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2013

PSP52410 | YAN CHEN


HARVEST
EDUCATION
TECHNICAL
COLLEGE
PREPARING TO BE AN
INDEPENDENT
INTERPRETER
@Harvest Education Technical College 2012
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COPYRIGHT POLICY Diploma of Interpreting
1
ST
Asian Pacific Edition
Yan Chen
Publishing Manager:HaoyiGu
Editor: Yan Chen

Any URLs contained in this publication were checked for currency
during the production process. Note, however, that the publisher
cannot vouch for the ongoing currency of URLs.
First Asia-Pacific edition published in 2012
@2012 Harvest Education Technical College

Copyright Notice
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Contents

1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 5
2 The Different Types of Interpreting ................................................................................... 5
2.1 Conference Interpreting ............................................................................................... 5
2.2 Simultaneous Interpreting ........................................................................................... 5
2.3 Consecutive Interpreting ............................................................................................. 6
2.4 Whispered Interpreting ................................................................................................ 7
2.5 Sight Translation ......................................................................................................... 7
2.6 Telephone Interpreting ................................................................................................ 7
3 Basic Function of Interpreting ........................................................................................... 8
3.1 Roles of the Interpreter ................................................................................................ 8
3.2 Settings ........................................................................................................................ 9
3.3 Client Requirement Analysis .................................................................................... 10
3.4 Interpreter Request Form .......................................................................................... 19
3.5 On-Site Interpreting ................................................................................................... 32
4 Common Errors in Interpreting ........................................................................................ 34
4.1 Common Errors ......................................................................................................... 34
4.2 Speaking Chinglish ................................................................................................... 38
4.3 Roles to Avoid While Interpreting ............................................................................ 45
4.4 Obstacles to Accurate Interpreting ............................................................................ 46
5 Slangs and Idioms ............................................................................................................ 48
5.1 Australian Slangs vs. Idioms ..................................................................................... 49
5.2 Australian Idioms ...................................................................................................... 50
5.3 Chinese Idioms .......................................................................................................... 51
5.4 Chinese Proverbs () ........................................................................................... 53
6 Pre-sessions and Positioning of Interpreters .................................................................... 54
6.1 Pre-sessions ............................................................................................................... 54
6.2 Proper Positioning for Interpreter ............................................................................. 56
6.3 Responding to Difficult Situations ............................................................................ 57
7 Other Necessary Skills for Interpreters ............................................................................ 58

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7.1 Note taking Skills ...................................................................................................... 58
7.2 Memory Skills ........................................................................................................... 59
7.3 Stress Associated with Interpreting ........................................................................... 62
8 Vocabulary Business General ........................................................................................ 64
9 Vocabulary - Insurance .................................................................................................... 64
10 Vocabulary - Taxation ..................................................................................................... 64
11 Vocabulary - Education ................................................................................................... 65
12 Vocabulary Medical - Pregnancy ................................................................................... 66
13 Vocabulary Medical Child birth ................................................................................. 66
14 Vocabulary Medical Children Diseases ...................................................................... 66
15 Vocabulary Medical Family Planning ........................................................................ 66
16 Vocabulary Medical Diet ............................................................................................ 67
17 Vocabulary Medical Drugs ......................................................................................... 67
18 Vocabulary Medical General ...................................................................................... 67
19 Vocabulary Medical Vaccinations .............................................................................. 67
20 Vocabulary Medical Specialists .................................................................................. 68
21 Vocabulary Immigration ................................................................................................ 68
22 Vocabulary Social Welfare ............................................................................................ 69
23 Vocabulary Tourism ...................................................................................................... 69
24 Vocabulary Courtroom .................................................................................................. 70
25 Dialogues Business Simple Conversation - Springco ................................................ 71
26 Simple Dialogues Business Customer Service Conversations .................................. 72
27 Simple Dialogues Business Talking About Your Job ................................................ 73
28 Simple Dialogues Business Brand Image .................................................................. 74
29 Simple Dialogues Business Telephone Banking ....................................................... 75
30 Dialogues Business Mortgage Application ................................................................ 76
31 Dialogues Business Recruitment Agency .................................................................. 79
32 Dialogues Business Customer Enquiry ...................................................................... 83
33 Dialogues Business Making a Complaint .................................................................. 84
34 Dialogues Business How to Invest Money ................................................................ 86
35 Simple Dialogues Education Questions to ask at the interview ................................ 88
36 Simple Dialogues Education Parent-Teacher Meeting .............................................. 89
37 Dialogues Education Parent-Teacher Interview ........................................................ 91
38 Dialogues Education An Enrolment .......................................................................... 93

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39 Dialogues Health - Diabetes ......................................................................................... 95
40 Dialogues Health - Pregnancy ...................................................................................... 98
41 Dialogues Social Welfare Centrelink: An Advance Payment Inquiry ..................... 100
42 Dialogues Tourism Organising a Group Tour ......................................................... 102
43 Dialogues Tourism A Hotel Phone Booking ........................................................... 104
44 Difficult and Complex Dialogues Legal Interpreters responsibilities in Courtroom
interpreting ............................................................................................................................. 106
45 Difficult and Complex Dialogues Legal Interpreters Oath .................................... 106
46 Difficult and Complex Dialogues Legal Interpreters Affirmation ......................... 106
47 Difficult and Complex Dialogues Legal Witnesss Oath and Affirmation .............. 107
48 Code of Ethics ................................................................................................................ 107
INDEX ................................................................................................................................... 108
Topic Page Numbers .......................................................................................................... 108
INDEX .................................................................................................................................... 108
49 APPENDIX CODES OF ETHICS ............................................................................. 111










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Introduction
1 Introduction

Interpreters help to ensure that the fullness of the message is delivered to every man in his
own tongue and his own language. Interpretation is perhaps one of the most challenging and
rewarding tasks you will be asked to perform.
2 The Different Types of Interpreting

Interpreting takes place when one person translates orally what he or she hears into another
language. Many people are confused about the difference between translating and interpreting.
The difference is quite simple: a translation is in written form whereas interpreting is spoken.
The following section describes the types of interpreting. Because the interpreter takes the
place of the original speaker, interpreters use the first person singular, I when interpreting.
2.1 Conference Interpreting
The term Conference Interpreting refers to the use of consecutive or simultaneous
interpreting at a conference or a meeting. Nowadays, simultaneous interpreting is far more
common and is used almost exclusively in international organisations. Conference
interpreting is the most prestigious form of interpreting and the most financially rewarding.
2.2 Simultaneous Interpreting
In simultaneous interpreting, the listener hears the interpretation at the same time as the
speech is made. The interpreter sits in a booth wearing headphones with a microphone. There
is a booth for each language and two or sometimes three interpreters in each booth. A chef
quipe liaises between the interpreters and the conference organisers and delegates. The
interpreter hears the speech through the headphones and simultaneously interprets. In some
cases, interpretation is recorded but the interpreters permission is required for this. The
booth contains a button for volume control, a mute button and a relay button. If the interpreter
needs to cough, he or she presses the mute button so that the audience will not hear.
Meanwhile the listeners are equipped with headphones that they can switch to the language
they require. The relay button is switched on to listen to an interpretation from another booth.
For example, in the case of a conference held in Australia with most speeches in English, if a
speaker speaks in another language such as German, the interpreters in the French and
Spanish booths will listen to the English version given by the interpreter in the German booth.

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So, while the German speaker gives the talk in German, the interpreter interprets it into
English and the other interpreters interpret that into French and Spanish. This all happens
simultaneously but obviously the quality of the French and Spanish interpretations will be
totally dependent on the interpretation from German to English. For this reason, over reliance
on relay is not recommended. Because of the high level of concentration required for
simultaneous interpreting, interpreters do not usually interpret for more than thirty minutes at
a time. There are usually at least two people in any language booth. When the interpreter is
not actually interpreting, he or she stays in the booth preparing the next speech and remains
available to help his or her colleague if necessary.
2.3 Consecutive Interpreting
In consecutive interpreting the interpreter listens to a speech while taking notes. When the
speaker has finished, the interpreter stands up and delivers the speech in his or her native
language. The speech could be as long as fifteen minutes nowadays, although in the past
thirty minutes was not unusual. The interpretation is not a summary; it is a complete rendition
of the original speech in another language. Obviously this method is time consuming as the
time element is almost doubled. Some practitioners felt that this extra time was useful
because it gave people time to think. But if interpretation has to be provided into more than
one language the whole process becomes extremely lengthy. However, the widespread use of
simultaneous interpreting has meant that nowadays consecutive interpreting is confined to
situations where simultaneous equipment is not available. Consecutive interpreting could be
useful for a question-and-answer session, a press conference or an after-dinner speech.
Despite the move away from consecutive interpreting, it is still taught in all interpreting
courses and is part of the selection procedure for entry into most interpreting posts, partly
because trainers believe it is an essential part of interpreter training. In consecutive
interpreting, a clear division of the skills involved in interpreting can be seen. Apart from
knowledge of the language, memory, concentration and understanding are important factors.
The importance of delivery is clear when the interpreter has to stand up in front of the
audience and give the speech. Practice at public speaking is useful training. Note-taking is
central to consecutive interpreting. Practicing interpreters develop their own techniques for
note-taking. Some use a great number of symbols while others hardly use any. One persons
notes would probably be totally unintelligible to any other reader. Some interpreters even
manage to write down everything they hear although this is not generally recommended
because it is so important to be able to analyse the speech and its theme or argument. Most
interpreters take notes in the target language rather than the source language as this approach

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saves time and effort when the time comes to deliver the interpretation. This approach also
helps the interpreter to make a conscious effort to move away from the structures and
expressions of the source language. One advantage of consecutive interpreting is the fact that
there are no booths or equipment between the speaker and the interpreter. If the interpreter is
unsure of a point he or she can check with the speaker as to what exactly was meant.
2.4 Whispered Interpreting
Whispered interpreting is used when one or two people do not understand the source
language. Whispering is not a very accurate description because too much whispering is not
very good for the vocal cords. Most interpreters in this situation speak in a low voice rather
than whisper. The interpreter listens to the speaker and simultaneously renders the
interpretation to the listener or listeners. No equipment is required. This technique could be
used at a school meeting for example where one parent does not understand the language
being used. Acoustics can be a problem.
2.5 Sight Translation
Interpreters are often asked to read and translate documents aloud. This could happen in
many different situations. For example, an interpreter working at a business meeting could be
asked to translate some material. An interpreter in a court setting could be asked to translate a
legal document. Interpreters may need time to peruse the document in detail and if this is the
case they should request for that time.
2.6 Telephone Interpreting
Telephone Interpreting is bilateral interpreting over the phone. It is widely used in a business
context, for medical examinations and even in some courts in America. If a factory manager
in the United States needs a component that is manufactured in Japan, he contacts a telephone
interpreting service and asks for an English-Japanese interpreter. The interpreter interprets
everything that is said. Freelance telephone interpreters are paid a retainer to be available at
the end of a phone line. Depending on their conditions of employment, they may be paid by
the minute or every five minutes for actual interpreting time. The advantage of telephone
interpreting is that it is available from anywhere, around the clock in a large number of
languages. It is obviously ideal for emergency situations and for rst contacts. Advances in
voice recognition processes mean that machine interpreting may become available over the
phone in the future.

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3 Basic Function of Interpreting

The interpreters basic purpose is to serve as a bridge between two people who do not speak
the same language. The two basic rules of thumb concerning interpreting are as follows:

Facilitate communication. The main function of a mental health interpreter is to
facilitate understanding in communication between people who are speaking different
languages. The interpreter serves as a bridge between the speakers to make
communication possible. In acting as this connector, the interpreter allows health care
access to a person who may not have access to it otherwise.

Represent information accurately. The interpreter must convey information
accurately. This is particularly important in a mental health setting because
miscommunication can lead to misdiagnoses.
3.1 Roles of the Interpreter

There is a multitude of situations one might be asked to interpret in, and professional
interpreters soon learn that there are three basic roles that they will fall into as a function of
their jobs.
Conduit
As a conduit, interpreters translate exactly what is said in one language into another.
This is the role most frequently taken by interpreters. To this end, words spoken
should never be omitted, edited, or polished; instead, interpreters should simply relay
the message presented by the client. If a client talks for a very long time or gives
information that does not seem relevant, it is not the responsibility of the interpreter to
cut the client off or redirect the conversation. Acting as a conduit is the default
mode of an interpreter.
Clarifier
As a clarifier, interpreters ensure understanding between parties. Interpreters should
only switch to this role if a misunderstanding is detected. If one of the parties
involved in the session does not understand a message once interpreted, interpreters

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can add word pictures to clarify unfamiliar concepts. Word pictures will be
explained in later chapters.
Advocate
As professionals in helping roles, interpreters often see themselves as a link in the
chain that leads to quality client care in mental health and other settings. When
interpreters take actions to ensure that clients receive what they need or have the
rights to receive, they are serving as client advocates. For example, if an interpreter
working with a woman having trouble figuring out insurance issues in the course of a
mental health appointment might want to step in and seek assistance on her behalf.
Interpreters should be extremely careful about when and how much to take on in the
advocate role. Knowledge of client rights and the healthcare system are tools
essential for useful advocacy. Client advocacy is discussed at greater length in
another chapter.

Understanding each of the roles an interpreter might take on is just the start. In order to be a
good interpreter, one must be able to switch from role to role with ease. Many sessions
require interpreters to serve solely as conduits. Alternately, there are times when an
interpreter might jump from role to role within a single session. For example, an interpreter
might start a session as a conduit, and then move into the clarifier role to explain a medical
condition, only to slip into the advocate role in order to help a client secure the care they are
eligible for. Obviously, interpreting is more than just translating words from one language
into another. Good interpreters pay attention to the whole conversation and promote
understanding that contributes to the quality of client care.

3.2 Settings
You may be asked to interpret in a variety of settings, each of which will provide a different
set of challenges. Most commonly you will be asked to interpret for lawsuits, medical
examinations and social security services meetings. However, you may be asked to interpret
for other meetings such as interviews, casual conversations, and formal contract discussions
where both the speaker and the listener need help understanding one another.

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3.3 Client Requirement Analysis
It is very important to be clear about agreeing what you are going to deliver. Every new
activity, every new service, every new project in the workplace is created in response to a
client/business need. Yet we often find ourselves in situations where, despite spending
tremendous time and resources, there is a mismatch between what has been delivered and
what is actually needed.
Has a client ever complained that what you delivered isn't what she ordered? Has someone
changed his mind altogether about the deliverable, when you were halfway through a project?
Have you had conflicting requirements from multiple clients? And have you ever received
new requirements just after you thought you had finished preparing for a new project request?
A focused and detailed client requirements analysis can help you avoid problems like these.
This is the process of discovering, analysing, defining, and documenting the requirements
that are related to a specific business objective. And it is the process by which you clearly and
precisely define the scope of the project (what you will do for the client and make it specific),
so that you can assess the timescales and resources needed to complete it.
Remember: to get what you want, you need to accurately define it and a good client
requirements analysis helps you achieve this objective. It leads you to better understand the
client needs, and helps you break them down into detailed, specific requirements that
everyone agrees on. What's more, it is usually much quicker and cheaper to fix a problem or
misunderstanding at the analysis stage than it is when the "finished product" is delivered.
Below is a five-step guide to conducting your own business requirements analysis.
Step 1: Identify Key Stakeholders
Identify the key people who will be affected by the project. Start by clarifying exactly who
the paying client is. This may be an internal or external client. Either way, it is essential that
you know who has the final say on what will be included in the project's scope, and what will
not be.
Then, identify who will use the service. These are your end-users. Your project is intended to
meet their needs, so you must consider their inputs.
Step 2: Capture Stakeholder Requirements

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Ask each of these key stakeholders, or groups of stakeholders, for their requirements from the
new service. What do they want and expect from this project? You can use several methods
to understand and capture these requirements. Here, we give you four techniques:
Technique 1: Using stakeholder interviews
Talk with each stakeholder or end-user individually. This allows you to understand each
person's specific views and needs.
Technique 2: Using joint interviews or focus groups
Conduct group workshops. This helps you understand how information flows between
different divisions or departments, and ensure that handovers will be managed smoothly.
Technique 3: Using "use cases"
This scenario-based technique lets you walk through the whole system or process, step by
step, as a user. It helps you understand how the system or service would work. This is a very
good technique for gathering functional requirements, but you may need multiple "use cases"
to understand the functionality of the whole system.
Technique 4: Building Prototypes
Build a mock-up or model of the service to give users an idea of what the final outcome will
look like. Using this, users can address feasibility issues, and they can help identify any
inconsistencies and problems.

Step 3: Categorise Requirements
To make analysis easier, consider grouping the requirements into these four categories:
Functional Requirements These define how a service should function from the end-user's
perspective. They describe the features and functions with which the end-user will interact
directly.
Operational Requirements These define operations that must be carried out in the
background to keep the product or process functioning over a period of time.
Technical Requirements These define the technical issues that must be considered to
successfully implement the process or create the product.

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Transitional Requirements These are the steps needed to implement the new product or
process smoothly.

Step 4: Interpret and Record Requirements
Once you have gathered and categorised all of the requirements, determine which
requirements are achievable, and how the system or product can deliver them.
To interpret the requirements, do the following:
Define requirements precisely Ensure that the requirements reflect the following:
Not ambiguous or vague.
Clearly worded.
Sufficiently detailed so that everything is known. (Project over-runs and problems
usually come from unknowns that were not identified, or sufficiently well-analysed.)
Related to the business needs.
Listed in sufficient detail to create a working system or product design.
Prioritise requirements Although many requirements are important, some are more
important than others, and budgets are usually limited. Therefore, identify which
requirements are the most critical, and which are "nice-to-haves".
Analyse the impact of change carry out an Impact Analysis to make sure that you
understand fully the consequences your project will have for existing processes, products and
people.
Resolve conflicting issues Sit down with the key stakeholders and resolve any conflicting
requirements issues. You may find Scenario Analysis helpful in doing this, as it will allow all
those involved to explore how the proposed project would work in different possible
"futures".
Negotiate costs with clients
1
- Integrative Negotiations - Everybody Wins Something
(usually)
The word integrative means to join several parts into a whole. Conceptually, this implies
some cooperation, or a joining of forces to achieve something together. Usually, it involves a

1
http://www.allpaydayloans.net/types-of-negotiation-integrative-negotiation-151.html

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higher degree of trust and a forming of a relationship. Both parties want to walk away feeling
they have achieved something which has value by getting what each wants. Ideally, it is a
twofold process.
In the real world of business, the results often tilt in favour of one party over the other
because it is unlikely that both parties will come to the table at even strength, when they
begin the talks.
Nonetheless, there are many advantages to be gained by both parties, when they take a
cooperative approach to mutual problem solving. The process generally involves some form
or combination of making value for value concessions, in conjunction with creative problem
solving. Generally, this form of negotiation is looking down the road, to them forming a long
term relationship to create mutual gain. It is often described as the win-win scenario.

Integrative Negotiation Basics
Multiple Issues - Integrative negotiations usually entails a multitude of issues to be
negotiated, unlike distributive negotiations which generally revolve around the price, or a
single issue. In integrative negotiations, each side wants to get something of value while
trading something which has a lesser value.
Sharing - To fully understand each other's situation, both parties must realistically share as
much information as they can to understand the other's interests. You cannot solve a problem
without knowing the parameters. Cooperation is essential.
Problem Solving - Find solutions to each other's problems. If you can offer something of
lesser value which gives your counterpart something which they need, and this result in you
realising your objective, then you have integrated your problems into a positive solution.
Bridge Building - More and more businesses are engaging in long term relationships.
Relationships offer greater security.
Analyse feasibility Determine how reliable and easy-to-use the new product or system will
be. A detailed analysis can help identify any major problems.
Once everything is analysed, present your key results and a detailed report of the business
needs. This should be a written document.

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Circulate this document among the key stakeholders, end-users, and development teams, with
a realistic deadline for feedback. This can help resolve any remaining stakeholder conflicts,
and can form part of a "contract" or agreement between you and the stakeholders.
Step 5: Sign Off
Finally, make sure you get the signed agreement of key stakeholders, or representatives of
key stakeholder groups, saying that the requirements as presented precisely reflect their needs.
This formal commitment will play an important part in ensuring that the written evidence has
been gathered. This written signed evidence will protect both the client and the person who
delivers the service.
Please refer to the sample Interpreter Request Form.

Preparation for an Interpretation Assignment
If you are asked to interpret, here are some things you can do to prepare for your project or
assignment.

STEP 1: Analyse client request.
The first question you would want to ask in this step is: What are my clients
requests and expectations?
o Time, date, location, topic, method of interpreting, dress code, number of
attendees, any other special requests?
Then you would also want to ask: Can I meet these expectations?
o Am I available on the day and time of request? Sometimes a project can be
continuing; therefore, it is important to evaluate whether or not you would
have the time to take on the clients requests on a continuing basis.
o Am I aware of the traveling time that is involved to reach to the location?
o Do I have to do a lot of extra research to be equipped with the topic? If so,
how much time would I need to do this research and do I have time for that?
Do I have access to the resources of this topic?
o Can I meet the clients other requests?

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You need to collect enough information from your client to understand his or her requests
and expectations. Being able to access and assess whether or not you can meet these requests
and expectations will be the single most important thing you can do to prepare for your new
responsibility. If you cannot meet any of the clients expectations then it is wise and ethical
for you to reject taking on this project. Please do not underestimate the importance of this
step. Please refer to the Interpreter Request Form.

STEP 2: Gather information. For example, if you are to interpret for a speaker in a meeting
find out the subject of the talk and asks the speaker if there are any specific terminologies or
stories that he or she will use. If you are interpreting for a learning class, find out what the
lesson is and ask the teacher to share with you any special lesson material he or she plans to
use. The more you know about your subject ahead of time, the better you can prepare
yourself. If you are unfamiliar with the topic in discussion then it is very important for you
evaluate the number of hours it takes for you to conduct a thorough research prior to the
commencement of your interpreting project. It is vital that you do equip yourself with
relevant and sufficient knowledge.

STEP 3: Plan how you will use equipment. If you are going to do consecutive
interpretation, decide where you will stand, and find out if you and the speaker will use the
same microphone or separate ones. If you are doing simultaneous interpretation with a
transmitter, make sure that you know how to operate the equipment and ensure that it is
functioning correctly.

