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Chapter 2

Section 2-1
2-1. Sample average:
09 . 56
12
1 . 673
12
12
1 1

i
i
n
i
i
x
n
x
x

Sample standard deviation:
( )
33 . 11 43 . 128
11
70 . 1412
1 12
12
10 . 673
9168
1
39168 10 . 673
2
2
1
1
2
12
1
2
12
1

,
_


3
n
n
x
x
s
x x
n
i
i
n
i
i
i
i
i
i

Dot diagram:
. . . : .. . . : .
-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------suspended solids
32.0 40.0 48.0 56.0 64.0 72.0
2-2. Sample average:
min 36 . 14
19
82 . 272
19
19
1 1

i
i
n
i
i
x
n
x
x
Sample standard deviation:
( )
min 88 . 18 (min 48 . 356
18
59 . 6416
1 19
19
82 . 272
10334
1
10334 82 . 272
2
2
2
1
1
2
19
1
2
19
1

,
_


n
n
x
x
s
x x
n
i
i
n
i
i
i
i
i
i
Dot diagram
. .
.:::.:. . .... .
+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------- Breakdown time
0 15 30 45 60 75
2-3. Sample average:
angstroms 43 . 1288
7
9019
7
7
1 1

i
i
n
i
i
x
n
x
x
Sample standard deviation:
( )
( ) angstroms angstroms 80 . 15 62 . 249
6
71 . 1497
1 7
7
9019
11621835
1
11621835 9019
2
2
2
1
1
2
7
1
2
7
1

,
_


n
n
x
x
s
x x
n
i
i
n
i
i
i
i
i
i
Dot diagram:
. . . . .. .
-+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+----- Ti!kness
1264.0 1272.0 1280.0 1288.0 12"6.0 1304.0
2-4. Sample average:
kN 22 . 126
18
2272
18
18
1 1

i
i
n
i
i
x
n
x
x
Sample standard deviation:
( )
kN 14 . 26 ( 24 . 683
17
11 . 11615
1 18
18
2272
298392
1
298392 2272
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
18
1
2
18
1

,
_


kN
n
n
x
x
s
x x
n
i
i
n
i
i
i
i
i
i
Dot Diagram:
.
: :: . :: . . : . .
+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+-------#ield
"0 105 120 135 150 165
2-5. Sample average:
98 . 43
8
8 . 351
8
8
1 1

i
i
n
i
i
x
n
x
x
Sample standard deviation:

( )
29 . 12 143 . 151
7
1058
1 8
8
8 . 351
04 . 16528
1
40 . 16528 8 . 351
2
2
1
1
2
8
1
2
8
1

,
_


n
n
x
x
s
x x
n
i
i
n
i
i
i
i
i
i
Dot diagram:
. . .. . .. .
+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+-------
24.0 32.0 40.0 48.0 56.0 64.0
2-6. Sample average:
mm 173 . 2
9
56 . 19
9
9
1 1

i
i
n
i
i
x
n
x
x
Sample standard deviation:

( )
mm 6560 . 0 4304 . 0
8
443 . 3
1 9
9
56 . 19
953 . 45
1
953 . 45 56 . 19
2
2
1
1
2
9
1
2
9
1

,
_


n
n
x
x
s
x x
n
i
i
n
i
i
i
i
i
i
Dot Diagram:
. . . . . . . ..
-------+---------+---------+---------+---------+--------- $ra!k len%t
1.40 1.75 2.10 2.45 2.80 3.15
2-7. !"e onl# data set t"at ma# "ave res$lted %rom a designed e&periment is in '&ercise 2-4.
Section 2-2

2-8. !"e stem and lea% displa# %or (eld strengt" & ' 100
)ea% *nit + 1.0
1 532 "
1 533
2 534 2
4 535 47
5 536 6
" 537 5678
20 538 12345778888
26 53" 016"""
37 540 1116667788"
46 541 123666688
(13) 542 00112223578""
41 543 01111556
33 544 00012455678
22 545 2334478""
13 546 2356"
8 547 357
5 548 11257
2-9. a Stem-and-lea% displa# %or c#cles: $nit + 100 1,2 represents 1200

