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Minidian Fasitasari Minidian Fasitasari
Department of Nutrition Department of Nutrition
Medical School of UNISSULA Medical School of UNISSULA
Key concepts
Vtamn: noncaorc essenta nutrents--necessary n
very sma amounts for specc metaboc contro & dsease
Certan heath probems are reated to
nadequate/excessve vtamn ntake
Vtamn occur n a wde varety of foods that are
packaged wth the energy & tssue- budng macro nutrents
(C, F, P) on whch vtamn work as specc cataysts to
reguate body metaboc
Vtamn suppementaton needs are ndvdua &
Chapter outnes
Fat-soube vtamns
Water-soube vtamns
Vtamn Suppementaton
Eary observatons
1753, Dr. |ames Lnd, a Brtsh nava surgeon
Eary anma experments
1906, Dr. Frederch Hopkns, Cambrdge Unversty
Era of Vtamn Dscovery
1911, Casmr Funk, a Posh chemst, Lster Insttute
It must be a vta, organc, detary substance that s not
a carbohydrate, fat, proten, or mnera & s necessary n
ony very sma amounts to perform a specc metaboc
functon or prevent an assocated decency dsease
It cannot be manufactured by the body & therefore
must be supped by the det
Sma measures for sma needs...
Mgram (mg) = 10
(28 grams = 1 oz; 1 g = about V tsp)
For vtamns E, C, thamn, rboavn, nacn, & B
Mcrogram (mcg, g) = 10
For vtamns A (retno equvaents), D, K, foate, & B
Casses of Vtamns
Fat soube
Functons of Vtamns
Each vtamn has ts specc metaboc task
2 genera functons of vtamns as a group:
1. 1. Contro agents n ce metabosm Contro agents n ce metabosm
2. 2. Components of body-tssue constructon Components of body-tssue constructon
(3) Preventng specc nutrtona decency dsease
Metaboc Contro Agent: Metaboc Contro Agent:
Coenzyme Partner Coenzyme Partner
"Catayst Catayst" -- katalysis (Greek) = "to dssove"
In chemca usage, catayst catayst refers to substances such as
enzymes that are necessary contro agents for breakng
down compounds but are not themseves consumed n the
In many ce reactons, a partcuar vtamn s requred
as a specc coenzyme partner wth the reguar ce enzyme
to aow the reacton to proceed. ...
...Metaboc Contro Agent: ...Metaboc Contro Agent:
Coenzyme Partner Coenzyme Partner
Wthout the vtamn, the reacton cannot occur & the
metaboc process nvoved cannot functon.
Severa of the B vtamns (thamn, nacn, & rboavn) are
essenta components of the ce enzyme systems that
metaboze gucose to produce energy.
Tssue Structure Tssue Structure
Some of vtamns act as tssue-budng
Vt C heps to depost a cementke substance n the
spaces between ces to produce strong tssue.
Ths matera caed ground substance & s smar
to collagen collagen.
Preventon of Decency Dsease Preventon of Decency Dsease
If a vtamn decency becomes severe, a nutrtona
dsease assocated wth the specc functon of that vtamn
becomes apparent.
Scurvy Scurvy s caused by a ack of vtamn C. Scurvy s a
hemorrhagc dsease wth beedng nto the |onts & other
nterna tssue due to frage capares breakng down
under smpe bood pressure. ...
...Preventon of Decency Dsease ...Preventon of Decency Dsease
Wthout vtamn C to produce strong capary was,
vta nterna membranes nay dsntegrate & death occurs.
"Ascorbc acd Ascorbc acd" -- scorbutus (Latn) = scurvy, ascorbc
= wthout scurvy.
Fat-Soube Vtamns
Retno (Vtamn A)
Choecasfero (Vtamn D)
Tocophero (Vtamn E)
Vtamn K
Retno (Vtamn A) Retno (Vtamn A)
Its an essenta part of rhodopsin rhodopsin, whch s a pgment n
the eye. Ths ght-senstve substances enabes the eye to
ad|ust to dherent amounts of avaabe ght. A md
decency of vtamn causes: - nght
bndness - sow adaptaton to
darkness, or - gare bndness
...Retno (Vtamn A) ...Retno (Vtamn A)
Tssue strength
It mantans heathy epthea tssue, whch s the vta
protectve tssue coverng the body (.e. the skn) & the
nner mucous membrane n the nose, throat, eyes, GIT, &
UGT. These tssues provde our prmary barrer to nfecton.
