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Key concepts

Key concepts
Fat in foods supplies essential diet & body tissue
needs, both as an energy fuel & a structural material
Food from animal & plant sources supplies distinct
forms of that affect health in different ways
Excess dietary fat, especially from animal food sources,
is a health risk factor
Chapter outlines Chapter outlines
Lipids-triglycerides-fatty acids
Nature of lipids
Fatty acids: saturation, essentiality, chain length
Health needs for lipids
Special lipid-related compounds:
cholesterol, lipoprotein
Digestion-absorption-metabolism
Health problems for lipids
Dietary fat requirements
Lipids-triglycerides-fatty acids Lipids-triglycerides-fatty acids
Lipids Lipids
the oerall name of chemical group of fat ! fat- related compounds
the "ree# $ord %lipos& ' %fats&
(riglycerides (riglycerides
as a group, fats are called glycerides because they are composed of
glycerol $ith fatty acids attached
most natural fats )animal ! plant*: triglycerides
as the chemical name for fat
Fatty acids Fatty acids
the main building bloc#s of fats
Nature of Lipids Nature of Lipids
+hysical characteristic +hysical characteristic
fat, oil, ! related compounds that are greasy to the touch !
insoluble in $ater
,hemical characteristic ,hemical characteristic
organic compounds- ,, H, .
more comple/ in structure- more ,, more H, less .
common structural units: fatty acids
Fatty acids: Saturation Fatty acids: Saturation
0ccording to $eather or not fatty acids are filled $ith
hydrogen
(he F0 has fe$er hydrogen attached $ith some hydrogen
spaces unfilled, it is less saturated
(he arying degree of saturation:
12 Saturated
32 4onounsaturated
52 +olyunsaturated
saturated fatty acid (SAFA) saturated fatty acid (SAFA)
filled $ith all of hydrogen it can hold
harder, heaier, denser, ! more solid
saturated fat
mainly of animal sources, e2g2 meats, mil# dairy products
tropical oils, e2g2 coconut oil, palm oil
mono unsaturated fatty acid (MFA) mono unsaturated fatty acid (MFA)
one unfilled spot, one double bond
less heay, less dense
oleic acid
mostly from plant sources
olies ! olie oil, peanuts ! peanut oil, almonds, aocados
poly unsaturated fatty acid (!FA) poly unsaturated fatty acid (!FA)
t$o or more unfilled spots, t$o or more double bonds
Linoleic, linolenic, ! arachidonic acids
plant sources
corn oil, safflo$er seed oil
MFA " !FA### MFA " !FA###
MUFA
Oleic cis-9-Octadecenoic 18:1 (n-9)
Elaidic trans-9-Octadecenoic 18:1t
Erucic cis-13-Docosenoic 22:1 (n-9)
PUFA
Linoleic ciscis-912-Octadecadienoic 18:2 (n-!)
Linolenic all-cis-9121"-Octadecatrienoic 18:3 (n-3)
Arac#idonic all-cis-"8111$-Eicosatetraenoic 2%:$ (n-!)
EPA all-cis-"8111$1&-Eicosa'entaenoic 2%:" (n-3)
D(A all-cis-$&1%131!19-Docosa#e)aenoic 22:! (n-3)
Fatty acids: $ssentiality Fatty acids: $ssentiality
0ccording to their relatie necessity in the diet
6ssential if the body cannot manufacture it ! therefore must
obtain it from the diet- a failure to do so $ould result in a
deficiency disease
fatty acids: essentiality### fatty acids: essentiality###
0 diet $ith 7 189 fats from total #cal cannot supply
adequate amounts of essential fatty acids
6ssential fatty acids )6F0*:
Linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic acids
Sere important body functions:
membrane structure, cholesterol transport, serum cholesterol,
blood clotting, local hormone-li#e effects
Functions of essential fatty acid Functions of essential fatty acid
4embrane structure 4embrane structure
linoleic acid strengthens cell membrane
helping to preent a harmful increase in s#in ! membrane
permeability
deficiency: brea#do$n in s#in integrity- ec:ema ! s#in
lesions
Functions of essential fatty acid### Functions of essential fatty acid###
,holesterol transport ,holesterol transport
linoleic acid, li#e other fatty acids, combines $ith cholesterol
to form cholesterol esters for transport in the blood
Serum cholesterol Serum cholesterol
linoleic acid, li#e other unsaturated fatty acids, helps lo$er
serum cholesterol leel
plays in a role of both transport ! metabolism of cholesterol
Functions of essential fatty acid### Functions of essential fatty acid###
;lood cloting ;lood cloting
linolenic ! linoleic acids help prolong blood clotting time !
