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Shear behavior of rock under different normal stiffness

A.K. Shrivastava

Department of Civil Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India

K.S. Rao & Ganesh W. Rathod

Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India

ABSTRACT: The shear behavior of rock joints greatly influence by the presence of asperity and the normal stiffness of the

surrounding rock mass. Correct evaluation of the shear strength of rock joints plays an important role in the design of deep

underground openings, stability analysis of rock slopes, socketed piles in rock and anchored rock slopes. To study influence

of normal stiffness of the surrounding rock mass on the shear behavior of non planar rock joints, tests were performed on

an automated servo controlled large scale direct shear testing machine, which has been designed and developed at IIT Delhi

(Rao et al. 2009a). Tests can be conducted on equipment to study the effect of joint roughness, scale effects, stiffness of the

surrounding rock, shear rate, condition of the joint i.e. unfilled joint/in filled joint, infill type and infill thickness affecting

the shear behaviour of rock joint. Influence of some of these parameters on shear strength of jointed rock has been studied

by different researchers such as Patton (1966), Ladanyi & Archambault (1970), Barton (1973) and Indrartna & Haque (1998,

1999). Extensive tests were conducted on non planar rock joints of asperity angle of 15

15

of 5 mm thickness at different

normal stiffness and presented the test results.

Subject: Rock material and rock mass property testing (laboratory and in situ)

Keywords: lab testing, physical modeling, rock joints, rock mass

1 INTRODUCTION

Rocks are heterogeneous and quite often discontinuous due to

presence of joints. The presence of joints, fractures and other

planes of weakness reduce the shear strength.

Shear strength of rock joints depends on many factors

such as (a) stiffness of the surrounding rock mass (b) shear

rate (c) joint roughness (d) size of joint i.e. scale effect and

(e) joint condition i.e. unfilled joint/in filled joint. The correct

evaluation of shear strength of rock joints plays an important

role in the design of excavations in rocks, stability analysis of

rock slopes and design of rock socketed piles. In the past var-

ious attempts have been made to determine the shear strength

of rock joint simulating most of the influencing parameters in

the laboratory. However, very fewresearchers have considered

the influence of boundary conditions. The shear behavior of

the rock joints can be investigated under two different bound-

ary conditions i.e. constant normal load (CNL) i.e. K=0 and

constant normal stiffness (CNS) i.e. K>0.

The shear behaviour of planar rockjoints canbe investigated

inthe laboratorybyusinga conventional direct shear apparatus

where the normal load is kept constant (K=0) during the

shearing process. This particular mode of shearing is suitable

for situations where the surrounding rock freely allows the

joint to shear without restricting the dilation, thereby keeping

normal load constant during shearing process. Shear testing

under a CNL boundary condition is only beneficial for cases

such as non-reinforced rock slopes.

However, for non planar discontinuities, shearing results

in dilation as one asperity overrides another, and if the sur-

rounding rock mass is unable to deform sufficiently, then an

inevitable increase in the normal stress occurs during shearing.

Therefore, shearing of rough joints under such circumstances

no longer takes place under CNL, but rather under variable

normal load where stiffness of the surrounding rock mass

plays an important role in the shear behaviour. This particular

mode of shearing is called as shearing under CNS bound-

ary conditions i.e. K>0. For underground openings or rock

anchor-reinforced slopes, shear tests under K=0 conditions

are not appropriate. A more representative behaviour of joints

would be achieved if the shear tests are carried out under

boundary conditions of K>0.

The models available in the literature fail to appropriately

determine shear behavior of rock either due to limitations of

boundary condition or they are very simple like Patton (1966),

or depend on empiricism like JRC models given by Barton

(1973), or require estimation of complex input parameter like

Ladanyi and Archambault (1970). However, Indrartna et al.,

(1998, 1999&2003) andJianget al., (2004) attemptedtostudy

shear behavior of non planar joints under different normal

stiffness conditions i.e. CNL or CNS. But the special equip-

ments developed by the researcher has some limitation either

due to difficulty in putting the springs of required stiffness

between the load cell and the sample or to change the set of

the springs according to the normal stiffness of the surround-

ing rock like Indrartna et al., (1998, 1999 & 2003), Johnston

et al. (1987). The studies under K>0 conditions is available

mostly on small scale samples where asperities are triangu-

lar with equal angles for both the sides and roughness having

some JRC value.

In the present study, a detailed testing is carried out on

modeled rock joints of the asperity 15

15

on the spe-

cially designed direct shear testing machine by Rao et al.,

(2009a). This is capable of conducting tests on large prismatic

specimens through friction free rigid platens under bound-

ary conditions having different normal stiffness. Tests were

831

Figure 1. (a) Photograph of large scale direct shear apparatus.

(b) Schematic diagram of large scale direct shear apparatus.

conducted on normal stiffness 0, 8, 16 and 32 kN per mm.

