R& ERRED IN @IDIN@ CREDENCE &O &0E &ES&IMON: OG &0E PROSEC8&ION
<I&NESSES.
II
&0E &RIA; CO8R& ERRED IN ADMI&&IN@ IN EDIDENCE &0E EI&RA"8DICIA; CONGESSION OG
&0E ACC8SED+APPE;;AN&.
III
&0E &RIA; CO8R& ERRED IN GINDIN@ &0E ACC8SED @8I;&: BE:OND REASONAB;E DO8B&
OG &0E CRIMES OG M8RDER AND RAPE <I&0 0OMICIDE.()
&he ain issue in this case is the a#issibilit% of appellant4s confession. Appellant clais that Att%. Brotaonte !as
not a copetent an# in#epen#ent counsel as he faile# to a#vise hi of the penalt% to be ipose# on the cries he !as
accuse# of coittin$B hence, he !as not a!are of the conse?uences of his a#issions.
&o be a#issible in evi#ence, an e7tra+6u#icial confession ust be e7press an# voluntaril% e7ecute# in !ritin$ !ith
the assistance of an in#epen#ent an# copetent counsel, an# a person un#er custo#ial investi$ation ust be
continuousl% assiste# b% counsel fro the ver% start thereof. &he presence of counsel is inten#e# to secure the
voluntariness of the e7tra+6u#icial confession, an# the assistance $iven ust be in#epen#ent an# copetent, that is,
provi#in$ full protection to the constitutional ri$hts of the accuse#.(E
&he rule is preise# on the presuption that the accuse# is thrust into an unfailiar atosphere runnin$ throu$h
enacin$ police interro$ation proce#ures !here the potentialit% for copulsion, ph%sical or ps%cholo$ical is
forcefull% apparent.(. It is not inten#e# as a #eterrent to the accuse# fro confessin$ $uilt if he voluntaril% an#
intelli$entl% so #esires but to protect the accuse# fro bein$ coerce# to a#it an% that is untrue. (- &o be an effective
counsel, a la!%er nee# not challen$e all the ?uestions bein$ propoun#e# to his client. &he presence of a la!%er is not
inten#e# to stop an accuse# fro sa%in$ an%thin$ !hich i$ht incriinate hi but, rather, it !as a#opte# in our
Constitution to preclu#e the sli$htest coercion as !oul# lea# the accuse# to a#it soethin$ false. &he counsel,
ho!ever, shoul# never prevent an accuse# fro freel% an# voluntaril% tellin$ the truth.(2
In the present case, the assistance ren#ere# b% Att%. Brotaonte is ore than perfunctor%. Before the onset of the
investi$ation, Att%. Brotaonte privatel% conferre# !ith appellant to ascertain the voluntariness of his confession an#
to a5e sure that no force or #uress !as eplo%e# b% the police authorities on the latter to a5e hi a#it the cries
char$e#. 0e infore# appellant of his constitutional ri$hts an# !as clear in e7plainin$ to hi the ?uestions
propoun#e# b% SPO, Abion. &he testion% of Att%. Brotaonte #urin$ cross+e7aination leaves no roo for #oubt
that he a#e?uatel% assiste# appellant #urin$ the investi$ation, viA1
A&&:. MARO;;ANO1
F1 No!, upon %our arrival, !ere %ou offere# a seatC
A1 No, because ie#iatel% !hen I arrive# I as5e# the accuse# to stan# an# e7aine# the bo#% of the
accuse#, if there !ere in6ur% or !hat an# I as5e# the accuse#, if these policeen inflicte# in6ur% to hi, if he
!as hare# an# accor#in$ to accuse#, none.
F1 An# in #oin$ that particularl%, !hat #i# %ou #o to e7aine the bo#% of the accuse# of it bare soe si$ns of
in6ur%C
A1 Because as a la!%er I have to protect the ri$ht of the accuse#. If the accuse# has bo#% in6ur% #efinitel% I
!ill be re?uirin$ the policeen to subit the accuse# for e#ical e7aination before the investi$ation !ill
be con#ucte#.
F1 In #oin$ that, ho! #i# %ou #o it to the accuse#C
A1 I let the accuse# to stan# an# I as5e# hi if an% of the policeen hare# inflicte# bo#il% in6ur% to hi an#
he tol# e no one of the policeen.
F1 An% of the policeen presentC
A1 No, !hen I arrive#, I re?uest t!o ',* policeen to step+out because I have to tal5 to the accuse# !hen I
propoun# ?uestion an# e7aine the bo#% of the accuse# an# the accuse# !as insi#e the roo.
. . .
