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TheCivilCodeofthePhilippines

ANACTTOORDAINANDINSTITUTETHECIVILCODEOFTHEPHILIPPINES
PRELIMINARYTITLE

CHAPTERI
EFFECTANDAPPLICATIONOFLAWS

Article1.ThisActshallbeknownasthe"CivilCodeofthePhilippines."(n)
Art.2.Lawsshalltakeeffectafterfifteendaysfollowingthecompletionoftheirpublicationinthe
OfficialGazette,unlessitisotherwiseprovided.ThisCodeshalltakeeffectoneyearaftersuch
publication.(1a)

Art.3.Ignoranceofthelawexcusesnoonefromcompliancetherewith.(2)

Art.4.Lawsshallhavenoretroactiveeffect,unlessthecontraryisprovided.(3)

Art.5.Actsexecutedagainsttheprovisionsofmandatoryorprohibitorylawsshallbevoid,exceptwhen
thelawitselfauthorizestheirvalidity.(4a)

Art.6.Rightsmaybewaived,unlessthewaiveriscontrarytolaw,publicorder,publicpolicy,morals,or
goodcustoms,orprejudicialtoathirdpersonwitharightrecognizedbylaw.(4a)

Art.7.Lawsarerepealedonlybysubsequentones,andtheirviolationornonobservanceshallnotbe
excusedbydisuse,orcustomorpracticetothecontrary.
WhenthecourtsdeclaredalawtobeinconsistentwiththeConstitution,theformershallbevoidand
thelattershallgovern.

Administrativeorexecutiveacts,ordersandregulationsshallbevalidonlywhentheyarenotcontrary
tothelawsortheConstitution.(5a)

Art.8.JudicialdecisionsapplyingorinterpretingthelawsortheConstitutionshallformapartofthe
legalsystemofthePhilippines.(n)

Art.9.Nojudgeorcourtshalldeclinetorenderjudgmentbyreasonofthesilence,obscurityor
insufficiencyofthelaws.(6)

Art.10.Incaseofdoubtintheinterpretationorapplicationoflaws,itispresumedthatthelawmaking
bodyintendedrightandjusticetoprevail.(n)

Art.11.Customswhicharecontrarytolaw,publicorderorpublicpolicyshallnotbecountenanced.(n)

Art.12.Acustommustbeprovedasafact,accordingtotherulesofevidence.(n)

Art.13.Whenthelawsspeakofyears,months,daysornights,itshallbeunderstoodthatyearsareof
threehundredsixtyfivedayseach;months,ofthirtydays;days,oftwentyfourhours;andnightsfrom
sunsettosunrise.

Ifmonthsaredesignatedbytheirname,theyshallbecomputedbythenumberofdayswhichthey
respectivelyhave.

Incomputingaperiod,thefirstdayshallbeexcluded,andthelastdayincluded.(7a)

Art.14.Penallawsandthoseofpublicsecurityandsafetyshallbeobligatoryuponallwholiveor
sojourninthePhilippineterritory,subjecttotheprinciplesofpublicinternationallawandtotreaty
stipulations.(8a)

Art.15.Lawsrelatingtofamilyrightsandduties,ortothestatus,conditionandlegalcapacityof
personsarebindinguponcitizensofthePhilippines,eventhoughlivingabroad.(9a)

Art.16.Realpropertyaswellaspersonalpropertyissubjecttothelawofthecountrywhereitis
stipulated.

However,intestateandtestamentarysuccessions,bothwithrespecttotheorderofsuccessionandto
theamountofsuccessionalrightsandtotheintrinsicvalidityoftestamentaryprovisions,shallbe
regulatedbythenationallawofthepersonwhosesuccessionisunderconsideration,whatevermaybe
thenatureofthepropertyandregardlessofthecountrywhereinsaidpropertymaybefound.(10a)

Art.17.Theformsandsolemnitiesofcontracts,wills,andotherpublicinstrumentsshallbegovernedby
thelawsofthecountryinwhichtheyareexecuted.

WhentheactsreferredtoareexecutedbeforethediplomaticorconsularofficialsoftheRepublicofthe
Philippinesinaforeigncountry,thesolemnitiesestablishedbyPhilippinelawsshallbeobservedintheir
execution.

Prohibitivelawsconcerningpersons,theiractsorproperty,andthosewhichhave,fortheirobject,
publicorder,publicpolicyandgoodcustomsshallnotberenderedineffectivebylawsorjudgments
promulgated,orbydeterminationsorconventionsagreeduponinaforeigncountry.(11a)

Art.18.InmatterswhicharegovernedbytheCodeofCommerceandspeciallaws,theirdeficiencyshall
besuppliedbytheprovisionsofthisCode.(16a)

CHAPTER2
HUMANRELATIONS(n)

Art.19.Everypersonmust,intheexerciseofhisrightsandintheperformanceofhisduties,actwith
justice,giveeveryonehisdue,andobservehonestyandgoodfaith.
Art.20.Everypersonwho,contrarytolaw,wilfullyornegligentlycausesdamagetoanother,shall
indemnifythelatterforthesame.

Art.21.Anypersonwhowilfullycauseslossorinjurytoanotherinamannerthatiscontrarytomorals,
goodcustomsorpublicpolicyshallcompensatethelatterforthedamage.

Art.22.Everypersonwhothroughanactofperformancebyanother,oranyothermeans,acquiresor
comesintopossessionofsomethingattheexpenseofthelatterwithoutjustorlegalground,shall
returnthesametohim.

Art.23.Evenwhenanactoreventcausingdamagetoanother'spropertywasnotduetothefaultor
negligenceofthedefendant,thelattershallbeliableforindemnityifthroughtheactoreventhewas
benefited.

Art.24.Inallcontractual,propertyorotherrelations,whenoneofthepartiesisatadisadvantageon
accountofhismoraldependence,ignorance,indigence,mentalweakness,tenderageorother
handicap,thecourtsmustbevigilantforhisprotection.

Art.25.Thoughtlessextravaganceinexpensesforpleasureordisplayduringaperiodofacutepublic
wantoremergencymaybestoppedbyorderofthecourtsattheinstanceofanygovernmentorprivate
charitableinstitution.

Art.26.Everypersonshallrespectthedignity,personality,privacyandpeaceofmindofhisneighbors
andotherpersons.Thefollowingandsimilaracts,thoughtheymaynotconstituteacriminaloffense,
shallproduceacauseofactionfordamages,preventionandotherrelief:

(1)Pryingintotheprivacyofanother'sresidence:
(2)Meddlingwithordisturbingtheprivatelifeorfamilyrelationsofanother;

(3)Intriguingtocauseanothertobealienatedfromhisfriends;

(4)Vexingorhumiliatinganotheronaccountofhisreligiousbeliefs,lowlystationinlife,placeofbirth,
physicaldefect,orotherpersonalcondition.

Art.27.Anypersonsufferingmaterialormorallossbecauseapublicservantoremployeerefusesor
neglects,withoutjustcause,toperformhisofficialdutymayfileanactionfordamagesandotherrelief
againsthelatter,withoutprejudicetoanydisciplinaryadministrativeactionthatmaybetaken.
Art.28.Unfaircompetitioninagricultural,commercialorindustrialenterprisesorinlaborthroughthe
useofforce,intimidation,deceit,machinationoranyotherunjust,oppressiveorhighhandedmethod
shallgiverisetoarightofactionbythepersonwhotherebysuffersdamage.

Art.29.Whentheaccusedinacriminalprosecutionisacquittedonthegroundthathisguilthasnot
beenprovedbeyondreasonabledoubt,acivilactionfordamagesforthesameactoromissionmaybe
instituted.Suchactionrequiresonlyapreponderanceofevidence.Uponmotionofthedefendant,the
courtmayrequiretheplaintifftofileabondtoanswerfordamagesincasethecomplaintshouldbe
foundtobemalicious.

Ifinacriminalcasethejudgmentofacquittalisbaseduponreasonabledoubt,thecourtshallsodeclare.
Intheabsenceofanydeclarationtothateffect,itmaybeinferredfromthetextofthedecisionwhether
ornottheacquittalisduetothatground.

Art.30.Whenaseparatecivilactionisbroughttodemandcivilliabilityarisingfromacriminaloffense,
andnocriminalproceedingsareinstitutedduringthependencyofthecivilcase,apreponderanceof
evidenceshalllikewisebesufficienttoprovetheactcomplainedof.

Art.31.Whenthecivilactionisbasedonanobligationnotarisingfromtheactoromissioncomplained
ofasafelony,suchcivilactionmayproceedindependentlyofthecriminalproceedingsandregardlessof
theresultofthelatter.

Art.32.Anypublicofficeroremployee,oranyprivateindividual,whodirectlyorindirectlyobstructs,
defeats,violatesorinanymannerimpedesorimpairsanyofthefollowingrightsandlibertiesofanother
personshallbeliabletothelatterfordamages:

(1)Freedomofreligion;
(2)Freedomofspeech;

(3)Freedomtowriteforthepressortomaintainaperiodicalpublication;

(4)Freedomfromarbitraryorillegaldetention;

(5)Freedomofsuffrage;

(6)Therightagainstdeprivationofpropertywithoutdueprocessoflaw;

(7)Therighttoajustcompensationwhenprivatepropertyistakenforpublicuse;

(8)Therighttotheequalprotectionofthelaws;

(9)Therighttobesecureinone'sperson,house,papers,andeffectsagainstunreasonablesearchesand
seizures;

(10)Thelibertyofabodeandofchangingthesame;

(11)Theprivacyofcommunicationandcorrespondence;

(12)Therighttobecomeamemberofassociationsorsocietiesforpurposesnotcontrarytolaw;

(13)Therighttotakepartinapeaceableassemblytopetitionthegovernmentforredressof
grievances;

(14)Therighttobefreefrominvoluntaryservitudeinanyform;

(15)Therightoftheaccusedagainstexcessivebail;

(16)Therightoftheaccusedtobeheardbyhimselfandcounsel,tobeinformedofthenatureand
causeoftheaccusationagainsthim,tohaveaspeedyandpublictrial,tomeetthewitnessesfaceto
face,andtohavecompulsoryprocesstosecuretheattendanceofwitnessinhisbehalf;

(17)Freedomfrombeingcompelledtobeawitnessagainstone'sself,orfrombeingforcedtoconfess
guilt,orfrombeinginducedbyapromiseofimmunityorrewardtomakesuchconfession,exceptwhen
thepersonconfessingbecomesaStatewitness;

(18)Freedomfromexcessivefines,orcruelandunusualpunishment,unlessthesameisimposedor
inflictedinaccordancewithastatutewhichhasnotbeenjudiciallydeclaredunconstitutional;and

(19)Freedomofaccesstothecourts.

Inanyofthecasesreferredtointhisarticle,whetherornotthedefendant'sactoromissionconstitutes
acriminaloffense,theaggrievedpartyhasarighttocommenceanentirelyseparateanddistinctcivil
actionfordamages,andforotherrelief.Suchcivilactionshallproceedindependentlyofanycriminal
prosecution(ifthelatterbeinstituted),andmatbeprovedbyapreponderanceofevidence.
Theindemnityshallincludemoraldamages.Exemplarydamagesmayalsobeadjudicated.

Theresponsibilityhereinsetforthisnotdemandablefromajudgeunlesshisactoromissionconstitutes
aviolationofthePenalCodeorotherpenalstatute.

Art.33.Incasesofdefamation,fraud,andphysicalinjuriesacivilactionfordamages,entirelyseparate
anddistinctfromthecriminalaction,maybebroughtbytheinjuredparty.Suchcivilactionshall
proceedindependentlyofthecriminalprosecution,andshallrequireonlyapreponderanceofevidence.

Art.34.Whenamemberofacityormunicipalpoliceforcerefusesorfailstorenderaidorprotectionto
anypersonincaseofdangertolifeorproperty,suchpeaceofficershallbeprimarilyliablefordamages,
andthecityormunicipalityshallbesubsidiarilyresponsibletherefor.Thecivilactionhereinrecognized
shallbeindependentofanycriminalproceedings,andapreponderanceofevidenceshallsufficeto
supportsuchaction.

Art.35.Whenaperson,claimingtobeinjuredbyacriminaloffense,chargesanotherwiththesame,for
whichnoindependentcivilactionisgrantedinthisCodeoranyspeciallaw,butthejusticeofthepeace
findsnoreasonablegroundstobelievethatacrimehasbeencommitted,ortheprosecutingattorney
refusesorfailstoinstitutecriminalproceedings,thecomplaintmaybringacivilactionfordamages
againsttheallegedoffender.Suchcivilactionmaybesupportedbyapreponderanceofevidence.Upon
thedefendant'smotion,thecourtmayrequiretheplaintifftofileabondtoindemnifythedefendantin
casethecomplaintshouldbefoundtobemalicious.

Ifduringthependencyofthecivilaction,aninformationshouldbepresentedbytheprosecuting
attorney,thecivilactionshallbesuspendeduntiltheterminationofthecriminalproceedings.

Art.36.Prejudicialquestionswhichmustbedecidedbeforeanycriminalprosecutionmaybeinstituted
ormayproceed,shallbegovernedbyrulesofcourtwhichtheSupremeCourtshallpromulgateand
whichshallnotbeinconflictwiththeprovisionsofthisCode.

BOOKI
PERSONS

TitleI.CIVILPERSONALITY

CHAPTER1
GENERALPROVISIONS

Art.37.Juridicalcapacity,whichisthefitnesstobethesubjectoflegalrelations,isinherentinevery
naturalpersonandislostonlythroughdeath.Capacitytoact,whichisthepowertodoactswithlegal
effect,isacquiredandmaybelost.(n)

Art.38.Minority,insanityorimbecility,thestateofbeingadeafmute,prodigalityandcivilinterdiction
aremererestrictionsoncapacitytoact,anddonotexempttheincapacitatedpersonfromcertain
obligations,aswhenthelatterarisefromhisactsorfrompropertyrelations,suchaseasements.(32a)

Art.39.Thefollowingcircumstances,amongothers,modifyorlimitcapacitytoact:age,insanity,
imbecility,thestateofbeingadeafmute,penalty,prodigality,familyrelations,alienage,absence,
insolvencyandtrusteeship.TheconsequencesofthesecircumstancesaregovernedinthisCode,other
codes,theRulesofCourt,andinspeciallaws.Capacitytoactisnotlimitedonaccountofreligiousbelief
orpoliticalopinion.