1 0T*3
1 0+*
5 0,*7777
10 0o*888""
22 1-*000000011111
33 1T*22222223333
(15) 1+*444445555555555
22 1,*66667777777
11 1o*8888""
5 2-*011
2 2T*22
- .o/ onl# 5070 s$rvived -e#ond 2000 c#cles.
2-10. Stem-and-lea% o% S$spended solids . + 60
)ea% *nit + 1.0
1 2 "
2 3 1
3 3 "
8 4 22223
12 4 568"
20 5 01223444
(13) 5 56667778"""""
27 6 11244
22 6 55667778"
13 7 022333
7 7 6777
3 8 01
1 8 "
2-11. Stem-and-lea% displa# %or #ield: $nit + 1 1,2 represents 12

1 7o*8
1 8-*
7 8T*223333
21 8+*44444444555555
38 8,*66666666667777777
(11) 8o*88888""""""
41 "-*00000000001111
27 "T*22233333
1" "+*444444445555
7 ",*666677
1 "o*8
2-12. 1aria-le . 2edian 31 33 5
t"
95
t"

4eld strengt" 100 5421.5 5399.0 5445.8 5367.05 5476.49
2-13. 1aria-le . 2edian 31 33 5
t"
95
t"
5#cles 70 1436.5 1097.8 1735.0 746.54 2060.78
2-14. 1aria-le . 2edian 31 33 5
t"
95
t"
Solids 60 59.45 52.03 68.35 39.482 80.252
2-15. 1aria-le . 2edian 31 33 5
t"
95
t"
6ield 90 89.25 86.10 93.125 82.316 96.435
Section 2-3
2-16.
5495 5470 5445 5420 5395 5370 5345 5320
30
20
10
0
weld strength
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
5495 5470 5445 5420 5395 5370 5345 5320
100
50
0
weld strength
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i

e

F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
2-17.
2200 2000 1!00 1"00 1400 1200 1000 !00 "00 400
15
10
5
0
cycles
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
2200 2000 1!00 1"00 1400 1200 1000 !00 "00 400
70
"0
50
40
30
20
10
0
cycles
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i

e

F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
2-18.
95 !5 75 "5 55 45 35 25
10
5
0
water quality
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
95 !5 75 "5 55 45 35 25
"0
50
40
30
20
10
0
water quality
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i

e

F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
2-19.
9! 9" 94 92 90 !! !" !4 !2 !0 7!
15
10
5
0
yield
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
9! 9" 94 92 90 !! !" !4 !2 !0 7!
90
!0
70
"0
50
40
30
20
10
0
yield
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i

e

F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
2-20.
5500 5400 5300
15
10
5
0
weld strength
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
5500 5400 5300
100
50
0
weld strength
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i