F1 An# %ou !ere satisfie# b% the ans!er of the accuse# an# %ou #i# not even bother to search the bo#% of the
accuse#C
A1 In % observation, the accuse# !as tellin$ the truth. Other!ise, he !ill infor this representation because
I alrea#% infore# hi that I a a la!%er an# I !ill protect hi if soebo#% hare# hi.
. . .
A&&:. BRO&AMON&E1
As narrate# in that affi#avit, I e7plaine# to the accuse# that before I intro#uce# %self, I tol# hi that the
policeen infors this representation that %ou are $oin$ to $ive %our s!orn stateent before the police an# I
tol# hi that I a a la!%er an# I !ill assist hi until the policeen finishe# the investi$ation an# I tol# hi
to tell the truth to the policeen an# tol# hi that if %ou !ant to $ive %our s!orn stateent to the police, %ou
can #o it because that is %our ri$ht un#er the constitution, to reain silent.
F1 &hat is !h% for e7aple, ri$ht to be infore#B %ou have the ri$ht to reain silent, an# !hatever %ou sai#
!ill be use# a$ainst in %ou, #i# %ou not e7plain these one b% oneC
A&&:. BRO&AMON&E1
I e7plaine# that one b% one. In fact I tol# the accuse# that the s!orn stateent %ou are $oin$ to a5e no!
i$ht be use# a$ainst %ou b% the police but the accuse# is !illin$ to $ive his s!orn stateent.
A&&:. MARO;;ANO1
F1 I see. No!, %ou sai# that %ou helpe# in the translation of the s!orn stateent in the Bicol #ialect. Meanin$
that the ?uestions !ere propoun#e# in En$lish an# %ou helpe# the police investi$ator to translate it in Bicol
#ialectC
A1 No, !hen I state that I helpe# the police in the translation of the ans!er, !hat the policeen !ere as5in$
the !itness in Bicol an# the% translate# in En$lish an# I even helpe# the policeen in the translation of the
?uestion an# the ans!er of the !itness in Bicol #ialect.,3
Clearl%, appellant si$ne# the confession !ith the assistance of a copetent an# in#epen#ent counsel, Att%.
Brotaonte, an# it !as also s!orn to b% hi before "u#$e Arsenio Base, "r. of the Municipal &rial Court of &abaco,
Alba%, !ho, before a#inisterin$ the oath to appellant, conferre# !ith hi an# infore# hi of his ri$hts an# the
conse?uences of his confession. "u#$e Base testifie#, thus1
F1 "u#$e, please e7plain to the 0onorable Court the circustances ho! this s!orn stateent, ho! the affiant
!as able to coe into %our house an# the s!orn stateent !as s!orn toC
A&&:. MARO;;ANO1
&he !itness is not sure !hether he !as in his house or office.
A1 &he police investi$ator cae to % office an# infore# e that the% !ere investi$atin$ a rape an# ur#er
case that happene# soe!here in the ountain of &abaco, Alba% an# infore# e that the suspect has been
apprehen#e# an# that the suspect is !illin$ to si$n an affi#avit of confession so I a#vise# the police
investi$ator to copl% strictl% !ith respect to investi$ation custo#ial le$is an# I infore# hi that that case
shoul# be assiste# b% a la!%er an# the investi$ator tol# e that he contacte# Att%. Brotaonte to assist the
suspect in the investi$ation an# I sai# It4s better. So, after that the suspect !as brou$ht to e to$ether !ith
Att%. Brotaonte because I re?ueste# Att%. Brotaonte to be present also an# the suspect. I investi$ate# the
suspect an# he a#itte# to e that !hat he state# in this affi#avit !hich is actuall% a confession that he 5ille#
the t!o !oen an# actuall% rape# one of the is correct an# true. So, after e7plainin$ to hi the
conse?uence of his havin$ confession to the crie bein$ char$e# a$ainst hi an# he !as still !illin$ to si$n
the confession I let hi si$n the confession in % presence an# in the presence of Att%. Brotaonte an# after
!hich I subscribe# the affi#avit.