Amarriedwoman,twentyoneyearsofageorover,isqualifiedforallactsofcivillife,exceptincases
specifiedbylaw.(n)

CHAPTER2
NATURALPERSONS

Art.40.Birthdeterminespersonality;buttheconceivedchildshallbeconsideredbornforallpurposes
thatarefavorabletoit,provideditbebornlaterwiththeconditionsspecifiedinthefollowingarticle.
(29a)
Art.41.Forcivilpurposes,thefetusisconsideredbornifitisaliveatthetimeitiscompletelydelivered
fromthemother'swomb.However,ifthefetushadanintrauterinelifeoflessthansevenmonths,itis
notdeemedbornifitdieswithintwentyfourhoursafteritscompletedeliveryfromthematernal
womb.(30a)

Art.42.Civilpersonalityisextinguishedbydeath.

Theeffectofdeathupontherightsandobligationsofthedeceasedisdeterminedbylaw,bycontract
andbywill.(32a)

Art.43.Ifthereisadoubt,asbetweentwoormorepersonswhoarecalledtosucceedeachother,asto
whichofthemdiedfirst,whoeverallegesthedeathofonepriortotheother,shallprovethesame;in
theabsenceofproof,itispresumedthattheydiedatthesametimeandthereshallbenotransmission
ofrightsfromonetotheother.(33)

CHAPTER3
JURIDICALPERSONS

Art.44.Thefollowingarejuridicalpersons:
(1)TheStateanditspoliticalsubdivisions;
(2)Othercorporations,institutionsandentitiesforpublicinterestorpurpose,createdbylaw;their
personalitybeginsassoonastheyhavebeenconstitutedaccordingtolaw;

(3)Corporations,partnershipsandassociationsforprivateinterestorpurposetowhichthelawgrantsa
juridicalpersonality,separateanddistinctfromthatofeachshareholder,partnerormember.(35a)

Art.45.JuridicalpersonsmentionedinNos.1and2oftheprecedingarticlearegovernedbythelaws
creatingorrecognizingthem.
Privatecorporationsareregulatedbylawsofgeneralapplicationonthesubject.

PartnershipsandassociationsforprivateinterestorpurposearegovernedbytheprovisionsofthisCode
concerningpartnerships.(36and37a)

Art.46.Juridicalpersonsmayacquireandpossesspropertyofallkinds,aswellasincurobligationsand
bringcivilorcriminalactions,inconformitywiththelawsandregulationsoftheirorganization.(38a)

Art.47.Uponthedissolutionofcorporations,institutionsandotherentitiesforpublicinterestor
purposementionedinNo.2ofArticle44,theirpropertyandotherassetsshallbedisposedofin
pursuanceoflaworthechartercreatingthem.Ifnothinghasbeenspecifiedonthispoint,theproperty
andotherassetsshallbeappliedtosimilarpurposesforthebenefitoftheregion,province,cityor
municipalitywhichduringtheexistenceoftheinstitutionderivedtheprincipalbenefitsfromthesame.
(39a)

TitleII.CITIZENSHIPANDDOMICILE

Art.48.ThefollowingarecitizensofthePhilippines:
(1)ThosewhowerecitizensofthePhilippinesatthetimeoftheadoptionoftheConstitutionofthe
Philippines;
(2)ThoseborninthePhilippinesofforeignparentswho,beforetheadoptionofsaidConstitution,had
beenelectedtopublicofficeinthePhilippines;

(3)ThosewhosefathersarecitizensofthePhilippines;

(4)ThosewhosemothersarecitizensofthePhilippinesand,uponreachingtheageofmajority,elect
Philippinecitizenship;

(5)Thosewhoarenaturalizedinaccordancewithlaw.(n)

Art.49.NaturalizationandthelossandreacquisitionofcitizenshipofthePhilippinesaregovernedby
speciallaws.(n)
Art.50.Fortheexerciseofcivilrightsandthefulfillmentofcivilobligations,thedomicileofnatural
personsistheplaceoftheirhabitualresidence.(40a)

Art.51.Whenthelawcreatingorrecognizingthem,oranyotherprovisiondoesnotfixthedomicileof
juridicalpersons,thesameshallbeunderstoodtobetheplacewheretheirlegalrepresentationis
establishedorwheretheyexercisetheirprincipalfunctions.(41a)

TitleIII.MARRIAGE

CHAPTER1
REQUISITESOFMARRIAGE

Art.52.Marriageisnotamerecontractbutaninviolablesocialinstitution.Itsnature,consequencesand
incidentsaregovernedbylawandnotsubjecttostipulation,exceptthatthemarriagesettlementsmay
toacertainextentfixthepropertyrelationsduringthemarriage.(n)
Art.53.Nomarriageshallbesolemnizedunlessalltheserequisitesarecompliedwith:

(1)Legalcapacityofthecontractingparties;
(2)Theirconsent,freelygiven;

(3)Authorityofthepersonperformingthemarriage;and

(4)Amarriagelicense,exceptinamarriageofexceptionalcharacter(Sec.1a,Art.3613).

Art.54.Anymaleoftheageofsixteenyearsorupwards,andanyfemaleoftheageoffourteenyearsor
upwards,notunderanyoftheimpedimentsmentionedinArticles80to84,maycontractmarriage.(2)
Art.55.Noparticularformfortheceremonyofmarriageisrequired,butthepartieswithlegalcapacity
tocontractmarriagemustdeclare,inthepresenceofthepersonsolemnizingthemarriageandoftwo
witnessesoflegalage,thattheytakeeachotherashusbandandwife.Thisdeclarationshallbesetforth
inaninstrumentintriplicate,signedbysignatureormarkbythecontractingpartiesandsaidtwo
witnessesandattestedbythepersonsolemnizingthemarriage.

Incaseofamarriageonthepointofdeath,whenthedyingparty,beingphysicallyunable,cannotsign
theinstrumentbysignatureormark,itshallbesufficientforoneofthewitnessestothemarriageto
signinhisname,whichfactshallbeattestedbytheministersolemnizingthemarriage.(3)

Art.56.Marriagemaybesolemnizedby:

(1)TheChiefJusticeandAssociateJusticesoftheSupremeCourt;
(2)ThePresidingJusticeandtheJusticesoftheCourtofAppeals;

(3)JudgesoftheCourtsofFirstInstance;

(4)Mayorsofcitiesandmunicipalities;

(5)Municipaljudgesandjusticesofthepeace;

(6)Priests,rabbis,ministersofthegospelofanydenomination,church,religionorsect,dulyregistered,
asprovidedinArticle92;and

(7)Shipcaptains,airplanechiefs,militarycommanders,andconsulsandviceconsulsinspecialcases
providedinArticles74and75.(4a)

Art.57.Themarriageshallbesolemnizedpubliclyintheofficeofthejudgeinopencourtorofthe
mayor;orinthechurch,chapelortemple,asthecasemaybe,andnotelsewhere,exceptincasesof
marriagescontractedonthepointofdeathorinremoteplacesinaccordancewithArticle72ofthis
Code,orincaseofmarriagereferredtoinArticle76orwhenoneoftheparentsortheguardianofthe
femaleorthelatterherselfifovereighteenyearsofagerequestitinwriting,inwhichcasesthe
marriagemaybesolemnizedatahouseorplacedesignatedbysaidparentorguardianofthefemaleor
bythelatterherselfinaswornstatementtothateffect.(5a)
Art.58.SavemarriagesofanexceptionalcharacterauthorizedinChapter2ofthisTitle,butnotthose
underArticle75,nomarriageshallbesolemnizedwithoutalicensefirstbeingissuedbythelocalcivil
registrarofthemunicipalitywhereeithercontractingpartyhabituallyresides.(7a)

Art.59.Thelocalcivilregistrarshallissuetheproperlicenseifeachofthecontractingpartiesswears
separatelybeforehimorbeforeanypublicofficialauthorizedtoadministeroaths,toanapplicationin
writingsettingforththatsuchpartyhasthenecessaryqualificationsforcontractingmarriage.The
applicants,theirparentsorguardiansshallnotberequiredtoexhibittheirresidencecertificatesinany
formalityinconnectionwiththesecuringofthemarriagelicense.Suchapplicationshallinsofaras
possiblecontainthefollowingdata:

(1)Fullnameofthecontractingparty;
(2)Placeofbirth;

(3)Age,dateofbirth;

(4)Civilstatus(single,widoworwidower,ordivorced);

(5)Ifdivorced,howandwhenthepreviousmarriagewasdissolved;

(6)Presentresidence;

(7)Degreeofrelationshipofthecontractingparties;

(8)Fullnameofthefather;

(9)Residenceofthefather;

(10)Fullnameofthemother;

(11)Residenceofthemother;

(12)Fullnameandresidenceoftheguardianorpersonhavingcharge,incasethecontractingpartyhas
neitherfathernormotherandisundertheageoftwentyyears,ifamale,oreighteenyearsifafemale.
(7a)

Art.60.Thelocalcivilregistrar,uponreceivingsuchapplication,shallrequiretheexhibitionofthe
originalbaptismalorbirthcertificatesofthecontractingpartiesorcopiesofsuchdocumentsduly
attestedbythepersonshavingcustodyoftheoriginals.Thesecertificatesorcertifiedcopiesofthe
documentsrequiredbythisarticleneednottobesworntoandshallbeexemptfromthedocumentary
stamptax.Thesignatureandofficialtitleofthepersonissuingthecertificateshallbesufficientproofof
itsauthenticity.
Ifeitherofthecontractingpartiesisunabletoproducehisbaptismalorbirthcertificateoracertified
copyofeitherbecauseofthedestructionorlossoftheoriginal,orifitisshownbyanaffidavitofsuch
partyorofanyotherpersonthatsuchbaptismalorbirthcertificatehasnotyetbeenreceivedthough
thesamehasbeenrequestedofthepersonhavingcustodythereofatleastfifteendayspriortothedate
oftheapplication,suchpartymayfurnishinlieuthereofhisresidencecertificateforthecurrentyearor
anypreviousyears,toshowtheagestatedinhisapplicationor,intheabsencethereof,aninstrument
drawnupandsworntobeforethelocalcivilregistrarconcernedoranypublicofficialauthorizedto
solemnizemarriage.Suchinstrumentshallcontainthesworndeclarationoftwowitnesses,oflawful
age,ofeithersex,settingforththefullname,profession,andresidenceofsuchcontractingpartyandof
hisorherparents,ifknown,andtheplaceanddateofbirthofsuchparty.Thenearestofkinofthe
contractingpartiesshallbepreferredaswitnesses,andintheirdefault,personswellknowninthe
provinceorthelocalityfortheirhonestyandgoodrepute.

Theexhibitionofbaptismalorbirthcertificatesshallnotberequirediftheparentsofthecontracting
partiesappearpersonallybeforethelocalcivilregistrarconcernedandsweartothecorrectnessofthe
lawfulageofsaidparties,asstatedintheapplication,orwhenthelocalcivilregistrarshall,bymerely
lookingattheapplicantsupontheirpersonallyappearingbeforehim,beconvincedthateitherorboth
ofthemhavetherequiredage.(8a)

Art.61.Incaseeitherofthecontractingpartiesisawidowedordivorcedperson,thesameshallbe
requiredtofurnish,insteadofthebaptismalorbirthcertificaterequiredinthelastprecedingarticle,the
deathcertificateofthedeceasedspouseorthedecreeofthedivorcecourt,asthecasemaybe.Incase
thedeathcertificatecannotbefound,thepartyshallmakeanaffidavitsettingforththiscircumstance
andhisorheractualcivilstatusandthenameandthedateofthedeathofthedeceasedspouse.

Incaseeitherorbothofthecontractingparties,beingneitherwidowednordivorced,arelessthan
twentyyearsofageasregardsthemaleandlessthaneighteenyearsasregardsthefemale,theyshall,
inadditiontotherequirementsoftheprecedingarticles,exhibittothelocalcivilregistrar,theconsent
totheirmarriage,oftheirfather,motherorguardian,orpersonshavinglegalchargeofthem,inthe
ordermentioned.Suchconsentshallbeinwriting,underoathtakenwiththeappearanceofthe
interestedpartiesbeforetheproperlocalcivilregistrarorintheformofanaffidavitmadeinthe
presenceoftwowitnessesandattestedbeforeanyofficialauthorizedbylawtoadministeroaths.(9a)

Art.62.Malesabovetwentybutundertwentyfiveyearsofage,orfemalesaboveeighteenbutunder
twentythreeyearsofage,shallbeobligedtoasktheirparentsorguardianforadviceupontheintended
marriage.Iftheydonotobtainsuchadvice,orifitbeunfavorable,themarriageshallnottakeplacetill
afterthreemonthsfollowingthecompletionofthepublicationoftheapplicationformarriagelicense.A
swornstatementbythecontractingpartiestotheeffectthatsuchadvicehasbeensought,together
withthewrittenadvicegiven,ifany,shallaccompanytheapplicationformarriagelicense.Shouldthe
parentsorguardianrefusetogiveanyadvice,thisfactshallbestatedinthesworndeclaration.(n)

Art.63.Thelocalcivilregistrarshallpostduringtenconsecutivedaysatthemaindoorofthebuilding
wherehehashisofficeanotice,thelocationofwhichshallnotbechangedonceithasbeenplaced,
settingforththefullnamesanddomicilesoftheapplicantsforamarriagelicenseandotherinformation
givenintheapplication.Thisnoticeshallrequestallpersonshavingknowledgeofanyimpedimentto
themarriagetoadvisethelocalregistrarthereof.Thelicenseshallbeissuedafterthecompletionofthe
publication,unlessthelocalcivilregistrarreceivesinformationuponanyallegedimpedimenttothe
marriage.(10a)

Art.64.Uponbeingadvisedofanyallegedimpedimenttothemarriage,thelocalcivilregistrarshall
forthwithmakeaninvestigation,examiningpersonsunderoath.Ifheisconvictedthatthereisan
impedimenttothemarriage,itshallbehisdutytowithholdthemarriagelicense,unlessheisotherwise
orderedbyacompetentcourt.(n)

Art.65.Thelocalcivilregistrarshalldemandthepreviouspaymentoffeesrequiredbylawor
regulationsforeachlicenseissued.Noothersumshallbecollected,inthenatureofafeeortaxofany
kind,fortheissuanceofamarriagelicense.Marriagelicensesshallbeissuedfreeofchargetoindigent
parties,whenbothmaleandfemaledonoteachownassessedrealpropertyinexcessoffivehundred
pesos,afactcertifiedto,withoutcost,bytheprovincialtreasurer,orintheabsencethereof,bya
statementdulysworntobythecontractingpartiesbeforethelocalcivilregistrar.Thelicenseshallbe
validinanypartofthePhilippines;butitshallbegoodfornomorethanonehundredandtwentydays
fromthedateonwhichitisissuedandshallbedeemedcanceledattheexpirationofsaidperiodifthe
interestedpartieshavenotmadeuseofit.(11a)

Art.66.Wheneitherorbothofthecontractingpartiesarecitizensorsubjectsofaforeigncountry,it
shallbenecessary,beforeamarriagelicensecanbeobtained,toprovidethemselveswithacertificateof
legalcapacitytocontractmarriage,tobeissuedbytheirrespectivediplomaticorconsularofficials.(13a)

Art.67.Themarriagecertificateinwhichthecontractingpartiesshallstatethattheytakeeachotheras
husbandandwife,shallalsocontain:

(1)Thefullnamesanddomicilesofthecontractingparties;
(2)Theageofeach;

(3)Astatementthatthepropermarriagelicensehasbeenissuedaccordingtolawandthatthe
contractingpartieshavetheconsentoftheirparentsincasethemaleisundertwentyorthefemale
undereighteenyearsofage;and

(4)Astatementthattheguardianorparenthasbeeninformedofthemarriage,ifthemaleisbetween
theagesoftwentyandtwentyfiveyears,andthefemalebetweeneighteenandtwentythreeyearsof
age.(15a)

Art.68.Itshallbethedutyofthepersonsolemnizingthemarriagetofurnishtoeitherofthecontracting
partiesoneofthethreecopiesofthemarriagecontractreferredtoinArticle55,andtosendanother
copyofthedocumentnotlaterthanfifteendaysafterthemarriagetookplacetothelocalcivilregistrar
concerned,whosedutyitshallbetoissuetheproperreceipttoanypersonsendingamarriagecontract
solemnizedbyhim,includingmarriagesofanexceptionalcharacter.Theofficial,priest,orminister
solemnizingthemarriageshallretainthethirdcopyofthemarriagecontract,themarriagelicenseand
theaffidavitoftheinterestedpartyregardingthesolemnizationofthemarriageinaplaceotherthan
thosementionedinArticle57iftherebeanysuchaffidavit,inthefilesthathemustkeep.(16a)
Art.69.ItshallbethedutyofthelocalcivilregistrartopreparethedocumentsrequiredbythisTitle,
andtoadministeroathstoallinterestedpartieswithoutanychargeinbothcases.