increases fibrinolytic actiity
Local hormone-li#e effects Local hormone-li#e effects
linoleic acid is a ma<or metabolic precursor of
prostaglandins% prostacyclins% throm&o'anes% " leu(otrienes prostaglandins% prostacyclins% throm&o'anes% " leu(otrienes
(eicosanoids) (eicosanoids)
Fatty acids: Chain length Fatty acids: Chain length
=mportant in their absorption
in food: >-33 carbon
>, ? short
@, 18, 13 medium
1>,1?, more long
)isi&le and in*isi&le food fats )isi&le and in*isi&le food fats
Aisible fats Aisible fats
=nisible )hidden* fats =nisible )hidden* fats
+ealth needs for lipids +ealth needs for lipids
Food Lipids Food Lipids
fuel source for energy
essential nutrient supply
food palatability
;ody Lipids222 ;ody Lipids222
health needs for lipids### health needs for lipids###
;ody Lipids ;ody Lipids
energy
thermal insulation
ital organ protection
nere impulse transmission
tissue membrane structure
cell metabolism
essential precursor substances
carries of soluble-itamins
Cholesterol
Cholesterol
Structure Structure
fat, triglyceride
saturated fat
belongs to a group of chemical substances called sterols
its name comes from the body material $here it $as first identified --
gallstones
chole -- gallbladder or bile sterol --
family group name
traels in the bloodstream attached to long chain fatty acids, forming
cholesterol esters
cholesterol### cholesterol###
Functions Functions
a precursor of all steroid hormones
B-dehydrocholesterol --)the u2 rays of sunlight*-- actiated in the
body to produce it D
essential in formation of bile acids
distributed in all cell of the body- large amount: brain ! nere tissue
an essential component of cell membrane
made in body tissue, mainly in the lier
consume no cholesterol at all, the body still synthesi:e an adequate
supply
cholesterol### cholesterol###
Food sources Food sources
all in animal foods, but not in plant foods
mainly: egg yol#s ! organ meats, such as lier ! #idneys
plant or egetable oils may ary in degree of saturation, but
none of them contain cholesterol
cholesterol### cholesterol###
Health concerns Health concerns
eleated serum cholesterol leels -- more rapid progression of
atherosclerosis
plaque -- blood clot: the heart muscle -- a heart attac#, the brain -- a
cerebral hemorrhages or stro#e
soluble types of dietary fibers helps to control blood cholesterol leels
- bind bile acids ! dietary cholesterol - help
eliminate e/cess cholesterol from the body
Lipoprotein
Lipoprotein
not true lipids, but comple/es of lipids surrounded by protein
sere as ma<or ehicle for lipid transport in the bloodstream
contain: fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, ! traces
of other material such as fat soluble itamins ! steroid hormones
the higher the protein ratio, the higher is density
usually classified according to density ! by their relatie lipid !
cholesterol content
Classification of lipoproteins Classification of lipoproteins
12 ,hylomicrons 12 ,hylomicrons
formed in intestinal $all after a meal
carry the fat load from the meal to lier cells to other transport
lipoproteins
32 ALDLs 32 ALDLs
formed in the lier during the fasting interals bet$een
meals
)-* food ! chylomicrons, ALDLs as ma<or transporters
of (" in the continuing process of lipid transport !
metabolism, ! delier endogenous (" to tissue cells
Classification of lipoproteins### Classification of lipoproteins###
52 =LDLs 52 =LDLs
formed form ALDLs
continue the deliery of endogenous (" to tissue cells
>2 LDLs >2 LDLs
formed form ALDLs ! =LDLs
carry cholesterol to the peripheral tissue cells
C2 HDLs C2 HDLs
formed in cell metabolism
carry cholesterol from the cells to the lier for bra# do$n !