PROSEC8&OR BERAN@O1 '&o !itness*
F1 No!, "u#$e coul# %ou tell the 0onorable Court !hile the accuse# !as in %our presence if there !as an%
pressure or copulsion upon the accuse# to si$n this #ocuentC
A1 <hen the police investi$ator cae to e I instructe# hi not to use an% force an# !hen the suspect !as
presente# to e, actuall% I inspecte# his bo#% if there !as an% si$n of abrasion an# I actuall% as5e# the
suspect if he !as force# or coerce# into si$nin$ the crie char$e# an# he sai#, no. An# I as5e# hi if this
confession is voluntar% an# he sai#, %es. An# he sai# he is bein$ bothere# b% his conscience.,(
&he failure of Att%. Brotaonte to apprise appellant of the iposable penalt% of the cries he !as to a#it is not a
sufficient $roun# to stri5e #o!n appellant4s e7tra6u#icial confession. Section (, '(* to '=*, Article III of the
Constitution provi#es1
Sec. (,. '(* An% person un#er investi$ation for the coission of an offense shall have the ri$ht to be
infore# of his ri$ht to reain silent an# to have copetent an# in#epen#ent counsel preferabl% of his o!n
choice. If the person cannot affor# the services of counsel, he ust be provi#e# !ith one. &hese ri$hts cannot
be !aive# e7cept in !ritin$ an# in the presence of counsel.
',* No torture, force, violence, threat, intii#ation, or an% other eans !hich vitiate the free !ill shall be
use# a$ainst hi Secret #etention places, solitar%, incommunicado, or other siilar fors of #etention are
prohibite#.
'=* An% confession or a#ission obtaine# in violation of this or Section (.,, hereof shall be ina#issible in
evi#ence a$ainst hi.
&hus, !hat the Constitution re$ar#s as ina#issible in evi#ence is confession $iven b% an accuse# !ithout havin$
been infore# of his ri$ht to reain silent, or, !ithout havin$ been $iven copetent an# in#epen#ent
counsel, preferabl% his o!n choice, or if he cannot affor# the services of counsel, he !as not provi#e# !ith oneB or the
!aiver of his ri$hts !as not in !ritin$ an# not in the presence of counselB or, that he !as torture#, force#, threatene#,
intii#ate#, b% violence or an% other eans that vitiate# his free !ill. &here is nothin$ in the Constitution that
an#ates a counsel to infor an accuse# of the possible penalt% for the crie he coitte#. Neither !oul# a
presuption arise that the counsel is incopetent or not in#epen#ent 6ust because he faile# to apprise the accuse# that
the iposable penalt% for the crie he !as about to a#it is #eath. After all, the iposable penalt% is totall%
iaterial to the resolve of an accuse# to a#it his $uilt in the coission of a crie.
&o be consi#ere# copetent an# in#epen#ent for the purpose of assistin$ an accuse# #urin$ a custo#ial investi$ation,
it is onl% re?uire# for a la!%er to be1
>J.!illin$ to full% safe$uar# the constitutional ri$hts of the accuse#, as #istin$uishe# fro one !ho !oul#
erel% be $ivin$ a routine, pereptor% an# eanin$less recital of the in#ivi#ual4s constitutional ri$hts. In
People v. Basa% ',(2 SCRA /3/, /(-* this Court stresse# that an accuse#4s ri$ht to be infore# of the ri$ht to
reain silent an# to counsel conteplates the transission of eanin$ful inforation rather than 6ust the
cereonial an# perfunctor% recitation of an abstract constitutional principle.>,=
As previousl% state#, Att%. Brotaonte abl% assiste# appellant #urin$ the entire proce#ure K fro the tie appellant
si$nifie# his intention to $ive his e7tra6u#icial confession up to the tie he si$ne# the sae. Besi#es, it cannot be
$ainsai# that appellant !as not a!are of the conse?uences of his a#issions as "u#$e Base e7plaine# it to appellant
!hen he appeare# before the latter to s!ear to the veracit% of his confession.
&he Court notes that !hile "u#$e Base testifie# that he as5e# appellant to si$n ane! the e7tra6u#icial confession in his
presence, the cop% thereof ar5e# as E7hibits >A>, >B>, an# >C> attache# to the recor#s of the case #o not sho! an%
subse?uent si$nature a#e b% appellant. Nevertheless, appellant #i# not refute "u#$e Base4s testion%, an# it #oes not
#etract the fact that appellant e7ecute# the e7tra6u#icial confession voluntaril% !ith the assistance of an in#epen#ent
an# copetent counsel, an# that he subse?uentl% ac5no!le#$e# havin$ e7ecute# the sae voluntaril% an# s!ore to its
veracit% before "u#$e Base.
Appellant faile# to substantiate his bare clai that !hen he !as brou$ht to the &abaco police station, the police
officers bo7e# an# 5ic5e# hi, tellin$ hi to confess to the cries.,/ As the recor#s sho!, li5e Att%. Brotaonte,
"u#$e Base also as5e# hi if he !as force# to confess but Ba$nate sai# that he !as not. If it !ere true that he !as
force# to confess to the crie, then appellant shoul# have coplaine# of such abuse to Att%. Brotaonte or "u#$e
Base as he ha# the opportunit% to #o so !hen the t!o conferre# !ith hi on separate occasions.