e

F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
6es/ -ot" "istograms displa# similar in%ormation -ased on t"is dataset.
2-21.
#
th
e
r
s
$
i ts
d
e
nts
$
arts
no
t lu%
r
i ca
te
d
as
s
e
m
%
l y
m
i s
s
in
g
h
o
l e
s
&s
l o
ts
u
n
de
rtr
im
m
e
d
o
u
t o
' c
o
n
to
u
r
3 4 4 5 " ! 21 30
3(7 4(9 4(9 "(2 7(4 9(9 25(9 37(0
100(0 9"(3 91(4 !"(4 !0(2 72(! "3(0 37(0
!0
70
"0
50
40
30
20
10
0
100
!0
"0
40
20
0
)e'ect
Count
*ercent
Cum +
*
e
r
c
e
n
t
C
o
u
n
t
*areto Chart 'or )e'ect
7o$g"l# 638 o% de%ects are descri-ed -# parts o$t o% conto$r and parts $nder trimmed.
Section 2-4
2-22. a Sample 2ean: 65.86/ Sample Standard 9eviation: 12.16
- 31: 58.5/ 33: 75
c 2edian: 67.5
d Sample 2ean: 66.86/ Sample Standard 9eviation: 10.74/ 31: 60/ 33: 75/
2edian: 68
!"e mean "as increased ("ile t"e sample standard deviation "as decreased. !"e lo(er
:$artile "as increased ("ile t"e $pper :$artile "as remained $nc"anged. !"e median "as
increased slig"tl# d$e to t"e removal o% t"e data point. !"e smallest val$e appears :$ite
di%%erent t"an t"e ot"er temperat$re val$es.
e *sing t"e entire data set/ t"e -o& plot is
90
!0
70
"0
50
40
30
,
e
m
$
e
r
a
t
u
r
!"e val$e o% 31 appears to -e one possi-le o$tlier.
2-23. a Sample 2ean: 4
- Sample 1ariance: 0.867 Sample Standard 9eviation: 0.931
c
5
4
3
2
*
-
C
2-24. a Sample mean + 2.415/ Sample standard deviation + 0.534
-
2-25. a Sample mean + 952.44/ Sample standard deviation + 3.09
- 2edian + 953. !"e largest temperat$re co$ld ta;e on an# val$e as long as it is t"e larger t"an t"e c$rrent largest
val$e.
3(0 2(5 2(0
.gnition ,ime
2-26. a Sample mean: 83.11/ sample standard deviation + 7.11
- 31 + 79.5/ 33 + 84.50
d Sample mean + 81/ sample standard deviation + 3.46/ 31 + 79.25/ 33 + 83.75
2-27. a Sample 2ean: 48.125/ Sample 2edian: 49
- Sample 1ariance: 7.246/ Sample Standard 9eviation: 2.692
c
957 95" 955 954 953 952 951 950 949 94!
tem$erature
100 90 !0
count
52
51
50
49
4!
47
4"
45
44
43
t
e
m
$
e
r
a
t
u
r
!"e data appear to -e s;e(ed.
d 5t" <ercentile: 44/ 95t" <ercentile: 52
2-28. a Sample 2ean: 0.04939/ Sample 1ariance: 0.00001568
- 31: 0.04738/ 33: 0.0513
c Sample 2edian: 0.04975
d
0(055
0(050
0(045
0(040
d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
e 5
t"
<ercentile: 0.0430/ 95
t"
<ercentile: 0.0557
2-29. a Sample 2ean: 8.059/ Sample 1ariance: 0.661
- 31: 7.575/ 33: 8.535
c Sample 2edian: 8.235
d
9(5
!(5
7(5
"(5
r
a
t
e
e 5
t"
<ercentile: 6.759/ 95
t"
<ercentile: 9.359
2-30. a Sample 2ean: 0.7481/ Sample 1ariance: 0.00226
- 31: 0.7050/ 33: 0.7838
c Sample 2edian: 0.742
d
0(!3
0(7!
0(73
0("!
r
a
t
e
e 5
t"
<ercentile: 0.6729/ 95
t"
<ercentile: 0.8234
Section 2-5
2-31.
20 15 10 5
13
12
11
10
9
!
7
"
5
4
.nde/
,
i
m
e
s
5omp$ter response time appears random. .o trends or patterns are o-vio$s.
2-32. a
40 30 20 10
49
4!
47
4"
45
44
43
.nde/
0
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
Stem-and-lea% displa# %or <ro-lem 2-32.1iscosit#: $nit + 0.1 1,2 represents 1.2

2 42o,89
12 43=,0000112223
16 43o,5566
16 44=,
16 44o,
16 45=,
16 45o,
16 46=,
16 46o,
17 47=,2
(4 47o,5999
19 48=,000001113334
7 48o,5666689
- !"e plots indicates t"at t"e process is not sta-le and not capa-le o% meeting t"e
speci%ications.
2.33. a
40 30 20 10
2"0
250
240
230
220
210
200
190
1!0
170
.nde/
*
u
l
l
1
#
'
'
- Stem-and-lea% displa# %or <ro-lem 2-33. >orce: $nit + 1 1,2 represents 12

3 17,558
6 18,357
14 19,00445589
18 20,1399
(5 21,00238
17 22,005
14 23,5678
10 24,1555899
3 25,158
?n t"e time series plot t"ere appears to -e a do(n(ard trend -eginning a%ter time 30.
2-34.
50 40 30 20 10
1!
17
1"
.nde/
2
e
a
d
i
n
g
Stem-and-lea% displa# %or 5oncentration: $nit + 0.01 1,2 represents 0.12