Thedocumentsandaffidavitsfiledinconnectionwithapplicationsformarriagelicensesshallbeexempt
fromthedocumentarystamptax.(17a)

Art.70.Thelocalcivilregistrarconcernedshallenterallapplicationsformarriagelicensesfiledwithhim
inaregisterbookstrictlyintheorderinwhichthesameshallbereceived.Heshallenterinsaidregister
thenamesoftheapplicants,thedateonwhichthemarriagelicensewasissued,andsuchotherdataas
maybenecessary.(18a)

Art.71.AllmarriagesperformedoutsidethePhilippinesinaccordancewiththelawsinforceinthe
countrywheretheywereperformed,andvalidthereassuch,shallalsobevalidinthiscountry,except
bigamous,polygamous,orincestuousmarriagesasdeterminedbyPhilippinelaw.(19a)

CHAPTER2
MARRIAGESOFEXCEPTIONALCHARACTER

Art.72.Incaseeitherofthecontractingpartiesisonthepointofdeathorthefemalehasherhabitual
residenceataplacemorethanfifteenkilometersdistantfromthemunicipalbuildingandthereisno
communicationbyrailroadorbyprovincialorlocalhighwaysbetweentheformerandthelatter,the
marriagemaybesolemnizedwithoutnecessityofamarriagelicense;butinsuchcasestheofficial,
priest,orministersolemnizingitshallstateinanaffidavitmadebeforethelocalcivilregistrarorany
personauthorizedbylawtoadministeroathsthatthemarriagewasperformedinarticulomortisorata
placemorethanfifteenkilometersdistantfromthemunicipalbuildingconcerned,inwhichlattercase
heshallgivethenameofthebarriowherethemarriagewassolemnized.Thepersonwhosolemnized
themarriageshallalsostate,ineithercase,thathetookthenecessarystepstoascertaintheagesand
relationshipofthecontractingpartiesandthattherewasinhisopinionnolegalimpedimenttothe
marriageatthetimethatitwassolemnized.(20)
Art.73.Theoriginaloftheaffidavitrequiredinthelastprecedingarticle,togetherwithacopyofthe
marriagecontract,shallbesentbythepersonsolemnizingthemarriagetothelocalcivilregistrarofthe
municipalitywhereitwasperformedwithintheperiodofthirtydays,aftertheperformanceofthe
marriage.Thelocalcivilregistrarshall,however,beforefilingthepapers,requirethepaymentintothe
municipaltreasuryofthelegalfeesrequiredinArticle65.(21)

Art.74.Amarriageinarticulomortismayalsobesolemnizedbythecaptainofashiporchiefofan
airplaneduringavoyage,orbythecommandingofficerofamilitaryunit,intheabsenceofachaplain,
duringwar.Thedutiesmentionedinthetwoprecedingarticlesshallbecompliedwithbytheship
captain,airplanechieforcommandingofficer.(n)

Art.75.MarriagesbetweenFilipinocitizensabroadmaybesolemnizedbyconsulsandviceconsulsof
theRepublicofthePhilippines.Thedutiesofthelocalcivilregistrarandofajudgeorjusticeofthe
peaceormayorwithregardtothecelebrationofmarriageshallbeperformedbysuchconsulsandvice
consuls.(n)

Art.76.Nomarriagelicenseshallbenecessarywhenamanandawomanwhohaveattainedtheageof
majorityandwho,beingunmarried,havelivedtogetherashusbandandwifeforatleastfiveyears,
desiretomarryeachother.Thecontractingpartiesshallstatetheforegoingfactsinanaffidavitbefore
anypersonauthorizedbylawtoadministeroaths.Theofficial,priestorministerwhosolemnizedthe
marriageshallalsostateinanaffidavitthathetookstepstoascertaintheagesandotherqualifications
ofthecontractingpartiesandthathefoundnolegalimpedimenttothemarriage.(n)

Art.77.Incasetwopersonsmarriedinaccordancewithlawdesiretoratifytheirunioninconformity
withtheregulations,rites,orpracticesofanychurch,sect,orreligionitshallnolongerbenecessaryto
complywiththerequirementsofChapter1ofthisTitleandanyratificationmadeshallmerelybe
consideredasapurelyreligiousceremony.(23)

Art.78.MarriagesbetweenMohammedansorpaganswholiveinthenonChristianprovincesmaybe
performedinaccordancewiththeircustoms,ritesorpractices.Nomarriagelicenseorformalrequisites
shallbenecessary.NorshallthepersonssolemnizingthesemarriagesbeobligedtocomplywithArticle
92.

However,twentyyearsafterapprovalofthisCode,allmarriagesperformedbetweenMohammedansor
pagansshallbesolemnizedinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofthisCode.ButthePresidentofthe
Philippines,uponrecommendationoftheSecretaryoftheInterior,mayatanytimebeforethe
expirationofsaidperiod,byproclamation,makeanyofsaidprovisionsapplicabletotheMohammedan
andnonChristianinhabitantsofanyofthenonChristianprovinces.(25a)

Art.79.MixedmarriagesbetweenaChristianmaleandaMohammedanorpaganfemaleshallbe
governedbythegeneralprovisionofthisTitleandnotbythoseofthelastprecedingarticle,butmixed
marriagesbetweenaMohammedanorpaganmaleandaChristianfemalemaybeperformedunderthe
provisionsofthelastprecedingarticleifsodesiredbythecontractingparties,subject,however,inthe
lattercasetotheprovisionsofthesecondparagraphofsaidarticle.(26)

CHAPTER3
VOIDANDVOIDABLEMARRIAGES

Art.80.Thefollowingmarriagesshallbevoidfromthebeginning:
(1)Thosecontractedundertheagesofsixteenandfourteenyearsbythemaleandfemalerespectively,
evenwiththeconsentoftheparents;
(2)Thosesolemnizedbyanypersonnotlegallyauthorizedtoperformmarriages;

(3)Thosesolemnizedwithoutamarriagelicense,savemarriagesofexceptionalcharacter;

(4)BigamousorpolygamousmarriagesnotfallingunderArticle83,Number2;

(5)IncestuousmarriagesmentionedinArticle81;

(6)Thosewhereoneorbothcontractingpartieshavebeenfoundguiltyofthekillingofthespouseof
eitherofthem;

(7)ThosebetweenstepbrothersandstepsistersandothermarriagesspecifiedinArticle82.(n)

Art.81.Marriagesbetweenthefollowingareincestuousandvoidfromtheirperformance,whetherthe
relationshipbetweenthepartiesbelegitimateorillegitimate:
(1)Betweenascendantsanddescendantsofanydegree;
(2)Betweenbrothersandsisters,whetherofthefullorhalfblood;

(3)Betweencollateralrelativesbybloodwithinthefourthcivildegree.(28a)

Art.82.Thefollowingmarriagesshallalsobevoidfromthebeginning:
(1)Betweenstepfathersandstepdaughters,andstepmothersandstepsons;
(2)Betweentheadoptingfatherormotherandtheadopted,betweenthelatterandthesurviving
spouseoftheformer,andbetweentheformerandthesurvivingspouseofthelatter;

(3)Betweenthelegitimatechildrenoftheadopterandtheadopted.(28a)

Art.83.Anymarriagesubsequentlycontractedbyanypersonduringthelifetimeofthefirstspouseof
suchpersonwithanypersonotherthansuchfirstspouseshallbeillegalandvoidfromitsperformance,
unless:
(1)Thefirstmarriagewasannulledordissolved;or
(2)Thefirstspousehadbeenabsentforsevenconsecutiveyearsatthetimeofthesecondmarriage
withoutthespousepresenthavingnewsoftheabsenteebeingalive,oriftheabsentee,thoughhehas
beenabsentforlessthansevenyears,isgenerallyconsideredasdeadandbelievedtobesobythe
spousepresentatthetimeofcontractingsuchsubsequentmarriage,oriftheabsenteeispresumed
deadaccordingtoArticles390and391.Themarriagesocontractedshallbevalidinanyofthethree
casesuntildeclarednullandvoidbyacompetentcourt.(29a)

Art.84.Nomarriagelicenseshallbeissuedtoawidowtillafterthreehundreddaysfollowingthedeath
ofherhusband,unlessinthemeantimeshehasgivenbirthtoachild.(n)
Art.85.Amarriagemaybeannulledforanyofthefollowingcauses,existingatthetimeofthemarriage:

(1)Thatthepartyinwhosebehalfitissoughttohavethemarriageannulledwasbetweentheagesof
sixteenandtwentyyears,ifmale,orbetweentheagesoffourteenandeighteenyears,iffemale,and
themarriagewassolemnizedwithouttheconsentoftheparent,guardianorpersonhavingauthority
overtheparty,unlessafterattainingtheagesoftwentyoreighteenyears,asthecasemaybe,such
partyfreelycohabitedwiththeotherandbothlivedtogetherashusbandandwife;
(2)InasubsequentmarriageunderArticle83,Number2,thattheformerhusbandorwifebelievedto
bedeadwasinfactlivingandthemarriagewithsuchformerhusbandorwifewastheninforce;

(3)Thateitherpartywasofunsoundmind,unlesssuchparty,aftercomingtoreason,freelycohabited
withtheotherashusbandorwife;

(4)Thattheconsentofeitherpartywasobtainedbyfraud,unlesssuchpartyafterwards,withfull
knowledgeofthefactsconstitutingthefraud,freelycohabitedwiththeotherasherhusbandorhis
wife,asthecasemaybe;

(5)Thattheconsentofeitherpartywasobtainedbyforceorintimidation,unlesstheviolenceorthreat
havingdisappeared,suchpartyafterwardsfreelycohabitedwiththeotherasherhusbandorhiswife,as
thecasemaybe;

(6)Thateitherpartywas,atthetimeofmarriage,physicallyincapableofenteringintothemarried
state,andsuchincapacitycontinues,andappearstobeincurable.(30a)

Art.86.AnyofthefollowingcircumstancesshallconstitutefraudreferredtoinNumber4ofthe
precedingarticle:
(1)Misrepresentationastotheidentityofoneofthecontractingparties;
(2)Nondisclosureofthepreviousconvictionoftheotherpartyofacrimeinvolvingmoralturpitude,and
thepenaltyimposedwasimprisonmentfortwoyearsormore;

(3)Concealmentbythewifeofthefactthatatthetimeofthemarriage,shewaspregnantbyaman
otherthanherhusband.

Noothermisrepresentationordeceitastocharacter,rank,fortuneorchastityshallconstitutesuch
fraudaswillgivegroundsforactionfortheannulmentofmarriage.(n)
Art.87.Theactionforannulmentofmarriagemustbecommencedbythepartiesandwithintheperiods
asfollows:

(1)ForcausesmentionedinNumber1ofArticle85,bythepartywhoseparentorguardiandidnotgive
hisorherconsent,withinfouryearsafterattainingtheageoftwentyoreighteenyears,asthecasemay
be;orbytheparentorguardianorpersonhavinglegalcharge,atanytimebeforesuchpartyhasarrived
attheageoftwentyoreighteenyears;
(2)ForcausesmentionedinNumber2ofArticle85,bythespousewhohasbeenabsent,duringhisor
herlifetime;orbyeitherspouseofthesubsequentmarriageduringthelifetimeoftheother;

(3)ForcausesmentionedinNumber3ofArticle85,bythesanespouse,whohadnoknowledgeofthe
other'sinsanity;orbyanyrelativeorguardianofthepartyofunsoundmind,atanytimebeforethe
deathofeitherparty;

(4)ForcausesmentionedinNumber4,bytheinjuredparty,withinfouryearsafterthediscoveryofthe
fraud;

(5)ForcausesmentionedinNumber5,bytheinjuredparty,withinfouryearsfromthetimetheforceor
intimidationceased;

(6)ForcausesmentionedinNumber6,bytheinjuredparty,withineightyearsafterthemarriage.(31a)

Art.88.Nojudgmentannullingamarriageshallbepromulgateduponastipulationoffactsorby
confessionofjudgment.
Art.89.Childrenconceivedorbornofmarriageswhicharevoidfromthebeginningshallhavethesame
status,rightsandobligationsasacknowledgednaturalchildren,andarecallednaturalchildrenbylegal
fiction.