Where the appellants did not present evidence of compulsion or duress or violence on their persons; where they failed
to complain to the officers who administered the oaths; where they did not institute any criminal or administrative
action against their alleged intimidators for maltreatment; where there appeared to be no marks of violence on their
bodies and where they did not have themselves examined by a reputable physician to buttress their claim, all these
should be considered as factors indicating voluntariness of confessions.,)
&o consi#er appellant4s alle$ation of altreatent as true is to facilitate the retraction of solenl% a#e stateents at
the ere alle$ation of torture, !ithout an% proof !hatsoever.,E
&he ta5in$ of appellant4s confession has confore# to the safe$uar#s of the Constitution. It constitutes evi#ence of a
hi$h or#er, because of the stron$ presuption that no person of noral in# !oul# #eliberatel% an# 5no!in$l%
confess to a crie unless propte# b% truth an# conscience.,.
8n#er Section =, Rule (== of the Rules of Court, an e7tra6u#icial confession a#e b% an accuse#, shall not be
sufficient $roun# for conviction, unless corroborate# b% evi#ence of corpus delicti. &he Rule specificall% re?uires that
there shoul# be soe other evi#ence >ten#in$ to sho! the coission of the crie apart fro the
confession.>,- Appellant4s confession is corroborate# b% evi#ence of corpus delicti, that is, the bo#% of the crie an#,
in its priar% sense, that a crie has actuall% been coitte#.,2
&he evi#ence of corpus delicti in both cases consists of the victis4 #eaths, as evi#ence# b% the #eath certificates of
Aurea BroHa=3 an# Rosalie Ra%ala,=( an# the fin#in$s of the autopsies con#ucte# on the victis4 ca#avers b% &abaco
Rural 0ealth Officer Dr. Aelia @uiriba sho!in$ that both !ere hac5e# to #eath an# Rosalie !as rape#.
&he autops% on victi Aurea #isclose# the follo!in$1
0ac5e# !oun# bac5 of the nec5 about four '/* inches in len$th affectin$ s5in, subcutaneous tissue, uscle
an# the cervical bone.
0ac5e# !oun#, nec5 anteriorl% affectin$ lar%n7 about , inches in len$th.
CA8SE OG DEA&01 0eorrha$e severe secon#ar% to hac5e# !oun#, nec5.=,
<hile the autops% con#ucte# on Rosalie reveale# the follo!in$1
Stabbe# !oun# nec5, posteriorl% about ( L inches in len$th, , inches #epth reachin$ the cervical bone.
0ac5e# !oun# left shoul#er about ( L inches len$th superficial slantin$ #irection.
0ac5e# !oun# + ri$ht nec5 about / L inches len$th affectin$ s5in subcutaneous uscle M Bloo# vessels,
ri$ht earlobe cut.
0ac5e# !oun# belo! the chin about = L inches len$th affectin$ s5in an# subcutaneous tissue.
0ac5e# !oun#, left nec5 about ) inches in len$th affectin$ s5in subcutaneous tissue, uscle, Bloo# vessels
an# the cervical bone.
0ac5e# !oun#, left i##le ear auricle about ( inch in len$th, left occipital re$ion about ( inch in len$th.
Multiple linear abrasion both scapular re$ion.
Contusion floor of the va$inal !all.
CA8SE OG DEA&01 0eorrha$e severe secon#ar% to ultiple hac5e# !oun#, nec5.==
&he fore$oin$ fin#in$s coinci#e !ith appellant4s e7tra6u#icial confession. As he state# therein, he hac5e# both victis
on the nec5 !ith a bolo an# he #ra$$e# Aurea to!ar#s the $rass% portion of the %ar#. Appellant also a#itte# that he
rape# Rosalie. &he autops% report sho!s that Ra%ala ha# contusions on the floor of her va$inal !all, thus confirin$
that Rosalie ha# been rape#. &he autops% report li5e!ise confire# that the victis suffere# hac5 !oun#s on their
nec5s. &he recover% of the bolo after appellant ha# left the place li5e!ise 6ibes !ith appellant4s #eclaration in his
confession that he hac5e# both victis !ith a bolo.=/ &hese are #etails that appellant coul# not have 5no!n if he #i#
not coit the cries.
