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Compressor Curves 1

Compressor Curves

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Compressor Curves

© 1999 AEA Technology plc - All Rights Reserved.

ADV-2 2.pdf

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Compressor Curves

2 Compressor Curves

Workshop

In this module, compressor curves will be used to model the behaviour of simulated compressors. Using curves to model these unit operations allows HYSYS to accurately simulate actual plant equipment.

Learning Objectives

Once you have completed this module, you will be able to:

• Specify and attach head and efficiency curves to compressors

• Use single and multiple curves to model compressors

• Accurately model existing plant equipment with HYSYS

Prerequisites

This module will continue to build on the model developed in the previous workshop. Therefore, you need to have that module completed before beginning this one.

If you were unable to complete the previous module for any reason, let the instructor know. The solution for the previous module is supplied with this course material and you can use that solution as the starting point for this workshop.

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Compressor Curves 3

Compressor Curves

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Compressor Curves

Using compressor curves in your HYSYS simulation allows you to accurately model existing plant equipment. You can determine if an existing compressor is able to meet the specifications of your process.

Using compressor curves allows HYSYS to calculate heads and efficiencies that are dependant on the flow rate. If the flow rate through the compressor is known to be constant, a single flow rate and efficiency can be supplied. If, however, the flow rate is expected to change, using a compressor curve will allow HYSYS to calculate new heads and efficiencies based on the current flow rate.

This results in greater accuracy in the simulation, and allows HYSYS to more closely model actual plant equipment.

For the first part of this module, we are going to add a single curve to the Stage 1 Compressor from the previous simulation. Using a single curve allows us to model a fixed speed operation. The curve will relate outlet pressure and efficiency to gas throughput.

relate outlet pressure and efficiency to gas throughput. Can you foresee any problems that could be

Can you foresee any problems that could be caused by adding a curve to this simulation?

Try changing the pressure of the stream "Cooler 1 Out". What happens?

This consistency error is caused by the RCY-2 Out stream pressure not updating to the new pressure value that you tried to set in the Cooler 1 Out stream. The Mixer 2 is set to "Equalize All". This means that it expects all streams that connect to it to have the same pressure.

This problem can be eliminated by relocating the recycle block RCY-2.

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Compressor Curves

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Recycle Block Positions

Because the Recycle operation is a mathematical representation of a physical process, its location in a simulation is a particularly important one. The location of the tear stream can often determine success or failure to converge a recycle

Choose a Tear Location to Minimize the Number of Recycles

Reducing the number of locations where the iterative process is required will save on the total convergence time. Choosing the location of the Recycle will depend on the Flowsheet topology. Attempt to choose a point such that specifying the assumed stream will define as many streams downstream as possible. It generally occurs downstream of gathering points (mixers) and upstream of distribution points (tees, separators, and columns).

of distribution points (tees, separators, and columns). A very poor choice of a tear stream is

A very poor choice of a tear stream is a stream with an Adjust operation controlling one of its variables.

Choose a Tear Location to Minimize the Number of Recycle Variables

Variables include vapour fraction, temperature, pressure, flow, enthalpy and composition. Choose the tear stream so that as many variables as possible are fixed, thus effectively eliminating them as variables and increasing convergence stability. Good choices for these locations are at separator inlets, compressor after cooler outlets and trim heater outlets.

Choose a Stable Tear Location

The tear locations can be chosen such that fluctuations in the recycle stream have a minimal effect. For example, by placing the tear in a main stream, instead of the physical recycle, the effect of fluctuations will be reduced. The importance of this factor depends on the convergence algorithm. It is more significant when successive substitution is used.

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Compressor Curves 5

Compressor Curves

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Our Two Choices

We have two choices for the position of the Recycle Block in our simulation.

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Relocate RCY-2 to a position upstream of Letdown 2. I.e. between the HP Separator vessel and the let down valve.

OR

2.

Relocate RCY-2 to a position upstream of the IS Separator. I.e. between the Mixer 2 and the IS Separator vessel.

I.e. between the Mixer 2 and the IS Separator vessel. Which of these two options is

Which of these two options is most preferable?

Why?

Make the required changes on the flowsheet to reflect this change.

Once the recycle block is repositioned, we can add the compressor curve.

