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ABSTRAK

Kajian tindakan ini dijalankan untuk menilai keberkesanan Finger

Multiplication Method dalam menyelesaikan masalah murid lemah dalam teknik

pendaraban. Responden dalam kajian ini terdiri daripada 8 orang murid dari Tahun

3 yang memperoleh markah yang rendah bagi mata pelajaran Matematik dalam

penilaian berkaitan topik pendaraban yang lalu. !ata dikumpulkan melalui ujian pra

dan ujian pasca. asil analisis data mendapati baha"a seramai # orang responden

menunjukkan peningkatan markah yang ketara dalam ujian pasca berbanding ujian

pra. Keputusan kajian menunjukkan baha"a Finger Multiplication Method berkesan

dalam membantu murid lemah menguasai $akta asas darab dalam Matematik.

Kata kunci% &endaraban dengan jari tangan' penyelesaian soalan pendaraban'

matematik' keberkesanan' peningkatan minat dalam matematik.

ABSTRACT

The purpose o$ the study "as to determine the e(tent to "hich $inger

multiplication method could be e$$ecti)e in impro)ing pupils* multiplication skills.

The respondents consisted o$ 8 pupils $rom 3 class "ho obtained the lo"est

marks $or Mathematics in the pre)ious topic multiplication skills e(amination. The

data $or this study "as collected using pre+ and post tests. The results sho"ed that #

pupils achie)ed signi$icantly higher marks in the post+test as compared to the pre+

test. The results o$ the study sho"ed that the $inger multiplication method "as

e$$ecti)e to a large e(tent in impro)ing the pupils* multiplication skills.

Key"ords% Finger multiplication method' sol)ing multiplication ,uestion'

mathematics' e$$ecti)e' increase o$ interest in mathematics.

INTRODUCTION

-n primary school classrooms' the pupils* poor $oundation in basic skills

especially skills related to the $our arithmetic operations has continually been ,uoted as

the main reason $or their poor per$ormances in mathematics. There$ore most o$ the

teachers use the traditional chalk and talk style o$ teaching. .t such' e(ploring and

$inding e$$ecti)e "ays to help these pupils to master the basic $acts o$ the arithmetic

operations has remained as the main $ocus o$ many primary mathematics teachers.

!ue to &iaget*s theory o$ intellectual de)elopment in$luence' the use o$ concrete

manipulati)e has stayed as one major approach in this e(ploration. Finger

multiplication method is a strategy that uses psychomotor mo)ement to represent

and per$orm multiplication. /ince $ingers are probably the most easily a)ailable

manipulati)e in any classroom' it is no surprise that a lot o$ primary children are

taught to use their $ingers to per$orm multiplication operations. o"e)er' the

e$$ecti)eness o$ this strategy depends )ery much on the "ay it is used. This action

research had been carried out at /0K1 2ok 3ng' &arit Keroma. /0K1 in rural areas

comprises o$ pupils $rom )arious backgrounds. There "ere 456 Malay78umiputera

pupils and 856 1hinese pupils in this school. !uring my teaching in the class' - $ound

that the multiplication skills o$ my pupils "ere ,uite "eak. - $ound out that they

"ere unable to memori9e the multiplication tables "ell. This "as the main reason

"hy they "ere "eak "hen ans"ering the multiplication ,uestions. - had tried to

ask them to recite the multiplication tables be$ore - started my mathematics lesson.

o"e)er' - $ound that it "as not an e$$ecti)e "ay to help them to impro)e their

multiplication skills. - $ound that the methods interesting as the methods "ere ne" to me.

This research "as carried out on my pupils to help them impro)e their

multiplication skills by using the Finger Multiplication Method . The purpose o$ this

action research study "as to see "hether the $inger method could impro)e pupils*

multiplication skills e$$ecti)ely.