Once the above process have been completed, you need to inform your client of your final
decision through a formal letter or email to inform whether you have decided to accept or
decline the assignment. You should do this as soon as the decision has been made.

Tips for Interpreters

Learning how to interpret well does not happen overnight. Even interpreters who have a
natural gift to interpret often take several years of hard work to become effective in
interpreting. Below are several tips that you can use to help you become a more effective
interpreter.

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Be Polite
Be gentle, not forceful or insistent. This does not mean you need to act like a meek, quiet
pushover. It means that when you do something, offer something, or make a request, you do
it without pressuring the people around you and making them feel as though they are being
pushed into a corner. If you are having a conversation, it is fine to ask a question or offer
your opinion, but it is rude to push the matter when someone has expressed discomfort
(verbally or non-verbally) about the subject. Even if you are trying to help, like offering to
pay for lunch or wash the dishes, do not be too insistent. If the person says "No, thank you,
I've got it" then say "Please, I'd really love to help." If they still say no, then let it go. They
obviously want to treat you, so let them, and return the favour some other time.

When in doubt, observe others. How are they greeting and addressing each other?
What are they doing with their coats? What kinds of topics are they discussing?
Different settings require different standards of formality, and those standards often
define what is polite and what is not. A work-related dinner, and holiday gathering, a
wedding, and a funeral will all demand a different tone.
Be nice. Always be courteous, you might meet this person again in another setting and
would not want to have caused negative memories that would give you a bad
standing. If someone annoys or even insults you, do not get into an argument. Say
"Let's agree to disagree" and change the subject, politely debate, or simply excuse
yourself from the conversation.
Start a conversation by asking questions about the other person. Try not to talk about
yourself too much. Be confident and charming. Do not hog the conversation. Look
interested and listen to the answers. Do not look over the person's shoulder or around
the room when he/she is talking. That implies you are distracted or not interested, i.e.
he/she is not important to you.
Be honest. It is always much worse to be caught in a lie than to tell the truth.
Shake hands firmly and look your acquaintance in the eye. You might want to
practice this a bit so you do not squish people's hands, depending on how strong you
are. That would make them feel uncomfortable. Beware especially when shaking
hands of women who are wearing rings. Too much pressure can be very painful.
Remember too that many people with an "old-school" etiquette background
(especially if you are in Europe) find it inappropriate to offer your hand for a
handshake to a lady or an older gentleman if you are a gentleman, or to an older lady,

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if you are a lady. Always greet the other person first, but wait for them to extend their
hand. On the other hand, if you are the older person/lady, keep in mind that if you do
not extend your hand, the other person may feel rejected, as he/she is not permitted to
shake your hand. Usually this situation only takes half a second in checking whether
the other person is moving towards you for a handshake. Be alert.
Do not approach someone with an already outstretched hand. That is pushy. If you
want someone to know you are moving towards them, establish a firm eye contact and
smile, maybe opening your arms a little (bent at the elbow) to make a welcoming
gesture.
Have a laugh which shows you are having fun, without being loud. Loudness either
indicates arrogance or insecurity. A charming polite person makes another person feel
good. Keep this goal in mind, and be considerate of other people's needs and opinions.
Do not make derogatory remarks towards any kind of ethnic, political or religious
groups under any circumstances.
Be graceful and show elegance. Carry yourself smoothly, with a sense of calm, yet
involved in the moment. People will notice this subtle charm and this will help you
greatly.
Be aware that etiquette and manners vary depending on the cultural region you are
in...be sure to study the local customs before you travel!

Obtain language reference materials. When interpreting, it is extremely helpful to have
reference tools in your interpretation language readily available. Some basic tools that are
frequently used include the website of Centrelink, books from the public library about parts
of the human body and names of diseases and sickness, government website on lawsuit
terminologies, etc. Your use of language reference materials will change according to the
specific type of interpretation assignments you receive.

Prepare word lists. As you interpret on different occasions, begin building lists of commonly
used words and phrases that you can refer to when you interpret again. Set up your word lists
in such a way that you can sort them into categories. For instance, you may have a list of
words and phrases commonly used in interviews and a different list of words that are helpful
for interpreting in a hospital environment.

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Use teamwork. In many situations, it is good for you to work together in a team with another
interpreter, particularly when doing simultaneous interpretation. Interpretation is a high-stress,
exhausting activity, and after about 15 minutes it is not unusual to become weary and to have
difficulty concentrating. In long meetings with multiple speakers, you and your backup
interpreter should plan to switch roles at regular intervals, perhaps with each new speaker.
Your backup interpreter should always be listening attentively to your interpretation and be
prepared to assist you or switch roles with you at any time if needed.
Speak clearly, softly, and with appropriate emotion. Often times, when interpreting
simultaneously with equipment, you will need to speak in soft tones to avoid creating
distracting noises in the room. However, speaking softly does not mean that you should
whisper. Using voice control, you should reflect the style of the speaker by reflecting the
emotions and feelings that the speaker uses. Remember to be culturally sensitive and use a
voice that will resonate with the members.

Practice reading aloud in the target language. If you are not a native speaker of the target
language, reading aloud will help you learn correct words and phrases, as well as help you
train your tongue to pronounce difficult words correctly. Practice reading from the textbook
materials that have been translated in the target language can be very useful.

Listen to others. You can learn a lot about what to do and what not to do by observing other
interpreters. If there are no other interpreters in your area to listen to, you can listen to other
general interpreters at http://lds.org/broadcast.

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3.4 Interpreter Request Form

(All requested information must be completed in detail. Incomplete forms may be returned)
Date of Request:

Contact Person:

Client Name:
E-mail: Phone #:


Interpreting type: Name of Course/Event:

Scope, Description and Expectations. This section must be completed for all assignments:
Please describe the assignment in detail. Include key people and any special circumstances.
List attendees names and whether they are deaf or hearing (attach a separate list if
necessary). Attach to an email or Fax any agendas, handouts or outlines.






Event Dates / Days / Times and Other Details
Start Date: End Date:

Presenter/Key People
Mode of Communication
Monday From: ___: ___
am/pm
To:___: ___ am/pm

Spoken Languages
Tuesday From: ___: ___
am/pm
To:___: ___ am/pm

No. of hearing attendees
Wednesday From: ___: ___
am/pm
To:___: ___ am/pm

Other attendees
Thursday From: ___: ___
am/pm
To:___: ___ am/pm

Total Attendees
Friday From: ___: ___
am/pm
To:___: ___ am/pm

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Saturday From: ___: ___
am/pm
To:___: ___ am/pm


Sunday From: ___: ___
am/pm
To:___: ___ am/pm


Dates will not meet (if any) during timeframe requested (i.e., public holidays, etc.)*:

Location Details:
Location (full address)


On-site Contact Person & Phone
#


Client Signature ___________________________ Date __________________________

Are there any other Communication and Special Needs? Please specify.
Office Only Recd Date: Job Status:
Terms and Conditions:
For the purpose of these Terms and Conditions the Company, we, our or us refers to XYZ
Interpreting Ltd(ABN: XXX whose registered office is at XYZ Road, Brisbane QLD 4000) and Client or you
represents the company, firm, body, organisation, or person contracting XYZ Interpreting Ltd to undertake
service(s) on its behalf.
Services means interpreting and voice over services performed by us for you.
Order means a confirmed request by you for our Services.
Linguist shall mean any interpreter, voice over artiste or any other skilled language professional supplied by
XYZ Interpreting Ltd to fulfil our provision of Services.
Location shall mean any specific location, venue or room in which XYZ Interpreting Ltd has quoted to supply
equipment or linguists.
Event shall mean any event, assignment, recording session or other occasion for which XYZ Interpreting Ltd
has quoted to supply equipment or linguists.
In writing shall mean written communication delivered by post, fax or email.

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1. CONTRACT
1.1 By accepting or requesting any services or using information from XYZ Interpreting Ltd, you accept and are
deemed to accept these Terms and Conditions of Service, which apply to all dealings between us relating to the
business described in the terms and override any terms proposed by you unless we have agreed such terms in
writing as specified herein.
1.2 A quotation issued by XYZ Interpreting Ltd does not guarantee that XYZ Interpreting Ltd will have
equipment or linguists available on the dates specified unless or until an order has been confirmed by the Client
in writing and accepted by XYZ Interpreting Ltd. The quoted price shall be binding for a period of 30 calendar
days. However, additional services, e.g. set-up arrangements which require XYZ Interpreting Ltd's personnel to
work between 21.00 and 06.30 hours, changes or additions to the system being hired by the Client, changes to
the Location or addition of a new Location and any other services not specified in the quotation may be subject
to price increases.
2. PAYMENT
Our standard terms of payment shall be:
2.1 Interpreting and voice over Services. The total invoice fee will be due from the Client within 14 days of the
invoice date.
2.2 Late Payment. XYZ Interpreting Ltd reserves the right to charge interest on overdue accounts at the rate of
2% per month calculated on a daily basis from the due date of payment. Where the Client is in arrears with any
due payments, XYZ Interpreting Ltd retains the right not to supply any further services notwithstanding any
other agreements or contracts in force.
3. CANCELLATION CHARGES
3.1 Equipment Hire and Installation. In the event that the Client wishes to cancel or postpone an Order to hire
or install equipment the following charges shall apply:- More than 1 week but less than 3 weeks before the date
of the Event, 50% of the quoted fee. Less than 1 week before the date of the Event, 75% of the quoted fee. Less
than 24 hours before the start of the Event, 100% of the quoted fee.
3.2 Interpreters or Voice over artistes. If the Client wishes to cancel or postpone an order for Services charged
on an hourly basis, the full fee specified in the quotation shall be payable when the cancellation is made less
than 24 hours during working days before the start of the Event.
If the Client wishes to cancel an order for Services charged on a daily basis, the full fee specified in the
quotation shall be payable when the cancellation is made less than 72 hours during working days before the
start of the Event.
3.3 Any decision to waive all or part of the above cancellation fees shall be at the sole discretion of XYZ
Interpreting Ltd.
4. LIABILITY

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4.1 At all Events including those where a XYZ Interpreting Ltd technician is present, the Client shall be
responsible for the loss or damage to any equipment supplied. For insurance purposes the value of each
receiver is $250, the value of each set of headphones is $25, the value of each table microphone is $395 and the
value of each radio microphone is $1,195 (all excluding VAT) and these will be the amounts invoiced should the
equipment not be returned within 10 days of the end of the Event.
4.2 XYZ Interpreting Ltd shall have no liability to the Client for any consequential or indirect loss or damage
including loss of profits arising out of or in connection with the provision of any goods or services pursuant to
this contract or arising out of any accident or damage, howsoever caused.
4.3 XYZ Interpreting Ltds liability for loss or damage arising out of a breach of this contract shall not in any
case exceed the value of that contract.
4.4 Where XYZ Interpreting Ltd is responsible for facilitating the transportation of equipment to and from the
site of an Event, we shall be responsible for any losses or damages to the equipment occurring during transit.
4.5 In the case of a material error or omission in work undertaken by the Company, we will, at our choice,
either correct, re-record or re-provide any materials or resources or compensate the Client for the cost of any
additional recording or provision up to the amount of our fee, in respect of that work, provided that such fee has
been paid in accordance with the Companys terms of business and provided the work has been used by the
Client for the purpose indicated on the order. Any correction work or re-recording will be solely undertaken by
us and the Client must refer questions of material error or omission to us within 10 working days of the delivery
or assignment date.
5. LINGUISTS
5.1 We require a full brief from you prior to an Event which should include a complete set of documents
(programme, agenda, script, minutes of previous meetings, reports, abstracts, speeches, etc) where available in
each of the working languages as far in advance of the Event as possible, and in any case not later than 7 days
before the date of the Event. It is your responsibility to produce this documentation and if it is not produced in
good time, we and/or our linguists can accept no responsibility for the quality of the Services supplied. No
complaints about the quality of interpreting or voicing will be acknowledged if these materials are not made
available in advance of the assignment. You warrant that all documentation and information supplied by you to
us will not cause XYZ Interpreting Ltd to breach the laws of any country.
5.2 In the event of sickness or injury or absence of a Linguist prior to or during an assignment, we will use our
best endeavours to supply a replacement, but no liability is accepted by us for failing to do so.
5.3 Unless otherwise specified in our quotation, interpreters' fees cover work between 09.00 and 18.00 with
short breaks in the morning and afternoon, and a break of at least one hour for lunch.
Work done at any other times or under any other conditions may be subject to extra fees, and must be agreed
with us either in advance or at the time of the Event or with our personnel on site.
6. ASSIGNMENT LOCATION

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Unless otherwise agreed in writing, it is your responsibility to ensure that:
(i) Access to the Location is made available to XYZ Interpreting Ltd in sufficient time to enable installation and
testing of the equipment to take place.
(ii) The Location is properly set out for the installation of our equipment, with any platforms or tables in
position.
(iii) All equipment, once installed, may remain in place and that, for the period of hire, the Location will not be
required for purposes (e.g. dinners, dances, receptions, etc) which would entail the equipment being dismantled
and reinstalled.
(iv) Precautions will be taken by the Client to ensure the security of the Location and of XYZ Interpreting Ltds
equipment whilst there.
(v) Adequate time is made available at the conclusion of the proceedings for dismantling and removal of the
equipment.
7. FORCE MAJEURE
XYZ Interpreting Ltd shall not be held liable to the Client if fulfilment of its obligations under the contract is
prevented or hindered by force majeure. For the purposes of this condition, force majeure shall mean any
circumstance beyond the control of XYZ Interpreting Ltd.
8. DEFAULT OR BREACH
Without prejudice to XYZ Interpreting Ltd's rights to arrears of charges due under this contract or for other
sums due or for damages for breach of this contract, XYZ Interpreting Ltd may cancel the Order on the
occurrence of any of the following circumstances:(i) If the Client shall be in breach of any of the Terms and
Conditions herein.
(ii) If the Client shall do or cause to be done anything which may prejudice or endanger our property rights in
hired equipment.
(iii) If the Client shall have a bankruptcy order made against them.
(iv) If the Client shall be liquidated or have a petition for winding up presented against them or pass a
resolution for voluntary winding up.
(v) If the Client shall have a receiver or administrative receiver appointed.
(vi) If the Client shall convene a meeting of creditors or make a deed of assignment or otherwise compound with
its creditors.
(vii) If any steps be taken to levy a distress or execution or if a distress or execution shall be threatened to be
levied against any of the chattels of or in possession of the Client.

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(viii) If the Client shall abandon the equipment; whereupon our consent to the Client's possession of the
equipment shall be determined immediately and we may take possession of the equipment wherever it may be
and for this purpose we are licensed to enter into and upon any premises occupied by or under the control of the
Client, any receiver or administrative receiver appointed in connection with the Client's affairs or any creditor
of the Client. The consequences of any such default or breach shall be that the Client shall be liable for any
costs and expenses incurred by XYZ Interpreting Ltd in locating, repossessing, recovering or restoring the
equipment or any other payments due under these Terms and Conditions.
9. RECORDING
Please advise us beforehand should you require a recording which includes interpretation as this may be
subjected to a normal copyright waiver fee and would need to be agreed in advance.
10. OTHER CONDITIONS
These Conditions of Service shall be deemed to be incorporated into all contracts made by XYZ Interpreting Ltd
and all applicable work undertaken by XYZ Interpreting Ltd shall be deemed to be carried out pursuant to a
contract incorporating these Terms and Conditions of Service. Each provision of these conditions is to be
construed as a separate provision applying and taking precedence even if for any reason one or another of the
said provisions is held inapplicable or unreasonable in any circumstances.
11. JURISDICTION
The contract shall be governed and construed in accordance with Australian law and shall be subject to the
jurisdiction of the Australian courts.
These Terms and Conditions are subject to change without prior written notice. This version was published on
1st March 2012.

How to write Terms and Conditions for your contract/client request agreement or form
If you have been a solo freelancer for any significant stretch of time, you have probably
learned the hard way that a work project can go horribly wrong. They turn out to be life
lessons in the long run, but there are ways to protect yourself. Remember also you would
want to protect yourself but you do not want to overdo it and scare your clients away.
Sometimes by having more flexible terms and conditions will actually give you a more
competitive edge. For example, if you have no penalties if clients cancel within 12 hours or
require no upfront payment, then you might be more competitive than your competitors.
Working with bad projects or bad clients generally boils down to mismatched expectations
and inadequate communication. Your best safeguard is to make sure you and your client are

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on the same page before any work has even begun using a Terms of Service Agreement,
which essentially puts into clear, written language what you expect from your client and what
they should expect from you.
By submitting a comprehensive Terms of Service Agreement to your client beforehand and
having them return confirmation to agree to abide by your terms, you will be saving yourself
(and your client) a lot of headaches down the road and avoiding the kind of surprises that can
cause a project to get derailed.
1. Billing structure. What are your rates? What are the ways to pay you? Do you bill by the
hour or by the project? This is important because it is usually one of the first three questions a
new client will ask. Agree with the client what a final estimate includes and what will happen
if changes are requested beyond the scope of the initial parameters of the project.
2. Late payment. Determine the grace period within which a client can submit their payment
after the invoicing date. The standard practice is 30 days, but you can determine this
according to your particular company. Also spell out late fees and/or interest rates for late
payments. This will give incentive to your clients to pay their invoices sooner than later.
3. Interim charge caps. There are just too many freelancers that have rung up large invoices
for major projects adding up to thousands of dollars only to be shafted by deadbeat clients
who walk away with your hard work. If you are working on a major project or are doing
several smaller projects for one client that add up to major charges, put a cap on how much
outstanding debt the client can carry.
You can always put a cap on your clients so that when their total bill exceeds that amount,
they will need to make an interim payment to bring it under or face work suspension. This
will prevent clients from promising lots of high-paying business without delivering on their
word. This is paramount when it comes to new clients, even those referred by people you
trust.
You have the option to waive this cap if you have a long-standing relationship with a trusted
client who pays on time and in full.
4. Scheduling. Can you service your clients twenty-four hours a day? Weekends? Holidays?
You need to have a balanced life, which means you need to set hours that make sense with
your lifestyle. It is important to set appropriate hours when your clients can contact you and

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expect you to work. If you do not want to be woken by a panicking client at one in the
morning, tell them specifically at what time your shop closes.
5. No spec work allowed. This is a controversial subject among many freelancers and
prospective clients. The consensus for most is not to accept work on spec. Speculative work
involves doing actual work with the hopes of impressing the client enough that they will
provide further opportunities without any guarantee of payment or that you will retain rights
over the work if it is not paid for. It is bad practice to allow for this type of work with the
extremely rare exception of once-in-a-lifetime opportunities. Your time and talent are
precious and should not be doled out for free under any circumstance. Spell it out in the
agreement: no spec work.
6. Termination of services by client or you. If the client terminates the service at the last
minute, would they still have to pay you? Set a minimum rate for work done that is
immediately refused and where the client does not wish to allow you to continue. What if
you were sick on the date of service and were not able to deliver the service for the client?
What are your refund policies? According to Fair Trading Australia
(http://www.fairtrading.qld.gov.au), clients have the rights to receive a refund if you are not
able to deliver the service according to the agreement.
7. Ownership rights. Establish who owns the work/information materials which you have
prepared after it has been completed and what rights the owner has to use or modify the final
product. You may also want to consider retaining rights to utilise the work in a repertoire or
portfolio for future promotion while the client retains all other major usage rights.
8. Unforeseen or sudden termination of a project. Most freelancers work on their own, so
if some mishap, illness or accident occurs that makes it impossible to continue a project in
progress, the client needs to know what protections they have. You may have to associate
yourself with a backup freelancer who will agree to take over. Otherwise, you can make a
provision where files or assets for a project are turned over to the client to be continued by
someone else and billed for the work done up to that point.
Whatever you decide, let the client understand that however unlikely, hiring a single
freelancer has certain risks and that there will be some compensation or provision made in
case of a stoppage.

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Most clients will act in good faith, so keep an open mind and be willing to negotiate in
instances where there is disagreement. But by explicitly setting the terms in advance,
potential disputes can be avoided and you can focus on what is most important: doing great
work.

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Interpreter Client Request Evaluation Process (Sample)

Clients
Requests
Information Given by
Client
Interpreters Current Status Time and ability
(preparedness and
competence evaluation)
External Advice
needed? Where? Who?
When?
Time and Date 2 days a week for 4 weeks Available
Location(s) City Can reach there by bus, reasonable
travel time

Topic(s) Medical Examinations on
ultrasound of an unborn
child
Need to do 2 hours of research on the
terms which are used in an ultrasound
scan and health status of the unborn
baby. Can seek through websites and
can speak to a nurse in the hospital
prior to interpretation.

Dress Code Smart Casual Achievable
Information
and
Knowledge
requirements
Medical examination Achievable through research and
reading websites, PA hospital website
for examination procedures.

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and sources
(research
based)
Tools and
equipments
needed
Microphone Achievable (have a microphone
already)

Other special
requests
Nil
Time
evaluation on
all of the above
Nil

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Independent Contractor (IC)
IC defines an Independent Contractor as an interpreter who operates as their own entity,
occasionally providing interpreting services on a contractual basis, often for multiple
agencies.An IC provides for his/her own liability, disability, health insurance coverage, etc.
All applicable taxes are the sole responsibility of the IC. As an IC, an interpreter may deduct
legitimate business expenses such as mileage, parking costs, professional dues, certification
fees, professional liability insurance premiums, etc. All interpreters are responsible for
holding and maintaining state licensures in the state where they are rendering interpreting
services. When an interpreter registers to work with one interpreting, an interpreter agrees
that it is the sole responsibility of the interpreter to hold and maintain all state licensures
where the interpreter is rendering interpreting services. ICs can work when and for whom
they choose and generally provide services for two or more businesses at the same time. An
IC is paid by the job. Once a job is accepted, he/she is obligated to complete the job or is
legally obligated to provide compensation for failure to complete it.
Invoicing
It is necessary for ICs to submit invoices to clients or agencies in order to be paid. A sample
invoice is as follows:
Professional Interpreting Services Pty Ltd ABN: XX XXX XXX
Address: 123 ABC Street, Brisbane, QLD 4000
Client Name Bill To:
Ms Cathy Newton
256 Mains Road,
Sunnybank QLD 4109
Address

Phone
Email
Rate

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Job
#
Date Job
Description/Location
Time
In
Time
Out
Total
Hours
Minimum
Charge
Additional
Charge
Total
Charge





Total Hours: Total Amount Due:

Signature:___________________________ Date:_________________
Payment Methods:
Please pay directly into the following bank account.
Bank Name: Commonwealth Bank of Australia
Account Name: Professional Interpreting Services Pty Ltd
BSB No: 126 034 Account Number: 123 456 78

Planning
It is important for the IC to plan ahead and ensure that schedules do not clash with each other.
An example of the calendar is below. Microsoft Outlook and mobile devices now have very
handy calendars which have alert functions.