Childrenconceivedofvoidablemarriagesbeforethedecreeofannulmentshallbeconsideredas
legitimate;andchildrenconceivedthereaftershallhavethesamestatus,rightsandobligationsas
acknowledgednaturalchildren,andarealsocallednaturalchildrenbylegalfiction.(n)

Art.90.Whenamarriageisannulled,thecourtshallawardthecustodyofthechildrenasitmaydeem
best,andmakeprovisionfortheireducationandsupport.Attorney'sfeesandexpensesincurredinthe
litigationshallbechargedtotheconjugalpartnershipproperty,unlesstheactionfails.(33a)

Art.91.Damagesmaybeawardedinthefollowingcaseswhenthemarriageisjudiciallyannulledor
declaredvoidfromthebeginning:

(1)Iftherehasbeenfraud,forceorintimidationinobtainingtheconsentofoneofthecontracting
parties;
(2)Ifeitherpartywas,atthetimeofthemarriage,physicallyincapableofenteringintothemarried
state,andtheotherpartywasunawarethereof;

(3)Ifthepersonsolemnizingthemarriagewasnotlegallyauthorizedtoperformmarriages,andthatfact
wasknowntooneofthecontractingparties,butheorsheconcealeditfromtheother;

(4)Ifabigamousorpolygamousmarriagewascelebrated,andtheimpedimentwasconcealedfromthe
plaintiffbythepartydisqualified;

(5)Ifinanincestuousmarriage,oramarriagebetweenastepbrotherandastepsisterorothermarriage
prohibitedbyarticle82,therelationshipwasknowntoonlyoneofthecontractingpartiesbutwasnot
disclosedtotheother;

(6)Ifonepartywasinsaneandtheotherwasawarethereofatthetimeofthemarriage.(n)

CHAPTER4
AUTHORITYTOSOLEMNIZEMARRIAGES

Art.92.Everypriest,orminister,orrabbiauthorizedbyhisdenomination,church,sect,orreligionto
solemnizemarriageshallsendtothepropergovernmentofficeaswornstatementsettingforthhisfull
nameanddomicile,andthatheisauthorizedbyhisdenomination,church,sect,orreligiontosolemnize
marriage,attachingtosaidstatementacertifiedcopyofhisappointment.Thedirectoroftheproper
governmentoffice,uponreceivingsuchswornstatementcontainingtheinformationrequired,and
beingsatisfiedthatthedenomination,church,sect,orregionoftheapplicantoperatesinthe
Philippines,shallrecordthenameofsuchpriestorministerinasuitableregisterandissuetohiman
authorizationtosolemnizemarriage.Saidpriestorministerorrabbishallbeobligedtoexhibithis
authorizationtothecontractingparties,totheirparents,grandparents,guardians,orpersonsincharge
demandingthesame.Nopriestorministernothavingtherequiredauthorizationmaysolemnize
marriage.(34a)
Art.93.Freedomofreligionshallbeobservedbypublicofficialsintheissuanceofauthorizationto
solemnizemarriages.Consequently,nopublicofficialshallattempttoinquireintothetruthorvalidityof
anyreligiousdoctrineheldbytheapplicantorbyhischurch.(n)

Art.94.Thepublicofficialinchargeofregistrationofpriestsandministersshallcanceltheauthorization
issuedtoabishop,head,priest,rabbi,pastororministerofthegospelofanydenomination,church,
sect,orreligion,onhisowninitiativeorattherequestofanyinterestedparty,uponshowingthatthe
church,sectorreligionwhoseministershavebeenauthorizedtosolemnizemarriageisnolongerin
operation.Thecancellationoftheauthorizationgrantedtoapriest,pastororministershalllikewisebe
orderedupontherequestofthebishop,head,orlawfulauthoritiesofthedenomination,church,sector
religiontowhichhebelongs.(35a)

Art.95.Thepublicofficialinchargeofregistrationofpriestsandministers,withtheapprovalofthe
properheadofDepartment,isherebyauthorizedtopreparethenecessaryformsandtopromulgate
regulationsforthepurposeofenforcingtheprovisionsofthisTitle.Saidofficialmayalsobyregulations
fixandcollectfeesfortheauthorizationofpriestsandministerstosolemnizemarriages.(36a)

Art.96.Theexistinglawswhichpunishactsoromissionsconcerningthemarriagelicense,solemnization
ofmarriage,authoritytosolemnizemarriages,andotheractsoromissionsrelativetothecelebrationof
marriageshallremainandcontinuetobeinforce.(n)

TitleIV.LEGALSEPARATION

Art.97.Apetitionforlegalseparationmaybefiled:
(1)Foradulteryonthepartofthewifeandforconcubinageonthepartofthehusbandasdefinedinthe
PenalCode;or
(2)Anattemptbyonespouseagainstthelifeoftheother.(n)

Art.98.Ineverycasethecourtmusttakesteps,beforegrantingthelegalseparation,towardthe
reconciliationofthespouses,andmustbefullysatisfiedthatsuchreconciliationishighlyimprobable.(n)
Art.99.NopersonshallbeentitledtoalegalseparationwhohasnotresidedinthePhilippinesforone
yearpriortothefilingofthepetition,unlessthecauseforthelegalseparationhastakenplacewithin
theterritoryofthisRepublic.(Sec.2a,ActNo.2710)

Art.100.Thelegalseparationmaybeclaimedonlybytheinnocentspouse,providedtherehasbeenno
condonationoforconsenttotheadulteryorconcubinage.Wherebothspousesareoffenders,alegal
separationcannotbeclaimedbyeitherofthem.Collusionbetweenthepartiestoobtainlegal
separationshallcausethedismissalofthepetition.(3a,ActNo.2710)

Art.101.Nodecreeoflegalseparationshallbepromulgateduponastipulationoffactsorbyconfession
ofjudgment.

Incaseofnonappearanceofthedefendant,thecourtshallordertheprosecutingattorneytoinquire
whetherornotacollusionbetweenthepartiesexists.Ifthereisnocollusion,theprosecutingattorney
shallintervenefortheStateinordertotakecarethattheevidencefortheplaintiffisnotfabricated.(n)

Art.102.Anactionforlegalseparationcannotbefiledexceptwithinoneyearfromandafterthedate
onwhichtheplaintiffbecamecognizantofthecauseandwithinfiveyearsfromandafterthedatewhen
suchcauseoccurred.(4a,Act2710)

Art.103.Anactionforlegalseparationshallinnocasebetriedbeforesixmonthsshallhaveelapsed
sincethefilingofthepetition.(5a,Act2710)

Art.104.Afterthefilingofthepetitionforlegalseparation,thespousesshallbeentitledtolive
separatelyfromeachotherandmanagetheirrespectiveproperty.

Thehusbandshallcontinuetomanagetheconjugalpartnershippropertybutifthecourtdeemsit
proper,itmayappointanothertomanagesaidproperty,inwhichcasetheadministratorshallhavethe
samerightsanddutiesasaguardianandshallnotbeallowedtodisposeoftheincomeorofthecapital
exceptinaccordancewiththeordersofthecourt.(6,Act2710)

Art.105.Duringthependencyoflegalseparationproceedingsthecourtshallmakeprovisionforthe
careoftheminorchildreninaccordancewiththecircumstancesandmayordertheconjugalpartnership
propertyortheincometherefromtobesetasidefortheirsupport;andindefaultthereofsaidminor
childrenshallbecaredforinconformitywiththeprovisionsofthisCode;buttheCourtshallabstain
frommakinganyorderinthisrespectincasetheparentshavebymutualagreement,madeprovisionfor
thecareofsaidminorchildrenandtheseare,inthejudgmentofthecourt,wellcaredfor.(7a,Act2710)

Art.106.Thedecreeoflegalseparationshallhavethefollowingeffects:

(1)Thespousesshallbeentitledtoliveseparatelyfromeachother,butmarriagebondsshallnotbe
severed;
(2)Theconjugalpartnershipofgainsortheabsoluteconjugalcommunityofpropertyshallbedissolved
andliquidated,buttheoffendingspouseshallhavenorighttoanyshareoftheprofitsearnedbythe
partnershiporcommunity,withoutprejudicetotheprovisionsofArticle176;

(3)Thecustodyoftheminorchildrenshallbeawardedtotheinnocentspouse,unlessotherwise
directedbythecourtintheinterestofsaidminors,forwhomsaidcourtmayappointaguardian;

(4)Theoffendingspouseshallbedisqualifiedfrominheritingfromtheinnocentspousebyintestate
succession.Moreover,provisionsinfavoroftheoffendingspousemadeinthewilloftheinnocentone
shallberevokedbyoperationoflaw.(n)

Art.107.Theinnocentspouse,afteradecreeoflegalseparationhasbeengranted,mayrevokethe
donationsbyreasonofmarriagemadebyhimorbyhertotheoffendingspouse.Alienationand
mortgagesmadebeforethenotationofthecomplaintforrevocationintheRegistryofPropertyshallbe
valid.
Thisactionlapsesafterfouryearsfollowingthedatethedecreebecamefinal.(n)

Art.108.Reconciliationstopstheproceedingsforlegalseparationandrescindsthedecreeoflegal
separationalreadyrendered.

Therevivaloftheconjugalpartnershipofgainsoroftheabsoluteconjugalcommunityofpropertyshall
begovernedbyArticle195.(10a.Act2710)

TitleV.RIGHTSANDOBLIGATIONS
BETWEENHUSBANDANDWIFE

Art.109.Thehusbandandwifeareobligedtolivetogether,observemutualrespectandfidelity,and
rendermutualhelpandsupport.(56a)
Art.110.Thehusbandshallfixtheresidenceofthefamily.Butthecourtmayexemptthewifefrom
livingwiththehusbandifheshouldliveabroadunlessintheserviceoftheRepublic.(58a)

Art.111.Thehusbandisresponsibleforthesupportofthewifeandtherestofthefamily.These
expensesshallbemetfirstfromtheconjugalproperty,thenfromthehusband'scapital,andlastlyfrom
thewife'sparaphernalproperty.Incasethereisaseparationofproperty,bystipulationinthemarriage
settlements,thehusbandandwifeshallcontributeproportionatelytothefamilyexpenses.(n)

Art.112.Thehusbandistheadministratoroftheconjugalproperty,unlessthereisastipulationinthe
marriagesettlementsconferringtheadministrationuponthewife.Shemayalsoadministertheconjugal
partnershipinothercasesspecifiedinthisCode.(n)

Art.113.Thehusbandmustbejoinedinallsuitsbyoragainstthewife,except:

(1)Whentheyarejudiciallyseparated;
(2)Iftheyhaveinfactbeenseparatedforatleastoneyear;

(3)Whenthereisaseparationofpropertyagreeduponinthemarriagesettlements;

(4)Iftheadministrationofallthepropertyinthemarriagehasbeentransferredtoher,inaccordance
withArticles196and197;

(5)Whenthelitigationisbetweenthehusbandandwife;

(6)Ifthesuitconcernsherparaphernalproperty;

(7)Whentheactionisuponthecivilliabilityarisingfromacriminaloffense;

(8)Ifthelitigationisincidentaltotheprofession,occupationorbusinessinwhichsheisengaged;

(9)InanycivilactionreferredtoinArticles25to35;and

(10)Inanactionuponaquasidelict.

InthecasesmentionedinNos.7to10,thehusbandmustbejoinedasapartydefendantifthethird
paragraphofArticle163isapplicable.(n)

Art.114.Thewifecannot,withoutthehusband'sconsentacquireanypropertybygratuitoustitle,
exceptfromherascendants,descendants,parentsinlaw,andcollateralrelativeswithinthefourth
degree.(n)
Art.115.Thewifemanagestheaffairsofthehousehold.Shemaypurchasethingsnecessaryforthe
supportofthefamily,andtheconjugalpartnershipshallbeboundthereby.Shemayborrowmoneyfor
thispurpose,ifthehusbandfailstodeliverthepropersum.Thepurchaseofjewelryandprecious
objectsisvoidable,unlessthetransactionhasbeenexpresslyortacitlyapprovedbythehusband,or
unlessthepricepaidisfromherparaphernalproperty.(62a)

Art.116.Whenoneofthespousesneglectshisorherdutiestotheconjugalunionorbringsdanger,
dishonorormaterialinjuryupontheother,theinjuredpartymayapplytothecourtforrelief.

Thecourtmaycounseltheoffendertocomplywithhisorherduties,andtakesuchmeasuresasmaybe
proper.(n)

Art.117.Thewifemayexerciseanyprofessionoroccupationorengageinbusiness.However,the
husbandmayobject,provided:

(1)Hisincomeissufficientforthefamily,accordingtoitssocialstanding,and
(2)Hisoppositionisfoundedonseriousandvalidgrounds.

Incaseofdisagreementonthisquestion,theparentsandgrandparentsaswellasthefamilycouncil,if
any,shallbeconsulted.Ifnoagreementisstillarrivedat,thecourtwilldecidewhatevermaybeproper
andinthebestinterestofthefamily.(n)

TitleVI.PROPERTYRELATIONS
BETWEENHUSBANDANDWIFE

CHAPTER1
GENERALPROVISIONS

Art.118.Thepropertyrelationsbetweenhusbandandwifeshallbegovernedinthefollowingorder:
(1)Bycontractexecutedbeforethemarriage;
(2)BytheprovisionsofthisCode;and

(3)Bycustom.(1315a)

Art.119.Thefuturespousesmayinthemarriagesettlementsagreeuponabsoluteorrelative
communityofproperty,oruponcompleteseparationofproperty,oruponanyotherregime.Inthe
absenceofmarriagesettlements,orwhenthesamearevoid,thesystemofrelativecommunityor
conjugalpartnershipofgainsasestablishedinthisCode,shallgovernthepropertyrelationsbetween
husbandandwife.(n)
Art.120.Aminorwhoaccordingtolawmaycontractmarriage,mayalsoexecutehisorhermarriage
settlements;buttheyshallbevalidonlyifthepersonsdesignatedbylawtogiveconsenttothemarriage
oftheminortakepartintheantenuptialagreement.Intheabsenceoftheparentsorofaguardian,the
consenttothemarriagesettlementswillbegivenbythefamilycouncil.(1318a)

Art.121.Inorderthatanymodificationinthemarriagesettlementsmaybevalid,itmustbemade
beforethecelebrationofthemarriage,subjecttotheprovisionsofArticle191.(1319a)

Art.122.ThemarriagesettlementsandanymodificationthereofshallbegovernedbytheStatuteof
Frauds,andexecutedbeforethecelebrationofthemarriage.Theyshallnotprejudicethirdpersons
unlesstheyarerecordedintheRegistryofProperty.(1321a)

Art.123.Forthevalidityofmarriagesettlementsexecutedbyanypersonuponwhomasentenceofcivil
interdictionhasbeenpronounced,thepresenceandparticipationoftheguardianshallbe
indispensable,whoforthispurposeshallbedesignatedbyacompetentcourt,inaccordancewiththe
provisionsoftheRulesofCourt.(1323a)