The boundary normal stiffness, shearing rate and stress/strain

controlled mode can be selected and feed before the test of

the specimen in the computer according to the simulated field

condition.

2 SHEAR BEHAVIOUR UNDER DIFFERENT NORMAL

STIFFNESS

An automated servo controlled large scale direct shear test-

ing machine on rock consists of three main units such as

loading unit, hydraulic power pack with servo valve and data

acquisition and controlling unit as shown in Figures 1a, b.

In this apparatus the normal and shear loads are applied

Figure 2. Working of electro hydraulic servo valve with controller.

through an electro hydraulic servo actuator unit of maximum

capacity 500 kN and 1000 kN respectively with the load accu-

racy 0.5%of full load capacity, which works on closed loop

principle.

The displacements are measured by LVDTs mounted on

the specimen. Four LVDTs are used to measure the nor-

mal displacement and provide a check on specimen rotation

about an axis parallel to the shear zone and perpendicular to

the shearing direction. Degree of joint closure and dilation

angle can also be obtained from these measurements. Two

LVDTs are used to measure the shear displacement. These

displacement devices have adequate ranges of travel to accom-

modate the displacements, 20 mm. Sensitivities of these

devices are 0.001 mmfor both normal displacement and shear

displacement.

The data acquisition systemhas 16 channels, 2 channels for

load cell, 6 channels for LVDTs and remaining 8 channels are

free for additional input. The data acquisition system converts

the mechanical and electrical signals in to the digital data. The

output of signal is connected to CPU via cord. The load and

deformation values are stored at desired intervals as note pad

data. Suitable software is developed to process and plot the

test data.

The CNS conditions are reproduced by an electro hydraulic

servo-valve which applies the programmed force to the test

specimen (Fig. 2). The programmed force keeps changing

depending upon the stiffness of the surrounding rock joint

entered as an input data in the specially designed software

and the dilation and horizontal displacement data collected

through sixteen channel data acquisition system.

The increased load during the progress of testing is calcu-

lated by the following equation:

where,

P

n(t+t)

=Normal stress at any time interval t+t

P

n(t)

=Normal stress at any time interval t

K

n

=Stiffness of the surrounding rock mass

Y=Dilation resisted by the surrounding rock mass

832

Figure 3. Photograph of sample with asperity angle 15

15

.

At any time t +t the increased load is calculated from

equation 1, updated in the software and applied to the sample.

The normal stiffness under which shearing takes place can

easily be obtained by changing the normal stiffness in the

input data of direct shear software.

3 LABORATORYTESTING OF ROCK JOINT

It is difficult to conduct direct shear test on natural rock mass

because of difficulty in repeatability of the sample. To over-

come this, physical model of rock sample with different joint

asperities were prepared in plaster of Paris. Plaster of Paris is

selected because of its universal availability, ability to mould

into any shape when mix with water and easy to produce the

desired asperity. The basic properties of the model material at

60% of the moisture by weight and 14 days air curing is deter-

mined by performing the test on 38 mm diameter and 76 mm

height sample. The average uniaxial compressive strength and

tangent modulus, E

t50

of the air cured samples are 11.75 MPa

and 2281 MPa respectively. Based on Deere-Miller (1966)

classification the rock model is classified as EL category.

Suitable steel plates of angles 15

15

ricated to produce asperity in the sample. The plaster of Paris

with60%of the moisture is mixedinthe mixingtankfor 2min-

utes and then the material is poured in the casting mould which

is placedonthe vibratingtable. Vibrations are giventothe sam-

ple for a period of 1 minute and then sample is removed from

the mould after 45 minutes and kept for air curing for 14 days

before testing. Figure 3 shows the air cured sample with 15

15

299 mm299 mm and the thickness of sample is 125 mm.

To study the effect of normal stiffness on the shear behav-

ior of the rock joints the extensive tests were planned and

conducted under different boundary conditions for 15

15

i

) of 0.1, 0.51, 1.02 and

2.04 MPa is applied for each set of test. The normal stiffness

of the surrounding rock joints is set to be 0, 8, 16 and 32 kN

per mm for each set of the test and rate of shearing is main-

tained as 0.5 mm per min during the test, if the shearing rate

is more than this the effect of the increase in the shearing rate

is to increase the peak shear stress for the same initial nor-

mal stress (Rao et al. 2009b). The test results are described as

below:

3.1 Effect of normal stiffness on shear behavior of the Joint

Increase in the initial normal stress causes increase in the

peak shear stress for 15

15

0

asperity joint under all normal

Figure 4. Shear behavior of 15

15

stiffness (a) K=0 (b) K=8 kN per mm.