It ust also be note# that appellant !as arreste# onl% five hours fro the occurrence of the cries. It is not possible
that !ithin such short span of tie, appellant !oul# be able to 5no! the #etails of the cries as he #escribe# the
!hen he $ave his confession if it !ere true that he reall% #i# not coit the. &he voluntariness of a confession a%
be inferre# fro its lan$ua$e such that if, upon its face, the confession e7hibits no suspicious circustances ten#in$ to
cast #oubt upon its inte$rit%, it bein$ replete !ith #etails K !hich coul# onl% be supplie# b% the accuse# K reflectin$
spontaneit% an# coherence, it a% be consi#ere# voluntar%.=)
;en#in$ a##itional cre#ence to the truthfulness of appellant4s e7tra6u#icial confession is the #efense evi#ence itself,
establishin$ that1 Aroun# (,133 i#ni$ht of Au$ust ., (22., #efense !itness "ulian Balolo% hear# cries for help
coin$ fro the house of Aurea. &o$ether !ith his son, Ro#el, !ho brou$ht a flashli$ht, the% !ent to the house an#
calle# out to Aurea an# Rosalie but there !as no response. <hen the% !ent insi#e the house, the% sa! bloo# an#
stran#s of hair on the floor but there !as no si$n of the t!o. &he% shoute# for help an# Roberto An$eles, !hose house
is locate# in front of the victis4 house about thirt% eters a!a%, arrive#. Appellant arrive# ne7t, sa%in$ that he 6ust
cae fro !or5 an# !as not able to clean his han#s. <hen Ro#el Balolo% shone his flashli$ht on appellant, the% sa!
that his han#s !ere stic5% an# covere# in re#. "ulian Balolo% then or#ere# appellant to fetch a baran$a% tano#. <hen
Aran#o Bos?ue an# "ose Ro#ri$ueA arrive#, the% starte# to loo5 for Aurea an# Rosalie !hile appellant !as tol# to
buil# a fire. At the bac5 of the house, the% sa! ipressions on the %ar# in#icatin$ that an ob6ect ha# been #ra$$e#,
after !hich, the% foun# the #ea# bo#ies of Aurea an# Rosalie fift% eters a!a%.=E
Defense !itnesses also testifie# that appellant #i# not 6oin the search an# therefore, the latter coul# not have 5no!n or
seen the in6uries suffere# b% the victis !hen the% !ere foun#. It has been note# that appellant, in his confession, ha#
accuratel% specifie# the in6uries he inflicte# on both victis. "ulian Balolo%4s testion% that the% sa! ar5s on the
%ar# in#icatin$ that soethin$ has been #ra$$e# corroborate# appellant4s stateent that he #ra$$e# Aurea. Moreover,
that "ulian Balolo% sa! appellant4s han# stic5% an# covere# in re#, !hich Balolo% #escribe# >as if %ou have 6ust
slau$htere# a pi$ an# %ou 'sic* han#s su#$e !ith bloo# an# !hen %ou !ashe# %our han#s, it coul# still 'sic* re#,>
bolsters the conclusion that appellant in#ee# ha# participate# in the $ruesoe cries.=.
&hus, the confession of appellant bein$ a#issible in evi#ence an# corroborate# b% evi#ence of corpus #elicti, the
trial court correctl% foun# appellant $uilt% be%on# reasonable #oubt of the cries of Mur#er an# Rape !ith 0oici#e.
In iposin$ the supree penalt% of #eath in Criinal Case No. &+,-./, the trial court consi#ere# the a$$ravatin$
circustances of nocturnit%, treacher%, superior stren$th, an# #isre$ar# of the respect #ue to the victi on account of
a$e an# se7, as alle$e# in the Inforation, thus ?ualif%in$ the 5illin$ of Aurea to ur#er.
0o!ever, the Court fin#s that the trial court erre# in appreciatin$ the a$$ravatin$ circustance of treacher%. &he
evi#ence on recor# #oes not sufficientl% prove that it atten#e# the coission of the crie as no one actuall% sa! the
inci#ent. &he fact that Aurea !as blin# #oes not necessaril% ?ualif% her 5illin$ as treacherous. &reacher% e7ists !hen
the offen#er coits an% of the cries a$ainst persons, eplo%in$ eans, etho#s or fors in the e7ecution thereof
!hich ten# #irectl% an# speciall% to ensure its e7ecution, !ithout ris5 to hiself arisin$ fro the #efense !hich the
offen#e# part% i$ht a5e.=- Appellant4s confession erel% state#1 >after satisf%in$ his lust, % $ran#parent Aurea
Bronia shoute# althou$h she !as blin# an# thin5s 'sic* that % $ran#parent Aurea Bronia hear# !hat I a #oin$ I
hac5e# her on her nec5 an# !hen she fall 'sic* I pulle# her a!a% fro the house to!ar#s the $rass% portion of the %ar#
. . .>. &here is nothin$ in appellant4s confession that #eonstrates that he #eliberatel% eplo%e# a particular eans,
etho# or for of attac5 in the e7ecution of the crie.