Art.124.IfthemarriageisbetweenacitizenofthePhilippinesandaforeigner,whethercelebratedin
thePhilippinesorabroad,thefollowingrulesshallprevail:

(1)IfthehusbandisacitizenofthePhilippineswhilethewifeisaforeigner,theprovisionsofthisCode
shallgoverntheirrelations;
(2)IfthehusbandisaforeignerandthewifeisacitizenofthePhilippines,thelawsofthehusband's
countryshallbefollowed,withoutprejudicetotheprovisionsofthisCodewithregardtoimmovable
property.(1325a)

Art.125.Everythingstipulatedinthesettlementsorcontractsreferredtointheprecedingarticlesin
considerationofafuturemarriageshallberenderedvoidandwithouteffectwhatever,ifthemarriage
shouldnottakeplace.However,thosestipulationsthatdonotdependuponthecelebrationofthe
marriageshallbevalid.(1326a)

CHAPTER2
DONATIONSBYREASONOFMARRIAGE

Art.126.Donationsbyreasonsofmarriagearethosewhicharemadebeforeitscelebration,in
considerationofthesameandinfavorofoneorbothofthefuturespouses.(1327)
Art.127.ThesedonationsaregovernedbytherulesonordinarydonationsestablishedinTitleIIIofBook
III,exceptastotheirformwhichshallberegulatedbytheStatuteofFrauds;andinsofarastheyarenot
modifiedbythefollowingarticles.(1328a)

Art.128.Minorsmaymakeandreceivedonationsintheirantenuptialcontract,providedtheyare
authorizedbythepersonswhoaretogivetheirconsenttothemarriageofsaidminors.(1329a)

Art.129.Expressacceptanceisnotnecessaryforthevalidityofthesedonations.(1330)

Art.130.Thefuturespousesmaygiveeachotherintheirmarriagesettlementsasmuchasonefifthof
theirpresentproperty,andwithrespecttotheirfutureproperty,onlyintheeventofdeath,tothe
extentlaiddownbytheprovisionsofthisCodereferringtotestamentarysuccession.(1331a)

Art.131.Thedonorbyreasonofmarriageshallreleasethepropertydonatedfrommortgagesandall
otherencumbrancesuponthesame,withtheexceptionofeasements,unlessinthemarriage
settlementsorinthecontractsthecontraryhasbeenstipulated.(1332a)

Art.132.Adonationbyreasonofmarriageisnotrevocable,saveinthefollowingcases:

(1)Ifitisconditionalandtheconditionisnotcompliedwith;
(2)Ifthemarriageisnotcelebrated;

(3)Whenthemarriagetakesplacewithouttheconsentoftheparentsorguardian,asrequiredbylaw;

(4)Whenthemarriageisannulled,andthedoneeactedinbadfaith;

(5)Uponlegalseparation,thedoneebeingtheguiltyspouse;

(6)WhenthedoneehascommittedanactofingratitudeasspecifiedbytheprovisionsofthisCodeon
donationsingeneral.(1333a)

Art.133.Everydonationbetweenthespousesduringthemarriageshallbevoid.Thisprohibitiondoes
notapplywhenthedonationtakeseffectafterthedeathofthedonor.
Neitherdoesthisprohibitionapplytomoderategiftswhichthespousesmaygiveeachotheronthe
occasionofanyfamilyrejoicing.(1334a)

Art.134.Donationsduringthemarriagebyoneofthespousestothechildrenwhomtheotherspouse
hadbyanothermarriage,ortopersonsofwhomtheotherspouseisapresumptiveheiratthetimeof
thedonationarevoidable,attheinstanceofthedonor'sheirsafterhisdeath.(1335a)

CHAPTER3
PARAPHERNALPROPERTY

Art.135.Allpropertybroughtbythewifetothemarriage,aswellasallpropertysheacquiresduringthe
marriage,inaccordancewitharticle148,isparaphernal.(1381a)
Art.136.Thewiferetainstheownershipoftheparaphernalproperty.(1382)

Art.137.Thewifeshallhavetheadministrationoftheparaphernalproperty,unlessshedeliversthe
sametothehusbandbymeansofapublicinstrumentempoweringhimtoadministerit.

Inthiscase,thepublicinstrumentshallberecordedintheRegistryofProperty.Asforthemovables,the
husbandshallgiveadequatesecurity.(1384a)

Art.138.Thefruitsoftheparaphernalpropertyformpartoftheassetsoftheconjugalpartnership,and
shallbesubjecttothepaymentoftheexpensesofthemarriage.

Thepropertyitselfshallalsobesubjecttothedailyexpensesofthefamily,ifthepropertyofthe
conjugalpartnershipandthehusband'scapitalarenotsufficienttherefor.(1385a)

Art.139.Thepersonalobligationsofthehusbandcannotbeenforcedagainstthefruitsofthe
paraphernalproperty,unlessitbeprovedthattheyredoundedtothebenefitofthefamily.(1386)

Art.140.Amarriedwomanofagemaymortgage,encumber,alienateorotherwisedisposeofher
paraphernalproperty,withoutthepermissionofthehusband,andappearaloneincourttolitigatewith
regardtothesame.(n)

Art.141.Thealienationofanyparaphernalpropertyadministeredbythehusbandgivesarighttothe
wifetorequiretheconstitutionofamortgageoranyothersecurityfortheamountofthepricewhich
thehusbandmayhavereceived.(1390a)

CHAPTER4
CONJUGALPARTNERSHIPOFGAINS

SECTION1.GeneralProvisions

Art.142.Bymeansoftheconjugalpartnershipofgainsthehusbandandwifeplaceinacommonfund
thefruitsoftheirseparatepropertyandtheincomefromtheirworkorindustry,anddivideequally,
uponthedissolutionofthemarriageorofthepartnership,thenetgainsorbenefitsobtained
indiscriminatelybyeitherspouseduringthemarriage.(1392a)
Art.143.Allpropertyoftheconjugalpartnershipofgainsisownedincommonbythehusbandandwife.
(n)

Art.144.Whenamanandawomanlivetogetherashusbandandwife,buttheyarenotmarried,or
theirmarriageisvoidfromthebeginning,thepropertyacquiredbyeitherorbothofthemthroughtheir
workorindustryortheirwagesandsalariesshallbegovernedbytherulesoncoownership.(n)

Art.145.Theconjugalpartnershipshallcommencepreciselyonthedateofthecelebrationofthe
marriage.Anystipulationtothecontraryshallbevoid.(1393)

Art.146.Waiverofthegainsoroftheeffectsofthispartnershipduringmarriagecannotbemadeexcept
incaseofjudicialseparation.

Whenthewaivertakesplacebyreasonofseparation,orafterthemarriagehasbeendissolvedor
annulled,thesameshallappearinapublicinstrument,andthecreditorsshallhavetherightwhich
Article1052grantsthem.(1394a)

Art.147.Theconjugalpartnershipshallbegovernedbytherulesonthecontractofpartnershipinall
thatisnotinconflictwithwhatisexpresslydeterminedinthisChapter.(1395)

SECTION2.ExclusivePropertyofEachSpouse

Art.148.Thefollowingshallbetheexclusivepropertyofeachspouse:
(1)Thatwhichisbroughttothemarriageashisorherown;
(2)Thatwhicheachacquires,duringthemarriage,bylucrativetitle;

(3)Thatwhichisacquiredbyrightofredemptionorbyexchangewithotherpropertybelongingtoonly
oneofthespouses;

(4)Thatwhichispurchasedwithexclusivemoneyofthewifeorofthehusband.(1396)

Art.149.Whoevergivesorpromisescapitaltothehusbandshallnotbesubjecttowarrantyagainst
eviction,exceptincaseoffraud.(1937)
Art.150.Propertydonatedorleftbywilltothespouses,jointlyandwithdesignationofdeterminate
shares,shallpertaintothewifeasparaphernalproperty,andtothehusbandascapital,inthe
proportionspecifiedbythedonorortestator,andintheabsenceofdesignation,shareandsharealike,
withoutprejudicetowhatisprovidedinArticle753.(1398a)

Art.151.Ifthedonationsareonerous,theamountofthechargesshallbedeductedfromthe
paraphernalpropertyorfromthehusband'scapital,whenevertheyhavebeenbornebytheconjugal
partnership.(1399a)

Art.152.Ifsomecreditpayableinacertainnumberofyears,oralifepension,shouldpertaintooneof
thespouses,theprovisionsofArticles156and157shallbeobservedtodeterminewhatconstitutesthe
paraphernalpropertyandwhatformsthecapitalofthehusband.(1400a)

SECTION3.ConjugalPartnershipProperty

Art.153.Thefollowingareconjugalpartnershipproperty:
(1)Thatwhichisacquiredbyoneroustitleduringthemarriageattheexpenseofthecommonfund,
whethertheacquisitionbeforthepartnership,orforonlyoneofthespouses;
(2)Thatwhichisobtainedbytheindustry,orwork,orassalaryofthespouses,orofeitherofthem;

(3)Thefruits,rentsorinterestsreceivedordueduringthemarriage,comingfromthecommonproperty
orfromtheexclusivepropertyofeachspouse.(1401)

Art.154.Thatshareofthehiddentreasurewhichthelawawardstothefinderortheproprietorbelongs
totheconjugalpartnership.(n)
Art.155.Thingsacquiredbyoccupation,suchasfishingandhunting,pertaintotheconjugalpartnership
ofgains.(n)

Art.156.Wheneveranamountorcreditpayableinacertainnumberofyearsbelongstooneofthe
spouses,thesumswhichmaybecollectedbyinstallmentsdueduringthemarriageshallnotpertainto
theconjugalpartnership,butshallbeconsideredcapitalofthehusbandorofthewife,asthecreditmay
belongtooneortheotherspouse.(1402)

Art.157.Therighttoanannuity,whetherperpetualoroflife,andtherightofusufruct,belongingtoone
ofthespousesshallformapartofhisorherseparateproperty,butthefruits,pensionsandinterests
dueduringthemarriageshallbelongtothepartnership.

Theusufructwhichthespouseshaveoverthepropertyoftheirchildren,thoughofanothermarriage,
shallbeincludedinthisprovision.(1403a)

Art.158.Improvements,whetherforutilityoradornment,madeontheseparatepropertyofthe
spousesthroughadvancementsfromthepartnershiporthroughtheindustryofeitherthehusbandor
thewife,belongtotheconjugalpartnership.

Buildingsconstructed,attheexpenseofthepartnership,duringthemarriageonlandbelongingtoone
ofthespouses,alsopertaintothepartnership,butthevalueofthelandshallbereimbursedtothe
spousewhoownsthesame.(1404a)

Art.159.Whenevertheparaphernalpropertyorthehusband'scapitalconsists,inwholeorinpart,of
livestockexistinguponthedissolutionofthepartnership,thenumberofanimalsexceedingthatbrought
tothemarriageshallbedeemedtobeoftheconjugalpartnership.(1405a)

Art.160.Allpropertyofthemarriageispresumedtobelongtotheconjugalpartnership,unlessitbe
provedthatitpertainsexclusivelytothehusbandortothewife.(1407)

SECTION4.ChargesUponandObligation
oftheConjugalPartnership

Art.161.Theconjugalpartnershipshallbeliablefor:
(1)Alldebtsandobligationscontractedbythehusbandforthebenefitoftheconjugalpartnership,and
thosecontractedbythewife,alsoforthesamepurpose,inthecaseswhereshemaylegallybindthe
partnership;
(2)Arrearsorincomedue,duringthemarriage,fromobligationswhichconstituteachargeupon
propertyofeitherspouseorofthepartnership;

(3)Minorrepairsorformerepreservationmadeduringthemarriageupontheseparatepropertyof
eitherthehusbandorthewife;majorrepairsshallnotbechargedtothepartnership;

(4)Majororminorrepairsupontheconjugalpartnershipproperty;

(5)Themaintenanceofthefamilyandtheeducationofthechildrenofbothhusbandandwife,andof
legitimatechildrenofoneofthespouses;

(6)Expensestopermitthespousestocompleteaprofessional,vocationalorothercourse.(1408a)

Art.162.Thevalueofwhatisdonatedorpromisedtothecommonchildrenbythehusband,onlyfor
securingtheirfutureorthefinishingofacareer,orbybothspousesthroughacommonagreement,shall
alsobechargedtotheconjugalpartnership,whentheyhavenotstipulatedthatitistobesatisfiedfrom
thepropertyofoneofthem,inwholeorinpart.(1409)
Art.163.Thepaymentofdebtscontractedbythehusbandorthewifebeforethemarriageshallnotbe
chargedtotheconjugalpartnership.

Neithershallthefinesandpecuniaryindemnitiesimposeduponthembechargedtothepartnership.

However,thepaymentofdebtscontractedbythehusbandorthewifebeforethemarriage,andthatof
finesandindemnitiesimposeduponthem,maybeenforcedagainstthepartnershipassetsafterthe
responsibilitiesenumeratedinArticle161havebeencovered,ifthespousewhoisboundshouldhave
noexclusivepropertyorifitshouldbeinsufficient;butatthetimeoftheliquidationofthepartnership
suchspouseshallbechargedforwhathasbeenpaidforthepurposeabovementioned.(1410)

Art.164.Whatevermaybelostduringthemarriageinanykindofgambling,bettingorgame,whether
permittedorprohibitedbylaw,shallbebornebytheloser,andshallnotbechargedtotheconjugal
partnership.(1411a)

SECTION5.AdministrationoftheConjugalPartnership

Art.165.Thehusbandistheadministratoroftheconjugalpartnership.(1412a)
Art.166.Unlessthewifehasbeendeclaredanoncomposmentisoraspendthrift,orisundercivil
interdictionorisconfinedinaleprosarium,thehusbandcannotalienateorencumberanyrealproperty
oftheconjugalpartnershipwithoutthewife'sconsent.Ifsherefusesunreasonablytogiveherconsent,
thecourtmaycompelhertograntthesame.