Figure 5. Strength envelope for K=0, 8, 16 and 32 kN per mm.

stiffness duringtesting. Figure 4(a) and(b) shows the variation

of shear stress with shear displacement when K=0 and 8 kN

per mm respectively. Increase in the normal stiffness causes

increase in the normal stress (eq1) on the shearing plane for

the given initial normal stress, which results into increase in

peak shear stress.

To find probable strength envelope stress path is plotted

between peak shear stress and initial normal stress for different

normal stiffness conditions (Fig. 5). The strength envelope is

curvilinear for all the normal stiffness and curvature is same

upto low normal stress i.e normal stress less than 0.10 times

the uniaxial compressive strength of the sample (

c

) and after

that the curvature of the strength envelope is changed, except

at K=0. For K=0 case free dilation of sample is allowed and

hence there is no increase in the normal stress on the shearing

plane and curvature of the strength envelope is same through

out the range of testing in this study.

833

Figure 6. Variation of normal stress for k =0 and 32 kN per mm.

Figure 7. Failure mechanism for K=16 kN per mm.

Increase in the normal stiffness causes increase in the nor-

mal stress on the shearing plane. Which may results into

crushing of the asperity and asperity start behaving like planar

joint. A drop in the peak shear stress is observed between nor-

mal stress of 0.05

c

to 0.1

c

and at about 0.2

c

the peak shear

stress is almost same for all the normal stiffness. The sheared

sample at initial normal stress about 0.2

c

shows complete

shearing of the asperity. On fewoccasion it is also observed the

shearing peneterates beyond the asperity height i.e. 5 mm. The

sheared material of the upper half of the sample is deposited

on the lower half.

The effect of the normal stiffness on the normal stress dur-

ing the shearing process is shown in the Figure 6. It has been

observed that the variation of the normal stress exactly fol-

lows the profile of the asperity for all the normal stiffness

conditions except K=0. The normal stress is maximum at a

shear displacemnet of about 18.67 mm where the asperity is

having the peak after and before that the normal stress was less

and it was minimum at shaer dispalcemnt of 0 and 37.34 mm.

Which is follwing the profile of traingular asperity, for K=0

conditions the normal stress is constant during the shearing

process. Similar observations are made by Shrivastava & Rao

(2010) while testing 30

30

asperity.

Figure 7 shows the failure mechanism under different nor-

mal stiffness, for which change in shear stress with normal

stress is plotted. The test results indicate that at low initial

normal stress the peak shear stress is achieved at some nor-

mal stress and then the increase in the normal stress does not

cause much change in the shear stress. But with increasing ini-

tial normal stress the shear stress of the joint decreases rapidly

after attaining the peak shear stress with the increase in nor-

mal stress. But for all the cases shear strength of the joint

increases with increase in the normal stress. It means at low

initial normal stress, stress paths well prorogates along the

strength envelope but with increase in initial normal stress,

stress path do not propagate along the strength envelop, it just

Figure 8. Failure mechanism for K=0 kN per mm.

reaches a peak and then shear stress drops. The above phenom-

ena is observed for all the normal stiffness conditions except

K=0, where as for K=0, the shear stress is increasing under

constant normal stress and reaches the peak value. After that

shear stress remain constant as shown in Figure 8.

4 CONCLUSIONS

Several tests are performed on the modeled rock sample with

asperity 15

15

0

at K=0, 8, 16 and 32 kN per mm to study

the influence of normal stiffness on the shear behavior. The

conclusions made fromthe test results are summarized below:

i. Increase in the normal stiffness increases the normal

stresses on the shearing plane during the shearing pro-

cess and hence increase in the peak shear stress for the

same initial normal stress.

ii. Curvilinear strength variation is observed for all the nor-

mal stiffness conditions with a break in the curvature

between Pi =0.05

c

to 0.1

c

. The change in the slope

of the strength envelop indicates that the complete shear-

ing of the asperity at that normal stress and sliding of

samples takes place after that normal stress.

iii. At K=0boundaryconditionnormal stress is constant dur-

ing the shearing process where as it is varying for K=8,

16 and 32 kN per mm boundary conditions and the vari-

ation of normal stress exactly follows the shape of the

asperity, which is in present case a isosceles triangle with

angle 15

REFERENCES

Barton, N. 1973. Review of a new shear strength criterion for rock

joints. In Engineering Geology, 7, 287332.

Deere, D.U. and Miller, R.P. 1966. Engineering classification and

index properties of rock. Technical Report No.AFNL-TR-65-116,

Air Force Weapons Laboratory, New Mexico.

Indraratna, B. and Welideniya, H.S. 2003. Shear behaviour of

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test conditions. Proc. 10th Congr., Int. Soc. Rock Mech.- Technol-

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Indraratna, B., Haque, A. and Aziz, N. 1998. Laboratory modelling

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Indraratna, B., Haque, A. and Aziz, N. 1999. Shear behaviour of

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Jiang,Y., Xiao, J., Tanabashi,Y. and Mizokami, T. 2004. Development

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