Neither coul# nocturnit% be consi#ere# as an a$$ravatin$ circustance consi#erin$ that it !as not sho!n that the
#ar5ness of the ni$ht !as purposel% sou$ht b% appellant to facilitate the coission of the crie nor to ensure its
e7ecution.=2
It is not #ispute# that the crie !as coitte# in Aurea4s house. 0o!ever, #!ellin$ a% not be appreciate# as an
a$$ravatin$ circustance in the consi#eration of his criinal liabilit% as it is not alle$e# in the Inforation./3
Nonetheless, it is alle$e# in the Inforation an# establishe# b% the prosecution that the crie !as coitte# !ith
abuse of superior stren$th. 8n#er Article ,/- of the Revise# Penal Co#e, as aen#e# b% Section E of Rep. Act No.
.E)2,/( an% person !ho shall 5ill another shall be $uilt% of ur#er an# shall be punishe# b% #eath if coitte# !ith
abuse of superior stren$th. 0ence, the trial court correctl% ipose# the #eath penalt% in Criinal Case No. &+,-././,
As re$ar#s the #aa$es a!ar#e# to the heirs of Aurea BroHa in the aount of P)3,333.33, the Court consi#ers the
sae as representin$ civil in#enit%. In ur#er cases, civil in#enit% re?uires no further proof other than #eath./=
&he a!ar# of civil in#enit% is separate an# #istinct fro the a!ar# of oral #aa$es, !hich is base# on a #ifferent
6ural foun#ation an# assesse# b% the court in the e7ercise of soun# #iscretion. // Consi#erin$ that the prosecution
faile# to sho! an% proof that the heirs of Aurea BroHa are entitle# to oral #aa$es, the sae a% not be a!ar#e#./)
In accor#ance !ith Article ,,=3 of the Civil Co#e, e7eplar% #aa$es a% be a!ar#e# in criinal cases as part of
the civil liabilit% if the crie !as coitte# !ith one or ore a$$ravatin$ circustances./E Consi#erin$ the $eneric
a$$ravatin$ circustances of #isre$ar# of a$e of the victi an# #!ellin$, the a!ar# of P,),333.33 as e7eplar%
#aa$es is in or#er./.
In Criinal Case No. &+,-.), the trial court li5e!ise correctl% ipose# the #eath penalt%. Article ==/ of the Revise#
Penal Co#e, as aen#e# b% Section (( of Rep. Act No. .E)2 iposes the penalt% of #eath !hen b% reason or on the
occasion of the rape, a hoici#e is coitte#.
&he Court, ho!ever, has to o#if% the a!ar# of civil in#enit% in favor of the heirs of Rosalie Ra%ala. Recent rulin$s
increase# the aount of civil in#enit% in cases of rape !ith hoici#e to P(33,333.33./- &he heirs of Rosalie ust
be a!ar#e# the aount of P.),333.33 as oral #aa$es !ithout nee# of proof,/2 in vie! of the rape suffere# b%
victi Rosalie. &he fact that the heirs suffere# the traua of ental or ph%sical an# ps%cholo$ical sufferin$s !hich
constitute the basis for oral #aa$es un#er the Civil Co#e are too obvious to still re?uire recital thereof at trial.)3
Consi#erin$ that the crie of rape !as coitte# insi#e the #!ellin$ of the victi, e7eplar% #aa$es in the aount
of P,),333.33 shoul# li5e!ise be a!ar#e# to the heirs of Rosalie.
&he Court fin#s that the heirs of both Aurea an# Rosalie shoul# be a!ar#e# the aount of P)/,,)2.33 as actual
#aa$es in vie! of the a#ission a#e b% the #efense that the fail% of Aurea an# Rosalie incurre# e7penses in sai#
aount.)(
Before conclu#in$, the Court observe#, as borne b% the recor#s of this case, that appellant coul# not have been the
onl% perpetrator of the cries. As appellant reveale# in his confession, he hac5e# each of the victis on the nec5 !ith
his bolo onl% once. &he autops% report, ho!ever, sho!s that Aurea BroHa suffere# t!o nec5 !oun#s !hile Rosalie
Ra%ala suffere# five hac5 !oun#s an# one stab !oun#, all on the nec5. Appellant confesse# that he #ra$$e# Aurea
to!ar#s the $rass% portion of the %ar# an# ie#iatel%
left the scene. :et, Rosalie !as also foun# on the $rass% portion of the %ar#. &he autops% report further sho!e# that
Rosalie li5e!ise suffere# ultiple linear abrasions on both scapular re$ions, thus $ivin$ the ipression that she !as
also #ra$$e# to!ar#s the %ar#. Soebo#% else ust have brou$ht Rosalie to the place !here she !as foun#. In#ee#,
there are clear in#ications that there are other perpetrators of the cries of ur#er an# rape !ith hoici#e. Appellant
alone coul# not have inflicte# all the in6uries sustaine# b% the victis.
