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CORRELATION
Dr. Vipul Patel
Correlation
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Correlation analysis is used to describe the strength
and direction of the linear relationship between two
variables.
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Pearson Product Moment correlation
coefficient
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Pearson product moment coefficient is designed for
interval level (Continuous) variables. It can also be used
if you have one continuous variable and one
dichotomous variable.
Pearson correlation coefficient can only take on values
from -1 to +1. The sign out the front indicates whether
there is a positive correlation or an negative
correlation.
The size of the absolute value (ignoring the sign)
provides an indication of the strength of the
relationship.
Case 1:
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Open file: correlation.sav
Here, we are interested in assessing the correlation
between respondents feelings of control over their
internal states and their level of perceived stress.
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Here we have two continuous variables:
Total perceived control of internal states scale-
Sum_control
Total perceived stress scale Sum_stress
SPSS output Case 1
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Correlations
total perceived stress total PCOISS
total perceived stress Pearson Correlation 1 -.581
**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 433 426
total PCOISS Pearson Correlation -.581
**
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Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 426 430
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
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SPSS output file will provides Pearson Correlation
coefficients between each pair of variables listed.
Direction of Relation: Here in this case, correlation
coefficient is negative indicating a negative
relationship between perceived control and stress.
Strength of Relation: value of the correlation
coefficient indicate the strength of relationship
between two variables.
r is less than 0.30 Weak correlation
r is between 0.30 to 0.50 Medium correlation
r is greater than 0.50 Strong correlation
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In this case, there is a strong correlation between
the perceived control and stress level (r = - 0.58).
Coefficient of determination: square of correlation
coefficient.
In this case, the square of correlation of coefficient
is 0.3376 that is 33.76 percentage. Perceived
control helps to explain nearly 34 percent of the
variance in respondents scores on the perceived
stress level.
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Presenting the results for correlation
test (Case 1)
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The relationship between perceived control of
internal states and perceived stress, was
investigated using Pearson product moment
correction coefficient. There was a strong negative
correlation between the two variables (r = - 0.58
p<0.05), with high levels of perceived control
associated with lower levels of perceived stress.
Multiple Regression
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Multiple regression is used to explore the
relationship between one continuous dependent
variable and a number of independent variables or
predictors (usually continuous).
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Case
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Open the SPSS file: supermodel.sav
We have one dependent continuous variable: salary
We have three independent continuous variables
supposed to affect or predict the salary of models:
Their age (age)
How many years they had worked as a model (year)
Attractiveness of each model (beauty)
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The model accounts for 18.4% of the variance in
salaries and is significant fit of the data (F(3, 227) =
17.07, p<0.05).
The salaries are significantly predicted by the age of
the model (p<0.05) and this relationship is positive.
The number of years spent as a model also predict
salaries but this is having a negative relationship.
Finally, the attractiveness of the model does not seem to
predict salaries.
Regression Equation
Salaries = -60.890 + 6.234 (Age) 5.561 (No of Years as Model)
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Multicolinearity
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If the largest VIF is larger than 10 then there is
cause for concern (Myers, 1990).
Tolerance below 0.1 indicates a serious problem
and Tolerance below 0.2 indicates a potential
problem (Menard, 1995).
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Thank You!!!
Dr. Vipul Patel
vipulpat@gmail.com