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3.5 On-Site Interpreting

Payment
IC interpreters are paid by the job or by the hour. The hourly rate is based on the city and
region an interpreter is working in. The amount of hours per job is based on the number of
hours a given job requires. However, the interpreter may require every job to have a
minimum of TWO hours.

Hourly Rate
According to Fair Work Australia, interpreting does not have its own award. Hence, the
minimum hourly rate follows the National Minimum Wage rates. For example, for full time
employees the hourly rate is $15.96. For casual rates, the minimum hourly rate is

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$19.63. Normally the market average rate for Queensland interpreters is around $30-50 per
hour.
Cancellations
IC should have a cancellation policy and should communicate this policy along with other
requirements to the client prior to accepting a job/assignment. If an assignment cancels, the
interpreter should be compensated if they are given less than a 48 business hour notice. Since
an IC is verbally contracted by the job, he/she should be compensated for all replacement
jobs he/she accepts.
If an IC accepts a job, then later cancels and is unable to appear to interpret for the job they
already accepted, the IC is responsible for finding an interpreter that holds one of our
accepted certifications to replace them.

Extended Assignments
When an assignment runs over the scheduled time period, an interpreter may choose to stay
or leave. If the decision is to leave, please do so graciously and professionally. If it is
anticipated an assignment may run late, it is best to forewarn all concerned of your time
restraints. If you are able to stay, please make reasonably sure the customer has authorisation
for the additional cost of services. Use your best judgment and check with the contact person
whenever possible.

Failure to Appear & Late Arrivals
Interpreters are responsible for getting to all jobs on time. Interpreters should call the contact
person in advance for directions and/or map the location beforehand so as to plan the best
way to get there on time.

It is understandable that illnesses, emergencies and mishaps occur. If you cannot fulfil a job
because of a compassionate and compelling reason, it is your responsibility to find a

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replacement interpreter. Therefore, it is always wise to work with another interpreter from
time to time. The replacement interpreter must hold the same certifications.
Interpreters should be expected to arrive fifteen minutes before all assignments. Some
interpreters habitually arrive after a scheduled start time. At the least, this is unprofessional
and at the most, highly disruptive to all parties involved.

Professional & Ethical Conduct
Interpreters are expected to adhere strictly to the AUSIT Code of Conduct.

Dress & Grooming
Interpreters should dress appropriately at all times when working. As a general rule, an
interpreters attire should be comparable to that of the moderator of the event being
interpreted. Jeans, t-shirts, shorts and other casual clothes are rarely appropriate.
Maintaining Records
It is important to maintain records of client and service information in a safe and secure place
for a couple of years to uphold privacy standards and to reflect up on your own work
performance in the future.
4 Common Errors in Interpreting

4.1 Common Errors

Issues associated with ad-hoc interpreting have been discussed, but below are several
common errors that can occur when someone serves as an interpreter without having the
appropriate training.

Omission: The interpreter partially or completely deletes a message.

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Addition: The interpreter includes information that the speaker did not say.

Consideration: The interpreter simplifies or summarises the clients message instead of
providing a direct interpretation.

Role Exchange: The interpreter steps out of the interpreters role and takes over the
interaction by interviewing the client or making comments about what the provider is saying.

Interpreting Nonverbal Behaviour: Offering explanations for clients nonverbal behaviour
instead of letting silences stand.
Example: Clinician: Do you engage in regular sexual activity?
Client: (Says nothing and looks at the floor.)
Interpreter: She is embarrassed, but she will answer your question
in just a moment.

Substitution: The interpreter replaces one concept with another.
Example: Clinician: Do you hear voices?
Interpreter: Do you hear noises? (Voice and noise are the same
word in Chinese.)
Client: Yes. I hear some noises all the time. I live on a busy
street.

Exaggeration: The interpreter overstates or embellishes what the speaker says.
Example: Client: I am glad I have decided to come to America.
Interpreter: I am excited that my family and I are in America. We
are now receiving welfare and living in an apartment
with television.

Inaccuracy and Poor Paraphrasing: The interpreter does not accurately restate the words of
the speaker.

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Example: Client: I have been feeling very nervous and anxious lately.
Sometimes I get headaches, too.
Interpreter: I have anxiety and I get headaches.

Distortion of Meaning: The interpreter conveys a message in such a way that its meaning is
misrepresented.
Example: Clinician: Are you allergic to any medication?
Interpreter: Do western drugs make you vomit?
Client: No.

Lack of Familiarity with Mental Health Terminology: The interpreters lack of understanding
of mental health concepts interferes with the clinicians process of assessment.
Example: Clinician: What kind of mood have you been in recently?
Interpreter: How have you been feeling?
Client: I have a headache all the time.

Inability to Interpret the Cultural Meaning of Symptoms and Behaviour: The interpreter does
not encourage communication that will bridge cultural gaps between the provider and the
client.
Example: Client: I took the whole bottle of sixty po chia pills last night.
Interpreter: I took the whole bottle of po chia pills last night.
(Interpreter does not encourage client to explain that
this Chinese pill requires the user to take the whole
bottle.)
Clinician: Were you trying to kill yourself?

Inability to Translate Sayings: Interpreter is unable to translate non-literal sayings or concepts
commonly used in one language into the other language.
Example: Clinician: What does the phrase A rolling stone gathers no moss

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mean to you?
Interpreter: What does it mean to you when you hear that a stone is
rolling and no grass is growing on it?
Client: (Client is unsure of how to answer clinicians question
due to confusion about how stones and grass relate to
their mental health.)

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4.2 Speaking Chinglish
What is Chinglish?

The above is an example of written chinglish on a signpost. The Chinese characters roughly
mean: "All cashiers in the marketplace offer price-checking services". The chinglish
translation on the bottom of the sign deviates from the sign's intended meaning. Chinglish
(slang) is a portmanteau of the words Chinese and English and refers to either (a) English
interspersed with Chinese language errors common to those Chinese persons who are
learning English or (b) Chinese interspersed with English, such as used by westernised
Chinese (e.g. American-born Chinese) who are not fluent in Chinese and code switch English
words into speech when they cannot think of the correct Chinese word.
Example
Notable examples include "no q" as a response to "thank you" (often sinicised in Mandarin
Chinese as Q - ) and .
Pronunciation
Inaccurate pronunciation or misspellings through typos or poor pronunciation may result in
Chinglish.
For instance, the word "temple" and "temper" may be confused, as both would be pronounced
similarly to "Tem-po" or "Tem-pah". Note that the two English words, when poorly
pronounced, may resemble each other to the extent that the two are indistinguishable; this

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further creates confusion. Sometimes, the poor pronunciation of a single English word can
create a Chinglish pronunciation that is almost nothing like the original English word. For
example, the company named "Zellers" (part of the Hudson's Bay Company in Canada) is
often incorrectly pronounced as "Se La".


Vocabulary
Erroneous vocabulary usage can also result in Chinglish. Examples include " Jingzhang
Expressway" instead of " Jingzhang Expressway"), and the use of "emergent" to mean

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"emergency" or "urgent". In the photo of the park regulations at right, the use of words such
as "objectionable" and "inexpedient" is a further example.
As another example, when something is explained, the English learner may respond with "Oh,
I know," while the appropriate response would be "Oh, I see." This is because "zhdao"
is usually translated as regardless of context. "When did you first recognise him?" is also
sometimes used for "When did you first meet him?" because "[] rnshi" is usually
translated as as in "I recognise him from last week's party."
Another common area of confusion is "turn on/off" versus "open/close". In Chinese, "turn
on" (in the sense of operating a switch or a machine) and "open" are rendered by the same
character, and so are "turn off" and "close". As a result, many people would say "open the
light" when they mean "turn the light on", and "close the computer" when they mean "turn
the computer off". Conversely, but less commonly, "close the door" may be rendered as "turn
off the door".
There is also a tendency not to recognize the distinction between polite and vulgar usage.
Swearwords sometimes crop up in learners' speech and writing when they do not mean to be
coarse, and bad words can sometimes even appear in public notices, as in the park regulations
at right. Literal pronunciation of words can be common, such as the abbreviation BBQ of
barbecue will be spoken "bee-bee-kill".
Grammar
Chinglish may result from grammatically erroneous usage of English, often resulting from
the writer "thinking in Chinese while writing in English" (e.g. verbatim word-for-word
translation), such as "wipe out six injurious insect" (to wipe out six types of harmful
insects/vermin, including cockroaches and mosquitoes) and "enjoy stand" (a scenic
viewpoint).
Some of the common grammatical error resulted in thinking in one language while writing in
another include:
using nouns as verbs (such as "No Noising")
excessive use of "the" when not needed (such as "The China is bigger than the
France")
excessive use of verbs with the "-ing" ending (such as "Please do not climbing"; in the
photo below)
excessive use of "to", the use of "to" with modals, preserving "to" in infinitive form
even when unnecessary (e.g. "I must to go")
confusion of and adjectives (e.g. "I am very boring" vs. "I am very bored"; "I was
surprising" vs. "I was surprised")
the overuse of "very" between "be" and an adjective (reflecting the use of "" in
Chinese)
the use of "very" to modify verbs (e.g. "I very like it")
the use of the passive when the active is more appropriate
wrong usage of verb tenses

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the use of the singular when the plural would be more fitting (various examples can
be seen in the park regulations above)
The overuse of ing, and the confusion of one word for another (a warning sign in Guilin)
Typically, many of these errors are made because, in Chinese, verbs are not conjugated
(either for tense or pronoun), and there is no equivalent word for "the." Often a Chinese
grammatical pattern will be incorporated into English grammar, such as "I tomorrow go to
Shanghai" or "I this morning eat breakfast".
Also, there is much confusion regarding countable and uncountable nouns, use of plurals, and
the use of "how much", "how many", "a lot of", "much" and "many". This leads to phrases
such as "I want a soup" and "There are a lot of shoe."
Another common confusion is with prepositions, such as "on", "in", "at", which in many
contexts have the same Chinese translation (, meaning "existing at this position"). To an
extent, this reflects the idiomatic, rather than logical, way these words are used in English.
An example is the often used expression " Taiwan", as in "Republic of China on Taiwan",
whereas native speakers of English are more likely to say "in Taiwan". Similarly, many
Chinese students of English are confused by the difference between " home" and " the house
Comma splices can occur frequently. This is due to the fact that in Chinese writing, the
comma ( "") is all that is sufficient to terminate a clause without needing to follow
with a conjunction. The equivalent of full stop ( "") is usually reserved for the end of
an idea, which theoretically may last as long as a paragraph.

The difference between Chinglish and English
1. Introduction
It is well known that Chinese and English are poles apart. However, when Chinese students
who are lacking a "real" English environment learn English, they easily tend to ignore the
differences between the two languages. This is particularly the case with writing. The
Chinese students are so familiar with their study habit of writing in Chinese practice that they
often put it into practice in English writing. The result is the so-called Chinglish, an awkward
mixture in which ideas conceived in Chinese are ungrammatically or unidiomatically
expressed in English writing. The main cause of Chinglish is, apparently, linguistic
interference, but to get rid of the negative influence of the mother tongue, on the other hand,
remains of paramount importance for teachers of English Writing in China.
My years of experience in teaching English make me aware of the differences between the
two languages in word choice, syntactic structures, and thought patterns by analysing typical
examples of Chinglish in the students' compositions. Here I'd like to present some typical
mistakes made by our Chinese students.

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2. Lexical Deficiency
It seems easy to find out that Chinglish often appears in the form of redundancy, which arises
when students fail to understand the exact meaning of an English word. Take the example of
"a desk": Chinese students would say redundantly "a book desk" or "a writing desk" instead.
They cannot tell "a dance" and "a study" in English mean exactly "a dance party" and "a
study room" in Chinese. Similarly, the following redundant sentences are often made by our
students.
(1) Wrong: The old man made a living by catching fish.
Correct: The old man made a living by fishing.
(2) Wrong: Please hurry to walk or we'll be late.
Correct: Please hurry up or we'll be late.
(3) Wrong: Sue went to the shops to buy things for me yesterday.
Correct: Sue went shopping for me yesterday.
It is understandable to Chinese English teachers that Chinglish is caused by inaccurate
understanding of English words as shown in the above examples. Nevertheless,
misunderstanding the word brings about a kind of unbearable Chinglish. Take a look at the
following sentences.
(1) Wrong: When I reached my wallet to find my money, I found it invisible.
Correct: When I reached my wallet to find my money, I found it missing/gone.
(2) Wrong: As the price for the jacket was too expensive, I decided not to buy it .
Correct: As the price for the jacket was unreasonable/too high, I decided not to buy it .
(3) Wrong: I feel very painful in my right hand.
Correct: I feel great pain in my right hand.
These sentences may sound funny to native speakers of English due to the misuse of words.
Keeping a good dictionary at hand while writing seems to be a good remedy for the above-
mentioned Chinglish. However, it is the teachers' responsibility to let their students know that
an English word and its correspondent Chinese term don't always share the same semantic
register. Another kind of Chinglish in the form of redundancy occurs when students are not
aware that Chinese is a verb-abundant language while English is a preposition-and noun-
oriented one.
(1) Wrong: He ran out when it was raining hard.
Correct: He ran out into a heavy rain.
(2) Wrong: He looked at her and felt surprised.
Correct: He looked at her in surprise.
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(3) Wrong: We were shown in by those who wore uniforms.
Correct: We were shown in by those in uniforms.
Chinese students of English must be helped to learn that English prepositional phrases in
many cases have the same semantic function as Chinese predicate verbs plus their objects.
Knowing it will provide Chinese students with a very useful means of becoming effective and
idiomatic in their English writing. Similar to redundancy, unnecessary repetition also causes
Chinglish. The repetitious sentences are clearly reflecting the negative influence of the native
language.
(1) Wrong: Our country is a great country with a long history.
Correct: Ours is a great country with a long history.
(2) Wrong: Fish must stay in water. If they don't, they will die.
Correct: Fish must stay in water or they will die.
(3) Wrong: He gave a lot of reasons for being late to class, but the reasons he gave didn't
convince us.
Correct: He gave a lot of reasons for being late to class, but none of them was convincing.
To avoid Chinglish, Chinese students of English must be aware that Chinese is, for the most
part, a logically compact in its structure. English is strictly compact in its structure. English
verbs and nouns seldom repeat themselves in the same sentence. That's why conjunctions,
pronouns and other substitutional or introductory words are more frequently used in English
than in Chinese.

3. Syntactical Incompetence

3.1 English sentences with inanimate subjects can be very vivid and expressive. Failure to
observe this linguistic phenomenon often leads to tasteless, monotonous Chinese-stereotyped
English sentences. Compare the following pairs of sentences:
(1) Wrong: She was very miserable and her heart broke.
Correct: Misery tore her into pieces.
(2) Wrong: She was so jealous that she became desperate.
Correct: Jealousy drove her to despair.
(3)Wrong: Because the cost of the medicine was reduced, people all over the country were
able to use it in treating with many diseases.
Correct: The reduced cost made possible the nationwide use of the medicine in treating many
diseases.
Language needs variety to be expressive. Animate subjects are often required before
predicates of action both in spoken and written Chinese. In writing English, however,

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inanimate subjects of abstract ideas are frequently used before notional verbs of concrete
action for the sake of brevity and vividness.

3.2 Ignorance or negligence of the correct syntactic structure and idiomatic collocation or
usage in English:
(1) Wrong: His English knowledge is adequate for the job.
Correct: His knowledge of English is adequate for the job.
(2) Wrong: I'd like to have the newest news on Afghanistan.
Correct: I'd like to have the latest news on Afghanistan.
(3) Wrong: The bankruptcy of his father has made him impossible to go on studying.
Correct: The bankruptcy of his father has made it impossible for him to go on studying.
To eliminate Chinglish of this sort, teachers of teaching English composition must spare no
effort to adapt the Chinese mind of students' into the English ways of expressing ideas.

3.3 A good command of the comparative degree of English adjectives and adverbs can help
reduce occurrence of Chinglish.
(1) Wrong: He had so much money that he would not be able to spend it in his whole life.
Correct: He had more money than he would possibly spend in his life time.
(2) Wrong: I have read your novels but I didn't think you could be so young.
Correct: I read your novels and expected to meet an older man.
(3) Wrong: Human bodies are the only source of blood in hospitals so that its amount is very
limited.
Correct: More blood is needed in hospitals than human bodies can supply.
It should be brought home to Chinese students of English that comparative degree of
adjectives and adverbs is more widely used in English than in Chinese. Flexible use of the
comparative undoubtedly enhances the effectiveness of the writing.

3.4 The English causative verb "make" in its structure "make somebody do something" is
often abused by Chinese English students because there is an identical structure in Chinese to
express the same idea.
(1) Wrong: Her red face made me see through his mind.
Correct: Her red face told me what she was thinking about.
(2) Wrong: The sight of these pictures made me remember my own childhood.
Correct: The sight of these pictures reminded me of my own childhood.

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(3) Wrong: A sudden shout made him stand up.
Correct: A sudden shout brought him to feet.
The above pairs of sentences show to us clearly that to avoid overusing the causative "make"
is one way to get rid of Chinglish.

3.5 Idee Fixe
Sometimes a change of perspectives in expressing ideas from Chinese into English will help
do away with Chinglish.
(1) Wrong: Don't mind other people's business.
Correct: Mind your own business.
(2) Wrong: Do you need any help?
Correct: May I help you?
(3) Wrong: Don't pay attention to the dog.
Correct: Leave the dog alone.
As shown above, kind advice, polite requests, and euphemistic commands tend to be more
objective in English than in Chinese. And in many cases, the Chinese usually think in the
negative ways while the English in the positive.

4. Conclusion
Some teachers and educators in China argue that Chinglish is somehow bearable to our
students considering the reality in our English learning environment. However, to my
understanding, it is unacceptable unless writing should be taught in the "right" way. The
purpose of this article is not only to show some typical examples of Chinglish but to kick off
a controversial discussion on how to adjust the Chinese mind to the English way of thinking
and writing.

4.3 Roles to Avoid While Interpreting

Now that the roles of interpreters have been discussed, it is important to understand the roles
that should be avoided in professional interpreting relationships. When serving as a
communication bridge between two other people, interpreters should avoid taking on roles
that can cloud their functions. Examples of roles to avoid include: the clients close friend or
main source of emotional support; a social worker; a guarantor of a positive treatment
outcome; and guarantor of the clinicians and clients satisfaction.

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An interpreters primary responsibility is to transfer messages back and forth. An interpreter
is not a clients close friend. In fact, to give an accurate and effective interpretation, one
should not be friends with clients. An interpreter is not a social worker; to be a social worker,
you must have proper training and licensing. An interpreter should not provide emotional
support for a client because the clients family and friends fulfill that role. Finally, it is
impossible for an interpreter to guarantee a positive mental health outcome for the client or to
ensure that the clients relationship with the clinician will be a good one. Realising this will
greatly reduce interpreter frustration and increase their ability to focus on the main goal of
interpretation.

4.4 Obstacles to Accurate Interpreting

Beyond the basic common errors that untrained interpreters can make, there are barriers that
can obstruct accurate interpretation even when a person is well trained. Interpreters are
human and subject to emotions, physical issues, and biases that can affect performance.
Understanding the barriers below is a good step towards avoiding or dealing with them.

Physical Factors - An interpreter who is ill may not be able to concentrate on the
details associated with their job. Interpreting is a fast-paced process, and it is
essential that those doing the job recognise when they are not up to it. For the good of
the client, it is recommended that interpreters not take on jobs when they are ill.
Additionally, it is important for interpreters to take care of themselves to ensure their
health. Basic self-care activities such as getting adequate sleep, eating right, and
exercising will help interpreters stay at the top of their game and be ready for jobs that
come their way.

Environmental Factors Its also important to consider basic physical comfort when
serving as an interpreter. Environmental factors, such as lighting, noise, room
temperature, or body position in relation to others, can all affect the comfort of an
interpreter. Luckily, environmental factors can often be adjusted, and interpreters

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should always speak up and request alterations in the environment if those changes
will contribute to a more successful session.

Speech Quality - If someone speaks at a rate that is fast or slow or at a level that is too
loud or quiet to be understood, it may be difficult for an interpreter to do their job
well. Because an interpreter is so tuned into the spoken word, these situations require
extra effort and patience on the part of the interpreter. Interpreters can become
frustrated, miss words, or be tempted to tune out altogether. It is appropriate for an
interpreter to ask in a polite and professional manner that the speaker adjust the rate of
speech or volume to ensure quality interpretation and better overall services.

Speaker Status Interpreters may find that they have different reactions to different
types of people in interpreting sessions. Interpreters need to be aware of their own
biases and make sure that all clients and clinicians are treated with equal respect.
Interpreters need to guard against seeming judgmental about client decisions. They
also need to be careful not to be star struck in the presence of clinicians. The job of
an interpreter is to facilitate communication, so neutrality is crucial.

Emotional Factors - A vast array of emotional factors can affect an interpreter.
Concerns about issues ranging from family to romantic relationships to money might
be on ones mind, but its important for interpreters to leave those emotions at home
before starting a session. Clients and clinicians using an interpreter might already feel
a higher level of anxiety due to the nature of the situation. An interpreter brings an air
of confidence to these situations that help all parties involved feel calmer about the
potential outcome. In order to exude that air of calm, though, interpreters must first
take care of their own personal needs.

Stressful Situations - Performance can also be affected by stressful situations in the
course of interpreting. Understandably, sessions where participants are upset or
confrontational can take a toll. If an interpreter finds their reaction to a person to be

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so strong that the quality of interpreting is compromised, it is their responsibility to
advise the client and clinician to find a replacement interpreter.

Job-related Fatigue - Interpreters must be aware of when they need a break.
Symptoms of fatigue while interpreting include misunderstanding words, forgetting
what has been said, and losing concentration. When experiencing fatigue in the
course of a session, it is the responsibility of the interpreter to inform the client and
clinician that they need a break. In order to avoid on-the-job fatigue, limit interpreting
sessions to two hours or less.