LITERATURE REVIEW

!uring my teaching' - $ound out that the multiplication skills o$ my pupils

"ere ,uite "eak. - $ound out that they "ere unable to memori9e the multiplication tables

"ell. This "as the main reason "hy they "ere "eak "hen ans"ering the

multiplication ,uestions. - had tried to ask them to recite the multiplication tables

be$ore - started my mathematics lesson. The traditional "ay o$ teaching mathematics

$acts such as asking the pupils to recite the time table $ollo"ed by pro)iding a lot

o$ e(ercises $or pupils to practice do not really help them in understanding the

multiplication $acts. The old "ay o$ teaching multiplication made the pupils $eel

that they are $orced to learn' thus they do not impro)e their ability in applying the

multiplication $acts and concepts. - belie)e that pupils should ac,uire the

understanding about multiplication by using the learning atmosphere "here they can

enjoy' e(press "hat they learned in creati)e "ays and do not $eel stress$ul to remember

the $acts. For my action research' 8 pupils o$ 2ear 3 pupils at /0K1 2ok 3ng'

&arit Keroma "ere e(periencing the problem in mastering the multiplication concept

and skills. There "as a strong need to impro)e pupils* multiplication skills. The

goal o$ this action research "as to impro)e the multiplication skills $or year 3

pupils by using Finger Multiplication Method . This method can raise the pupils*

interest in learning mathematics. -n order to make sure that this $ocus is suitable $or

the pupils in my class' - had done an initial sur)ey to identi$y the pupils* multiplication

skills and background so that - could cater to the needs o$ each pupil.

MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY

Action research can be defned simply as the process of

improving practice through self refective enquiry (Carr & Kemmis, 1!"#$

%t is also the &systematic collection of information that is designed to bring

about social change' ((ogdan & (i)len, 1*#$ (ro+n (1,# and -obinson

(11# suggest that any action underta)en by teachers to collect data and

evaluate their o+n teaching can be termed action research$ According to

.oley (*//!#, multiplication time tables ta)e time to learn and before paper

and pen +ere common, a fnger based system +as developed to aid

rapid calculation$ 0he usual approach to teaching tables is by rote learning

but unfortunately, there is al+ays a proportion of pupils +ho struggle to

commit them to memory$ 0hose +ho failed created disadvantage for the rest

of their school mathematics life (1ardner, 1!2#$ A simple and original

system +as developed +hich allo+s pupils to calculate results of

multiplications using fngers$ Although it applicable for tables 1 to , it turns

out that it is easiest to use on the ", 3, ! and times tables, the ones

that pupils traditionally have the greatest problem +ith$ .or this action

research, % taught my pupils fnger multiplication method or fnger

method in multiplication to solve the multiplication questions$ 0his

method is a very simple method and can be done easily$ (y using fnger

method in multiplication, the ", 3, !, and 1/ times tables can be

calculated +ith the aid of fngers$ 4lace your hands on the table and

spread your fngers$ 5ach fnger has a numerical value from " to 1/6 0he

thumb 7 ", the inde8 fnger 7 3, the middle fnger 7 !, the ring fnger 7

and the little fnger 7 1/ (9argo, */1/#$ :et;s presume +e +ish to

calculate the e8ercise 3 8 !$ <e +ill count on one hand until 3,

beginning +ith the thumb +hich represents the number ", and +e +ill fold

the t+o fngers do+n$ <e +ill count on the other hand until !, beginning +ith

the thumb +hich represents the number ", and +e +ill fold the three fngers

do+n$ <e are left +ith fve folded fngers on t+o hands (they represent

= in the tens column#, and the fve unfolded fngers, t+o and one

hand and three on the other$ <e +ill multiply the unfolded fngers > 2 8

* and +e +ill get the number " +hich +ill represent the units column, and

so the ans+er is ="$ 0he advantage of using fnger method to solve

the multiplication question is that the pupils can easily calculate the "

to 1/ time tables +ith their hands$ 0hey could actually get the right ans+er

+ith their fngers$ %n this action research, % administered a pre>test to my

pupils before % use the fnger method strategy in teaching and learning

multiplication s)ills in class$ 0his pre>test +as used to identify the pupils +ho