Thisarticleshallnotapplytopropertyacquiredbytheconjugalpartnershipbeforetheeffectivedateof
thisCode.(1413a)

Art.167.Incaseofabuseofpowersofadministrationoftheconjugalpartnershippropertybythe
husband,thecourts,onpetitionofthewife,mayprovideforreceivership,oradministrationbythewife,
orseparationofproperty.(n)

Art.168.Thewifemay,byexpressauthorityofthehusbandembodiedinapublicinstrument,
administertheconjugalpartnershipproperty.(n)

Art.169.Thewifemayalsobyexpressauthorityofthehusbandappearinginapublicinstrument,
administerthelatter'sestate.(n)

Art.170.Thehusbandorthewifemaydisposebywillofhisorherhalfoftheconjugalpartnership
profits.(1414a)

Art.171.Thehusbandmaydisposeoftheconjugalpartnershippropertyforthepurposesspecifiedin
Articles161and162.(1415a)

Art.172.Thewifecannotbindtheconjugalpartnershipwithoutthehusband'sconsentexceptincases
providedbylaw.(1416a)

Art.173.Thewifemay,duringthemarriage,andwithintenyearsfromthetransactionquestioned,ask
thecourtsfortheannulmentofanycontractofthehusbandenteredintowithoutherconsent,when
suchconsentisrequired,oranyactorcontractofthehusbandwhichtendstodefraudherorimpairher
interestintheconjugalpartnershipproperty.Shouldthewifefailtoexercisethisright,sheorherheirs,
afterthedissolutionofthemarriage,maydemandthevalueofpropertyfraudulentlyalienatedbythe
husband.(n)

Art.174.Withtheexceptionofmoderatedonationsforcharity,neitherhusbandnorwifecandonate
anypropertyoftheconjugalpartnershipwithouttheconsentoftheother.(n)

SECTION6.DissolutionoftheConjugalPartnership

Art.175.Theconjugalpartnershipofgainsterminates:
(1)Uponthedeathofeitherspouse;
(2)Whenthereisadecreeoflegalseparation;

(3)Whenthemarriageisannulled;

(4)IncaseofjudicialseparationofpropertyunderArticle191.(1417a)

Art.176.Incaseoflegalseparation,theguiltyspouseshallforfeithisorhershareoftheconjugal
partnershipprofits,whichshallbeawardedtothechildrenofboth,andthechildrenoftheguiltyspouse
hadbyapriormarriage.However,iftheconjugalpartnershippropertycamemostlyorentirelyfromthe
workorindustry,orfromthewagesandsalaries,orfromthefruitsoftheseparatepropertyoftheguilty
spouse,thisforfeitureshallnotapply.
Incasetherearenochildren,theinnocentspouseshallbeentitledtoallthenetprofits.(n)

Art.177.Incaseofannulmentofthemarriage,thespousewhoactedinbadfaithorgavecausefor
annulmentshallforfeithisorhershareoftheconjugalpartnershipprofits.Theprovisionofthe
precedingarticleshallgovern.(n)

Art.178.Theseparationinfactbetweenhusbandandwifewithoutjudicialapproval,shallnotaffectthe
conjugalpartnership,exceptthat:

(1)Thespousewholeavestheconjugalhomeorrefusestolivetherein,withoutjustcause,shallnot
havearighttobesupported;
(2)Whentheconsentofonespousetoanytransactionoftheotherisrequiredbylaw,judicial
authorizationshallbenecessary;

(3)Ifthehusbandhasabandonedthewifewithoutjustcauseforatleastoneyear,shemaypetitionthe
courtforareceivership,oradministrationbyheroftheconjugalpartnershipproperty,orseparationof
property.(n)

SECTION7.LiquidationoftheConjugalPartnership

Art.179.Uponthedissolutionoftheconjugalpartnership,aninventoryshallbeformed,butsuch
inventoryshallnotbenecessary:
(1)If,afterthedissolutionofthepartnership,oneofthespousesshouldhaverenounceditseffectsand
consequencesinduetime;or
(2)Whenseparationofpropertyhasprecededthedissolutionofthepartnership.(1418a)

Art.180.Thebedandbeddingwhichthespousesordinarilyuseshallnotbeincludedintheinventory.
Theseeffects,aswellastheclothingfortheirordinaryuse,shallbedeliveredtothesurvivingspouse.
(1420)
Art.181.Theinventoryhavingbeencompleted,theparaphernalpropertyshallfirstbepaid.Then,the
debtsandchargesagainsttheconjugalpartnershipshallbepaid.(1422a)

Art.182.Thedebts,chargesandobligationsoftheconjugalpartnershiphavingbeenpaid;thecapitalof
thehusbandshallbeliquidatedandpaidtotheamountofthepropertyinventoried.(1423a)

Art.183.Thedeductionsfromtheinventoriedpropertyhavingbeenmadeasprovidedinthetwo
precedingarticles,theremainderofsaidpropertyshallconstitutethecreditoftheconjugalpartnership.
(1424)

Art.184.Thelossordeteriorationofthemovablesbelongingtoeitherspouse,althoughthrough
fortuitousevent,shallbepaidfromtheconjugalpartnershipofgains,shouldtherebeany.

Thosesufferedbyrealpropertyshallnotbereimbursableinanycase,exceptthoseonparaphernal
propertyadministeredbythehusband,whenthelosseswereduetohisfault.Heshallpayforthesame.
(1425a)

Art.185.Thenetremainderoftheconjugalpartnershipofgainsshallbedividedequallybetweenthe
husbandandthewifeortheirrespectiveheirs,unlessadifferentbasisofdivisionwasagreeduponin
themarriagesettlements.(1426a)

Art.186.Themourningapparelofthewidowshallbepaidforoutoftheestateofthedeceased
husband.(1427a)

Art.187.Withregardtotheformationoftheinventory,rulesforappraisalandsaleofpropertyofthe
conjugalpartnership,andothermatterswhicharenotexpresslydeterminedinthepresentChapter,the
RulesofCourtontheadministrationofestatesofdeceasedpersonsshallbeobserved.(1428a)

Art.188.Fromthecommonmassofpropertysupportshallbegiventothesurvivingspouseandtothe
childrenduringtheliquidationoftheinventoriedpropertyanduntilwhatbelongstothemisdelivered;
butfromthisshallbedeductedthatamountreceivedforsupportwhichexceedsthefruitsorrents
pertainingtothem.(1430)

Art.189.Whenevertheliquidationofthepartnershipoftwoormoremarriagescontractedbythesame
personshouldbecarriedoutatthesametime,inordertodeterminethecapitalofeachpartnershipall
kindsofproofintheabsenceofinventoriesshallbeadmitted;andincaseofdoubt,thepartnership
propertyshallbedividedbetweenthedifferentpartnershipsinproportiontothedurationofeachand
tothepropertybelongingtotherespectivespouses.(1431)

CHAPTER5
SEPARATIONOFPROPERTYOFTHESPOUSES
ANDADMINISTRATIONOFPROPERTY
BYTHEWIFEDURINGTHEMARRIAGE

Art.190.Intheabsenceofanexpressdeclarationinthemarriagesettlements,theseparationof
propertybetweenspousesduringthemarriageshallnottakeplacesaveinvirtueofajudicialorder.
(1432a)
Art.191.Thehusbandorthewifemayaskfortheseparationofproperty,anditshallbedecreedwhen
thespouseofthepetitionerhasbeensentencedtoapenaltywhichcarrieswithitcivilinterdiction,or
hasbeendeclaredabsent,orwhenlegalseparationhasbeengranted.

Incaseofabuseofpowersofadministrationoftheconjugalpartnershippropertybythehusband,orin
caseofabandonmentbythehusband,separationofpropertymayalsobeorderedbythecourt,
accordingtotheprovisionsofArticles167and178,No.3.

Inallthesecases,itissufficienttopresentthefinaljudgmentwhichhasbeenenteredagainsttheguilty
orabsentspouse.(1433a)

Thehusbandandthewifemayagreeuponthedissolutionoftheconjugalpartnershipduringthe
marriage,subjecttojudicialapproval.Allthecreditorsofthehusbandandofthewife,aswellasofthe
conjugalpartnershipshallbenotifiedofanypetitionforjudicialapprovalorthevoluntarydissolutionof
theconjugalpartnership,sothatanysuchcreditorsmayappearatthehearingtosafeguardhis
interests.Uponapprovalofthepetitionfordissolutionoftheconjugalpartnership,thecourtshalltake
suchmeasuresasmayprotectthecreditorsandotherthirdpersons.

Afterdissolutionoftheconjugalpartnership,theprovisionsofArticles214and215shallapply.The
provisionsofthisCodeconcerningtheeffectofpartitionstatedinArticles498to501shallbeapplicable.
(1433a)

Art.192.Oncetheseparationofpropertyhasbeenordered,theconjugalpartnershipshallbedissolved,
anditsliquidationshallbemadeinconformitywithwhathasbeenestablishedbythisCode.

However,withoutprejudicetotheprovisionsofArticle292,thehusbandandthewifeshallbe
reciprocallyliablefortheirsupportduringtheseparation,andforthesupportandeducationoftheir
children;allinproportiontotheirrespectiveproperty.

Theshareofthespousewhoisundercivilinterdictionorabsentshallbeadministeredinaccordance
withtheRulesofCourt.(1434a)

Art.193.Thecomplaintforseparationandthefinaljudgmentdeclaringthesame,shallbenotedand
recordedintheproperregistersofproperty,ifthejudgmentshouldrefertoimmovableproperty.(1437)

Art.194.Theseparationofpropertyshallnotprejudicetherightspreviouslyacquiredbycreditors.
(1438)

Art.195.Theseparationofpropertyceases:

(1)Uponreconciliationofthespouses,incaseoflegalseparation;
(2)Whenthecivilinterdictionterminates;

(3)Whentheabsentspouseappears;

(4)Whenthecourt,attheinstanceofthewife,authorizesthehusbandtoresumetheadministrationof
theconjugalpartnership,thecourtbeingsatisfiedthatthehusbandwillnotagainabusehispowersas
anadministrator;

(5)Whenthehusband,whohasabandonedthewife,rejoinsher.

Intheabovecases,thepropertyrelationsbetweenthespousesshallbegovernedbythesamerulesas
beforetheseparation,withoutprejudicetotheactsandcontractslegallyexecutedduringthe
separation.
Thespousesshallstate,inapublicdocument,allthepropertywhichtheyreturntothemarriageand
whichshallconstitutetheseparatepropertyofeach.

ThispublicdocumentshallberecordedintheRegistryofProperty.

Inthecasesreferredtointhisarticle,allthepropertybroughtinshallbedeemedtobenewly
contributed,eventhoughallorsomemaybethesamewhichexistedbeforetheliquidationeffectedby
reasonoftheseparation.(1439a)

Art.196.Withtheconjugalpartnershipsubsisting,theadministrationofallclassesofpropertyinthe
marriagemaybetransferredbythecourtstothewife:

(1)Whenshebecomestheguardianofherhusband;
(2)Whensheasksforthedeclarationofhisabsence;

(3)Incaseofcivilinterdictionofthehusband.

Thecourtsmayalsoconfertheadministrationtothewife,withsuchlimitationastheymaydeem
advisable,ifthehusbandshouldbecomeafugitivefromjusticeorbeinhidingasadefendantina
criminalcase,orif,beingabsolutelyunabletoadminister,heshouldhavefailedtoprovidefor
administration.(1441a)
Art.197.Thewifetowhomtheadministrationofallthepropertyofthemarriageistransferredshall
have,withrespecttosaidproperty,thesamepowersandresponsibilitywhichthehusbandhaswhenhe
istheadministrator,butalwayssubjecttotheprovisionsofthelastparagraphoftheprecedingarticle.
(1442a)

CHAPTER6
SYSTEMOFABSOLUTECOMMUNITY(n)

Art.198.Incasethefuturespousesagreeinthemarriagesettlementsthatthesystemofabsolute
communityshallgoverntheirpropertyrelationsduringmarriage,thefollowingprovisionsshallbeof
supplementaryapplication.
Art.199.Intheabsenceofstipulationtothecontrary,thecommunityshallconsistofallpresentand
futurepropertyofthespousesnotexceptedbylaw.

Art.200.Neitherspousemayrenounceanyinheritancewithouttheconsentoftheother.Incaseof
conflict,thecourtshalldecidethequestion,afterconsultingthefamilycouncil,ifthereisany.

Art.201.Thefollowingshallbeexcludedfromthecommunity:

(1)Propertyacquiredbygratuitoustitlebyeitherspouse,whenitisprovidedbythedonorortestator
thatitshallnotbecomeapartofthecommunity;
(2)Propertyinheritedbyeitherhusbandorwifethroughthedeathofachildbyaformermarriage,
therebeingbrothersorsistersofthefullbloodofthedeceasedchild;

(3)Aportionofthepropertyofeitherspouseequivalenttothepresumptivelegitimeofthechildrenbya
formermarriage;

(4)Personalbelongingsofeitherspouse.

However,allthefruitsandincomeoftheforegoingclassesofpropertyshallbeincludedinthe
community.
Art.202.Antenuptialdebtsofeitherspouseshallnotbepaidfromthecommunity,unlessthesame
haveredoundedtothebenefitofthefamily.

Art.203.Debtscontractedbybothspousesorbyoneofthemwiththeconsentoftheothershallbe
paidfromthecommunity.Ifthecommonpropertyisinsufficienttocovercommondebts,thesamemay
beenforcedagainsttheseparatepropertyofthespouses,whoshallbeequallyliable.

Art.204.Debtscontractedbyeitherspousewithouttheconsentoftheothershallbechargeableagainst
thecommunitytotheextentthatthefamilymayhavebeenbenefitedthereby.

Art.205.Indemnitiesthatmustbepaidbyeitherspouseonaccountofacrimeorofaquasidelictshall
bepaidfromthecommonassets,withoutanyobligationtomakereimbursement.

Art.206.Theownership,administration,possessionandenjoymentofthecommonpropertybelongto
bothspousesjointly.Incaseofdisagreement,thecourtsshallsettlethedifficulty.

Art.207.Neitherspousemayalienateorencumberanycommonpropertywithouttheconsentofthe
other.Incaseofunjustifiablerefusalbytheotherspouse,thecourtsmaygrantthenecessaryconsent.

Art.208.Theabsolutecommunityofpropertyshallbedissolvedonanyofthegroundsspecifiedin
Article175.

Art.209.Whenthereisaseparationinfactbetweenhusbandandwife,withoutjudicialapproval,the
provisionsofArticle178shallapply.

Art.210.Uponthedissolutionandliquidationofthecommunity,thenetassetsshallbedividedequally
betweenthehusbandandthewifeortheirheirs.Incaseoflegalseparationorannulmentofmarriage,
theprovisionsofArticles176and177shallapplytothenetprofitsacquiredduringthemarriage.

Art.211.LiquidationoftheabsolutecommunityshallbegovernedbytheRulesofCourtonthe
administrationoftheestateofdeceasedpersons.