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Compressor Curves

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Adding the Single Compressor Curve

Here, we will add a single curve to the Stage 1 Compressor.

1. On the Parameters page of the Stage 1 Compressor, ensure that the Polytropic and Adiabatic efficiency boxes both read <empty>.

and Adiabatic efficiency boxes both read <empty> . These values must read <empty> because the

These values must read <empty> because the efficiencies will be calculated from the compressor curves, and defining the same value in two places will always result in a consistency error.

in two places will always result in a consistency error. Be sure to use the correct

Be sure to use the correct units for the curve.

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2. On the Curves page, select the Adiabatic radio button in the Efficiency group. Press the Add Curve button, and enter the data as shown below. Be sure to select the proper units before entering the data.

the Add Curve button, and enter the data as shown below. Be sure to select the
Compressor Curves 7

Compressor Curves

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3. Close the above view, and activate Curve-1 on the Curves page. Ensure that the Enable Curves box on the Curves page is checked.

4. The pressure of the Stage 1 Out stream can be seen on the Work Sheet page, or you can choose to Show Table when object inspecting the outlet stream on the PFD. The Compressor’s efficiencies can be found on the Results page.

 

What is the compressor’s outlet pressure?

  What is the Adiabatic Efficiency?
 

What is the Adiabatic Efficiency?

And the Polytropic Efficiency?

 

Optional Exercise

 

It is desired to have an outlet pressure of 7500 kPa (1090 psia).

Use an Adjust operation with the following information:

In This Cell

Enter

Adjusted Variable

Feed - Molar Flow

Target Variable

Cooler 1 Out - Pressure

Specified Target Value

7500 kPa (1090 psia)

Step Size

10 kgmole/h (20 lbmole/hr)

Iterations

50

  What is the calculated Molar Flow once the Adjust has completed its calculations?
 

What is the calculated Molar Flow once the Adjust has completed its calculations?

Can you think of an easier way of doing this?

 

How?

Save your case!

Save your case!

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Compressor Curves

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Multiple Curves

Typically, industrial compressors are able to run at multiple speeds depending on the current demand. HYSYS allows users to enter multiple compressor curves that each represent a specified speed. Once the curves are entered, any compressor speed can be specified and the head and efficiency are calculated automatically.

In this exercise, the Stage 2 Compressor will be fitted with multiple curves to result in a more accurate simulation.

To make things easier for you, the curve data has been supplied in the form of an Excel spreadsheet. Open the Curve-Data.xls file located on the course disk at this time. The data contained in this spreadsheet will look like this:

The data contained in this spreadsheet will look like this: Simply, use the Copy ( CTRL-C

Simply, use the Copy (CTRL-C) and Paste (CTRL-V) commands to bring the data from Excel into HYSYS. Again, make sure that you select the right units on the curve data input screen before entering the data. Note that there is no way of entering all four curves simultaneously.

Once all of the curves are entered, we can see the data in a graphical format by pressing the Plot Curves button.

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Compressor Curves

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5. Delete the specified pressure from the Cooler 2 Out stream. As mentioned before, the outlet pressure from the compressor will be calculated by the compressor speed and the flowrate of gas.

6. Ensure that all of the curves are activated, and the Enable Curves box is checked. These curves are polytropic curves, therefore the Polytropic radio button must be checked in the Efficiency group on the Curves page.

7. On the Curves page, enter a speed of 11 000 per min.

 

What pressure is calculated of the "Cooler 2 Out" stream?

Is the specified compressor speed great enough to reach the desired outlet pressure (100 bar)

Is the specified compressor speed great enough to reach the desired outlet pressure (100 bar) at the current flowrate?

Exercise

1. Delete the specified compressor speed of 11 000 per minute.

2. Re-enter the pressure specification on the Cooler 2 Out stream (100 bar).

3. HYSYS will automatically calculate the compressor speed needed to meet the desired conditions.

 

What is the compressor speed needed to achieve the specified outlet pressure?

What are the Adiabatic and Polytropic efficiencies of the compressor under these conditions?

What are the Adiabatic and Polytropic efficiencies of the compressor under these conditions?

Save your case!

Save your case!

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Compressor Curves

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