...Retno (Vtamn A) ...Retno (Vtamn A)
Its essenta to the growth of skeeta & soft tssue &
nuences the stabty of ce membranes & proten
Decency dsease
Xeross, whch s tchng, burnng, & red named ds
Xerophthama, whch s bndness from severe
...Retno (Vtamn A) ...Retno (Vtamn A)
RDA for aduts:
800 g (women) & 100 g (men)
nuenced by:
1. Food forms & unts of measure
2. Body storage
...Retno (Vtamn A) ...Retno (Vtamn A)
Requrements, nuenced by:
Food forms & unts of measure
1. Retno
2. Carotene--provtamn A a pgment
n yeow & green pants that the body converts
to vtamn A
Most: -carotene, vt A measure: REs
1 IU vt A-0.3 g retno-0.6 g -carotene
...Retno (Vtamn A) ...Retno (Vtamn A)
Requrements, nuenced by:
Body storage
- The storage emcency of retno ngested n the
ver s > 50%
- The ver contans + 90%of the bodys tota store
...Retno (Vtamn A) ...Retno (Vtamn A)
Toxcty Symptoms
Hypervtamnoss A
|ont pan, thckenng of ong bones, oss of har, &
Lver n|ury, resuts:
1. Porta hypertenson
2. Asctes
...Retno (Vtamn A) ...Retno (Vtamn A)
Food Sources
Preformed, natura vtamn A: Fsh-ver os, ver, egg
yok, butter, & cream
Fat-soube vtamn A: fat part of mk
-carotene: green eafy vegetabes, yeow vegetabes &
Requred be sat be sat for proper absorpton from the
Be acts as an antoxdant to protect & stabze the
easy oxdzed vtamn, as we as transport t through the
ntestna wa
...Retno (Vtamn A) ...Retno (Vtamn A)
Retno s unstabe n heat & n contact wth ar
Cookng vegetabes n uncovered pot destroys much of
ther vtamn content.
Oucker cookng wth tte water heps to preserve the
Choecasfero (Vtamn D) Choecasfero (Vtamn D)
Vt D s not actuay a true vtamn because ts made n
our own bodes wth the hep of the suns UV rays.
1922, abe to cure the chdhood decency dsease,
rickets, wth sh ver os.
Today we know: the compound made n the skn by
sunght s actuay a prohormone.
Choecacfero: a fat-soube sterol that contros cacum
metabosm n bone-budng
...Choecacfero (Vtamn D) ...Choecacfero (Vtamn D)
The nta compound n the skn s a cholesterol base.
Cacfero s then actvated by 2 successve enzymes --
ntermedate acton n the ver & na acton n the kdney --
to become the actve vtamn D hormone form caed
cactro that functons n the body.
...Choecacfero (Vtamn D) ...Choecacfero (Vtamn D)
Absorpton of cacum & phosphorus
The hormone form cactro acts physoogcay wth 2
other hormones, the parathyrod hormone (PTH) & the
thyrod hormone cactonn. In baance wth these 2
hormones, the vt D hormone stmuates absorpton of Ca
& P n the sma ntestne.
...Choecacfero (Vtamn D) ...Choecacfero (Vtamn D)
Bone mnerazaton
Cactro, works wth Ca & P to form bone tssue by drecty
reguatng the rate of depost & resorpton of these
mneras n the bone. Ths baancng process buds &
mantans bone tssue.
Thus cactro has been cncay used to treat
...Choecacfero (Vtamn D) ...Choecacfero (Vtamn D)
Decency dsease:
a condton characterzed by maformaton of skeeta
tssue n growng chdren.
...Choecacfero (Vtamn D) ...Choecacfero (Vtamn D)
Its dmcut to set requrements for ths nutrent
because of ts unque hormoneke nature
- ts synthess n the skn by the suns radaton
of choestero there
- ts mted food sources
The amount needed may vary between wnter and
summer, & wth ndvdua exposure to sunght.
...Choecacfero (Vtamn D) ...Choecacfero (Vtamn D)
Peope reguary exposed to sunght (under approprate
condtons) have no requrement for vtamn D.
US popuaton need a detary suppy
5 g/day (200 IU)
...Choecacfero (Vtamn D) ...Choecacfero (Vtamn D)
Toxcty symptoms:
Excess ntake of vt D, especay n nfants, can
be toxc
Hypervtamnoss D
Caccaton of soft tssue such as kdney &
ungs, as we as frage bones.
...Choecacfero (Vtamn D) ...Choecacfero (Vtamn D)
Toxcty symptoms.
Proonged ntake of choecacfero (> 50 g/day |2000
IU|) can produce eevated eves of cacum n the bood
nfants & cacum deposts n the kdney nephrons n both
nfants & aduts), ahectng overa kdney functon.
...Choecacfero (Vtamn D) ...Choecacfero (Vtamn D)
Food Sources
Ony yeast & sh ver os are natura sources of vt D
Because t s a common food & aso contans cacum &
phosphorus, mk s the most practca carrer.
Butter substtutes, such as margarnes, are aso
Chdren on vt D-decent dets are especay
vunerabe to damaged bone deveopment & rckets
...Choecacfero (Vtamn D) ...Choecacfero (Vtamn D)
Vt D s stabe to heat, agng, & storage.