CHAPTER7
SYSTEMOFCOMPLETESEPARATIONOFPROPERTY(n)

Art.212.Shouldthefuturespousesagreeinthemarriagesettlementsthattheirpropertyrelations
duringmarriageshallbebaseduponthesystemofcompleteseparationofproperty,thefollowing
provisionsshallsupplementthemarriagesettlements.
Art.213.Separationofpropertymayrefertopresentorfuturepropertyorboth.Itmaybetotalor
partial.Inthelattercase,thepropertynotagreeduponasseparateshallpertaintotheconjugal
partnershipofgains.

Art.214.Eachspouseshallown,disposeof,possess,administerandenjoyhisorherownseparate
estate,withouttheconsentoftheother.Allearningsfromanyprofession,businessorindustryshall
likewisebelongtoeachspouse.

Art.215.Eachspouseshallproportionatelybearthefamilyexpenses.

TitleVII.THEFAMILY(n)

CHAPTER1
THEFAMILYASANINSTITUTION

Art.216.Thefamilyisabasicsocialinstitutionwhichpublicpolicycherishesandprotects.
Art.217.Familyrelationsshallincludethose:

(1)Betweenhusbandandwife;
(2)Betweenparentandchild;

(3)Amongotherascendantsandtheirdescendants;

(4)Amongbrothersandsisters.

Art.218.Thelawgovernsfamilyrelations.Nocustom,practiceoragreementwhichisdestructiveofthe
familyshallberecognizedorgivenanyeffect.
Art.219.Mutualaid,bothmoralandmaterial,shallberenderedamongmembersofthesamefamily.
Judicialandadministrativeofficialsshallfosterthismutualassistance.

Art.220.Incaseofdoubt,allpresumptionsfavorthesolidarityofthefamily.Thus,everyintendmentof
laworfactsleanstowardthevalidityofmarriage,theindissolubilityofthemarriagebonds,the
legitimacyofchildren,thecommunityofpropertyduringmarriage,theauthorityofparentsovertheir
children,andthevalidityofdefenseforanymemberofthefamilyincaseofunlawfulaggression.

Art.221.Thefollowingshallbevoidandofnoeffect:

(1)Anycontractforpersonalseparationbetweenhusbandandwife;
(2)Everyextrajudicialagreement,duringmarriage,forthedissolutionoftheconjugalpartnershipof
gainsoroftheabsolutecommunityofpropertybetweenhusbandandwife;

(3)Everycollusiontoobtainadecreeoflegalseparation,orofannulmentofmarriage;

(4)Anysimulatedalienationofpropertywithintenttodeprivethecompulsoryheirsoftheirlegitime.

Art.222.Nosuitshallbefiledormaintainedbetweenmembersofthesamefamilyunlessitshould
appearthatearnesteffortstowardacompromisehavebeenmade,butthatthesamehavefailed,
subjecttothelimitationsinArticle2035.

CHAPTER2
THEFAMILYHOME(n)

SECTION1.GeneralProvisions

Art.223.Thefamilyhomeisthedwellinghousewhereapersonandhisfamilyreside,andthelandon
whichitissituated.Ifconstitutedashereinprovided,thefamilyhomeshallbeexemptfromexecution,
forcedsaleorattachment,exceptasprovidedinArticles232and243.
Art.224.Thefamilyhomemaybeestablishedjudiciallyorextrajudicially.

SECTION2.JudicialConstitutionoftheFamilyHome

Art.225.ThefamilyhomemaybeconstitutedbyaverifiedpetitiontotheCourtofFirstInstancebythe
owneroftheproperty,andbyapprovalthereofbythecourt.
Art.226.Thefollowingshallbebeneficiariesofthefamilyhome:

(1)Thepersonestablishingthesame;
(2)Hisorherspouse;

(3)Hisorherparents,ascendants,descendants,brothersandsisters,whethertherelationshipbe
legitimateorotherwise,whoarelivinginthefamilyhomeandwhodependuponhimforsupport.
Art.227.Thefamilyhomemayalsobesetupbyanunmarriedpersonwhoistheheadofafamilyor
household.
Art.228.Ifthepetitionerismarried,thefamilyhomemaybeselectedfromtheconjugalpartnershipor
communityproperty,orfromtheseparatepropertyofthehusband,or,withtheconsentofthewife,
fromherparaphernalproperty.

Art.229.Thepetitionshallcontainthefollowingparticulars:

(1)Descriptionoftheproperty;
(2)Anestimateofitsactualvalue;

(3)Astatementthatthepetitionerisactuallyresidinginthepremises;

(4)Theencumbrancesthereon;

(5)Thenamesandaddressesofallthecreditorsofthepetitionerandofallmortgageesandother
personswhohaveaninterestintheproperty;

(6)ThenamesoftheotherbeneficiariesspecifiedinArticle226.

Art.230.Creditors,mortgageesandallotherpersonswhohaveaninterestintheestateshallbenotified
ofthepetition,andgivenanopportunitytopresenttheirobjectionsthereto.Thepetitionshall,
moreover,bepublishedonceaweekforthreeconsecutiveweeksinanewspaperofgeneralcirculation.
Art.231.Ifthecourtfindsthattheactualvalueoftheproposedfamilyhomedoesnotexceedtwenty
thousandpesos,orthirtythousandpesosincharteredcities,andthatnothirdpersonisprejudiced,the
petitionshallbeapproved.Shouldanycreditorwhoseclaimisunsecured,opposetheestablishmentof
thefamilyhome,thecourtshallgrantthepetitionifthedebtorgivessufficientsecurityforthedebt.

Art.232.Thefamilyhome,afteritscreationbyvirtueofjudicialapproval,shallbeexemptfrom
execution,forcedsale,orattachment,except:

(1)Fornonpaymentoftaxes;or
(2)Insatisfactionofajudgmentonadebtsecuredbyamortgageconstitutedontheimmovablebefore
oraftertheestablishmentofthefamilyhome.

Incaseofinsolvencyofthepersonconstitutingthefamilyhome,thepropertyshallnotbeconsidered
oneoftheassetstobetakenpossessionofbytheassigneeforthebenefitofcreditors.
Art.233.Theorderofthecourtapprovingtheestablishmentofthefamilyhomeshallberecordedinthe
RegistryofProperty.

Art.234.Whenthereisdangerthatapersonobligedtogivesupportmaylosehisorherfortunebecause
ofgravemismanagementoronaccountofriotousliving,hisorherspouse,ifany,andamajorityof
thoseentitledtobesupportedbyhimorbyhermaypetitiontheCourtofFirstInstanceforthecreation
ofthefamilyhome.

Art.235.Thefamilyhomemaybesold,alienatedorencumberedbythepersonwhohasconstitutedthe
same,withtheconsentofhisorherspouse,andwiththeapprovalofthecourt.However,thefamily
homeshallundernocircumstancesbedonatedaslongastherearebeneficiaries.Incaseofsale,the
priceorsuchportionthereofasmaybedeterminedbythecourtshallbeusedinacquiringproperty
whichshallbeformedintoanewfamilyhome.Anysumofmoneyobtainedthroughanencumbranceon
thefamilyhomeshallbeusedintheinterestofthebeneficiaries.Thecourtshalltakemeasuresto
implementthelasttwoprovisions.

Art.236.Thefamilyhomemaybedissolveduponthepetitionofthepersonwhohasconstitutedthe
same,withthewrittenconsentofhisorherspouseandofatleastonehalfofalltheotherbeneficiaries
whoareeighteenyearsofageorover.Thecourtmaygrantthepetitionifitissatisfactorilyshownthat
thebestinterestofthefamilyrequiresthedissolutionofthefamilyhome.

Art.237.Incaseoflegalseparationorannulmentofmarriage,thefamilyhomeshallbedissolved,and
thepropertyshallceasetobeexemptfromexecution,forcedsaleorattachment.

Art.238.Uponthedeathofthepersonwhohassetupthefamilyhome,thesameshallcontinue,unless
hedesiredotherwiseinhiswill.Theheirscannotaskforitspartitionduringthefirsttenyearsfollowing
thedeathofthepersonconstitutingthesame,unlessthecourtfindspowerfulreasonstherefor.

Art.239.Thefamilyhomeshallnotbesubjecttopaymentofthedebtsofthedeceased,unlessinhiswill
thecontraryisstated.However,theclaimsmentionedinArticle232shallnotbeadverselyaffectedby
thedeathofthepersonwhohasestablishedthefamilyhome.

SECTION3.ExtrajudicialCreationoftheFamilyHome

Art.240.ThefamilyhomemaybeextrajudiciallyconstitutedbyrecordingintheRegistryofPropertya
publicinstrumentwhereinapersondeclaresthathetherebyestablishesafamilyhomeoutofadwelling
placewiththelandonwhichitissituated.
Art.241.Thedeclarationsettingupthefamilyhomeshallbeunderoathandshallcontain:

(1)Astatementthattheclaimantistheownerof,andisactuallyresidinginthepremises;
(2)Adescriptionoftheproperty;

(3)Anestimateofitsactualvalue;and

(4)Thenamesoftheclaimant'sspouseandtheotherbeneficiariesmentionedinArticle226.

Art.242.TherecordingintheRegistryofPropertyofthedeclarationreferredtointhetwopreceding
articlesistheoperativeactwhichcreatesthefamilyhome.
Art.243.Thefamilyhomeextrajudiciallyformedshallbeexemptfromexecution,forcedsaleor
attachment,except:

(1)Fornonpaymentoftaxes;
(2)FordebtsincurredbeforethedeclarationwasrecordedintheRegistryofProperty;

(3)Fordebtssecuredbymortgagesonthepremisesbeforeoraftersuchrecordofthedeclaration;

(4)Fordebtsduetolaborers,mechanics,architects,builders,materialmenandotherswhohave
renderedserviceorfurnishedmaterialfortheprosecutionofthebuilding.

Art.244.TheprovisionsofArticles226to228and235to238arelikewiseapplicabletofamilyhomes
extrajudiciallyestablished.
Art.245.Uponthedeathofthepersonwhohasextrajudiciallyconstitutedthefamilyhome,the
propertyshallnotbeliableforhisdebtsotherthanthosementionedinArticle243.However,hemay
provideinhiswillthatthefamilyhomeshallbesubjecttopaymentofdebtsnotspecifiedinArticle243.

Art.246.Nodeclarationfortheextrajudicialestablishmentofthefamilyhomeshallberecordedinthe
RegistryofPropertyiftheestimatedactualvalueofthebuildingandthelandexceedstheamount
statedinArticle231.

Art.247.WhenacreditorwhoseclaimisnotmentionedinArticle243obtainsajudgmentinhisfavor,
andhehasreasonablegroundstobelievethatthefamilyhomeofthejudgmentdebtorisworthmore
thantheamountmentionedinArticle231,hemayapplytotheCourtofFirstInstanceforanorder
directingthesaleofthepropertyunderexecution.

Art.248.Thehearingonthepetition,appraisalofthevalueofthefamilyhome,thesaleunderexecution
andothermattersrelativetotheproceedingsshallbegovernedbysuchprovisionsintheRulesofCourt
astheSupremeCourtshallpromulgateonthesubject,providedtheyarenotinconsistentwiththis
Code.

Art.249.Atthesaleunderexecutionreferredtointhetwoprecedingarticles,nobidshallbeconsidered
unlessitexceedstheamountspecifiedinArticle231.Theproceedsofthesaleshallbeappliedinthe
followingorder:

(1)TotheamountmentionedinArticle231;
(2)Tothejudgmentandthecosts.

Theexcess,ifany,belongstothepersonconstitutingthefamilyhome.
Art.250.TheamountmentionedinArticle231thusreceivedbythepersonwhohasestablishedthe
familyhome,orasmuchthereofasthecourtmaydetermine,shallbeinvestedinconstitutionofanew
familyhome.Thecourtshalltakemeasurestoenforcethisprovision.

Art.251.Incaseofinsolvencyofthepersoncreatingthefamilyhome,theclaimsspecifiedinArticle243
maybesatisfiednotwithstandingtheinsolvencyproceedings.

Iftheassigneehasreasonablegroundstobelievethattheactualvalueofthefamilyhomeexceedsthe
amountfixedinArticle231,hemaytakeactionundertheprovisionsofArticles247,248and249.

CHAPTER3
THEFAMILYCOUNCIL(n)

Art.252.TheCourtofFirstInstancemay,uponapplicationofanymemberofthefamily,arelative,ora
friend,appointafamilycouncil,whosedutyitshallbetoadvisethecourt,thespouses,theparents,
guardiansandthefamilyonimportantfamilyquestions.
Art.253.Thefamilycouncilshallbecomposedoffivemembers,whoshallberelativesoftheparties
concerned.Butthecourtmayappointoneortwofriendsofthefamily.

Art.254.Thefamilycouncilshallelectitschairman,andshallmeetatthecallofthelatteroruponorder
ofthecourt.

TitleVIII.PATERNITYANDFILIATION

CHAPTER1
LEGITIMATECHILDREN

Art.255.Childrenbornafteronehundredandeightydaysfollowingthecelebrationofthemarriage,and
beforethreehundreddaysfollowingitsdissolutionortheseparationofthespousesshallbepresumed
tobelegitimate.
Againstthispresumptionnoevidenceshallbeadmittedotherthanthatofthephysicalimpossibilityof
thehusband'shavingaccesstohiswifewithinthefirstonehundredandtwentydaysofthreehundred
whichprecededthebirthofthechild.