)@,1610/1630

3 165,0
4 166,0
5 167,0
7 168,00
9 169,00
13 170,0000
18 171,00000
20 172,00
25 173,00000
25 174,0000000000000
12 175,0000
8 176,000
5 177,0
4 178,000

A?,1810
!"e data appear s;e(ed.
2-35. a
100 90 !0 70 "0 50 40 30 20 10
150
100
50
0
.nde/
3
u
n
s
$
o
t
s
- Stem-and-lea% displa# %or <ro-lem 2-35. S$nspots: $nit + 1 1,2 represents 12

17 0*01224445677777888
2" 1*001234456667
3" 2*0113344488
50 3*0014556778"
50 4*011234567788
38 5*0457"
33 6*0223466778
23 7*147
20 8*2356
16 "*024668
10 10*13
8 11*8
7 12*245
4 13*128

./*154
!"e data appears to decrease -et(een 1790 and 1835/ t"e stem and lea% plot indicates
s;e(ed data.
2-36. a
!0 70 "0 50 40 30 20 10
1"
11
"
.nde/
-
i
l
e
s
- Stem-and-lea% displa# %or <ro-lem 2-36. 2iles: $nit + 0.1 1,2 represents 1.2

1 6,7
10 7,246678889
22 8,013334677889
33 9,01223466899
(18 10,022334456667888889
33 11,012345566
24 12,11222345779
13 13,1245678
6 14,0179
2 15,1
1 16,2
!"ere is an increasing trend in t"e data.
Section 2-6
2-37. a <ositive sign
0(2! 0(23 0(1!
0(0"0
0(055
0(050
)ensity
C
o
n
d
u
c
t
- 0.993
2-38. a Bot" sample correlations (ill -e negative.
# vers$s &1
40 30 20 10 0
200
150
100
/1
y
# vers$s &2
1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 !00
200
150
100
/2
y
- # vers$s &1: -0.852C # vers$s &2: -0.898
2-39. a Bot" sample correlations (ill -e negative.
2<D vers$s (eig"t
4500 3500 2500
30
20
10
weight
m
$
g
- 2<D vers$s "orsepo(er
"00 500 400 300 200 100
30
20
10
horse$ower
m
$
g
- 2<D vers$s (eig"t: -0.709C 2<D vers$s "orsepo(er: -0.947
2.40. a !"e correlation coe%%icient (ill -e positive
240 230 220 210 200 190 1!0 170 1"0 150 140
170
1"0
150
140
130
120
systolic 4*
w
e
i
g
h
t
- 0.773
S$pplemental '&ercises
2.41. a Sample 2ean + 7.1838C !"e sample mean val$e is close eno$g" to t"e target val$e to
accept t"e sol$tion as con%orming. !"ere is slig"t di%%erence d$e to in"erent varia-ilit#.

- s
2
+ 0.000427/ s + 0.02066C E maFor so$rce o% varia-ilit# (o$ld incl$de meas$rement
to meas$rement error. E lo( variance is desira-le since it ma# indicate consistenc#
%rom meas$rement to meas$rement.
2-42. a
6 001 / 62 433 / 10
2
6
1
6
1
2

,
_



n x x
i
i
i
i

,
_

46 . 4 9 . 19 9 . 19
1 6
6
001 / 62
433 / 10
1
2 2
2
6
1
6
1
2
2
s
n
n
x
x
s
i
i
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- 6 5 . 41
6
246
n x

( )