face di?culties in mastering multiplication s)ills$ (esides that, this pre>

test +as also used to compare the result of the post>test in order to )no+

ho+ e@ective fnger multiplication method strategy in helping the pupils

to improve their multiplication s)ills$ After % have taught my pupils all the

fnger multiplication method of multiplication 0ime 0able from * until , %

gave them a post> test as the fnal evaluation on all the fnger

multiplication methods they had learned$ 0he post>test +as given to 1=

participants at the end of the research to test their mastery of basic

multiplication facts after being taught fnger multiplication method in

class$ (esides, the post>test result +as used to compare +ith the pre>test

result to )no+ the e@ectiveness of the fnger method in helping the pupils

master the multiplication s)ills$ % also gave them the questionnaire related

to their interest in learning 9athematics$ Apart from that, % taught my

pupils fnger multiplication method to solve the multiplication questions$

950ABCB:B1D

0arget 4articipants

0he participants of this study consisted of 1= pupils from , 9 class at

EK EF, Kuching$ 0here +ere 3 boys and ! girls in this class$ 0hey +ere

all 1/ years old$ 0heir academic achievement +as belo+ average$ A pre>

test on multiplication facts +as used to identify the mastery level of the

pupils in this study$ 0he pre>test has a total of ,= questions$ % designed the

test based on the 0ime 0able 1 until 0ime 0able $ 0here are fve

questions for each 0ime 0able$ (esides, the test can also help in

identifying the 0ime 0able that the pupils are not familiar +ith$

9ethod

.or the frst research question, % had used pre>test and post>test to collect the

pupilsG test scores$ % administered a pre>test to my pupils before % used the

fnger multiplication method strategy in teaching and learning

multiplication s)ills in class$ 0his pre>test consists of ,= basic

multiplication questions, ranging from multiplication 0able 1 until +ith

fve questions for each multiplication table$ As for the second research

question, % administered a questionnaire to measure pupilsG interest in

learning mathematics$ 0he interest questionnaire that % gave to my

pupils consists of eight items$ % had given the interest questionnaire to

my pupils before and after % taught them using the fnger method in

the classroom$ .or the third research question, % collected data on my

teaching practice based on the rating score by my mentor$ % had as)ed

my mentor to observe me in the classroom +hile % +as teaching$

-5EH:0E AIC .%IC%I1E

.igure 1$ 4upilsG pre>test and post>test$

.rom the graph, it +as clearly sho+n that the pupils had

improved in the post>test especially for multiplication 0ime 0able

,, =, ", 3, ! and $ Ao+ever, there +as a slight decreased in the

score for multiplication 0ime 0able 1 until 2 in the post>test$ .or

multiplication 0ime 0able 1, the pupilsG score slightly decreased

from 1//J to !$3J$ As for the multiplication 0ime 0able *, the

pupilsG score also slightly decreased from 3$2J to 2$2J$ .or

multiplication 0ime 0able 2, the pupilsG score slightly decreased

from ,$3J to !$2$ 0here +as improvement in the score for

multiplication 0ime 0able , (from 3*J to 3"J#$ As for

multiplication 0ime 0able =, the pupilsG score had also increased

largely from ""$3J to !!J during the post>test$ .or multiplication

0ime 0able ", the score also increased slightly from =,$3J to

"!J$ As for multiplication 0ime 0able 3, the pupilsG score had

increased from ,/J to =/$3J$ 0here +as large improvement in

the score of multiplication 0ime 0able ! +hich +as from 1"J to

1//

3$2

,$3

3*

""$3

=,$3

,/

1"

12$2

!$3

2$2

!$2

3"

!!

"!

=/$3

=*

,$2

/

1/

*/

2/

,/

=/

"/

3/

!/

/

1//

4re>0est

4ost>0est

4ercentage (J#

4re >0est and 4ost >0est Bn9ultiplication

0ime>0able

i

(u)u Kole)si Arti)el 4enyelidi)an 0inda)an

Eeminar 4enyelidi)an 0inda)an 0ahun */1/ %41 K(:

(90 4endidi)an -endah#, ms 1*=>12$

122

Eeminar 4enyelidi)an 0inda)an 0ahun */1/ %41 K(:K

3 & ! B)tober */1/K %41 K(:

=*J$ 0he percentage increased by 2"J and it +as a great

improvement for this multiplication time table$ :ast but not least,

multiplication 0ime 0able also sho+ed large improvement in

the score +hich increased from 12$2J to ,$2J$ All the score for

multiplication time table increased e8cept for multiplication 0ime

0able 1, * and 2$ As % +as more focus on improving the pupilsG

multiplication s)ills for 0ime 0able " until using fnger method,

the results still sho+ed improvement for the larger number time

table$

.igure *$ Analysis of 4upilsG interest in 9athematics (4re and 4ost#$

0he graph sho+s the result of pupilsG interest in learning

mathematics for pre and post implementation of fnger

multiplication method$ %t +as very clear that the mean score had

increased after the implementation of the fnger method in

multiplication$ .or item 1, the mean has increased from *$,/ to

2$!/$ .or item *, the mean has increased from *$2 to 2$32$ .or

item 2, the mean has increased from *$!" to ,$*/$ .or item ,, the

mean has increased from *$,/ to 2$32$ .or item =, the mean has

*$,

*$2

*$!"