5 Slangs and Idioms

Interpreters must convey messages truthfully, respecting the content the speaker expresses
without letting their personal judgment or system of values decide what should be interpreted.
An interpreter must transmit the message in a thorough and faithful manner, omitting or
adding nothing, considering linguistic variations in both languages, and conveying the tone
and spirit of the original message. Word-for-word interpretation may not express the intended
idea. Interpreters should determine the relevant concept and verbalise it so that it is easily
understandable and culturally appropriate for the listener.

The style of language used in the source language should be observed. If the style used by the
client is that of a non-educated person, an interpreter should not use sophisticated or erudite
language. Crude, rude, or obscene language should be conveyed accurately. It is important
for mental health providers to assess symptoms through quality and content of language. The
meaning of slang terms, idioms, proverbs, or sayings should also be conveyed accurately. If
an interpreter cannot understand a remark, they should say so to the speaker so that they have
the chance to repeat it in a different way. The spirit of what is said is also important. For
example, if a client says something angrily or sarcastically, an interpreter should interpret
with a similar tone. Therefore it is very important to understand slangs and idioms so that
messages are not distorted during interpreting.

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Slangs and Idioms

So what is the difference between Slangs and Idioms?

5.1 Australian Slangs vs. Idioms

An idiom is an expression that has a meaning apart from what the meanings of the individual
words mean. Closely related are metaphors and similes.Slang is language usage that's limited
to a relatively small group of speakers. Slangs reflect an action taken that would clearly
indicate the meaning of the phrase. The hallmark of an idiom is that it does not mean
what it says.
Examples of Slangs
Piece of cake - easy

Legend! very very good Fingers cross seek Gods
protection
Under the weather - not
feeling well
Touch wood seek good
luck
You beauty youve been
helpful
Keep your chin up - be brave Cheers thanks and bye You ripper happy moment

Butterflies in your stomach -
nervous
Get real! no way, hard to
believe!

Fair enough - cant be happy
or disappointed
All thumbs - clumsy

Pulling your leg just joking

Tongue in cheek not
seriously intended and should
not be taken at face value.
Slip of the tongue - verbal
error
Sweet as/sweet - good Alraidi! good
Slap on the wrist - mild
punishment

What do you reckon? You
reckon? what do you think?
At wit's end - frustrated until
you can't think of anything
else to do

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Spill the beans - to tell
something that was supposed
to be secret
Blond joke/blond moment
lame joke/stupid moment



Understanding Idioms in Detail
An idiom, or idiomatic expression, is a phrase or term whose meaning cannot be guessed
from a literal definition of the words. The phrase seems to make sense if you look up the
individual words, but other people seem to mean something totally different when they say it,
or the phrase makes no sense along with the rest of the conversation.
There are really two types of idioms:
1) Expressions whose literal meanings are nonsensical and do not mean their figurative
meanings, such as "The police informant spilled the beans," "It's 100 miles away as the crow
flies," "John sounded serious but said it tongue in cheek," "At the party, Jane made a long
speech off the cuff," "The cops were on a fishing expedition for evidence";
2) Short phrases that have peculiar syntax and word usage, usually involving prepositions.
Examples include: "The remote control is in back of the couch," "When the bell rang, Bob
answered the door," "I had to look up the word in the dictionary," "Mary doesn't get along
with her sister," "We proceeded with our plans in spite of the weather."
5.2 Australian Idioms

Beyond the black stump - An Australian idiom indicating that even if you go as far as you
can, the black stump is still a little further.
Blood is worth bottling - If an Australian says to you "Your blood is worth bottling", he/she
is complimenting or praising you for doing something or being someone very special.
Cut down the tall poppies - If people cut down the tall poppies, they criticise people who
stand out from the crowd.

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@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Slangs and Idioms
Slangs and Idioms
Dog-whistle politics - When political parties have policies that will appeal to racists while not
being overtly racist, they are indulging in dog-whistle politics.
Dry as a wooden god - Very dry area or very thirsty: That desert is as dry as a wooden god.
Flat out like a lizard drinking - An Australian idiom meaning extremely busy, which is a
word play which humorously mixes two meanings of the term flat out.
Mad as a cut snake - One who is mad as a cut snake has lost all sense of reason, is crazy, out
of control.
On the knocker - If you do something on the knocker, you do it immediately or promptly.
On the wallaby track - In Australian English, if you're on the wallaby track, you are
unemployed.
See which way the cat jumps - If you see which way the cat jumps, you postpone making a
decision or acting until you have seen how things are developing.
She'll be apples - A very popular old Australian saying meaning everything will be all right,
often used when there is some doubt.
Talk the legs off an iron pot - Somebody who is excessively talkative or is especially
convincing is said to talk the legs off an iron pot. ('Talk the legs off an iron chair' is also used)
Tongue in cheek not serious or to joke
Up a gum tree - If you're up a gum tree, you're in trouble or a big mess.

5.3 Chinese Idioms
The following is a list of Chinese Idioms. A translation for each is provided, along with an
equivalent English expression where possible.

1.
To hit it off right from the start; to feel like old friends upon first meeting. Similar to
, love at first sight.

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@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Slangs and Idioms
Slangs and Idioms

We hit it off the moment we met and got married three months later.
2.
Use this when someone you know likes someone but that person doesnt like them back. For
example, a man is trying to do whatever he can to please a woman but the woman just does
not like him. However this also has a slightly negative connotation and implies that the
person is only taking into account his or her own feelings and not those of the other party. (A
common occurrence when courting someone a little out of ones league!)

My cousin wants to go after one of my classmates but unfortunately his love is only one-way.
3.
This phrase implies that you put your boyfriend or girlfriend ahead of your friends. In English,
the US slang [to put] bros before hos comes to mind. (Edit: Which has the opposite
meaning. Thanks for the correction.)

Why did you stand me up? Arent we good friends? Could it be that youre the kind of person
who wont put bros before hoes?
4.
To love deeply; to be deeply attached to; to be head over heels.

Although they had broken up, Wangchen and Caobo were still deeply in love.
5.
Even if the seas should run dry and the rocks crumble. By extension, no matter what
happens and for how long. This very poetic and romantic idiom is used to express your
undying love for someone.

He gazed into her eyes and swore to love her until his last dying breath.
6.
To be attracted and attached to one another.

They seemed so attached to one another, then along came someone else.
7.

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@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Slangs and Idioms
Slangs and Idioms
To fly as a couple, wing to wing. This can be used either literally the idea of flying in the
clouds with your lover, such as in a dream or figuratively to mean to enjoy a kind of
activity together, such as going on holiday.

After making enough money, they went out to have some fun.
8.
To have ones feet in two boats. This idiom can refer to a man who already has a girlfriend
but is seeing someone else at the same time. When used generically it can also just refer to
any kind of situation in which someone is undecided.

Its dangerous to have ones feet in two boats.
9.
The lotus root is severed, but linked by threads. This chengyu metaphorises the idea of a
relationship breaking up, but still being connected in some kind of way.

Although they divorced a long time ago, they still contact each other online from time to time
and so have not cut off relations completely.
10.
To make a clean break; to break up; to a sever a relationship completely.

I couldnt take her behaviour any more, so I cut her out of my life.

5.4 Chinese Proverbs ()
The following is a list of Chinese proverbs. A translation for each is provided, along with an
equivalent English expression where possible.

Skill comes from practice; practice makes perfect.
Hearing something 100 times does not measure up to seeing it once; seeing
is believing.
When you enter a village, you should follow its customs; when in Rome, do as
the Romans do.
A friend in need is a friend indeed.
Honest advice grates the ear; good advice is hard to hear.
- Its better to do something yourself than ask someone else for help.
Live till youre old, learn till youre old; its never too late to learn.
Love others as you would yourself.
Eat a moat, grow some wisdom; you live, you learn.

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@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Pre-sessions and Positioning of Interpreters
Pre-sessions and Positioning of Interpreters
When a nobleman takes revenge, ten years is not too late; one
should bide ones time and wait for the right opportunity to seek vengeance; similar to
revenge is a dish best served cold.
Theres no waves without wind; theres no smoke without fire.
The views of heroes are roughly alike; great minds think alike.
A grown daughter cannot be kept unmarried for long; when a girl grows up,
she should not stay at home she should get married.
A dog cant help but eat shit; a leopard cant change its spots.
Man does what he can, but luck determines his accomplishments;
man proposes, God disposes.
One glass of booze every day will make you live till youre 99.
Play with fire and you get burnt.
When men and women work together they dont feel tired.
You cant compare myself to other (successful) people; comparisons are
odious.
- If jade is not carved, it doesnt turn into jewellery; a child needs to be
taught.
Laughing keeps you young; worrying makes you old.
Where theres a will, theres a way.
When drinking water, think of its source; remember past kindness; never forget
ones origins.

6 Pre-sessions and Positioning of Interpreters

6.1 Pre-sessions
For interpreters to establish a rapport with clients and providers, it is important that they take
time at the beginning of each session to introduce themselves to the client and the provider in
separate, short meetings before the interpreting session. These pre-sessions create a
foundation of trust with both parties, illustrate professionalism, assess the linguistic capability
of the client, and provide a basic description of how the interpretation will be carried out.

In the pre-session, interpreters should introduce themselves to the client. Professional
information worth sharing includes the interpreters name, agency, credentials and any other
information that related to the specific interpreting session. Avoid sharing personal
information. Interpreters should use this time to explain their role and what the interpreting
session will be like. Emphasise that all information shared will be kept confidential and that

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@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Pre-sessions and Positioning of Interpreters
Pre-sessions and Positioning of Interpreters
everything said will be interpreted. Clients should be advised to speak to and look directly at
the provider, not to or at the interpreters. Ask clients to pause frequently when speaking to
allow time for interpreting. It is also helpful to establish a signal that will show the client that
more time is needed for interpreting a phrase.

A pre-session meeting might go as follows:

Hi, Mr. Sanchez, my name is Juan. I will be interpreting for you today. Before the doctor
gets here, there are several things I would like to tell you that will allow me to do a better
interpretation for you. During the session, please look at and speak directly to your doctor,
and keep in mind that I will interpret everything you say, exactly as you say it. I will do the
same for the clinician. Please speak in short sentences and pause frequently so that I can
give an accurate interpretation. I will raise my hand as a signal if I need you to pause.
Everything that is said in the session will be kept confidential.

Often, pre-sessions can be less formal than in this example. They typically take place in a
waiting room or the exam room before the providers arrival. Chatting politely with the client
can help foster trust and will also provide an opportunity to note the clients accent,
vocabulary, and speech level. However, if arriving after the provider, the interpreter should
keep pre-sessions rather short.

Interpreters should avoid certain topics during pre-sessions with clients. Often, the clients
mental health or medical history comes up, whether or not they are asked to share the
information. Clients might mistakenly assume that the interpreter will share this information
with the provider once the actual session starts. However, it is crucial that the client tells his
own story, in his own words, to the provider. When the clients share medical information
during the pre-session, give a reminder that they will be expected to share the information
with the provider as well. Also, as mentioned in the Values and Code of Ethics chapter, it
is wise to avoid issues that can become divisive, such as politics, religion, or morality.

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@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Pre-sessions and Positioning of Interpreters
Pre-sessions and Positioning of Interpreters
A pre-session with the clinician is very similar to one with the client. Interpreters should
introduce themselves and give information similar to what was supplied to the client. In
addition, inquire if the clinician has any particular expectations or concerns about the subjects
to be broached or interpreting to be done in this particular session. When interpreting for the
same client or clinician repeatedly, pre-sessions may not be necessary before each
appointment. After a basic rapport has been established through repeated sessions, a simple
greeting is sufficient.

Six Keys for Pre-sessions
1. Give your name and that of your agency, mentioning that you will be the interpreter.
2. Inform the client that he or she should speak directly to the clinician, or vice versa.
3. Stress that everything that is said will be interpreted exactly as it is said, both to and
from the client.
4. Ask the client and the clinician to speak in short sentences in order to facilitate
accurate interpretations.
5. Establish a signal to be used when the interpreter needs more time before new
information is introduced.
6. Inform the client that confidentiality will be strictly maintained.
6.2 Proper Positioning for Interpreter

Three relationships exist in each interpreting session: the one between the clinician and the
interpreter, the one between the clinician and the client, and the one between the client and
the interpreter. The relationship between the clinician and client is the most important of the
three, and the interpreter is present to support it. The clinician and client are usually able to
focus on each other better if the interpreter withdraws from the main sightline between the
two main conversation participants. The more unobtrusive the interpreter is physically, the
better the exchange of information.

Where the interpreter sits during the course of a session is important to consider. If an
interpreter sits directly between the clinician and the client, both parties would likely speak

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@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Pre-sessions and Positioning of Interpreters
Pre-sessions and Positioning of Interpreters
directly to the interpreter instead of to each other, which would disrupt and slow down the
exchange. Therefore, it is best if the interpreter sits next to, but slightly behind, the client. By
doing so, the clients comfort level increases and both parties are encouraged to speak
directly to one another. In addition, the interpreter may find that looking down or avoiding
eye contact will allow for the clinician and client to address each other more directly and
thereby eliminate the possibility of either person engaging in conversation with the
interpreter.

6.3 Responding to Difficult Situations

During an interpreting session, it is not unlikely for a situation to arise that may negatively
affect the flow of information. The interpreter must be ready to address those problems that
arise from various communication problems. These can manifest themselves in various ways.

Some difficult situations can occur when family members attend appointments with clients.
Sometimes family members insist on interpreting for the client. The client might also decide
that a professional interpreter is no longer needed because the family member is present to
interpret for them. In these cases, it is a good idea to leave the decision of whether to
participate in the interpretation, either as the main interpreter or as an aide if linguistic
problems arise, to the clinician. Each institution has different policies, and the interpreter
should learn them before each appointment.

Another common situation when family members are present is that the family member
might abstain from interpreting but insist on contributing to the conversation with questions
or comments. The interpreter needs to keep in mind that the client has a right to know
everything that is said in the conversation. The rule of thumb is to interpret everything,
regardless of whether the speaker is a nurse, clinician, or family member. If everyone speaks
at the same time and the flow of information is negatively impacted, it is the responsibility of
the interpreter to step in and stop the session temporarily, asking everyone to take turns when
speaking.

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@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Other Necessary Skills for Interpreters
Other Necessary Skills for Interpreters
Other issues can come up when either the client or the provider has never used an interpreter
before. Either party might forget the interpreters request to speak at a reasonable pace,
address the other party directly, or pause to allow time for interpretation. In these cases,
interpreters should calmly and professionally interrupt the session to remind the speaker to
decrease the pace or pause frequently.
7 Other Necessary Skills for Interpreters
7.1 Note taking Skills
Effective note-taking from lectures and readings is an essential skill for university study.
Good note taking allows a permanent record for revision and a register of relevant points that
you can integrate with your own writing and speaking. Good note-taking reduces the risk of
plagiarism. It also helps you distinguish where your ideas came from and how you think
about those ideas.
Effective note-taking requires the following:
recognising the main ideas
identifying what information is relevant to your task
having a system of note taking that works for you
reducing the information to note and diagram format
where possible, putting the information in your own words
recording the source of the information
Note taking strategies
Before you start to take notes, remember do not write in long sentences or do not write down
a whole words as you will skip information coming on the next segment. You should only
take down main ideas, specific information such as numbers, codes or addresses. Many of
the strategies for reading note taking also apply to listening note taking. However, unlike
reading, you cannot stop a passage as you listen (unless you listen to a taped recording).
Therefore preparation prior to listening can greatly improve comprehension.
Have a clear purpose
Recognise main ideas
Select what is relevant - you do not need to write down everything that is said
Have a system for recording information that works
1. Use symbols and Abbreviations
Make your own symbols for the following:

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Other Necessary Skills for Interpreters
Equals, not equal to.
Therefore, thus, so
Because
And, more plus,
More than and less than
Gives, causes, leads to, results in, is given by, is produced by, results from
Rises, increases by
Falls, decreases by
Compare
That is
For example,
Number

2. Use maps and diagrams to construct sentences. This is helpful when listening to long
sentences.

For example, if you wish to interpret Mainly, because your body needs insulin to
break down the sugars in food into a form which the body can absorb, so your cells
werent getting enough energy from the food you were eating., you may use the
following to remember this long sentence.
Insulin X Sugar body abs. cell X energy food

Remember no matter what system you use, you must have sufficient practice with it.
If you are unfamiliar with your own methods, it is possible that you will not even
understand your own writing or sequences of notes. There is no short cut for being a
good note taker. It takes repetition, time and practice. Students should try to find
longer texts and evaluate whether their own personalised methods is an effective
method. You may find that when you concentrate too much on note taking, you
sometimes miss out on picking up small details. Therefore, you must be very fluent
with your note taking and do this efficiently so that you have room to pay attention to
the small details such as tenses.
7.2 Memory Skills

There are three different kinds of memory: very short-term memory, short-term memory, and
long-term memory. The first enables individuals to retain an exact string of numbers in their
head for approximately four to eight seconds. Once that time has passed, the numbers are
typically forgotten. Short-term memory is more sophisticated, allowing the retention of ideas
and concepts. Finally, long-term memory is the vault of memory, storing what has been
learned in the past so that it is remembered over time.

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@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Other Necessary Skills for Interpreters
Other Necessary Skills for Interpreters

During interpretation, all three forms of memory are used. Interpreters, therefore, become
better when they find ways to sharpen memory retention skills. Very short-term memory is of
limited value to an interpreter. Improving long-term memory requires extensive practice and
study over time and also tends to be of limited value in the immediate, give-and-take world of
interpreting. Therefore, improving short-term memory skills can help interpreters the most
because that is what interpreters rely upon when transferring information.

Expanding short-term memory capacity requires consistent, repeated exercises practiced
habitually. Below are several techniques interpreters can practice or use within the context of
a session:

Concentrate: Focus on the words being communicated. In the course of a session,
interpreters can close their eyes or focus on a point on the wall in an effort to shut out
all distractions and concentrate better. They should try to clear their minds of all
thoughts unrelated to the communication and silence inner voices so as to focus on the
speakers voice.

Visualise: Picture the events being communicated as a way to remember a sequence
of events. Visualising a scenario as it is being spoken can help an interpreter to recall
the events efficiently when they interpret them for the other party.

For example, a client might say: I feel my anxiety increase every time I am expecting
an important phone call. Yesterday, I was expecting a conference call from my client
at 4:00 p.m. I started to lose my concentration at 12:30 p.m. and I couldnt finish my
report. By 2:15 p.m., I began to perspire more and my palms were sweaty. About 3:00
p.m., I had to use the washroom every 15 minutes.

In this instance, an interpreter might picture the client watching the clock, sweating,
and going into the bathroom multiple times with 4pm written in large letters on a

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Other Necessary Skills for Interpreters
calendar on the wall. Visualising just the concepts can make the interpretation much
easier.

Echo: When hearing key phrases in a clients message, an interpreter might echo them
in their head as a way to remember them. In the following paragraph, the words in
boldface are those that an interpreter might want to echo in her head while listening.

Well, Doctor, I dont know how it started. I used to never get headaches, but over
the past several months, I have been having them frequently. They give me
throbbing pain, and some last for hours.

Of course, an interpreter will pass on everything that is said, but, by echoing those key
words in his mind, the interpreter will create neural pathways that make it easier to
find those key words again.

Count: When a client states a few items to be interpreted, an interpreter can create a
numbered list in her head. For example, the health care provider may ask, Is there
any history of depression, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia in your family? If the
interpreter visually attaches a number to each disorder and creates a list in her head, it
will be easier to remember everything that was mentioned.

Take notes: Interpreters are permitted to write notes while interpreting to remember
key phrases, names, numbers, dates, and the like. To be polite, however, ask clients if
they mind note taking before a session starts. Assure them that all notes taken for use
during the session will be disposed of immediately after the session to ensure
confidentiality.

Note taking during interpreting sessions can be made easier if interpreters develop
shorthand for themselves. Using shorthand enables speakers to talk for longer periods
without interrupting the messages flow for interpretation. Avoid making up symbols

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Other Necessary Skills for Interpreters
on the spot. Instead, take time outside of sessions to develop personal shorthand of
terms that come up frequently in interpreting sessions. Using shorthand requires a
good deal of practice so that it becomes automatic. After some practice, taking notes
will not impede the interpreters ability to listen to what is said.

7.3 Stress Associated with Interpreting

Interpreting can be an extremely stressful job. A variety of stress factors come into play when
you are on the job. Client may try to develop personal relationships with you or have
unreasonable expectations of your role as the interpreter. Client may also be difficult to work
with if they are aggressive or have aggressive family members with them, if they are rude or
dishonest, or if they refuse your services and insist they know enough English and do not
require your services. Clinicians and other staff members can be a source of stress as well.
Some clinicians may exhibit cultural, racial, or sexual prejudices toward you or the client.
Also, clinicians may have unreasonable expectations of your skill level or may expect you to
help clinic staff if they are short-handed.

Even when both the client and clinician behave professionally and courteously, however,
other common stress factors will arise. The job of delivering bad news to a client is certainly
a source of anxiety. It is also possible that you may experience vicarious traumatisation
when working with clients who have survived torture or trauma. If you have had a similar
experience to that of a client, you may relive trauma from your own life. In another way,
stress can occur if you find yourself spread too thin. Appointments will sometimes extend for
a long period of time, and fatigue can affect the quality of your work. You may also find that
you do not have enough time or knowledge to help your client. In addition, you may be asked
to interpret for clients who were not scheduled for you.To help reduce the stress associated
with mental health interpreting, set boundaries within the interpreting setting. Pre-sessions,
discussed in an earlier chapter, are useful tools in establishing the interpreters role providing
guidelines for what interpretations should be like. Interpreters should never give home phone
numbers to a client or agree to give them additional services outside of the agreed upon
business contract. It is essential that interpreters separate their emotions from a clients.

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@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Other Necessary Skills for Interpreters
Other Necessary Skills for Interpreters
However, if an interpreter finds the interpretation session being affected by personal
emotions, the client and clinician should be notified so that alternate interpreting assistance
can be obtained.