46 . 4 9 . 19 C 9 . 19
5
5 . 99
1
2 2
6
1
2
2
s
n
x x
s
i
i
c 46 . 4 9 . 19
2 2
s s C S"i%ting t"e data %rom t"e sample -# a constant
amo$nt "as no e%%ect on t"e sample variance or standard deviation.
d 6es/ t"e rescaling is -# a %actor o% 10. !"ere%ore/ s
2
and s (o$ld -e rescaled -#
m$ltipl#ing s
2
-# 10
2
(res$lting in 1990
2
and s -# 10 (44.6.
2-43. a Sample 7ange + 3.2/ s
2
+ 0.866/ s + 0.931
- Sample 7ange + 3.2/ s
2
+ 0.866/ s + 0.931C !"ese are t"e same as in part a. En#
constant (o$ld prod$ce t"e same res$lts.
2-44. a
1 1
1
1
1
1
1
+
+


+
+

+
n
x x
n
x
x
n
i
n i
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C
1
1
1
+
+

+
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x x n
x
n n
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C
1 1
1
1
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+
+

+
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n
n n
-
1
2
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1 2
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x x
x x ns
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c 46 5 . 41
1

+ n n
x x 6 9 . 19
2
n sn

41 . 4
6
5 . 41 46
1 6
6
9 . 19 1 6 (
14 . 42
1 6
46 5 . 41 ( 6
1
1

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s
x
2-45. !"e trimmed mean is p$lled to(ard t"e median -# eliminating o$tliers.
a 108 !rimmed 2ean + 89.29
- 208 !rimmed 2ean + 89.19/ 9i%%erence is ver# small
c .o/ t"e di%%erences are ver# small/ d$e to a ver# large data set (it" no signi%icant o$tliers.
d ?% n!0100 is not an integer/ calc$late t"e t(o s$rro$nding integer val$es and interpolate -et(een t"e t(o. >or e&ample/
i% n!0100 + 203/ one co$ld calc$late t"e mean a%ter trimming 2 and 3 o-servations %rom eac" end and t"en interpolate
-et(een t"ese t(o means.
2-46. a Sample 1: 4C Sample 2: 4 6es/ t"e t(o appear to e&"i-it t"e same varia-ilit#.
- Sample 1: 1.604/ Sample 2: 1.852 .o/ sample 2 "as a larger standard deviation.
c !"e sample range is a cr$de estimate o% t"e sample varia-ilit# as compared to t"e sample standard deviation since
t"e standard deviation $ses t"e in%ormation %rom ever# data point in t"e sample ("ereas t"e range $ses t"e
in%ormation contained in onl# t(o data points - t"e minim$m and ma&im$m.
2-47. a
!0 70 "0 50 40 30 20 10
17
1"
15
14
13
.nde/
0
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s
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o
s
it
y
!"e data appears to var# -et(een 12.5 and 17/ (it" no o-vio$s pattern.
- !"e plot indicates t"at t"e t(o processes generate similar res$lts. !"is is evident since
t"e data appear to -e centered aro$nd t"e same mean.
c 1st 40 o-servations: Sample 2ean + 14.87/ Sample 1ariance + 0.899
2nd 40 o-servations: Sample 2ean + 14.92/ Sample 1ariance + 1.05
!"e :$antities indicate t"e processes do #ield t"e same mean level. !"e varia-ilit#
also appears to -e a-o$t t"e same/ (it" t"e sample variance %or t"e 2nd 40
o-servations -eing slig"tl# larger t"an t"at %or t"e 1st 40.
2-48. a Stem-and-lea% o% noncon%ormingC . + 40/ )ea% *nit + 0.10
3 4 000
3 5
5 6 00
9 7 0000
15 8 000000
(9 9 000000000
16 10 0000
12 11 000
9 12 0
8 13 00
6 14
6 15 0
5 16 00
3 17 00
1 18
1 19 0
- Sample 2ean: 9.8C Sample Standard deviation: 3.611
c !"ere appears to -e an increase in t"e average n$m-er o% noncon%orming springs made
d$ring t"e 40 da#s.
40 30 20 10
20
15
10
5
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o
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o
n
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m
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2-49. a Stem-and-lea% o% errors . + 20/ )ea% *nit + 0.10
3 0 000
10 1 0000000
10 2 0000
6 3 00000
- Sample average: 1.7/ Sample Standard deviation: 1.174
c
20 15 10 5
4
3
2
1
0
.nde/
e
r
r
o
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!"e time series plot indicates a slig"t decrease in t"e n$m-er o% errors.