In vie! of all these circustances, the police authorities as !ell as the prosecutor4s office of &abaco, Alba%, shoul# be
re?uire# to apprise the Court !hether or not further investi$ation of this case !as con#ucte# for the i#entification an#
arrest of the other perpetrators of the cries to copletel% brin$ 6ustice to their victis.
"HEREFORE, the #ecision of the Re$ional &rial Court 'Branch ()* of &abaco, Alba%, in Criinal Case No. &+,-./
fin#in$ appellant Aa#o Ba$nate $uilt% be%on# reasonable #oubt of the crie of Mur#er an# sentencin$ hi to suffer
the supree penalt% of EATH is hereb% AFFIRME !ith MOIFICATIONS as to #aa$es. Appellant is or#ere#
to pa% the heirs of Aurea BroHa the aounts of Gift% &housan# Pesos 'P)3,333.33* as civil in#enit%B Gift% &housan#
Pesos 'P)3,333.33* as oral #aa$esB an# &!ent%+Give &housan# Pesos 'P,),333.33* as e7eplar% #aa$es.
&he #ecision of the trial court in Criinal Case No. &+,-.), fin#in$ Aa#o Ba$nate $uilt% be%on# reasonable #oubt
of the crie of Rape !ith 0oici#e an# iposin$ on hi the penalt% of #eath
is AFFIRME !ithMOIFICATIONS. &he appellant is or#ere# to pa% the heirs of the #ecease# victi Rosalie
Ra%ala civil in#enit% in the aount of One 0un#re# &housan# Pesos 'P(33,333.33*B oral #aa$es in the aount
of Sevent%+Give &housan# Pesos 'P.),333.33*B an# &!ent%+Give &housan# Pesos 'P,),333.33* as e7eplar%
#aa$es.
Appellant is or#ere# to pa% the heirs of both Aurea BroHa an# Rosalie Ra%ala the aount of Gift%+Gour &housan# &!o
0un#re# Gift%+Nine Pesos 'P)/,,)2.33* as actual #aa$es.
In accor#ance !ith Section ,) of Republic Act No. .E)2, aen#in$ Article -= of the Revise# Penal Co#e, upon
finalit% of this #ecision, let the recor#s of this case be forth!ith for!ar#e# to the Office of the Presi#ent for possible
e7ercise of the par#onin$ po!er.
&he Chief of the &abaco Police Station an# the &abaco Prosecutor4s Office are hereb% ORERE, !ith ten '(3* #a%s
fro receipt of cop% of herein resolution, to apprise the Court !hether or not subse?uent investi$ations !ere
con#ucte# to #eterine the other perpetrator's* of the cries involve# herein.
SO ORDERED.
Davide, Jr.*, uno*, !itug**, anganiban, "uisumbing, #nares$%antiago, %andoval$&utierre', (arpio, )ustria$
*artine', (orona, (arpio$*orales, (alle+o, %r., )'cuna, an# ,inga, JJ., concur.
Foo#$o#%
N On Official ;eave
NN Actin$ Chief "ustice
( AuriaOAurea BroHa in soe other parts of the Recor#s.
, Recor#s ,, p. ,).
= Recor#s (, p. ,).
/ Recor#s (, p. ,-B Recor#s ,, p. =(.
) &SN, SPO( Ro$elio @onAales, Dec. (3, (22., pp. ,(+=/B E7hibits >D>, >E>, >G>, Recor#s ,, pp. E=+E)B
SPO, "un!el Abion, Dec. (), (22., pp. ()+,)B Att%. Paterno Brotaonte, "an. ,E, (22-, pp. )+(=, ,3+,,.
E Recor#s (, E7hibit >A>, p. ,.
. &SN, SPO, "un!el Abion, Dec.(), (22., pp. ,)+==.
- &SN, Att%. Paterno Brotaonte, "anuar% ,E, (22-, pp. ==+=/.
2 Bufe in soe other parts of the Recor#s.
(3 Recor#s (, E7hibits >B> an# >C>, pp. =+/.
(( &SN, Att%. Paterno Brotaonte, "an. ,E, (22-, pp. ((+(-, =3+=E.
(, &SN, 0on. Arsenio Base, "r., Deceber (3, (22., pp. ., (E+(..
(= &SN, Aa#o Ba$nate, March (E, (22-, pp. E+,E.
(/ Recor#s (, pp. E2+.3.