Finding a Support System
Joining an interpreter support group can be a big help in managing the stresses of the job.
This is where interpreters can share stories about stressors in a safe and confidential
environment. Sharing stories with those in similar jobs can be very helpful.
Other ideas for stressed interpreters include:
De-stress outside of work with physical exercise / leisure time
Join professional associations
Seek assistance from agency supervisors or co-workers
Get professional counselling

Professional Development for Interpreters
Professional interpreters should continually work to expand skills. Through different types of
information gathering and practice, the chore of lifelong learning can turn into a fun part of
the job.

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@Harvest Education Technical College 2009 | 64

8 Vocabulary
Business
General

ACCC Australian
Competition and
Consumers Commission
Amalgamate or merge
Annuity
ATM Automatic teller
machine
Bad debt
Balance sheet
Beneficiary
Broker
Building society
Call centre
Cash flow
Collateral
Compound interest
Debentures
Debtor
Depreciation
Devaluation
Disposable income e
Dividend
Franchise
Gift duty
Income tax
Inflation
Indexation
Intellectual property
Joint ownership
Levy
Liability
Limited liability company
Liquid assets
Market share
Market value
Monopoly
Negative gearing
Niche marketing
Outsource
Overdraft
Privatisation
Reference number
Reimbursement
Reserve Bank of
Australia
Rollover
Securities
Small Claims Tribunal
Telegraphic transfer
Trade-in
Trademark
Treasury note
Trust account
Write off a debt
Yield
9 Vocabulary -
Insurance

Accident insurance
Adequate coverage
Assessor
Comprehensive insurance
Compulsory third party
insurance
Contents insurance
Disclosure
Extra premium
Fraud
Income protection
Insurance premium
Make a claim
Professional indemnity
insurance
Replacement policy
Surrender value
10 Vocabulary -
Taxation

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@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Vocabulary - Education
Vocabulary - Education
Assessable income
Commission
Gross income
Gross salary
Lump sum
Remuneration
Superannuation
Undeclared income
Workers compensation
Expenditure
Self-education expenses
Tax deductible
Trade union
Concessional rebate
Family Tax Assistance
Medicare levy
Medicare levy surcharge
Deputy Commissioner of
Taxation
Electronic lodgement
Fringe benefits tax
Group certificate
Instalment
Lodge a tax return
Personal income tax
Tax refund
Statutory declaration
Tax file number
Tax rebate
Financial year
Notice of assessment
Tax indexation
Tax threshold
Business Activity
Statement
Claim input tax credits
for GST
GST goods and services
tax
Marginal tax rate

11 Vocabulary -
Education

Book levy
Bursary
Discipline
Distance education
Drop out
Home schooling
School council
Tertiary
Diploma
Degree
Canteen
Cram
Locker
Accounting
Algebra
Craft work
Drama
Geography
Geometry
Home economics
Linguistics
LOTE languages other
than English
Shorthand
Appendix
Prerequisite subject
Punctuation
Syntax
Boarder
Convenor
Deputy principal
Form teacher
Language aid
School leaver
Speech therapist

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@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Vocabulary Medical - Pregnancy
Vocabulary Medical - Pregnancy
Apprenticeship
Core curriculum
Mentoring program
Module
Orientation day
Remedial education
ADD Attention Deficit
Disorder
Corporal punishment
Detention
Vandalism
Wag class
Institute of Technology
Special Assistance Unit
TAFE Technical and
Further Education
VET sector Vocational
and Educational Training

12 Vocabulary
Medical -
Pregnancy

1
st
trimester
2
nd
trimester
3
rd
trimester
Down syndrome
Cleft palate
Breech birth
Caesarean
Chorionic villus sampling
Congenital
Contractions
Cord
Enema
Epidural
Full term
Gestational diabetes
Go into labour
Morning sickness
Nausea
Neonatal ward
Placenta
Post-natal
Rubella
Ultrasound

13 Vocabulary
Medical
Child birth

Colic
Cot
Demand feeding
Dummy
Express milk
Lactation
Lactose
Lactose intolerance
Maternity leave
Paediatrician
SIDS Sudden Infant
Death Syndrome

14 Vocabulary
Medical
Children
Diseases

Diphtheria
Measles
Whooping cough

15 Vocabulary
Medical
Family
Planning

Cervix
Contraception

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67

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Vocabulary Medical Diet
Vocabulary Medical Diet
Hysterectomy
Intercourse
IVF in vitro fertilisation
Lubricant
Ovulation
Pap smear
Pelvis
Puberty
Vagina
Vulva
16 Vocabulary
Medical Diet
Anorexia
Binge eating
Bulimia
Carbohydrate
Carbonated beverages
Carcinogen
Complex carbohydrate
Legumes
Protein
Vegan
Wholemeal
Yeast
17 Vocabulary
Medical
Drugs

AIDS Acquired
Immune Deficiency
Syndrome
Detoxification
Ecstasy
Hashish
OD overdose
Recreational drug
Withdrawal syndrome
18 Vocabulary
Medical
General
Biopsy
Carcinoma=cancer
Bulk billing
Coma
Dehydration
Discharge
ECG electrocardiogram
EEG
electroencephalogram
EMG electromyogram
Epidemic
Fungus
Geriatric
Referral
Glandular fever
Hereditary
Diagnosis
Membrane
Postural drainage
Prescription
Spasm
Specimen
Sterile
Trauma

19 Vocabulary
Medical
Vaccinations
BCG
Carrier
Cholera
Diphtheria
Malaria
Tetanus
Typhoid

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68

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Vocabulary Medical Specialists
Vocabulary Medical Specialists
20 Vocabulary
Medical
Specialists
Anaesthetist
Audiologist
Cardiologist
Chiropractor
Dermatologist
Endocrinologist
ENT specialist
Epidemiologist
Gastro-enterologist
GP general practitioner
Geriatrician
Gynaecologist
Obstetrician
Haematologist
Laryngologist
Matron
Midwife
Naturopath
Neuro-surgeon
Oncologist
Ophthalmologist
Optometrist
Orthodontist
Pathologist
Physician
Physiotherapist
Podiatrist
Psychiatrist
Psychologist
Radiographer
Thoracic surgeon
21 Vocabulary
Immigration

An advice form
An assurance of support
Certificate of Evidence of
Resident Status
Commonwealth Register
of Institutions and
Courses for Overseas
Students (CRICOS)
An electronic
confirmation of
enrolment (ecoe)
A naturalisation
certificate
Overseas Student Health
Cover (OSHC)
A permit
A statutory declaration, a
stat dec
The statutory fee
A work permit
A visa
A resident return visa
A transit visa
A student visa:
1. Independent
ELICOS (English
Language
Intensive Course
for Overseas
Students)
Subclass 570
2. Schools sector
Subclass 571
3. Vocational
Education and
Training
Subclass 572
4. Higher Education
Subclass 573
5. Masters and
Doctorate
Subclass 574
6. Non-award
Foundation
Studies Subclass
575
Employer sponsored
Migration
Employer Nomination
Scheme
General Skilled Migration
The humanitarian
program

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69

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Vocabulary Social Welfare
Vocabulary Social Welfare
Regional Sponsored
Migration Scheme
(RSMS)
Special humanitarian
grounds
Come through customs
Cross-check
Declare
Deny
Emigrate = leave a
country
Entitle someone to
Migrate
Seek asylum
Defacto relationship
Embassy
English proficiency
Fomal study
MRT Migration Review
Tribunal

22 Vocabulary
Social Welfare

Abstudy
Age Pension
Advance payment
Bereavement allowance
Carer Allowance
Domiciliary Nursing Care
Benefit
Double Orphan Pension
Education Maintenance
Allowance
Family Tax Benefit
Newstart Allowance
Pharmaceutical
Allowance
Rehabilitation Allowance
Sole Parent Allowance
Supplementary
Assistance
Tuberculosis
Allowance\Youth
Allowance
Commonwealth Seniors
Health Card
Meals-on-wheels
Medicare card
Pensioner Concession
Card
Bulk billing
Administrative Appeals
Tribunal (AAT)
Alcoholics Anonymous
Alzheimers Association
Centrelink Multicultural
Services
Commonwealth
Ombudsman
Council of Ageing
Ethnic Communities
Council
Family Assistance Office
Gamblers Anonymous
Health Services
Commissioner
Social Security
Social Security Appeals
Tribunal
Injunction
Interim Order
Intervention Order
A means test = an assets
and income test
Juvenile Court
Assess point
23 Vocabulary
Tourism

Acclimatise
Admission charge
Economy class
Ecotourism
Embarkation card
Excursion

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70

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Vocabulary Courtroom
Vocabulary Courtroom
A steamer
A steward
A synagogue
24 Vocabulary
Courtroom

Acquittal
Adjudicate
Appeal
Arraignment
Bail
Conviction
Docket
Ex parte
Hearing
Indictment
Information
Judgement
Mistrial
Motion
Oath
Objection
Overruled
Parole
Perjury
Plaintiff
Defendant
Plead
Proceeding
Remand
Reverse
Sustained
Verdict
Sentence
Warrant
Your honour


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@Harvest Education Technical College 2009 | 71

25 Dialogues Business Simple Conversation - Springco
This is a simple conversation between a Business Reporter and a Business Manager.
Business Reporter: Thank you for taking the time to meet with me today.
Manager: It's my pleasure
Business Reporter: Who do you work for?
Manager: I work for Springco.
Business Reporter: What does Springco do?
Manager:Springco distributes health products throughout the United States.
Business Reporter: Where is the company based?
Manager:Springco is located in Vermont.
Business Reporter: How many people do you employ?
Manager: Currently, we have 450 people on staff.
Business Reporter: What's your annual revenue?
Manager: Our gross revenue is about $5.5. million this year.
Business Reporter: What type of distribution services do you provide?
Manager: We distribute to both wholesale and retail outlets.
Business Reporter: What sort of internet presence do you have?
Manager: We have a storefront, as well as an online forum.
Business Reporter: Is your company public?
Manager: No, we are a privately held company.
Business Reporter: What type of logistical structure do you have?
Manager: We ship from four regional warehouses.
Business Reporter: Where are your products manufactured?
Manager: Most of our products are manufactured abroad, but a number are also
producedhere in the United States.

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@Harvest Education Technical College 2009 | 72

26 Simple Dialogues Business Customer Service
Conversations
Customer Service Representative: Hello, Big City Electricity, how may I help you today?
Mr. Peters: I'm calling concerning my electricity bill.
Customer Service Representative: May I have your account number?
Mr. Peters: Certainly, it's 4392107.
Customer Service Representative: Thank you, is this Mr. Peters?
Mr. Peters: Yes, this is Mr. Peters.
Customer Service Representative: Thank you, what can I help you with?
Mr. Peters: I think I've been overcharged for the past month.
Customer Service Representative: I'm sorry to hear that. Why do you think we charged you
too much?
Mr. Peters: The bill is 300% higher than last month.
Customer Service Representative: I'm sorry to hear that. Let me ask you a few questions
and then I'll see what I can do.
Mr. Peters: OK, Thank you for your help.
Customer Service Representative: Of course, thank you for calling this to our attention.
Now, how much do you usually pay for your electricity?
Mr. Peters: I usually pay about $50 a month.
Customer Service Representative: Thank you. and how much did we charge on this bill?
Mr. Peters: $150. I can't understand why.
Customer Service Representative: Yes, Mr Peters. Was your usage different in any way?
Mr. Peters: No, it was an average month.
Customer Service Representative: I'm sorry there certainly seems to be a mistake.
Mr. Peters: Well, I'm happy you agree with me.
Customer Service Representative: I'll contact a service representative to come out and
check your meter. What's your address Mr Peters?
Mr. Peters: 223 Flanders St., Tacoma, Washington 94998
Customer Service Representative: ... and what's your phone number?
Mr. Peters: 408-533-0875
Customer Service Representative: I'm terribly sorry about the misunderstanding. We'll do
our best to change this as quickly as possible.
Mr. Peters: Thank you for your help in clearing this up.

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73

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Simple Dialogues Business Talking About
Your Job
Simple Dialogues Business Talking About Your Job
27 Simple Dialogues Business Talking About Your Job

Jack: Hi Peter. Can you tell me a little bit about your current job?
Peter: Certainly What would you like to know?
Jack: First of all, what do you work as?
Peter: I work as a computer technician at Schuller's and Co.
Jack: What do your responsibilities include?
Peter: I'm responsible for systems administration and in-house programming.
Jack: What sort of problems do you deal with on a day-to-do basis?
Peter: Oh, there are always lots of small system glitches. I also provide information on a
need-to-know basis for employees.
Jack: What else does your job involve?
Peter: Well, as I said, for part of my job I have to develop in-house programs for special
company tasks.
Jack: Do you have to produce any reports?
Peter: No, I just have to make sure that everything is in good working order.
Jack: Do you ever attend meetings?
Peter: Yes, I attend organizational meetings at the end of the month.
Jack: Thanks for all the information, Peter. It sounds like you have an interesting job.
Peter: Yes, it's very interesting, but stressful, too!

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74

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Simple Dialogues Business Brand Image
Simple Dialogues Business Brand Image
28 Simple Dialogues Business Brand Image

Susan: George, I was wondering if we could discuss our new marketing strategy for
a moment.
George: Certainly Susan. You know that I'm working with Anne on changing our
image, don't you?
Susan: Yes, I think you'll make an excellent team. How do you feel about the
merchandise we're pushing?
George: In my opinion, the products were offering are fine. However, I think we
should concentrate on expanding our market share in the young adult market.
Susan: I totally agree. Who buys more products than twenty somethings?
George: Exactly. We haven't been very successful in our branding efforts, have we?
Susan: I'm not keen on changing our target audience, but we certainly have to improve
our brand image.
George: If we want to edge out our main competitor, we're going to have to target
customers at a younger age.
Susan: Maybe, but we also have to keep our competitive edge in quality.
George: Why don't we all get together for a discussion?
Susan: Can you let me know when your next meeting with Anne is going to be? I'd like to
go over some of our restructuring ideas with both of you.
George: As a matter of fact, we'll be meeting this afternoon. Let's meet at four, shall we?
Susan: I'm afraid I already have an appointment then. Do you think we could meet earlier?
George: Well, I'll have to check with Anne.

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75

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Simple Dialogues Business Telephone
Banking
Simple Dialogues Business Telephone Banking
29 Simple Dialogues Business Telephone Banking

Representative: Hello. How can I help you today?
Customer: Hello. I'd like some information on the telephone banking service offered by your
bank.
Representative: Certainly. Where is your bank branch?
Customer: At the High Street Branch.
Representative: What would you like to know?
Customer: How do I sign up?
Representative: Just let me know, I'll sign you up immediately.
Customer: Can you tell me how the telephone banking services work?
Representative: You can do all your day-to-day banking over the telephone, 24 hours a day.
Customer: That's great. How do I access my account?
Representative: Just call the bank, key in your PIN number and listen to the menu of options
available.
Customer: How do I choose which option I want?
Representative: Just press the number for the service stated by the recording.
Customer: What kind of things can I do?
Representative: You can check your balance, pay bills, order a statement or even transfer
money to another bank.
Customer: That's fantastic! Can I trade stocks and bonds.
Representative: I'm afraid you will have to have a special account for that.
Customer: What about getting help if I have any problems?
Representative: There's an automated answering machine and staff are available 9 to 5 seven
days a week.
Customer: It all sounds very good to me. I'd like to sign up.
Representative: Alright, can you answer a few questions please?
Customer: Certainly...

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76

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Business Mortgage Application
Dialogues Business Mortgage Application
30 Dialogues Business Mortgage Application

This dialogue takes place between Mr Ben Doherty, a loan manager at a bank called
SmartVest and Mrs Wang Fang, a Mandarin-speaking client who is making an enquiry
about how to apply for a mortgage.
Mr Doherty: Hi. How can I help you today?

Mrs Wang ():
[Hello. I would like to know more
about how to apply for a home loan. Ive been inspecting some beautiful houses in the outer
suburbs this week, and there is one in particular that caught my eye.]

Mr Doherty: Fantastic. Allow me to introduce myself. My name is Ben Doherty and Im a
loan manager here at SmartVest Bank. I would be happy to help you with any finance advice
you require. So, tell me, what is it that attracted you to the property?

Mrs Wang ():

[The house I looked at was really spacious


and has been newly renovated. It has three bedrooms, one living room and two bathrooms.
Theres also a big backyard where I can let my dogs run around. I could never imagine
getting such a lovely place in my hometown Beijing at a decent price.]

Mr Doherty: I can imagine. How much was the property valued at?

Mrs Wang ():

[Ah, yes. This is what I was worrying about. The property is valued at
$560,000 which, although much cheaper than I was expecting, is still a little out of my price
range. Considering how much the property is worth, how much do you think I can borrow?]

Mr Doherty: How much you can afford to borrow will depend on a range of different things
such as your income, your credit history and your savings. Later on we can use one of our
home loan calculators to give you a good indication of your borrowing power and help you
work out what your repayments would be.

Mrs Wang ():
[I see. Youll have to excuse me as Ive never applied for a loan before,
so I have a thousand questions.]

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77

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Business Mortgage Application
Dialogues Business Mortgage Application

Mr Doherty: By all means, shoot.

Mrs Wang ():
[OK. Ive actually written out a list of
questions Id like to ask if you dont mind. Firstly, could you tell me how much deposit I need
to make?]

Mr Doherty: No I dont mind at all, its always great to see customers being organised and
taking the initiative! I can see youre really eager to get stuck in to this, so lets get started.
Ah yes, now, you asked me about deposit Well, with our home loans, you typically need a
deposit of at least 5% of the propertys value plus enough to cover stamp duty and other
admin fees.
Mrs Wang ():

[I see. And what documents do I need to provide when


applying? The reason I ask is one of my cousins recently applied for a personal loan at
another bank and she was surprised by how much paperwork she had to provide. She said it
was a lot of stuffing around.]

Mr Doherty: Yes, I understand. There are a number of documents you will need to provide. I
have a checklist here. You can have a look at it.
Well basically you need to provide a 100-point identification check, and evidence of your
income, as well as details about the assets you own, and also any outstanding debt you have
as well.
Mrs Wang ():

[OK. Oh, I just remembered one thing. My neighbour said that if youre
purchasing your first home you can also apply for a whats it called? I think its called a
First Home Owner Grant. It sounds great! I had no idea such a thing existed.]
[Im not an Australian
citizen, although I do have Permanent Residency. Am I still eligible for it?]

Mr Doherty: Dont worry, permanent residents can also apply for it. The main thing is that
you are buying your first home in Australia and that you plan to stay in that place for at least
12 months afterwards. Here, Ill give you this factsheet. Maybe your interpreter could
translate it for you later.

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78

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Business Mortgage Application
Dialogues Business Mortgage Application
Mrs Wang (): [Thank
you. There is so much information to go through. Do you mind if we take a short break?]
Mr Doherty: No worries. Ill get you a cuppa and a bickie if you like. Theres no point
rushing such an important decision after all and later in the afternoon I can explain all your
options and take you through some scenarios that might work best for you.

Mrs Wang (): [That sounds lovely. Thanks again.]

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79

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Business Recruitment Agency
Dialogues Business Recruitment Agency
31 Dialogues Business Recruitment Agency
This is a dialogue between a Mandarin-speaking woman, Ms Luo, and MrLongman, the
CEO of Longman Staffing Services.

Luo: [Good afternoon, Mr Longman. Pleased to
meet you.]

Longman: Thank you very much. Please take a seat. My secretary told me that your
company in China is interested in hiring us to do your recruiting overseas? [
]

Luo:
[Thank you. Yes. I represent Red
Eagle Communications, one of the largest media companies in China. Our recruiting
requirements are quite big, and will continue to grow over the next year due to how our
company is evolving.]

Longman: Ah yes. I read the English version of the company profile you sent through last
week. Your company seems to be going through quite a transformation. [
]

Luo:
[Indeed. Our company is going through a major
restructuring. Usually our human resources division handles all our recruiting outside of
China, but we are now looking to outsource it.]

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80

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Business Recruitment Agency
Dialogues Business Recruitment Agency
Longman: Well let me say youve made a wise choice. [
]
Luo:
[We
hope so. We found your company after we did some research on headhunting companies in
Australia. Your market share seems fairly high. In fact, you seem to be the leader in your
field.]

Longman: Thats great to hear. Im also proud of the achievements we have made.
Recruiting in-house can be expensive but my company can save you time and money. [

]

Luo: [What kind of services do you provide,
specifically?]

Longman: We handle the whole recruiting process from resumes, to cover letters, to
organising all the job interviews. We can also help you with writing position descriptions, as
well as checking candidates references. [
]

Luo: [I see. Im going to
start to take some notes, as I have a few questions Id like to ask.]

Longman: Please, go ahead, Im all ears. []

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81

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Business Recruitment Agency
Dialogues Business Recruitment Agency
Luo: [Could you start by telling
me what areas your company specialises in?]
Longman: Well, we recruit across all industries, but we have four specialist divisions. The
first one is Professional Business Support. The second one is Accounting & Finance. The
third, Sales & Marketing. And, lastly, we have the Government & Industry division. [

]

Luo:
[Sales and marketing is of particular concern for us. As we
continue to establish more branches in South East Asia we will need to find more people with
the talent and skills we need.]

Harris: Well, we use various internet resources as well as print media to source high-quality
candidates. On top of this, we have an extensive range of contacts in media industries all
around the world. We also receive a large number of referrals from our existing clientele. [

]

Luo: [Do you normally charge for advertising?]

Longman: No. We do not charge for advertising. In fact, we can often fill your position
without the need for any kind of advertising. However should you wish to do any kind of
special advertising we can negotiate competitive rates with advertisers. [

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82

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Business Recruitment Agency
Dialogues Business Recruitment Agency
Luo: [So, how long do you spend
interviewing candidates?]
Harris: The average interview takes approximately 45 minutes, but this can differ depending
on the role the candidate is being interviewed for. [
]

Luo: [What happens if the candidate is not suitable
for the position?]

Harris: Well, if a candidate does not work out for whatever reason within their
probationary period we can refill the role free of charge. [-
, ]

Luo:
[Hmm, that sounds reasonable. Thank
you again for receiving me today. I will talk with my superiors in China tonight and
tomorrow morning I will send you information about the recruiting requirements our
company has for this month.]