Tocophero (Vtamn E) Tocophero (Vtamn E)
Eary vtamn studes dented a substance necessary
for anma reproducton that was chemcay an acoho.
Tocophero; Gr. tokos: chdbrth, pherein: to carry).
Tocophero soon became known as the antsterty
vtamn, but t was soon demonstrated to have ths ehect
ony n rats & a few other anmas, nt n humans.
...Tocophero (Vtamn E) ...Tocophero (Vtamn E)
Antoxdant functon
Tocophero acts as natures most potent fat-soube
PUFA n pd membranes of body tssues are partcuary
easy for oxygen to breakdown. Tocophero can nterupt ths
oxdaton process, protectng the fatty acds of the ce
membrane from damage.
...Tocophero (Vtamn E) ...Tocophero (Vtamn E)
Antoxdant functon.
Premature nfants: Vt E can protect frage red bood
ce wa from breakng down, causng anema.
Vt E heps protect both red bood ces & musce tssue
...Tocophero (Vtamn E) ...Tocophero (Vtamn E)
Reaton to seenum metabosm
Seenum s a trace mnera that works as a partner wth
tocophero as an antoxdant.
A seenum-contanng enzyme s the second ne of
defense n preventng oxdatve damage to ce membranes.
Seenum spares tocophero by reducng ts
requrement, |ust as tocophero does for seenum.
...Tocophero (Vtamn E) ...Tocophero (Vtamn E)
Decency dsease:
Premature nfants: hemoytc anema hemoytc anema.
Oder chdren & aduts, a decency of vt E dsrupts dsrupts
norma synthess of myen norma synthess of myen, the protectve fat coverng of
nerve ces that heps them pass messages aong to specc
tssues. The man nerves nvoved are:
(a). Spna cord bers, ahect physca actvty
(b). The retna of the eye, ahects vson.
...Tocophero (Vtamn E) ...Tocophero (Vtamn E)
Tocophero requrements are expressed n terms of -
tocophero n mg/day.
Men & woman > age 14: 15 mg/day, esser amounts
requred n chdhood.
The rst year of nfancy: 4-6 mg/day
A aduts: 1 mg/day
...Tocophero (Vtamn E) ...Tocophero (Vtamn E)
Toxcty symptoms:
Tocophero s the ony fat-soube vtamn that has no
toxc ehect n humans.
Its use as a suppement has not shown harmfu ehects.
...Tocophero (Vtamn E) ...Tocophero (Vtamn E)
Food sources:
The rchest sources: vegetabe os. Note that vegetabe
os are aso the rchest sources of PUFA, whch vt E protect.
Other sources: mk, eggs, meats, sh, cereas, & eafy
It s stabe to heat & acds, but not to akas.
Vtamn K Vtamn K
Henrk Dam, a bochemst at the Unversty of Copenhagen,
dscovered a hemorrhagc dsease n chcks that were fed a fat-free det
& determned that the factor responsbe was the absence of a fat-
soube, bood cottng vtamn. He caed t koagulations vitamin or
vt K.
Phyoqunone, our detary form of vt K
Menaqunone, a second sgncant form, whch s syntheszed by
ntestna bactera & contrbutes about haf of our day suppy.
. .Vtamn K Vtamn K
Vt K s essenta for mantanng norma eves of four of
the 11 bood-cottng factors (factors II, VII, IX, X). The most
famar of these vt K-dependent bood factors s
prothrombin (factor II)
Phyoqunone can serve as an antdote for the excess
ehects of antcoaguant drugs
. .Vtamn K Vtamn K
Bone deveopment
Specc protens found n bone & bone matrx are
dependent on vt K for ther synthess & are nvoved wth
cacum n bone deveopment.
. .Vtamn K Vtamn K
Decency dsease:
Decency dsease reated to vt K s not usuay found
n humans.
A decency s unkey except n cnca condtons
reated to bood-cottng, maabsorpton, or ack of ntestna
bactera to synthesze the vtamn.
. .Vtamn K Vtamn K
Because ntestna bactera synthesze a form of vt K, a constant
suppy s normay avaabe to support detary sources.
Men 80 g/day, women 65 g/day
Chdren 1 g/kg body weght
Toxcty symptoms:
Toxcty from vtamn K - even when arge amounts are taken
over extended perods - has not been observed.
. .Vtamn K Vtamn K
Food sources:
Green eafy vegetabes, whch provde 50 to 800 g of
phyoqunone per 100 g of food, are ceary the best detary
Sma but sgncant amounts of phyoqunone: mk &
dary products, meats, eggs, cereas, fruts, & vegetabes.
. .Vtamn K Vtamn K
Vt K as phyoqunone s fary stabe, athough t s
senstve to ght and rradaton. Therefore cnca
preparatons are kept n dark bottes.