() Rollo, pp. (E=+(E/.
(E People vs. Patun$an, @.R. No. (=-3/), March (/, ,33(, =)/ SCRA /(=, /,/.
(. People vs. Or#oHo, @.R. No. (=,()/, "une ,2, ,333, ==/ SCRA E.=, E-E.
(- People vs. Base, @.R. No. (32..=, March =3, ,333, =,2 SCRA ()-, (.3.
(2 -bid.
,3 &SN, Att%. Paterno Brotaonte, "anuar% ,E, (22-, pp. ,3+,(, ,-+,2.
,( &SN, 0on. Arsenio Base, "r., Deceber (3, (22., pp. E+2.
,, Sec. (. rea#s1 No person shall be copelle# to be a !itness a$ainst hiself.
,= People vs. Porio, @.R. No. ((.,3,, Gebruar% (=, ,33,B =.E SCRA )2E, E(3.
,/ &SN, Aa#o Ba$nate, March (E, (22-, pp. ,.+,-.
,) People vs. Continente, @.R. Nos. (33-3(+3,, Au$ust ,), ,333, ==2 SCRA (, ,/.
,E -bid.
,. People vs. &ablon, @.R. No. (=.,-3, March (=, ,33,, =.2 SCRA ,-3, ,2,.
,- People vs. De Dera, @.R. No. (,-2EE, Au$ust (-, (222, =(, SCRA E/3, EE-.
,2 People vs. Robles, @.R. No. (3(==), "une -, ,333, === SCRA (3., ((2.
=3 Recor#s ,, p. -.
=( Recor#s (, p. 2.
=, Recor#s ,, E7hibit >I>, p. ..
== Recor#s (, E7hibit >P>, p. -.
=/ &SN, PO, "ose Bon$alonta, Deceber (), (22., pp. -+(,B SPO, "un!el Abion, Deceber (), (22., pp.
==+=).
=) People vs. ;ica%an, @.R. No. (///,,, Gebruar% ,-, ,33,, =.- SCRA ,-(, ,2/.
=E &SN, "ulian Balolo%, March ,, (22-, pp. (3+,/.
=. &SN, "ulian Balolo%, March ,, (22-, p. =..
=- Article (/, par. (E, Revise# Penal Co#e.
=2 People vs. Manlansin$, @.R. Nos. (=(.=E+=., March ((, ,33,, =.- SCRA E-), .33.
/3 People vs. @alle$o, @.R. No. (=3E3=, Au$ust (), ,333, ==- SCRA ,(, /(.
/( Entitle# >An Act to Ipose the Death Penalt% on Certain 0einous Cries J,> !hich too5 effect on
Deceber =(, (22= 'People vs. Sion, ,=/ SCRA ))) Q(22/R*.
/, &hree "ustices of the Court aintain their position that Rep. Act No. .E)2 is unconstitutional insofar as it
prescribes the #eath penalt%B nevertheless, the% subit to the rulin$ of the a6orit% that the la! is
constitutional, an# that the #eath penalt% can be la!full% ipose# in the case at bar.
/= People vs. Dualaha%, @.R. Nos. (=(-=.+=-, April ,, ,33,, =-3 SCRA =., /..
// People vs. Malinao, @.R. No. (,-(/-, Gebruar% (E, ,33/.
/) Art. ,,(2, NCC, par. (.B People vs. Brecinio, @.R. No. (=-)=/, March (., ,33/.
/E People vs. Ba#on, @.R. No. (,E(/=, "une (3, (222, =3- SCRA (.), (23.
/. People vs. Astu#illo, @.R. No. (/)(-, April ,2, ,33=.
/- People vs. Plana, @.R. No. (,-,-), Noveber ,., ,33(, =.3 SCRA )/,, ).3B People vs. Porio, @.R. No.
((.,3,. Gebruar% (=, ,33,, =.E SCRA )2E, E(=B People vs. ;ica%an, @.R. No. (///,,, Gebruar% ,-, ,33,,
=.- SCRA ,-(, ,2EB People vs. &ablon, @.R. No. (=.,-3, March (=, ,33,, =.2 SCRA ,-3, ,2=B People vs.
Ma$allanes, @.R. No. (=E,22, Au$ust ,2, ,33=.
/2 People vs. Ma$allanes, @.R. No. (=E,22, Au$ust ,2, ,33=.
)3 People vs. Plana, @.R. No. (,-,-), Noveber ,., ,33(, =.3 SCRA )/,, ).3.
)( &SN, Eli$io Ber#in, Gebruar% (E, (22-, pp. .+2.
&he ;a!phil Pro6ect + Arellano ;a! Goun#ation