Harris: No worries. I look forward to helping you with any human resource enquiries you
might have. []

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83

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Business Customer Enquiry
Dialogues Business Customer Enquiry
32 Dialogues Business Customer Enquiry

This is a dialogue between a sales personnel and a customer wishing to buy a new computer
at a large electrical store.
Sales: Good afternoon. How can I help you?
Customer:NEC

Sales:Well, that depends on what youd like to know. I am not sure I understand your
question very well.
Customer:NEC NEC

Sales: NEC make a whole range of electrical appliances and computer products. Its an
excellent brand. My brothers god an NECT computer and hes never had any trouble with it.
Customer:

Sales: Ill have to find that out for you. I must admit, Ive never used by brothers computer,
hes always on the internet. If you dont mind waiting, Ill ask one of the other sales people.
Customer:

Sales: Its a standard 12-month warranty, so you dont need to worry, if the machine breaks
down theyll fix it, or perhaps even replace it for you.
Customer:

Sales: The warranty covers you for all the parts and for labour, but only for 12 months. You
can get an extended three-year warranty plan, for an additional cost of just $395.
Customer:2 2880

Sales: Weve only got a six-month interest- free payment plan. Its financed through RACV
Banking Services. Would you like me to give you the relevant application form?
Customer:

Sales: Im sorry I couldnt be of more help to you.

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84

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Business Making a Complaint
Dialogues Business Making a Complaint
33 Dialogues Business Making a Complaint

This dialogue takes place over the phone between Mandarin-speaking Mrs Chen, who has
just transferred her homes telephone landline from Telstra to Optus, and Eddie, a Telstra
service consultant. The conversation is about some problems Mrs Chen has encountered in
the transfer.
Eddie: Good afternoonThis is Eddie Prince speaking, how can I help you? (13 words)
Interpretation:Eddie Prince
Mrs Chen:

Interpretation:Hello. I remember I already told you that I would like to cancel my phone, why
is it that I still received telephone bills this month? I thought I already cancelled it last
month?(34 words)
Eddie: Okay, I am glad to help you. Can you please tell me your customer reference number?
(16 words)
Interpretation:
Mrs Chen: 33222156.
Interpretation: My account number is 33222156. (5 words)
Eddie: I need to check some personal details to confirm that you are the account holder.
Please state your full name, date of birth and home address. (26 words)
Interpretation:

Mrs Chen: 1955 4 28 5 Cross
Road, Coopers Plains.
Interpretation: My name is Chen Mei. My date of birth is 28
th
of April, 1955. My home
address is 5 Cross Road, Coopers Plains.(23 words)
Eddie: Thank you Mrs Chen. I can see that you have called us requesting to cancel your
Telstra account. Telstra then sent you a final bill to pay. Are you referring to this final bill of
$87.50? (35 words)
Interpretation:Telstra
Telstra 87.50
Mrs Chen:

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85

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Business Making a Complaint
Dialogues Business Making a Complaint
Interpretation: Yes. Can you please explain why I still have to pay this much money when I
am not using the phone?(21 words)
Eddie: Yes. Although you have not used the landline during the month of March, however,
you cancelled the service on the 3
rd
of March so you still have to pay for line rental for March.
(34 words)
Interpretation:3 3

Mrs Chen:2
60
Interpretation: Okay. I thought I asked you to cancel my account in February. I am sorry, I
remembered wrongly. But why is there an extra 60 dollars?(26 words)
Eddie: The remaining $60 refers to the unpaid telephone calls which you have made in
February. Therefore, this bill is $87.50. You need to pay Telstra for all telephone and line
rental expenses. (32 words)
Interpretation: 60 2 87.50
Telstra
Mrs Chen:

Interpretation: Oh, I remember now, I did not pay the Februarytelephone bill. I understand
now. Thank you. I will pay this money. (22 words)
Eddie: Not a problem. I am glad that I was able to clarify it for you. Are there any other
questionsMrs Chen? (22 words)
Interpretation:
Mrs Chen:
Interpretation: No, Thank you. (3 words)


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86

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Business How to Invest Money
Dialogues Business How to Invest Money
34 Dialogues Business How to Invest Money

This dialogue is about a customer enquiring about how to invest money at a bank.
Bank Officer: Hello. Please come in. Im Kim Brown and youre?
Customer: Kim
Bank Officer: Please to meet you, Ms. Zhang. Now, what can I do for you?
Customer:

Bank Officer: I gather youd like some advice on how to invest it. How much do you have to
invest?
Customer:5
Bank Officer: Thats a good amount. There are a number of investment options you could
consider. But Id like to get some more details from you, before we can discuss some
investment portfolio options.
Customer:
Bank Officer: Well, for example, do you own any other property or shares? How long would
you like to invest your money? And what kind of risks and return do you have in mind?
Customer:5


Bank Officer: Will you want to have access to the money in the meantime?
Customer:
Bank Officer: Yes, and its generally advisable to spread your funds over a number of
different investments. This definitely helps minimise risks, and you can ensure that youve
got ready access to at least part of it.
Customer:

Bank Officer: Certainly. Investing in shares is still worth considering it really depends on
which industries and companies you invest in; buying various bonds is very similar.
Customer:
Bank Officer: Government bonds are very safe; theyre an outstanding investment for the
astute investor. Theyre a good way to save for specific things like retirement, childrens

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@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Business How to Invest Money
Dialogues Business How to Invest Money
education, an overseas holiday, and much more. And you could also consider putting some
of your money into a savings investment account.
Customer:
Bank Officer: A savings investment account is ideal if you want to be able to withdraw
from the amount youve invested. All you need to do is maintain a minimum deposit of $200.
Interest is calculated daily; its approximately 7% right now.
Customer:
Bank Officer: You can withdraw at any time. However the more you withdraw, the lower
the amount of interest paid.
Customer:
Bank Officer: A term deposits ideal if youre prepared to commit your money for a certain
period in order to earn higher interest. Id certainly recommend investing some of your
money in term deposits.
Customer:
Bank Officer: You can arrange a fixed period of anything from 14 days, to 5 or 10 years.
There are minimum amounts you have to invest.
Customer:
Bank Officer: Yes. We also offer income accounts. An income account has a fixed rate of
interest for 364 days from the date of lodgement. The advantage of income accounts is that
they provide a set income.
Customer:
Bank Officer: You could also invest in real estate. And of course we can help you with
mortgage finance. You can take advantage of negative gearing.
Customer:

Bank Officer: Why dont you take these booklets and look through them, then come in and
discuss things in detail with one of our investment officers. Or if its easier, you can come to
you.
Customer:
Bank Officer: Heres my card with my contact details. Feel free to contact me, or come in
when youre ready.

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88

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Simple Dialogues Education Questions to
ask at the interview
Simple Dialogues Education Questions to ask at the interview
35 Simple Dialogues Education Questions to ask at the
interview

The following is a list of questions which most parent would ask during a parent-teacher
interview.
1. What subjects and skills will my kid be expected to master this year?
2. Is my child working to the best of his ability? How is progress measured?
3. How much time do you expect students to spend on homework assignments? Is
homework graded for completion or for accuracy?
4. What type of learner is my child?
5. What does he need to work on and how can I help? I want to get specific feedback,
such as "has difficulty combining sentences" or "has difficulty summarising stories," or
specific information about how he can tackle any issues.
6. What standardised tests will be administered this year? And how much class time will
be devoted to preparing students for them?
7. How do you evaluate students? Do tests, attendance and homework all count towards
grades?
8. How can I support your teaching program at home? How can I monitor my child's
completion of assignments on a daily basis?
9. How do you accommodate differences in learning? How do you differentiate lessons
to meet the needs of all learners?
10. Are there any support programs to help kids who need a little extra attention? When
are you available if my child needs extra help?
11. What is your preferred method of communication with parents (email, telephone,
notes home, Web site, etc.)?
12. Does my child seem happy and engaged in school? Who are her friends? Is she
showing good behaviour with classmates and adults?

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89

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Simple Dialogues Education Parent-
Teacher Meeting
Simple Dialogues Education Parent-Teacher Meeting
36 Simple Dialogues Education Parent-Teacher Meeting

PARENT:Hi, I was interested in your preschool and didnt know if you had any more
openings?
Teacher:I would love to tell you about our preschool! How did you hear about us?
PARENT: I got a flyer today on my car.
Teacher:Oh, excellent! Ive been getting a lot of calls this morning about that flyer. Do you
know any of our preschool parents?
PARENT:No, I dont think I know any of your parents.
Teacher: Not a problem. Id love to know a little more about your child youre thinking of
enrolling so I can find the right class and see if we have openings. Whats your childs name?
PARENT: Jacob.
Teacher:And can you spell that for me?
PARENT: J A C O B.
Teacher:Thanks so much. And how old is he?
PARENT:He just turned 4.
Teacher: Wonderful. So hell be going to kindergarten next year, then?
PARENT:Yes, thats right.
Teacher: Excellent. You mentioned that you saw our flyer, so was there a particular class
that worked well with your schedule or budget?
PARENT: Yeah, I thought the 3-day afternoon class would work the best for us, because my
son doesnt take naps anymore.
Teacher: Oh, good! We do have a spot left in our M_W_F afternoon class! And you saw
that were not a day care, right?
PARENT: Yes, thats actually why I called. I dont want him in adaycare I stay home
with him.
Teacher: Excellent! We have a lot of other stay-at-home mums in our preschool as well.
Its a fun group of parents! Id love to tell you more about our preschool, so what we usually

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90

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Simple Dialogues Education Parent-
Teacher Meeting
Simple Dialogues Education Parent-Teacher Meeting
like to do is schedule a tour so I can meet you and your son and make sure were agood fit for
each other.
PARENT: Yes, Id love that! Whens a good time to come by?
Teacher: I could meet with you on Tuesday at 3 p.m., or Wednesday at 10 a.m. Which one
of those times works best for you?
PARENT:Wednesday would work perfect for me.
Teacher: Wonderful! So I am writing this down in my calendar, as we speakand if you
could please write this down in your calendar as wellfor this Wednesday at 10 a.m. Do you
know where were located?
PARENT:Yes, I saw your address on the flyer.
Teacher: Excellent! So what Im going to do is tentatively write down Jacobs name in that
M_W_F afternoon spot, so you dont lose it before we meet. That class is $130/mo. The
tour will take about 25 minutes.
PARENT:Okay.
Teacher: Do you have any other questions for me before Wednesday?
PARENT:No, I dont think so. Im excited to meet you!
Teacher: Me too! And have you seen our website?
PARENT:Yes, actually Im on it right now.
Teacher: Great! Be sure to have Jacob check it out too so he can see what a fun place hes
coming to see, and feel free to bring any other children or family members as well with you.
Ill see you Wednesday at 10! Bye.

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91

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Education Parent-Teacher
Interview
Dialogues Education Parent-Teacher Interview
37 Dialogues Education Parent-Teacher Interview

The following is a Parent/Teacher interview regarding the progress of a student.
Teacher: Good evening! Youre Peters father/mother arent you?
Parent:
Teacher: Im Jan Proctor, Peters class teacher. Please sit down.
The purse of tonights session is to discuss Peters general progress at school,
and also, in the subject of biology, as Im also his biology teacher.
Parent:
Teacher: If youd like to know more about his progress in other subjects, you can see
Mrs Hooper, his Maths Teacher, and Ms Brown for English and History.
Parent:
Teacher: Hes doing reasonably well in biology.
Hes quiet in class, but hes very attentive.
He shows a strong interest in both animals and plants, and he completes most
of the set tasks.
Parent:

Teacher: Yes. Peter sometimes gets a little bit distracted by other students, and so he
doesnt finish his work.
However, if that happens, he takes his work home and completes it there.
Parent:

7


Teacher: The reading is actually part of homework.

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92

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Education Parent-Teacher
Interview
Dialogues Education Parent-Teacher Interview
All the students in year 7 are required to read for half an hour each night.
They also have a variety of other homework tasks.
All the students are required to enter the details of what homework they have
to do, in their homework diary each day.
Parent:
Teacher: If youd like to know what homework Peter has each day, you can check his
homework diary.
Ask Peter to show you the work hes done, and then sign your name to
acknowledge that youve seen it.
Parent:

Teacher: Oh noHes certainly not lazy overall.
Peters a bright and well-motivated student.
But wed like to see him maximize his capabilities, so that he can excel, and
become a top student.
Parent:

Teacher: Thank you, and thank you for coming tonight, and showing your interest.

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93

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Education An Enrolment
Dialogues Education An Enrolment
38 Dialogues Education An Enrolment

Education Dialogue 2 An Enrolment
Briefing: A migrant parent has come to see the school principal regarding the enrolment
of her son.
Principal: Good morning, Mrs, I understand youd like to enrol your son here.
May I ask why you chose this school for your son?
Parent: Smith

Principal: Thats fine. How old is your son?
And has he attended school in Australia?
Parent: 10
Principal: Did you bring his birth certificate?
And a record of his vaccinations?
Parent:
Principal: We need to see them to complete his enrolment.
And Ill get you to fill in some forms, while youre here with the interpreter.
Well also need to see his school reports, and samples of work from his
previous school, to help us put him in the most appropriate class group,
because the school systems in each state differ.
Parent:



Principal: If you cant find any, youll have to get in touch with the school your son
attended previously, and ask them to contact us.
Parent:
Principal: To take English, for instance, wed like to see some examples of his writing-
stories, or poems and the books his class was reading.

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94

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Education An Enrolment
Dialogues Education An Enrolment
Perhaps you still have some of his textbooks.
Parent:

Principal: Look, dont worry. Ill give you a list of the samples of work and textbooks
wed like to have a look at, and any additional information we require.
That will give you a clearer idea.
Parent:
,

Principal: Thank you. After you do that, Ill introduce you to the class teacher, and your
son can start school tomorrow.
I hope he does well and makes lots of friends.
Please always feel free to contact me if you have any questions or problems,
we strongly welcome parent involvement in school activities.
Parent:

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95

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Health - Diabetes
Dialogues Health - Diabetes
39 Dialogues Health - Diabetes

Briefing: The following is a dialogue between a doctor and patient, who has just been
diagnosed with diabetes. The doctor explains some of the symptoms and what
the patient needs to do to manage the disease and control their sugar levels.
Dr: Good afternoon. Im glad you could come in today.
I asked you to come in so that I can give you some information about diabetes,
and how to manage it.
Patient:

Dr: Well, if you dont like sweet food that will help you manage it.
Diabetes occurs when your body doesnt produce enough insulin to break
down the sugars in food, and so the sugar remains in your blood.
Patient:
Dr: Mainly, because your body needs insulin to break down the sugars in food into
a form which the body can absorb, so your cells werent getting enough
energy from the food you were eating.
Patient:
Dr: Not yet. Your diabetes is whats called type 2.
What you have to do is control the diabetes with medication, and, by following
a strict healthy diet.
Patient:
Dr: No, if youre careful with your diet and exercise, you should be able to
manage your diabetes by taking a tablet every morning, half an hour before
you have anything to eat or drink.
Patient:
Dr: Well, if you dont manage your diabetes properly, itll get worse, and you
might have to start having injections.
Once that happens, youll need to have injections every day, for the rest of
your life.

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96

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Health - Diabetes
Dialogues Health - Diabetes
Patient:
Dr: And as well as that, diabetics have a greater risk of heart disease, blindness,
impotence, and other problems. So, its a good idea to look after yourself
properly.
Patient:
Dr: You need to eat what we call complex carbohydrates these release sugar
into your blood slowly and dont raise your blood sugar too high.
Patient:
Dr: When I say sugar Im using the word in a general way.
It means carbohydrates, not the sugar that people put in coffee or tea.
Some foods with sugars in them dont taste sweet at all and these ones are the
complex carbohydrates.
Theyre the foods which are best for you.
Things like pasta, cereals, rice, potatoes
Patient:

Dr: Maybe just have chips once a week.
You have to try and avoid food thats high in fat, especially saturated fat.
So, if youre a meat eater, avoid fatty meat.
Use vegetables oil when you fry food. Olive oil is particularly good.
And stir frying is a better way to cook, because it uses less oil.
Vegetables are all good for you.
Patient:
Dr: Thats fine, but you have to check whether your blood sugar level is getting
too high.
Fruit will increase your sugar level so you have to eat it at a suitable time.
And you should avoid very sweet food like jam.

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97

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Health - Diabetes
Dialogues Health - Diabetes
Patient:
Dr: Thats easy. You can check it with a monitor you can carry around with you. It
only takes a minute or two.
The receptionist will show you how to do it, and give you some food
information brochures you can take home.
Patient:
Dr: No, in fact theyll help keep you fit.
And if your diabetes is properly managed, youll notice that you dont feel
weak or sick anymore, and youll be able to enjoy them.
Just make sure you have enough to eat, before you swim or play tennis,
because hard exercise makes your blood sugar drop quickly.
Patient:

Dr: Thats right. See how it goes, and come back in a month or so.
If everythings settled down and theres no problems, Ill write a letter for you
to take to the Road Traffic Authority regarding your driving licence, so you
can drive again.
Patient:

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98

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Health - Pregnancy
Dialogues Health - Pregnancy
40 Dialogues Health - Pregnancy

The following is a dialogue between an obstetrician and a pregnant woman.
Dr: Good morning Mrs Jiang. Please sit down.
I believe youre 10 weeks pregnant now. Howve you been feeling?
Lady:

Dr: Ah, thats quite normal in the first few months of pregnancy.
Its called morning sickness.
It usually settles down as the pregnancy continues.
Lady:
Dr: Its best to avoid medication as much as possible while youre pregnant.
Try eating a dry biscuit or some dry toast, about half an hour before you get
out of bed.
That often helps.
Lady:

Dr: Just eat small meals, such as a sandwich, a salad, or some plain biscuits with
cheese, every few hours, instead of having your usual bigger meals.
Lady:
Dr: Yes. Avoid spicy or fatty foods, coffee and cigarettes. And you mustnt have
any alcohol at all.
Try not to eat or drink for several hours before you go to bed. Sipping milk or
taking an antacid will help any heartburn.
Lady:
Dr: Yes, both are associated with pregnancy.
You should see your dentist for a check-up while youre pregnant.
Its often hard to find the time once the babys born.

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99

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Health - Pregnancy
Dialogues Health - Pregnancy
Lady:
Dr: Well every pregnancys different, but some of the common ones are: backache,
muscle cramps, skin changes, constipation, incontinence, mucous discharge,
stretch marks, varicose veins, hiccups, fluid retention
Lady:

Dr: Not really. Just make sure you eat lots of fruit and vegetables, and get enough
calcium and iron in your diet.
Doing exercises helps prevent backache, and pelvic floor exercises should help
incontinence and constipation.
Lady:
Dr: Yes, come back tomorrow week when our pathologist is here, and well do
some blood tests.
Well do an amniocentesis to check the foetus in another month or so.
Its a bit too early yet.
Lady:

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100

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Social Welfare Centrelink: An
Advance Payment Inquiry
Dialogues Social Welfare Centrelink: An Advance Payment Inquiry
41 Dialogues Social Welfare Centrelink: An Advance
Payment Inquiry

The following dialogue is about a man receiving a Carer Payment is asking whether he
canget an Advance Payment to pay for some urgent repairs at home.
Client:

Officer: We do give people advance payments, but it depends what kind of benefit
youre receiving.
Client:

Officer: How awful. I really sympathise with you.
With regard to eligibility for an advance payment, you also need to ve been
receiving an income support payment for at least 3 months.
Client:
Officer: Do you currently owe Centrelink or any government department any money?
Client:


350
Officer: Thats fine. Youre allowed to apply for between $250 and $500. (Hands him
a pamphlet)
You can see her e the repayments you have to make, and decide whether you
can afford them.
If you get and advance payment of $350, youll have to pay back $27 a
fortnight for six months.
Its deducted automatically from you Carer Payment.

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101

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Social Welfare Centrelink: An
Advance Payment Inquiry
Dialogues Social Welfare Centrelink: An Advance Payment Inquiry
Client:
Officer: You dont need to show Centrelink any proof of how you spend the money.
The most important consideration is whether or not you can afford the
repayments.
You need to make sure that youll have enough left for your day to day living
expenses.
Client:




Officer: You can arrange to have larger deductions if you can afford it.
And if something unexpected happens, and you find yourself in severe
financialhardship, you can also apply to have the repayments reduced.
Client:
Officer: You just need to fill in an Application for Advancement form.
You can do it now, or take it home with you and think it over more first.
The pamphlet sets out all the details and our contact numbers if you want to
ring us.
Client:

Officer: Heres the form. (hand him a form)
Theres a table and some pens over there where you can fill it in.
Just come to the counter if you need any help.
Client:

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102

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Tourism Organising a Group
Tour
Dialogues Tourism Organising a Group Tour
42 Dialogues Tourism Organising a Group Tour

This is a dialogue between representatives of a Melbourne travel agency and an overseas one.
They are planning a trip for a group of tourists to visit places of interest in the
overseas country.
Participants: Mr/Ms Smith, manager of Melbourne travel agency
Mr/Ms Qin, the representative of overseas travel agency
Agent: Good morning Mr/Ms Qin
Welcome to Melbourne. Its good to see you again.
Visitor:

Agent: Yes, I quite agree. Thats why Ive invited you here, to discuss organizing
another one this year.
Im looking at autumn this time.
Visitor:

Agent: Therell be about twenty.
Therell be people from a few different backgrounds, but most of them will be
well-educated professional. So, theyll be expecting to have a very well-
organized trip.
Visitor: 20
Agent: I know theyll want to see some key cultural and historical sites.
Some of them will also want to see some of the more scenic parts of the
Chinese countryside.
I hope that by the end of the trip, theyll have a clearer picture of what China
is like, and a better grasp of its culture and history.
Visitor:

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103

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Tourism Organising a Group
Tour
Dialogues Tourism Organising a Group Tour


Agent: Thats sounds fine.
Theyd prefer to travel by bus wherever possible, so they can see a bit more of
countryside.
Visitor:

Agent: They dont want to spend too much on accommodation.
They think a Holiday Inn is a good place to stay.
Visitor:


Agent: That sounds very good.
I know the group is looking forward to their trip.
Visitor:


Agent: Excellent. Have a good trip back to Beijing!