*$,

*$,"

*$*

*$,"

*$*"

2$! 2$32

,$*

2$32

2$12

2$*"

2$=2 2$=2

/

/$=

1

1$=

*

*$=

2

2$=

,

,$=

4re

4ost

9ean

Analysis of 4upils;interest in :earning 9athematics (4re and 4ost #

(u)u Kole)si Arti)el 4enyelidi)an 0inda)an

Eeminar 4enyelidi)an 0inda)an 0ahun */1/ %41 K(:

(90 4endidi)an -endah#, ms 1*=>12$

12,

Eeminar 4enyelidi)an 0inda)an 0ahun */1/ %41 K(:K

3 & ! B)tober */1/K %41 K(:

increased from *$," to 2$12$ .or item ", the mean has increased

from *$*/ to 2$*"$ .or item 3, the mean has increased from *$,"

to 2$=2$ .or item !, the mean has increased from *$*" to 2$=2$

.rom .igure *, % could see that the mean for all the items has

increased$ 0his sho+ed that the fnger method +as e@ective in

increasing the interest of the pupils in learning mathematics$

.igure 26 9entorGs rating on , teaching practice Bbservation$

0he graph sho+s that there +ere four observations done by my

mentor during the teaching practice at the school$ .or the frst

observation, the rating score % obtained +as *! out of ,/$ As for

the second observation, the rating score +as 21 out of ,/$ .or

the third observation, the rating score +as 2, out of ,/$ Curing

the last observation, my mentor gave me the rating score of 2=

out of ,/$ .rom the .igure, it +as very clear that the rating score

for my teaching practice observation has increased from the frst

observation until the forth observation$ 0he rating score for the

last observation +as the highest$ % can conclude that the fnger

*!

21

2,

2=

/

=

1/

1=

*/

*=

2/

2=

,/

1st observation *nd observation 2rd observation ,th observation

9entor;s -ating on , 0eaching4ractice

Bbservations

-atingEcore

(u)u Kole)si Arti)el 4enyelidi)an 0inda)an

Eeminar 4enyelidi)an 0inda)an 0ahun */1/ %41 K(:

(90 4endidi)an -endah#, ms 1*=>12$

12=

Eeminar 4enyelidi)an 0inda)an 0ahun */1/ %41 K(:K

3 & ! B)tober */1/K %41 K(:

method had brought positive implication and e@ect to my

teaching practice performance$

-efection of .indings

.or the frst research question on evaluating the pupilsG

performance on multiplication question, % had collected the data

and analyLed the result +hich had sho+n improvement in almost

all the multiplication time table e8cept 0ime 0able 1, * and 2$

0here +as only a slight decrease on the multiplication time>table

of 1, * and 2$ 0his +as because some of the pupils +ere ma)ing

careless mista)e on the easy question$ Ao+ever, the

percentages of correct ans+er for these three multiplication time

table +ere still very high +ith !/J and above compared to the

rest of the multiplication time table$ 0he pupils sho+ed good

improvement for multiplication 0ime 0able ,, =, ", 3, ! and $

0he main reason +as because they could understand the basic

of multiplication after they learnt about the fnger method$ 0hey

can understand better the theory of multiplication by using fnger

method$ (esides, fnger method of multiplication 0ime 0able is

very easy to practice and applied compared to other

multiplication time table$ 4upils could see clearly ho+ they can

get the ans+er for multiplication 0ime 0able using fnger

method +ith ease$

.or the second research question, % had used the pre and post

interest questionnaire to collect the data on pupilsG interest in

learning mathematics$ % had analyLed the result +hich sho+n

increasing of the mean score in the post interest questionnaire$

0his also means the increasing of pupilsG interest in learning

mathematics after the implementation of fnger method in

multiplication$ .rom .igure *, all pupils had sho+n their

increased of interest in leaning mathematics$ (efore % taught my

pupils the fnger method in multiplication, they e8perienced

di?culty in ans+ering and completing the multiplication

questions$ 0his +as because they could not memoriLe and recite

the multiplication time table$ <hen they could not memoriLe and

recite the multiplication time table, they Must could not solve any

multiplication question on their o+n$ 0his had caused them to

lose interest in learning multiplication and mathematics in

(u)u Kole)si Arti)el 4enyelidi)an 0inda)an

Eeminar 4enyelidi)an 0inda)an 0ahun */1/ %41 K(:

(90 4endidi)an -endah#, ms 1*=>12$

12"

Eeminar 4enyelidi)an 0inda)an 0ahun */1/ %41 K(:K

3 & ! B)tober */1/K %41 K(:

general$ %t could be seen in the responses in the pre interest

questionnaire +hich +as given to them before the

implementation of the fnger method in multiplication$ 9ost of

them chose to agree that they did not li)e mathematics and it

+as not easy for them$ After % had implemented the fnger

method in the classroom, the pupilsG attitude had changed and

this can be sho+n in the responses in the post interest

questionnaire$ 9ost of them are no+ agreed that they started to

li)e mathematics and mathematics is fun to learn$ 0hey found

that by using fnger method, they can ans+er and solve the

multiplication question easily$ (esides, the pupils also found that

multiplication +as not that di?cult because they can apply fnger

method +hen ans+ering the multiplication questions$ 0hey

actually could get the ans+er from their o+n fngers$ 9oreover,

they are no+ more confdent +hen solving the multiplication

question$

:ast but not least, for the third research question, % had as)ed my

mentor to observe me using the rating scale based on my

teaching practice$ % had implemented the fnger method in the

classroom during my teaching practice$ 9y mentor had observed

me four times and % had collected the data and analyLed the

result$ 0he rating score given by my mentor had sho+n that my

teaching practice has improved consistently$ % also become

confdent +hile teaching mathematics in the classroom as the

fnger method in multiplication really helped me to teach my

pupils to understand the topic of multiplication$ (y using this

fnger method, my pupils only have to memoriLe the smaller

number multiplication time>table and use them in the fnger

method to fnd the correct ans+er for the multiplication question$

% also found out that the pupils +ere very interested to learn this

fnger method as it helped them to engage in the learning

process$ 0hey actually used their o+n hand and fngers to fnd

the ans+er to the multiplication question$ 0hey felt satisfed +hen

they +ere able to ans+er the multiplication question correctly

using fnger method$ 0hus, it also helped me a lot as % could

carry out my teaching and learning process smoothly and

e@ectively$

(u)u Kole)si Arti)el 4enyelidi)an 0inda)an

Eeminar 4enyelidi)an 0inda)an 0ahun */1/ %41 K(:

(90 4endidi)an -endah#, ms 1*=>12$

123

Eeminar 4enyelidi)an 0inda)an 0ahun */1/ %41 K(:K

3 & ! B)tober */1/K %41 K(:

-5.:5C0%BI AIC .H0H-5 AC0%BI

-efection

% had implemented this fnger method in the classroom +hile

teaching my pupils about multiplication during the mathematics

lesson$ % found out that this method +as very e@ective as +hat

+e can see from the result and fndings in previous chapter$ 0he

performance of pupils in multiplication s)ills and the interest of

the pupils in learning mathematics has improved and increased

after the implementation of the fnger method in multiplication$

(esides, % myself also beneft from this fnger method, as my

teaching practice has also sho+n improvement and % can say

that this fnger method is very e@ective and e?cient to help my

pupils in their learning of mathematics and myself in improving

my teaching practice$ Apart from this, this method +as practical

enough as it +ould not ta)e much time in implementing it in the

classroom$ .or myself, % only used =>1/ minutes before % start my

lesson to teach my pupils about this fnger method$ %t served as a

good set induction as +ell and can arouse the pupilsG interest to

learn mathematics and multiplication$ 9oreover, this is a free

and very convenient teaching aid as every pupil Must needs to

use their fngers to do the fnger multiplication method$ Apart

from this, the pupils can also engage themselves actively in the

learning process and in the lesson as they +ere actually doing a

hands>on activity by doing the fnger multiplication method$

After carried out this action research in the school, % found out

that this fnger method +as very suitable in a school conte8t$

0his is because, from the e8periences % +ent through during my

practicum, most of the pupils +ere facing problem in memoriLing

the multiplication time>table$ <hen they could not memoriLe and

recite the multiplication time>table, they +ill feel frustrated as

they +ere unable to ans+er the multiplication questions$

Ao+ever, +ith the implementation of fnger method in the school,

% believe the pupils +ill be more interested to learn multiplication

and mathematics in general$ 0his +as because, +hen they have

mastered the fnger method in multiplication, they +ill start to li)e

mathematics and fnd that learning mathematics is fun$

(u)u Kole)si Arti)el 4enyelidi)an 0inda)an

Eeminar 4enyelidi)an 0inda)an 0ahun */1/ %41 K(:

(90 4endidi)an -endah#, ms 1*=>12$

12!

Eeminar 4enyelidi)an 0inda)an 0ahun */1/ %41 K(:K

3 & ! B)tober */1/K %41 K(:

Bn the other hand, they +ill fnd it easy to solve the multiplication

question and have more interest to learn mathematics in the

classroom$ 0hey +ill feel happy and satisfy +hen they are able to

ans+er the multiplication question correctly$ Apart from this, by

practicing this fnger method in the classroom, pupils can learn

universal values as +ell$ 4upils +ill learn ho+ to cooperate and

+or) together +ith their friends in learning this fnger method$

0hey learn ho+ to help each other by guiding each other in

achieving the same goal that is to master this method$ (esides,

this method also helped the pupil to be more confdent in

ans+ering the multiplication problems$ 0his method had helped

them to have a strong foundation +hich is necessary for them to

learn mathematics$ .urthermore, this action research also had

helped me a lot in improving my teaching practice$

.uture Action

After refecting on my action research, % had planned for my

future action +hich is the ne8t cycle for my research$ .or the

ne8t cycle of my action research, % +ould li)e to focus on the

problem solving method in multiplication$ %t +ill help the pupils to

apply the mathematics )no+ledge they learnt in real life

situation$ % +ould li)e to focus on 1eorge 4olyaGs problem solving

method$ 0here are four steps in this problem solving method

+hich are understand the problem, devising the plan, carrying

out the plan and loo)ing bac)+ard$ (y learning about problem

solving, the pupils +ill be able to apply +hat they had learnt in

the classroom in their real life e8periences$ % +ould li)e to do the

research on the problem solving method to help them

understand the concept of multiplication and able to solve the

mathematical problems in their daily living$

-5.5-5IC5E

(ogdan, -$ & (i)len, E$ K$ (1*#$ Nualitative research for

education$ (oston6 Allyn & (acon$

(ro+n, A$ C$ (1,#$ 0eaching by principles6 An interactive

approach to language pedagogy$ 5ngle+ood Cli@s, IF6

4rentice Aall$

(u)u Kole)si Arti)el 4enyelidi)an 0inda)an

Eeminar 4enyelidi)an 0inda)an 0ahun */1/ %41 K(:

(90 4endidi)an -endah#, ms 1*=>12$

12

Eeminar 4enyelidi)an 0inda)an 0ahun */1/ %41 K(:K

3 & ! B)tober */1/K %41 K(:

Carr, <$ & Kemmis, E$ (1!"#$ (ecoming critical$ :e+es6

.almer$

.oley, ($ (*//!#$ 0ime 0ables > 0he +orst +ay to teach

multiplication$ -etrieved on 1* .ebruary */1/, from

http6KK+++$articlesbase$comK)1*>educationarticlesKtimes

tables>the>+orst>+ay>to>teachmultiplication23*/"/$html

1ardner, A$ (1!2#$ .rames of mind6 0he theory of multiple

intelligences$ Ie+ Dor)6 (asic (oo)s$

Kilpatric), F$ & E+a@ord, F$ (*///#$ Aelping children learn

9athematics$ Center for 5ducation, Civision of (ehavioral

and Eocial Eciences and 5ducation6 Iational -esearch

Council$

9argo, C$ (*/1/#$ :earning strategies to memoriLe multiplication

facts6 Hsing multiplication rhymes to remember O0imesO$

-etrieved on 1, 9arch */1/ from http6KK+++$brighthub$comK

educationKhome+or)tipsKarticlesK2"",*$asp8

-obinson, 4$ (11#$ 5E4 today6 A practitioner;s guide$ Aemel

Aempstead, Aertfordshire6 4rentice Aall$

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