elimination from the body
(lipoproteins) (lipoproteins)
LDLs LDLs
,igestion of Lipids
,igestion of Lipids
,igestion### ,igestion###
A&sorption of Lipids
A&sorption of Lipids
Its not easy
Lipids are not soluble in the water
Lipids always reuire some type of sol!ent carrier
"asic stages of operation###
A&sorption### A&sorption###
$tage I% Initial lipid absorption $tage I% Initial lipid absorption
in the small intestine%
products of lipid digestion & bile

micellar bile'lipid complex
mo!es along the initial passage the into intestine wall
A&sorption### A&sorption###
$tage II% (bsorption within the intestinal wall $tage II% (bsorption within the intestinal wall
inside the wall of the small intestine%
bile absorbed the enterohepatic circulation li!er
enteric lipase action
triglycerides synthesis
A&sorption### A&sorption###
$tage III% Final lipid absorption & transport $tage III% Final lipid absorption & transport
)*s +& other lipids, & proteins chylomicrons
lymphatic blood
lipoprotein lipase
Li!er% lipids lipoproteins body cells
A&sorption of fat A&sorption of fat
A&sorption of cholesterol A&sorption of cholesterol
A&sorption of phospholipids A&sorption of phospholipids
Meta&olism of Lipids
Meta&olism of Lipids
Fats fatty acids & glycerol
"ody cells%
Fatty acids as concentrated fuel energy
Li!er%
*lycerol +-./, glucose
gluconeogenesis
Meta&olism ### Meta&olism ###
Hormonal controls Hormonal controls
GH, ACTH, TSH
from the pituitary gland, the release of FF(s from stored
lipid when energy demands are imposed
Cortisol & corticosterone
from the adrenal gland, cause the release of FF(s
Epinephrine & norepinephrine###
Meta&olism ### Meta&olism ###
Epinephrine & norepinephrine
stimulate the breakdown of lipids & release of FF(s
Insulin
from the pancreas, promotes lipids synthesis & storage, 01
glucagon, break down lipid stores to release FF(s
Thyroxine
from the thyroid gland, stimulates lipid tissue release of FF(s
& blood cholesterol le!els
,ietary Fat -e.uirements ,ietary Fat -e.uirements
Lo$ in fat, saturated fat, ! cholesterol
Fats Fats: not e/ceed 589 of the total #cal
Saturated fats: Saturated fats: less than 189 of the total #cal
,holesterols: ,holesterols: be limited to 588 mgDday
Linoleic acids )n-?*: Linoleic acids )n-?*:
1E-C8 years 1B gDday )4en* 13 gDday )Fomen* GC1 years
1> gDday 11 gDday
Linolenic acids )n-5*: Linolenic acids )n-5*:
12? gDday )4en* 121 gDday )Fomen*
+ealth pro&lems " lipid +ealth pro&lems " lipid
0mount of fat 0mount of fat
fat-diet GG e/cess #calories ) G immediate energy needs*
stored: e/cess adipose tissue ;F proportion of body
fat diabetes, hypertension, ! heart disease
(ype of fat (ype of fat
-saturated fats, cholesterols )animal source* atherosclerosis
heart attac#s ! stro#es
-4HF0!+HF0 reduce that ris#s
MFA " !FA### MFA " !FA###
4HF0- oleic acids - E: olie oli, canola oil, ! nuts
LDL-cholesterol, blood fats ! HDL-cholesterol
+HF0- linoleic acids ! arachidonic acids - ?:
corn ! safflo$er oil, LDL-cholesterol ! HDL-cholesterol
+HF0- linolenic acids, 6+0, ! DH0- 5:
herring, salmon fish, fish oil,
)1* ability blood platelets form a clot -- ris# un$anted clot coronary !
brain-
)3* HDL-cholesterol, no LDL-cholesterol
)5* blood pressure -- ris# heart attac# ! stro#e
/&esity /&esity
G 389 a desired $eight for height
oer$eight ! obesity
standard body fat content men
1>-3@9 of total body $eight $omen 1C-589
oer$eight ! health problems H(, D4,
! ,a breasts, prostate, colon
/&esity### /&esity###
,auses: 4ulti factors
6/treme +ractices:
Fad diets
Fasting
,lothing ! body $raps
Drugs: amphetamine-++0,
fenfluramine-phentermine
Surgery
0eight-Management !rogram 0eight-Management !rogram
must be personali:ed program
focuses: changed food ! e/ercise behaiors, ! stress
rela/ation habits
must build a healthy lifestyle ! hae support
,ietary !rinciples ,ietary !rinciples
12 Iealistic goals: 1-3 poundsD$ee#
32 Jcalories reduced according to need: C88 #calDday--1
poundsD$ee#
52 Nutritional adequacy
ratio , : + : L ' C8-CC: 38 : 3C-58
>2 ,ulturally desirable
C2 Jcalories read<ustment to maintain $eight
-eferences
-eferences
Garrow JS, James WPT, Ralph A. 2000. Human Nutrition &
Dietetics, 10th ed., Churchill Lii!"sto!e, Lo!do!.
Williams, Sue Rodwell. 2001. Basic Nutrition and Diet
Therapy, 11th ed., #os$%, St. Louis.
Williams SR, Schle!&er '(. 200). Essentials of Nutrition and
Diet Therapy, *th ed., #os$%, St. Louis.