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104

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Tourism A Hotel Phone
Booking
Dialogues Tourism A Hotel Phone Booking
43 Dialogues Tourism A Hotel Phone Booking

Briefing: This phone dialogue is between a client from Asia and a hotel receptionist.
Reception: Hyatt Hotel. Good morning. How can I help you?
Client:
Reception: Yes sir, and when would you like to stay?
Client:
Reception: Are you after a single room?
Client:

Reception: And how old is your son sir?
Client:
Reception: Weve got a suite available for that week that I think would suit you.
Its got two bedrooms, a bathroom, a living area, a kitchenette, and a bar.
Client:
Reception: If you require them, we can provide them for a small extra charge.
March is our off-peak month so we can offer you a very reasonable rate.
The basic cost would be $250.00 a night.
Client:

Reception: Very good sir. Could I have your surname and your initials please?
Client: C.
Reception: Could you please spell your surname for me?
Client: H-W-A-N-G.
Reception: Mr Hwang.

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105

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Dialogues Tourism A Hotel Phone
Booking
Dialogues Tourism A Hotel Phone Booking
Youll need to pay a 20% deposit within three days, if you want us to hold the
room for you.
Client:
Reception: We accept all major cards. In fact, could you give me your card number please?
We require it to make a reservation.
Client: : 9530 7269 8805 7968.
Reception: 9530 7269 8805 7968, and whats the expiry date?
Client: 2005 5
Reception: Thank you. Ill just confirm the details.
Youd like a suite for three people, for seven nights from the 18
th
to 25
th
of
March, in the name of Hwang.
Is that correct?
Client:

Reception: The room rate includes a full breakfast and use of all the hotel recreation
facilities, including the pool, the gym and the spa.
Client:
Reception: Thank you sir.
We look forward to seeing you and your family on the 18
th
of March. Good
bye.
Client:

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106

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Difficult and Complex Dialogues Legal
Interpreters responsibilities in Courtroom interpreting
Difficult and Complex Dialogues Legal Interpreters responsibilities in Courtroom
interpreting
44 Difficult and Complex Dialogues Legal Interpreters
responsibilities in Courtroom interpreting

1. Act as an interpreter only at all times and not assume the role of the interviewer or
consumer, nor undertake responsibilities outside his/her area of expertise as an
interpreter.
2. Interpret faithfully and accurately all that is said between the English and non-English
speaking parties.
3. Respect confidentiality, and treat all information obtained during the course of his/her
duties in strict confidence.
4. Observe impartiality in all situations and not allow personal preferences, religious or
political opinions, national or cultural considerations to interfere with the performance
of his/her duties.
5. Ensure that she or he is adequately prepared to effectively carry out each specific
assignment, and decline the work if it is beyond his/her linguistic capacity.
6. Seek accreditation in the language used or possess appropriate equivalent
qualifications
7. Take no advantage of any information obtained in the course of his/her work.
8. Disclose, to the parties involved, any interest in an assignment other than a
professional one.

45 Difficult and Complex Dialogues Legal Interpreters Oath

The following is used when the Interpreter has religious beliefs.
I swear by Almighty God that I shall well and truly interpret the evidence about to be given,
an all other matters and things that may be required of me in this case, according to the best
of my skill and ability.
46 Difficult and Complex Dialogues Legal Interpreters
Affirmation
The following is used when the Interpreter objects to taking the Oath because he or she does
not have any religious belief or because his or her religious beliefs do not permit him or her
to take the Oath.

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107

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | Difficult and Complex Dialogues Legal
Witnesss Oath and Affirmation
Difficult and Complex Dialogues Legal Witnesss Oath and Affirmation
I, Full name of the Interpreter, sincerely, and truly declare and affirm that I shall well and
truly interpret the evidence about to be given, and all other matters and things that may be
required of me in this case, according to the best of my skill and ability.

47 Difficult and Complex Dialogues Legal Witnesss Oath and
Affirmation

Witness Oath
I swear by Almighty God that the evidence I shall give in this case shall be the truth, the
whole truth, and nothing but the truth.

Witness Affirmation
I, Name of the Witness, do solemnly, sincerely, and truly declare and affirm that the
evidence I shall give in this case shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth.

48 Code of Ethics




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BOOKLET E
ETHICS OF INTERPRETING
AND TRANSLATING
A Guide to Obtaining NAATI Credentials
Version 1.0

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Produced by the National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters Ltd

ABN 42 008 596 996

National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters Ltd Canberra 2010.



First Published 2010

October 2010 Version

NAATI acknowledges Maria Maggio De Leo and Lyn Bongiovanni for the examples provided for the
ethical dilemmas, the public service providers and the translating and interpreting professionals among
NAATI staff for their contributions to this Guide. Background was also obtained from Roberts-Smith, L.,
Frey, R., and Bessell-Browne, S. (1990). Working with interpreters in law, health and social work. Mount
Hawthorn, WA: Hawthorn Press (NAATI).

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ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS


ETHICAL CONDUCT WITHIN THE TRANSLATION AND INTERPRETING PROFESSIONS................. 1
SETTING THE ETHICAL STANDARDS FOR THE PROFESSION........................................................... 1
GENERAL ETHICS PRINCIPLES.............................................................................................................. 2
INTERPRETERS ROLES AND POSSIBLE ETHICAL DILEMMAS ......................................................... 2
TRANSLATORS ROLES AND POSSIBLE ETHICAL DILEMMAS.......................................................... 5
WHAT IS NAATI? ....................................................................................................................................... 8
NAATI ACCREDITATION............................................................................................................... 8
NAATI RECOGNITION................................................................................................................... 8
ETHICS OF THE PROFESSION QUESTIONS IN NAATI ACCREDITATION TESTS.............................. 9

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1
ETHICAL CONDUCT WITHIN THE TRANSLATION AND INTERPRETING
PROFESSIONS
Interpreters and translators encounter a variety of ethical issues and questions in the course of their
work. Ethical behaviour and the maintenance of high ethical standards are essential to good practice, in
developing the profession and in maintaining positive opinions and perceptions.

While working as an interpreter or translator, ethical responsibilities overlap with your duty of care. That
is the requirement to exercise the skill, care and diligence of a reasonable person performing similar
work.

While the National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters Ltd (NAATI) does not prescribe
the code of ethics for the profession, NAATI does wish to assure the community that accredited
translators and interpreters are aware of the issues involved in professional ethics and of the need for
practitioners to accept and observe a suitable code of conduct.

To that end, knowledge of ethical standards is an integral part of the NAATI credentialing system. If at
any time NAATI considers that a practitioner has breached the applicable code of ethics, NAATI reserves
the right to counsel and in certain circumstances cancel a NAATI credential.

This Guide provides a source of information for acceptable professional practice and outlines the
knowledge that is required by applicants for NAATI accreditation and recognition.

The ethical standards for interpreting and translating professionals in Australia are set out by the national
professional bodies for translating and interpreting: the Australian Institute of Interpreters and Translators
Inc. (AUSIT) and, for Auslan interpreters, the Australian Sign Language Interpreters Association
(ASLIA).

This Guide provides background information on these two primary codes of ethics:

1. AUSITs Code of Ethics for Interpreters and Translators and the associated Guide to
Professional Practice (collectively AUSIT Code)
2. ASLIAs Code of Ethics and Guidelines for Professional Conduct (ASLIA Code)


SETTING THE ETHICAL STANDARDS FOR THE PROFESSION
AUSIT provides the translation and interpreting community with a professional organisation to promote
the profession, improve the profile of translators and interpreters in the community and raise standards
through professional development and the adoption of the AUSIT Code.

The AUSIT Code was developed by AUSIT in 1995 in consultation with NAATI and other stakeholders
and is revised and updated on a regular basis. It is a compilation of rules and directives that interpreters
and translators in Australia must follow while performing their duties. The core values provide a
framework of expectations for the profession and industry.

For a printable version of the current AUSIT Code click here:
http://server.dream-fusion.net/ausit2/pics/ethics.pdf

The ASLIA Code articulates ethical principles, values, and standards of conduct to specifically guide
Australian Sign Language (Auslan) practitioners in their pursuit of professional practice. It is intended to
provide direction to interpreters for ethical and professional decision-making in their day-to-day work. The
ASLIA Code is the mechanism by which the public is protected in the delivery of service. It should not be
considered as a prescriptive set of rules, but rather as a set of principles and values which should be
inherent in professional practice.

For a printable version of the ASLIA Code please click here:
http://www.aslia.com.au/images/stories/ASLIA_Documents/ASLIA_Code_of_Ethics.pdf

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It is important to be aware that the AUSIT and ASLIA codes are only intended to apply to the Australian
context. Different countries may determine their own codes of ethics. In New Zealand, for example, the
New Zealand Society of Translators and Interpreters (NZSTI) Code of Ethics for Practitioners applies.
For work for specific international organisations, practitioners are expected to adhere to the International
Association of Conference Interpreters (AIIC) Code of Ethics.

NAATI adopted both the AUSIT Code of Ethics and the ASLIA Code of Ethics as important elements in
the testing process and several government and private interpreting and translating services and
agencies have implemented them as an integral part of the contract that practitioners must sign before
joining their service and adhere to while performing their assignments. These services and agencies
include:
TIS (Translating and Interpreting Service, the Department of Immigrations official language
services division)
Centrelink
Refugee Review Tribunal
Federal Attorney Generals Department
NSW Law Society
NSW Health Care Interpreter Service
Other major private suppliers of interpreters and translators.


GENERAL ETHICS PRINCIPLES
Although the codes of ethics mentioned above may differ in some parts, they are generally concerned
with similar underlying ethical principles.

The general principles contained in the different codes of ethics require translators and interpreters to:

respect their clients right to privacy and confidentiality
disclose any real or perceived conflicts of interest
decline to undertake work beyond their competence or accreditation levels
relay information accurately and impartially between parties
maintain professional detachment and refrain from inappropriate self-promotion
guard against misuse of inside information for personal gain.


INTERPRETERS ROLES AND POSSIBLE ETHICAL DILEMMAS
Interpreters work primarily in live language (i.e., in a spoken or signed language) to transfer the meaning
of the message from one language into another language (typically, but not always, to enable a
conversation between two or more people who do not speak the same language).

Interpreters may be generalists or specialise in particular areas such as medical, legal, trade
negotiations, conference interpreting etc. Remote interpreting by telephone is a common practice and
interpreting over video links is becoming increasingly common with advances in communication
technology.

These roles can entail ethical dilemmas for interpreters. In order to behave in an ethical and professional
way, interpreters should always refer to the applicable code of ethics (i.e. the AUSIT Code of Ethics or
the ASLIA Code of Ethics).

The following examples outline scenarios interpreters could find themselves in. These scenarios are not
intended to provide specific guidance in terms of answering questions in NAATI accreditation tests.
Specific guidance on answering questions in the Ethics of the Profession section of NAATI accreditation
tests is provided later in this Guide.

Note that the references to the code of ethics used in the following examples are based on the AUSIT
Code of Ethics.

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Example 1

You are booked for a medical assignment in a hospital. Upon arrival, you are sent to the Ante-natal
Clinic. You are asked to interpret for a patient and a nurse about ante-natal testing to determine birth
defects and possible procedures including abortion. What do you do?

A practitioner should, in accordance with [1b) i)] not allow personal or other interests to prejudice or
influence their work. The interpreter would interpret everything to the best of their ability in accordance
with the Code of Ethics. However, if a practitioner has very deep-rooted cultural, religious or personal
objections to abortion and associated issues which would affect his/her ability to maintain impartiality in
the face of such material [4a) iii)], then he/she should withdraw from the assignment. Regardless of
his/her convictions, the practitioner would at all times conduct him/herself in a dignified and courteous
manner in accordance with Professional Conduct [1a) i) and iii)].

Example 2

You interpret during a psychiatric assessment between a patient and a psychiatrist. At the end of the
interview, after the non-English speaking client has left, the psychiatrist takes you aside and asks you, I
think this patient is mentally unstable and depressed. What do you think? How would you respond?

The practitioner should explain to the psychiatrist what their role as an interpreter is, that is, to facilitate
communication between the psychiatrist and his/her patient [1.a) ii)]. This should be explained in a polite
and courteous manner [1.a) i)]. The practitioner also, in accordance with the principle of Impartiality, [4.c)
ii)] shall not voice or write an opinion, solicited or unsolicited on any matter or person in relation to an
assignment. The determination of a persons mental stability or of clinical depression is a diagnosis only
a qualified mental health specialist is able to make.

Example 3

You are called to interpret for a terminally ill patient and his family members at a family meeting
comprising the team of medical and health professionals who are caring for the patient. Some family
members pull you aside before entering the room and expressly ask you not to mention the word
cancer in your interpretation, but to refer to it vaguely as an illness. What do you do?

If the word cancer is used by any party to the meeting, then you are bound to render it into the other
language accurately and completely [5a) i) and iii)]. In accordance with the Code of Ethics, [1. a) ii)] it is
the interpreters responsibility to explain their role to those unaccustomed to working with them. This
means that the interpreter should explain that they are bound to interpret everything faithfully and
accurately. The interpreter may, however, suggest to the family that they discuss their concerns with the
treating medical staff prior to the meeting with the patient [3c)].

Example 4

You are contracted by a solicitor to interpret in a series of court cases for one of his clients. At the court,
before your first appearance, the client anxiously offers you a religious keepsake native to the clients
culture, more or less as a good luck charm. Should you accept it?

You will not be able to attend the next scheduled court appearance due to other commitments. You had
previously agreed with the solicitor to take on this court date, but circumstances have changed. The
court case is due to start in 48 hours. What ethical options are open to you?

In the course of the next few court appearances, the client gets to know you as a familiar face. They
eventually win their case and, as a sign of appreciation, the client (a jeweller) offers you a gemstone of a
type for which his native country is renowned. You know that he would be offended if you refuse. What
do you do and why?

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The first main issue here is that of gifts and gratuities. In general, you accept the fee agreed upon with
your client and nothing else [6b) i) and iii)]. This is probably more applicable to the offer of the gemstone
than to the religious object.

While gift-giving may be culturally appropriate, the more intrinsically valuable the gift, the greater is the
obligation on the practitioner to refuse with the clearest and most polite explanation possible, in order to
minimise any offence to the client.

The religious object presents a similar but perhaps more fluid problem because of the religious aspect of
its nature. It may be appropriate to accept [6 b) iii)]. Unless you make it a policy to refuse all gifts
regardless of consequences, you will have the delicate task of basing any accept/reject decision on your
knowledge or assessment of the monetary value of the gift, and the importance of gift-giving in the
clients culture.

The second major issue flows from your inability to be in court on the agreed date. One hallmark of true
professionalism is reliability [1c)]. It is unfair to the client (and potentially dangerous for you as there is a
lawyer involved) to disengage completely at 48 hours notice. A temporary substitute for yourself would
be the normal solution in such cases, i.e. a sub-contracting situation.

This solution can only be reached with your clients approval [2a v)]. It would be advisable to approach
your client (in this instance, the solicitor) to discuss your inability to attend. It is the solicitors right to
refuse a substitute if the original agreement was made specifically with you. However, the solicitor may
ask if you have a colleague who may be prepared to step in for you at short notice. In this case, sub-
contracting is permissible. The considerations here (accountability for a sub-contractors work, the need
for the clients permission, and the disclosure of information to the sub-contractor) [6c) i)] are the same
as those confronting the translator in Example 5.

In this instance, the solicitor would also be within his/her rights to seek their own substitute through
another agency or freelancer.

Example 5

During a parent-teacher interview at a secondary school you realize that you are not familiar with a
particular core subject which students need to pass. The parents of the student for whom you are
interpreting need to be advised that their child is failing this subject. You know that there is no equivalent
in your language for this particular subject. What do you do?

It is imperative in this situation that you ask the teacher for clarification [5.b) ii)] as the future of the
student is at stake and the parents need to know exactly what help is required for the students progress.
If you are not familiar with the education system of the State you are working in, you must prepare
yourself accordingly before the interview takes place and be familiar with the terminology which is
appropriate to the setting and situation.[3.c)]

The accuracy of the information you need to interpret to the parents is very important therefore you need
to be competent in the terminology and subject matter. You must not under any circumstances omit
information just because you are not familiar with the equivalent terminology in the LOTE or the English
language [5.a) iv)].

Example 6

A teacher asks you to contact parents who do not speak English and encourage them to attend a parent-
teacher night. The teacher also asks you to take home to the parents their childs school report and
explain it to them. What do you do?

You are in effect being asked to conduct the interview for the teacher, which goes far beyond your role-
your impartiality and objectivity would be thoroughly compromised [4.b); 4.c) i) and ii)]. It must be made
clear that your role is to facilitate communication and that parents would surely ask questions which can
only be answered by their childs teacher. Suggesting a home visit by both you and the teacher at a
mutually convenient time would be consistent with a facilitation and would demonstrate that you are still
being helpful.

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TRANSLATORS ROLES AND POSSIBLE ETHICAL DILEMMAS
Translators work primarily from a recorded language (i.e., printed text, video or audio recordings),
converting the text/recording from one language into another language (usually written), while preserving
the meaning of the original.

Translators may be generalists or specialise in particular areas. Typical work may include translation of
certificates (e.g. birth certificates), legal documents (e.g. property titles) and technical material (e.g.
instruction manuals), through to translation of government policies, books, poetry and other literature.

These roles can entail ethical dilemmas for translators. In order to behave in an ethical and professional
way, translators should always refer to the applicable Code of Ethics (i.e. the AUSIT Code of Ethics).

The following examples outline scenarios translators could find themselves in. These scenarios are not
intended to provide specific guidance in terms of answering questions in NAATI accreditation tests.
Specific guidance on answering questions in the Ethics of the Profession section of NAATI accreditation
tests is provided later in this Guide.

Note that the references to the code of ethics used in the following examples are based on the AUSIT
Code of Ethics.

Example 1

You are asked to translate the narration of a brief video, described to you as advertising material. On
viewing the video, you see that it is advertising for pornographic materials and, further, that it contains
what is obviously publicity for a paedophilia association. What do you do now?

The fact that paedophilia is involved raises issues of disclosure [2a) ii)] and must be reported to the
police. Pornography alone would require some circumspection: it its not necessarily unlawful in
Australia, and disclosure without reference to the client [2a) i)] may create professional and legal dangers
for the translator who does not first seek competent, independent advice. A further issue which may be
relevant in situations such as this is that of infamous conduct [1d)].

Failure to report palpably criminal matters such as paedophilia would doubtless be infamous. But what
of accepting an assignment to translate so-called soft pornographic material? Some colleagues may
regard that as unprofessional or dishonourable but it may be a matter for debate concerning the
degree of collegial consensus required to establish such a transgression in terms of the Code of Practice.

Example 2

You are sent some medical documents to translate. Upon reading them, you realise that they are about
ante-natal testing to determine birth defects and other procedures including abortion. What do you do?

A practitioner who has very deep-rooted cultural, religious or personal objections to abortion and
associated issues would probably withdraw from such an assignment, citing inability to maintain
impartiality in the face of such material [4a)iii]. The practitioner would at all times conduct themselves in
a dignified and courteous [1.a) i and iii]manner.

A practitioner who has no deep-rooted cultural, religious or personal objections to abortion and
associated issues would probably accept the assignment and translate all the contents to the best of their
ability. They would ensure accuracy [5 a) i and iv] of the translation by undertaking the appropriate
research [3. c)] and would be accountable for the quality of the work they completed and would not allow
personal beliefs to affect their ability to remain impartial and without bias caused by the contents of the
original text.

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Example 3

A client has given you a proof-reading assignment. The text has been translated by another practitioner
and, as you read, you find numerous grammatical and semantic errors not simply typographical
mistakes. This is the fourth time you have corrected work done by that translator and every time there
have been grave errors. You now have serious doubts about the translators abilities and have
concluded that, in the interests of the profession, something must be done. What action should you
take?

Before anything else, the matter must be taken up with the other translator and an effort made to resolve
the difficulties in a constructive and professional manner. If this proves fruitless, the dispute can be
referred to the practitioners professional association, assuming that both are members [1e) i) and ii)]. In
any event, alterations to a text as a result of consultation with, or review by, other parties must be agreed
on by the two translators directly involved [3d)]. Important issues overarching this scenario are that of
professional solidarity and mutual respect [8a) and b)] as well as professional development [7a) and b)] if
the concerns about the original translators performance are justified.

Example 4

You are an accredited translator (both directions) in one language (LOTE 1), with recognition credentials
in another (LOTE 2). You are employed by a person to translate her drivers licence from LOTE 2.

You complete the assignment and certify the translation, but the translation is rejected by the government
body because it has not been translated by a Level 3 Translator. The client asks you to adjust the
certification to state that you are a two-way NAATI-accredited Translator, so that she may re-present her
application to the government body, offering to pay you an appropriate recompense if you do. What do
you do and why?

Obviously, to certify to an accreditation you do not possess is dishonest and unprofessional behaviour
[1b) iv) and 1d)], while the offer of recompense would be a form of gratuity which should not be
accepted (although a practitioner who is prepared to accede to a proposal for false certification is unlikely
to have qualms about acceptance of gratuities!) There is no evidence of any mitigating cultural
imperative connected with the offer [6b) iii)]

Both client and government body should be made aware of the distinction between accreditation and
recognition, [3a) iii) and iv)] that the latter serves where there are NO accredited translators or
interpreters at the required level because a language is rare or because no relevant NAATI tests have
been created yet. Recognition is the best available to them at the moment. Your certification must
reflect that [5d)].

Example 5

A translator friend approaches you with a lengthy translation which he has half-completed. He seeks
your help in completing the translation, as he is unable to meet the task deadline. What ethical issues
are involved, and how can they be resolved?

The translator friend is in effect seeking to sub-contract the work, and this requires the clients permission
[2a) v)]. The disclosure of the information in the document to a third party must also have client
permission [2a) ii) and iii)]. Very simply, resolution lies in full consultation with the client before
proceeding any further; if the client agrees to the participation of a second translator, your friend is
accountable to the client for the quality of your work, while the highest standard of professional diligence
is expected of you [6c) i) and ii)].

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Example 6

You agree to translate what is described as a moderately technical text. When you receive the text, it is
soon obvious to you that the terminology is beyond your level of competence. The client company is
desperate to have the translation and offers to increase your fee if you will agree to go ahead with the
task. How would you react to the clients proposal?

Clearly you have advised the client of the problem which has emerged, in accordance with [3b)]. It would
have been prudent not to have taken the clients description of the text at face value and to have made
more detailed enquiries about its nature before accepting the assignment [3c)]. Acceptance of an
assignment is implicit declaration of competence, and creates a contractual relationship [3a) ii)].

You now face a dilemma arising from lack of competence to perform an assignment which the client
could demand be completed in accordance with the contract [3a) ii)]. The difficulty for you is
compounded by [6a) iii] which gives precedence to the professions Code of Ethics over an employers
directions in the event of conflict.

Example 7

You work as a freelance translator specialising in translations into English. You are a highly experienced
and respected translator in the profession. A private translation firm approaches you with an exclusive
and potentially lucrative offer. This firm has been organising translations for overseas organisations, but
is now seeking to expand into the Australian market. They suggest that you pass on any overflow of
translation work to their firm. They would of course pay you a certain percentage for your assistance.
How would you react to the proposal? What ethical issues are involved?

It is not uncommon for translators to pass on work to their colleagues if they are unable to accept an
assignment from a client WITHOUT expecting any monetary recompense in return from either their
translator colleague or the client requesting the translation. The Code of Ethics states quite clearly in
[6.b) ii)] that translators shall not accept for personal gain any fees, favours, commissions or the like
from any person, firm, corporation or government agency, including another T & I professional, in
connection with recommending to a client any person, business agency, substance, material matters,
process or service. In addition, practitioners shall refrain from behaviour which their colleagues would
regard as unprofessional or dishonourable. [1. d)]

Another point to consider is that the agency is in effect seeking to sub-contract the work, and this
requires the clients permission [2a) v)]. It would be prudent given all of the above for the translator to
refuse to work with that agency.

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WHAT IS NAATI?
The National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters Ltd (trading as NAATI) is the
national standards and accreditation body for translators and interpreters in Australia. It is the only
agency that issues accreditations for practitioners who wish to work in this profession in Australia.

NAATIs primary purpose is to strengthen inclusion and participation in Australian society by assisting in
meeting its diverse and changing communication needs and expectations through:
setting, maintaining and promoting high national standards in translating and interpreting, and
implementing a national quality-assurance system for credentialing practitioners who meet those
standards.

NAATI credentialing provides quality assurance to the clients of translators and interpreters and gives
credibility to agencies that employ practitioners who are credentialed appropriately.
NAATI ACCREDITATION
NAATI accreditation is the only credential officially accepted for the profession of translation and
interpreting in Australia. All government translation and interpreting services require translators and
interpreters to be NAATI-accredited whenever possible.

NAATI accreditation has been instrumental in providing quality assurance to recipients of translating and
interpreting services and in giving credibility to agencies that employ accredited practitioners.
NAATI RECOGNITION
Recognition is an award in a totally separate category from accreditation. It is granted only in languages
for which NAATI does not test, and unlike accreditation, does not specify a level of proficiency.

Recognition does not have equal status to accreditation, because NAATI has not had the opportunity to
testify by formal assessment to a particular standard of performance. It is, in fact, intended to be an
acknowledgment that, at the time of the award, the candidate has had recent and regular experience as
a translator and/or interpreter. If granted after 1 October 2006, it also acknowledges that the recognised
person has met the NAATI requirements for proficiency in English and has completed some basic
training in translating and interpreting.

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ETHICS OF THE PROFESSION QUESTIONS IN NAATI ACCREDITATION TESTS
As ethical behaviour is important in maintaining standards in the interpreting and translating professions,
NAATI examines knowledge and awareness of the Ethics of the Profession in its accreditation tests.
For translation accreditation tests this involves answering the questions about translating issues in writing
and for interpreting tests questions relating to interpreting issues orally.
Candidates are presented with a scenario as it could be encountered by an interpreter or translator in the
field and are then required to respond to these situations, based on the relevant code of ethics. In their
answers candidates need to:
Identify the relevant ethical principle. There is no need to provide the number under which the
relevant principle is listed, but it has to be named, e.g. This question is related to the principle of
Accuracy
State what the requirements of this principle are, e.g. ... according to which, a translator should ...
Explain how the situation places this principle at risk, and how this problem should be resolved.
When a candidates answers are marked, the mark awarded will depend on whether the candidate has
covered all of these points. The marking process penalises a candidate who raises irrelevant issues as
part of their answer. It is important that answers are clear, concise and only address the ethical
principle(s) directly related to the question asked.

NAATI does not prescribe maximum or minimum numbers of words for a response, but as a point of
reference, it is recommended that candidates answers are approximately 100 to 150 words in length in
translation tests or 1 to 2 minutes in interpreting tests.

The following are examples of Ethics of the Profession questions and possible answers.

For Paraprofessional and Professional Translator tests

Example One

You have translated a business document for a company managed by a LOTE speaking person. You
complete the translation but the client sends it back with numerous changes requested. The changes
reflect the manager's house style preferences and change the semantic nature of the English original
and affect the accuracy of the translation. What would you do and why?

Example Answer
The principle involved is accuracy which indicates that translators shall not alter, make additions to, or
omit anything from their assigned work.

Accuracy is always of primary concern and translations should reflect the original document's content
and register accurately and faithfully. Any changes resulting in a different meaning, when compared to
the English original, are unacceptable. I would contact the client and advise him/her that I can not make
the requested changes. If the client insists, I would ask the client to re-write the English original in that
house style and I could then do the translation from the revised original document. A translator should
not be involved in producing a document that does not accurately reflect the meaning of the original
document.

Example Two

Your uncle has had his Will drafted, signed and witnessed in English. The Will refers to property that
exists in another country where English is not an official language. Your uncle requests that you, an
accredited translator, translate the Will into the official language so it will be available when the time
comes to deal with the authorities. What should you do and why?

Example Answer
The principles involved are impartiality and professional conduct. That is translators shall not accept, or
shall withdraw from, assignments in which impartiality may be difficult to maintain because of personal
circumstances and translators shall frankly disclose all conflicts of interest, including assignments for
relatives or friends.

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I would have to decline the request as there might be a real or perceived conflict of interest, given the
document is for a relative. As the request relates to a legal document, I would not want to risk having my
translation not accepted when presented. I would explain my reasoning to my Uncle. If I did translate the
document, I would ensure that as part of certifying the document I declared my relationship with the
document owner.


For Paraprofessional and Professional Interpreter tests

Example One

While interpreting in an interview between a police officer and a witness, the officer asks you for your
comment on the clients background and whether he is telling the truth. How would you reply? Please
give reasons for your answer.

Example Answer
The first principle involved is impartiality. This states that interpreters shall not voice or write an opinion,
solicited or unsolicited, on any matter or person in relation to an assignment. Another principle that
applies to the situation is professional conduct, which states that interpreters should explain their role to
those who are unaccustomed to an interpreters role.

I would explain to the police officer that as an interpreter my only role is to enable communication
between two parties who do not speak a common language. As part of this process it is important that I
do not express an opinion in relation to his question as this would mean that I do not maintain my
independence in relation to the communication.

Example Two

You are interpreting for a patient and a psychiatrist. The patient seems rather uncomfortable and does
not respond with complete sentences. Their answers to the psychiatrists questions do not make much
sense. What would you do and why?

Example Answer
This issue relates to impartiality and accuracy. The clause on impartiality states that interpreters are not
responsible for what clients say, and they should not voice their opinion on anything concerned with an
assignment. The clause on accuracy states that an interpreter is to relay accurately all that is said during
the meeting without altering, adding or omitting anything.

Because of these clauses, the interpreter must not improve on the coherence of the patients replies by
making them more articulate than they are in the original. Whatever the client says must be interpreted
for the psychiatrist, even if such a clients response bears no relation to the question or makes no sense.
It is the psychiatrist who will take appropriate action, should this be required.

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AUSIT Code of Ethics

The Australian Institute of Interpreters and Translators Inc (AUSIT) was founded at a
meeting in Canberra in 1987, convened by the National Accreditation Authority for
Translators and Interpreters (NAATI) to establish a national association of interpreting
and translation professionals in Australia.

Central to the establishment of any profession is the codification of its practices not only
in organisational matters, but also, and crucially, in matters of professional conduct.
Adherence to a Code of Ethics represents an undertaking by the members of a
professional association that they can be relied upon to behave according to rules that
protect and respect the interests of their clients as well as those of their fellow members.

The development of the AUSIT Code of Ethics was completed in 1995, when it was
endorsed by NAATI, adopted by AUSIT at the National General Meeting and presented
to the International Federation of Translators at its World Congress in Melbourne in
1996.

In summary, the Code obliges members to:

respect their clients rights to privacy and confidentiality

decline to undertake work beyond their competence or accreditation levels

take responsibility for the work of people under their supervision

decline to mix promotional activity for clients with interpreting or translation work

guard against misuse of inside information for personal gain

guard against encroaching on the work of co-members

maintain professional detachment, impartiality and objectivity

refer to arbitration by the National Council of any dispute with other members and to
accept the Council decision as binding.

The development of the rules embodied in the Code has been a serious and painstaking
undertaking, but its effectiveness is attested to by the fact that, apart from the NAATI
endorsement, a number of major organisations have sought and been granted the right to
adopt and reproduce it. They include interalia the Commonwealth Governments
Translation and Interpreting Service (TIS), Centrelink Multicultural Services, the
Refugee Review Tribunal.


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GENERAL PRINCIPLES

1. PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT

Interpreters and translators shall at all times act in accordance with the standards of
conduct and decorum appropriate to the aims of AUSIT, the national professional
association of interpreting and translation practitioners.

2. CONFIDENTIALITY
Interpreters and translators shall not disclose information acquired during the course of
their assignments.

3. COMPETENCE
Interpreters and translators shall undertake only work which they are competent to
perform in the language areas for which they are accredited or recognised by
NAATI.

4. IMPARTIALITY
Interpreters and translators shall observe impartiality in all professional contracts.

5. ACCURACY
Interpreters and translators shall take all reasonable care to be accurate.

6. EMPLOYMENT
Interpreters and translators shall be responsible for the quality of their work, whether as
freelance practitioners or employed practitioners of interpreting and translation agencies
and other employers.

7. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Interpreters and translators shall continue to develop their professional knowledge and
skills.

8. PROFESSIONAL SOLIDARITY
Interpreters and translators shall respect and support their fellow professionals.

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CODE OF PRACTICE
Annotations to General Principles of Code of Ethics


1. PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT

a) Standards of Conduct and Decorum
i. Interpreters and translators shall be polite and courteous at all times.
ii. Interpreters and translators shall explain their role to those unaccustomed to
working with them.
iii. Interpreters and translators shall be unobtrusive, but firm and dignified, at all
times.
iv. It is the responsibility of interpreters and translators to ensure that the conditions
under which they work facilitate rather than hinder communication.
v. Interpreters shall encourage speakers to address each other directly.

b) Honesty, Integrity and Dignity
i. Interpreters and translators shall not allow personal or other interests to prejudice
or influence their work.
ii. Interpreters and translators shall not solicit or accept gratuities or other benefits.
[Cf. 6. Employment b) (iii)]
iii. Interpreters and translators shall not exercise power or influence over their clients.
iv. Interpreters and translators shall maintain their integrity and independence at all
times.
v. Interpreters and translators shall frankly disclose any possible conflict of interest.

c) Reliability
i. Interpreters and translators shall adhere to appointment times and deadlines, or in
emergencies advise clients promptly.
ii .Interpreters and translators shall undertake appropriate preparations for all
translating and interpreting (T&I) assignments.
iii. Interpreters and translators shall complete interpreting and translation assignments
they have accepted.

d) Infamous Conduct
Interpreters and translators shall refrain from behaviour which their colleagues
would reasonably regard as unprofessional or dishonourable.

e) Disputes
i. Interpreters and translators shall try to resolve any disputes with their interpreting
and translating colleagues in a cooperative, constructive and professional manner.
ii. Interpreters and translators shall refer any unresolved disputes with other AUSIT
members to the Executive Committee of their professional association and the
conclusive direction of the Executive Committee shall be binding on members,
with the provision of appeal or review in the interests of natural justice.

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2. CONFIDENTIALITY

a) Information Sharing
i. Information shared in interpreting and translating assignments is strictly
confidential.
ii. Disclosure of information may be permissible with clients agreement or when
disclosure is mandated by law.
iii. Where teamwork is required, and with the clients permission, it may be
necessary to brief other interpreters or translators who are members of the team
involved in the assignment. In such circumstances, the ethical obligation for
confidentiality extends to all members of the team and/or agency.
iv. Information gained by interpreters and translators from consultations between
clients and their legal representatives is protected under the common law rule of
legal professional privilege.
v. Interpreters and translators shall not sub-contract work to interpreting and
translating colleagues without permission from their client.
vi. Translated documents at all times remain the property of the client and shall not
be shown or released to a third party without the express permission of the client,
or by order of a court of law.

3. COMPETENCE

a) Qualifications and Accreditation
i. Interpreters and translators shall accept only interpreting and translation
assignments which they are competent to perform.
ii. Acceptance of an interpreting and translation is an implicit declaration of an
interpreters or translators competence and constitutes a contract (oral or written).
iii. Interpreters and translators shall clearly specify to their clients the NAATI level
and direction in the languages for which they are accredited or recognised.
iv. If requested by clients, interpreters and translators shall explain the difference
between NAATI Accreditation and Recognition.

b) Level of Expertise
In the course of an assignment, if it becomes apparent to interpreters and
translators that expertise beyond their competence is required, they shall inform
the clients immediately and offer to withdraw from the assignment.

c) Prior Preparation
Interpreters and translators shall ascertain beforehand what will be required of
them in a projected assignment, and then make the necessary preparation.

d) Second Opinions and Reviews
Any alterations made to interpreting and translation work, as a result of a second
opinion and/or review by other interpreters or translators, shall be agreed upon by
consultation between the interpreters and translators concerned.

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4. IMPARTIALITY

a) Conflicts of Interest
i. Interpreters and translators shall not recommend to clients any business, agency,
process, substance or material matters in which they have a personal or financial
interest, without fully disclosing this interest to the clients.
ii. Interpreters and translators shall frankly disclose all conflicts of interest, including
assignments for relatives or friends, and those affecting their employers.
iii. Interpreters and translators shall not accept, or shall withdraw from assignments
in which impartiality may be difficult to maintain because of personal beliefs or
circumstances.
b) Objectivity
i. A professional detachment is required for interpreting and translation assignments
in all situations.
ii. If objectivity is threatened, interpreters and translators shall withdraw from the
assignment.
c) Responsibility related to Impartiality
i. Interpreters and translators are not responsible for what clients say or write.
ii. Interpreters and translators shall not voice or write an opinion, solicited or
unsolicited, on any matter or person in relation to an assignment.
iii If approached independently by separate parties to the same legal dispute, an
interpreter or translator shall notify all parties and give the first party opportunity
to claim exclusive right to the requested interpreting or translation service.

5. ACCURACY

a) Truth and Completeness
i. In order to ensure the same access to all that is said by all parties involved in a
meeting, interpreters shall relay accurately and completely everything that is said.
ii. Interpreters shall convey the whole message, including derogatory or vulgar remarks,
as well as non-verbal clues.
iii. If patent untruths are uttered or written, interpreters and translators shall convey
these accurately as presented.
iv. Interpreters and translators shall not alter, make additions to, or omit anything from
their assigned work.

b) Uncertainties in Transmission and Comprehension
i. Interpreters and translators shall acknowledge and promptly rectify their interpreting
and translation mistakes.
ii. If anything is unclear, interpreters and translators shall ask for repetition,
rephrasing or explanation.
iii. If recall and interpreting are being overtaxed, interpreters shall ask the speaker to
pause, then signal to continue.

c) Clear Transmission

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i. Interpreters shall ensure that speech is clearly heard and understood by everyone
present.
ii. A short general conversation with clients prior to an assignment may be necessary
to ensure interpreter and clients clearly understand each others speech.
iii. In a law court, simultaneous interpreting for clients shall be whispered.

d) Certification
Translators shall provide certification, if requested by their clients, that their
translation is true and accurate so far as they know. Certification shall include the
translators name, details of NAATI accreditation/recognition, language and
language direction, and be signed and dated.

6. EMPLOYMENT

a) Freelance and Agency-employed Practitioners
i. Interpreters and translators may work in interpreting and translation assignments
as independent (freelance) professionals, or under contract to a commercial or
government agency.
ii. In both instances, freelance and employed interpreters and translators shall abide
by the AUSIT Code of Ethics.
iii. If this Code of Ethics and an employing agencys directions are in conflict,
interpreters and translators shall abide by the Code of Ethics and, if necessary,
withdraw from the assignment.

b) Fees and Payment in Kind
i. Members are free to set their own rates and conditions. AUSIT may provide
information on ranges of rates charged by members.
ii. Interpreters and translators shall not accept for personal gain any fees, favours,
commissions or the like from any person, firm, corporation or government
agency, including another interpreter or translator, in connection with
recommending to a client any person, business agency, substance, material
matters, process or service.
iii. In general, gifts and tips in addition to the agreed fee shall not be accepted.
However, some discretionary latitude may be exercised in accepting a gift as a
token of gratitude, as this is obligatory in certain client cultures.

c) Accountability
i. Interpreters and translators shall be responsible for any services to or on behalf of
clients by assistants or sub-contractors employed by the interpreters or translators.
ii. Interpreters and translators in the employment of another practitioner or
interpreting and translation agency shall exercise the same diligence as in all
professional contexts in the performance of their duties.

7. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

a) Maintaining Skills

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i. Interpreters and translators shall constantly review and re-evaluate their work
performance to maintain acceptable standards.
ii. Practising interpreters and translators are expected to maintain and enhance their
language skills by pursuing further relevant study and experience.
iii. Interpreters and translators shall maintain close familiarity with the languages and
cultures for which they offer professional interpreting and translation expertise.
i. Interpreters and translators shall continually endeavour to improve their
interpreting and translating skills.

b) Training and Practice
ii. It is incumbent on interpreters and translators to support and encourage the
professional development of their colleagues.

8. PROFESSIONAL SOLIDARITY

a) Support of Colleagues
i. Interpreters and translators shall support and further the interests of the profession
and their colleagues and offer each other reasonable assistance as required.
ii. Interpreters and translators shall refrain from making comments injurious to the
reputation of a colleague.

b) Trust and Respect
i. Interpreters and translators shall promote and enhance the integrity of the
profession by fostering trust and mutual respect between colleagues.
ii. Any differences of opinion interpreters and translators shall be expressed with
candour and respect, rather than by denigration.


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SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES TO THE CODE OF PRACTICE
Some useful suggestions follow which do not fit neatly into the Code of Practice,
but which may help explain some clauses.



1. PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT

To determine the appropriateness or otherwise of a proposed course of action,
consider whether or not it might impede or jeopardise effective communication.

If approached directly by a client, known to be a client or another interpreting or
translation professional or agency, do not accept any assignments offered without
first conferring with, and obtaining endorsement from, the other professional or
agency.

..............

3. COMPETENCE

It is more informative for interpreters and translators to use arrows <> rather than
hyphens to specify in writing language directions for which they are NAATI
accredited or recognised. [cf3(a) (ii)].

The distinction between NAATI accreditation and recognition needs to be
understood, and those who work with interpreters and translators should be given
the opportunity to make informed decisions when seeking their services. [cf3 (a)
(iii)].

Interpreters and translators ought to be given the opportunity to comment on any
alterations made to their work a result of a second opinion and/or review by other
interpreters or translators. [cf3 (d)].

..............

6. EMPLOYMENT

When employed by an interpreting and translation agency for specific tasks,
interpreters and translators may present business cards representing that agency
only - do not use personal cards or cards which imply employment by any other
organisation. [cf1 (d)].

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108

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 |









INDEX

Topic Page Numbers

INDEX


Please use the INDEX to look up
key topics and terms in this textbook.

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109

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | INDEX
INDEX
A
Accurate Interpreting, 46
Advocate, 9
Analyse client request, 14
Australian Idioms, 50
Australian Slangs vs Idioms, 49
B
Billing structure, 25
C
Cancellations, 33
Chinglish, 38
Client Requirement Analysis, 10
Common Errors, 34
Conduit, 8
Conference Interpreting, 5
Consecutive Interpreting, 6
CONTRACT, 21
D
Dialogues, 71
Difficult Situations, 57
E
Examples of Slangs, 49
Extended Assignments, 33
F
Function of Interpreting, 8
G
Gather information, 15
Grooming, 34
H
Hourly Rate, 32
I
Idioms
Australian Idioms, 50
Chinese Idioms, 51
Idioms in Detail, 50
Independent Contractor, 30
Integrative Negotiation, 13
Interim charge caps, 25
Interpreter Client Request Evaluation
Process, 28
Interpreter Request Form, 19
Invoicing, 30
J
JURISDICTION, 24
L
Late payment, 25
Lexical Deficiency, 42
LIABILITY, 21
LINGUISTS, 22
M
Memory Skills, 59
N
Negotiate costs with clients, 12
Note taking Skills, 58
O
On-Site Interpreting, 32

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INDEX
Ownership rights, 26
P
Payment Methods, 31
Planning, 31
Positioning for Interpreter, 56
Preparation for an Interpretation
Assignment, 14
pre-session, 55
Pre-sessions, 54
Pre-sessions and Positioning of
Interpreters, 54
Professional Development, 63
Pronunciation, 38
Proverbs, 53
R
Record Requirements, 12
Resolve conflicting issues, 12
Roles of the Interpreter, 8
S
Scheduling, 25
Sight Translation, 7
Sign Off, 14
Simultaneous Interpreting, 5
Slangs and Idioms, 48
Stakeholder Requirements, 10
Stakeholders, 10
Stress, 62
Support System, 63
Syntactical Incompetence, 43
T
Telephone Interpreting, 7
Termination of services, 26
Terms and Conditions, 20
Types of Interpreting, 5
V
Vocabulary, 39, 64
W
Whispered Interpreting, 7


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111

@Harvest Education Technical College 2012 | APPENDIX CODES OF ETHICS
APPENDIX CODES OF ETHICS
49 APPENDIX CODES OF ETHICS

Preparing to be an independent interpreter
textbook

Written by Yan Chen

The Diploma of Interpreting reflects the skills and knowledge required to interpret in general dialogue settings, which a potential to
interpret in general monologue settings, where the interpreter is able to physically control the discourse to assist retention and
recall.















info@hetc.com.au Phone: 07 3344 1922
Address: Suite 9, Block A, 3 Zamia Street, Sunnybank, QLD 4109, Australia

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