Thisphysicalimpossibilitymaybecaused:

(1)Bytheimpotenceofthehusband;
(2)Bythefactthatthehusbandandwifewerelivingseparately,insuchawaythataccesswasnot
possible;

(3)Bytheseriousillnessofthehusband.(108a)

Art.256.Thechildshallbepresumedlegitimate,althoughthemothermayhavedeclaredagainstits
legitimacyormayhavebeensentencedasanadulteress.(109)
Art.257.Shouldthewifecommitadulteryatoraboutthetimeoftheconceptionofthechild,butthere
wasnophysicalimpossibilityofaccessbetweenherandherhusbandassetforthinArticle255,thechild
isprimafaciepresumedtobeillegitimateifitappearshighlyimprobable,forethnicreasons,thatthe
childisthatofthehusband.Forthepurposesofthisarticle,thewife'sadulteryneednotbeprovedina
criminalcase.(n)

Art.258.Achildbornwithinonehundredeightydaysfollowingthecelebrationofthemarriageisprima
faciepresumedtobelegitimate.Suchachildisconclusivelypresumedtobelegitimateinanyofthese
cases:

(1)Ifthehusband,beforethemarriage,knewofthepregnancyofthewife;
(2)Ifheconsented,beingpresent,totheputtingofhissurnameontherecordofbirthofthechild;

(3)Ifheexpresslyortacitlyrecognizedthechildashisown.(110a)

Art.259.Ifthemarriageisdissolvedbythedeathofthehusband,andthemothercontractedanother
marriagewithinthreehundreddaysfollowingsuchdeath,theserulesshallgovern:
(1)Achildbornbeforeonehundredeightydaysafterthesolemnizationofthesubsequentmarriageis
disputablypresumedtohavebeenconceivedduringtheformermarriage,provideditbebornwithin
threehundreddaysafterthedeathoftheformerhusband:
(2)Achildbornafteronehundredeightydaysfollowingthecelebrationofthesubsequentmarriageis
primafaciepresumedtohavebeenconceivedduringsuchmarriage,eventhoughitbebornwithinthe
threehundreddaysafterthedeathoftheformerhusband.(n)

Art.260.Ifafterajudgmentannullingamarriage,theformerwifeshouldbelieveherselftobepregnant
bytheformerhusband,sheshall,withinthirtydaysfromthetimeshebecameawareofherpregnancy,
notifytheformerhusbandorhisheirsofthatfact.Heorhisheirsmayaskthecourttotakemeasuresto
preventasimulationofbirth.
Thesameobligationshalldevolveuponawidowwhobelievesherselftohavebeenleftpregnantbythe
deceasedhusband,oruponthewifewhobelievesherselftobepregnantbyherhusbandfromwhom
shehasbeenlegallyseparated.(n)

Art.261.Thereisnopresumptionoflegitimacyorillegitimacyofachildbornafterthreehundreddays
followingthedissolutionofthemarriageortheseparationofthespouses.Whoeverallegesthe
legitimacyortheillegitimacyofsuchchildmustprovehisallegation.(n)

Art.262.Theheirsofthehusbandmayimpugnthelegitimacyofthechildonlyinthefollowingcases:

(1)Ifthehusbandshoulddiebeforetheexpirationoftheperiodfixedforbringinghisaction;
(2)Ifheshoulddieafterthefilingofthecomplaint,withouthavingdesistedfromthesame;

(3)Ifthechildwasbornafterthedeathofthehusband.(112)

Art.263.Theactiontoimpugnthelegitimacyofthechildshallbebroughtwithinoneyearfromthe
recordingofthebirthintheCivilRegister,ifthehusbandshouldbeinthesameplace,orinaproper
case,anyofhisheirs.
Ifheorhisheirsareabsent,theperiodshallbeeighteenmonthsiftheyshouldresideinthePhilippines;
andtwoyearsifabroad.Ifthebirthofthechildhasbeenconcealed,thetermshallbecountedfromthe
discoveryofthefraud.(113a)

Art.264.Legitimatechildrenshallhavetheright:

(1)Tobearthesurnamesofthefatherandofthemother;
(2)Toreceivesupportfromthem,fromtheirascendantsandinapropercase,fromtheirbrothersand
sisters,inconformitywithArticle291;

(3)TothelegitimeandothersuccessionalrightswhichthisCoderecognizesintheirfavor.(114)

CHAPTER2
PROOFOFFILIATIONOFLEGITIMATECHILDREN

Art.265.ThefiliationoflegitimatechildrenisprovedbytherecordofbirthappearingintheCivil
Register,orbyanauthenticdocumentorafinaljudgment.(115)
Art.266.Intheabsenceofthetitlesindicatedintheprecedingarticle,thefiliationshallbeprovedbythe
continuouspossessionofstatusofalegitimatechild.(116)

Art.267.Intheabsenceofarecordofbirth,authenticdocument,finaljudgmentorpossessionofstatus,
legitimatefiliationmaybeprovedbyanyothermeansallowedbytheRulesofCourtandspeciallaws.
(117a)

Art.268.Theactiontoclaimhislegitimacymaybebroughtbythechildduringallhislifetime,andshall
betransmittedtohisheirsifheshoulddieduringhisminorityorinastateofinsanity.Inthesecasesthe
heirsshallhaveaperiodoffiveyearswithinwhichtoinstitutetheaction.

Theactionalreadycommencedbythechildistransmitteduponhisdeathtotheheirs,iftheproceeding
hasnotyetlapsed.(118)

CHAPTER3
LEGITIMATEDCHILDREN

Art.269.Onlynaturalchildrencanbelegitimated.Childrenbornoutsidewedlockofparentswho,at
thetimeoftheconceptionoftheformer,werenotdisqualifiedbyanyimpedimenttomarryeachother,
arenatural.(119a)
Art.270.Legitimationshalltakeplacebythesubsequentmarriagebetweentheparents.(120a)

Art.271.Onlynaturalchildrenwhohavebeenrecognizedbytheparentsbeforeorafterthecelebration
ofthemarriage,orhavebeendeclarednaturalchildrenbyfinaljudgment,maybeconsidered
legitimatedbysubsequentmarriage.

Ifanaturalchildisrecognizedorjudiciallydeclaredasnatural,suchrecognitionordeclarationshall
extendtohisorherbrothersorsistersofthefullblood:Provided,Thattheconsentofthelattershallbe
impliediftheydonotimpugntherecognitionwithinfouryearsfromthetimeofsuchrecognition,orin
casetheyareminors,withinfouryearsfollowingtheattainmentofmajority.(121a)

Art.272.Childrenwhoarelegitimatedbysubsequentmarriageshallenjoythesamerightsaslegitimate
children.(122)

Art.273.Legitimationshalltakeeffectfromthetimeofthechild'sbirth.(123a)

Art.274.Thelegitimationofchildrenwhodiedbeforethecelebrationofthemarriageshallbenefittheir
descendants.(124)

Art.275.Legitimationmaybeimpugnedbythosewhoareprejudicedintheirrights,whenittakesplace
infavorofthosewhodonothavethelegalconditionofnaturalchildrenorwhentherequisiteslaid
downinthisChapterarenotcompliedwith.(128a)

CHAPTER4
ILLEGITIMATECHILDREN

SECTION1.RecognitionofNaturalChildren

Art.276.Anaturalchildmayberecognizedbythefatherandmotherjointly,orbyonlyoneofthem.
(129)
Art.277.Incasetherecognitionismadebyonlyoneoftheparents,itshallbepresumedthatthechildis
natural,iftheparentrecognizingithadlegalcapacitytocontractmarriageatthetimeoftheconception.
(130)

Art.278.Recognitionshallbemadeintherecordofbirth,awill,astatementbeforeacourtofrecord,or
inanyauthenticwriting.(131a)

Art.279.Aminorwhomaynotcontractmarriagewithoutparentalconsentcannotacknowledgea
naturalchild,unlesstheparentorguardianapprovestheacknowledgmentorunlesstherecognitionis
madeinawill.(n)

Art.280.Whenthefatherorthemothermakestherecognitionseparately,heorsheshallnotrevealthe
nameofthepersonwithwhomheorshehadthechild;neithershallheorshestateanycircumstance
wherebytheotherparentmaybeidentified.(132a)

Art.281.Achildwhoisofagecannotberecognizedwithouthisconsent.

Whentherecognitionofaminordoesnottakeplaceinarecordofbirthorinawill,judicialapproval
shallbenecessary.

Aminorcaninanycaseimpugntherecognitionwithinfouryearsfollowingtheattainmentofhis
majority.(133a)

Art.282.Arecognizednaturalchildhastheright:

(1)Tobearthesurnameoftheparentrecognizinghim:
(2)Toreceivesupportfromsuchparent,inconformitywitharticle291;

(3)Toreceive,inapropercase,thehereditaryportionwhichisdeterminedinthisCode.(134)

Art.283.Inanyofthefollowingcases,thefatherisobligedtorecognizethechildashisnaturalchild:
(1)Incasesofrape,abductionorseduction,whentheperiodoftheoffensecoincidesmoreorlesswith
thatoftheconception;
(2)Whenthechildisincontinuouspossessionofstatusofachildoftheallegedfatherbythedirectacts
ofthelatterorofhisfamily;

(3)Whenthechildwasconceivedduringthetimewhenthemothercohabitedwiththesupposedfather;

(4)Whenthechildhasinhisfavoranyevidenceorproofthatthedefendantishisfather.(n)

Art.284.Themotherisobligedtorecognizehernaturalchild:
(1)Inanyofthecasesreferredtointheprecedingarticle,asbetweenthechildandthemother;
(2)Whenthebirthandtheidentityofthechildareclearlyproved.(136a)

Art.285.Theactionfortherecognitionofnaturalchildrenmaybebroughtonlyduringthelifetimeof
thepresumedparents,exceptinthefollowingcases:
(1)Ifthefatherormotherdiedduringtheminorityofthechild,inwhichcasethelattermayfilethe
actionbeforetheexpirationoffouryearsfromtheattainmentofhismajority;
(2)Ifafterthedeathofthefatherorofthemotheradocumentshouldappearofwhichnothinghad
beenheardandinwhicheitherorbothparentsrecognizethechild.

Inthiscase,theactionmustbecommencedwithinfouryearsfromthefindingofthedocument.(137a)
Art.286.Therecognitionmadeinfavorofachildwhodoesnotpossessalltheconditionsstatedin
Article269,orinwhichtherequirementsofthelawhavenotbeenfulfilled,maybeimpugnedbythose
whoareprejudicedbysuchrecognition.(137)

SECTION2.OtherIllegitimateChildren

Art.287.IllegitimatechildrenotherthannaturalinaccordancewithArticle269andotherthannatural
childrenbylegalfictionareentitledtosupportandsuchsuccessionalrightsasaregrantedinthisCode.
(n)
Art.288.Minorchildrenmentionedintheprecedingarticleareundertheparentalauthorityofthe
mother.(n)

Art.289.Investigationofthepaternityormaternityofchildrenmentionedinthetwoprecedingarticles
ispermittedunderthecircumstancesspecifiedinArticles283and284.(n)

TitleIX.SUPPORT

Art.290.Supportiseverythingthatisindispensableforsustenance,dwelling,clothingandmedical
attendance,accordingtothesocialpositionofthefamily.
Supportalsoincludestheeducationofthepersonentitledtobesupporteduntilhecompleteshis
educationortrainingforsomeprofession,tradeorvocation,evenbeyondtheageofmajority.(124a)

Art.291.Thefollowingareobligedtosupporteachothertothewholeextentsetforthinthepreceding
article:

(1)Thespouses;
(2)Legitimateascendantsanddescendants;

(3)Parentsandacknowledgednaturalchildrenandthelegitimateorillegitimatedescendantsofthe
latter;

(4)Parentsandnaturalchildrenbylegalfictionandthelegitimateandillegitimatedescendantsofthe
latter;

(5)Parentsandillegitimatechildrenwhoarenotnatural.

Brothersandsistersowetheirlegitimateandnaturalbrothersandsisters,althoughtheyareonlyofthe
halfblood,thenecessariesforlife,whenbyaphysicalormentaldefect,oranyothercausenot
imputabletotherecipients,thelattercannotsecuretheirsubsistence.Thisassistanceincludes,ina
propercase,expensesnecessaryforelementaryeducationandforprofessionalorvocationaltraining.
(143a)
Art.292.Duringtheproceedingsforlegalseparation,orforannulmentofmarriage,thespousesand
children,shallbesupportedfromtheconjugalpartnershipproperty.Afterthefinaljudgmentoflegal
separation,orofannulmentofmarriage,theobligationofmutualsupportbetweenthespousesceases.
However,incaseoflegalseparation,thecourtmayorderthattheguiltyspouseshallgivesupporttothe
innocentone,thejudgmentspecifyingthetermsofsuchorder.(n)

Art.293.Inanactionforlegalseparationorannulmentofmarriage,attorney'sfeesandexpensesfor
litigationshallbechargedtotheconjugalpartnershipproperty,unlesstheactionfails.(n)

Art.294.Theclaimforsupport,whenproperandtwoormorepersonsareobligedtogiveit,shallbe
madeinthefollowingorder:

(1)Fromthespouse;
(2)Fromthedescendantsofthenearestdegree;

(3)Fromtheascendants,alsoofthenearestdegree;

(4)Fromthebrothersandsisters.

Amongdescendantsandascendantstheorderinwhichtheyarecalledtotheintestatesuccessionofthe
personwhohasarighttoclaimsupportshallbeobserved.(144)
Art.295.Whentheobligationtogivesupportfallsupontwoormorepersons,thepaymentofthesame
shallbedividedbetweentheminproportiontotheresourcesofeach.

However,incaseofurgentneedandbyspecialcircumstances,thejudgemayorderonlyoneofthemto
furnishthesupportprovisionally,withoutprejudicetohisrighttoclaimfromtheotherobligorsthe
shareduefromthem.

Whentwoormorerecipientsatthesametimeclaimsupportfromoneandthesamepersonlegally
obligedtogiveit,andthelattershouldnothavesufficientmeanstosatisfyall,theorderestablishedin
theprecedingarticleshallbefollowed,unlesstheconcurrentobligeesshouldbethespouseandachild
subjecttoparentalauthority,inwhichcasethelattershallbepreferred.(145)

Art.296.Theamountofsupport,inthecasesreferredtointhefivenumbersofarticle291,shallbein
proportiontotheresourcesormeansofthegiverandtothenecessitiesoftherecipient.(146a)

Art.297.Supportinthecasesreferredtointheprecedingarticleshallbereducedorincreased
proportionately,accordingtothereductionorincreaseoftheneedsoftherecipientandtheresources
ofthepersonobligedtofurnishthesame.(147)

Art.298.Theobligationtogivesupportshallbedemandablefromthetimethepersonwhohasaright
toreceivethesameneedsitformaintenance,butitshallnotbepaidexceptfromthedateitis
extrajudiciallydemanded.

Paymentshallbemademonthlyinadvance,andwhentherecipientdies,hisheirsshallnotbeobliged
toreturnwhathehasreceivedinadvance.(148a)

Art.299.Thepersonobligedtogivesupportmay,athisoption,fulfillhisobligationeitherbypayingthe
allowancefixed,orbyreceivingandmaintaininginhishousethepersonwhohasarighttoreceive
support.Thelatteralternativecannotbeavailedofincasethereisamoralorlegalobstaclethereto.
(149a)

Art.300.Theobligationtofurnishsupportceasesuponthedeathoftheobligor,evenifhemaybe
boundtogiveitincompliancewithafinaljudgment.(150)

Art.301.Therighttoreceivesupportcannotberenounced;norcanitbetransmittedtoathirdperson.
Neithercanitbecompensatedwithwhattherecipientowestheobligor.

However,supportinarrearsmaybecompensatedandrenounced,andtherighttodemandthesame
maybetransmittedbyonerousorgratuitoustitle.(151)

Art.302.Neithertherighttoreceivelegalsupportnoranymoneyorpropertyobtainedassuchsupport
oranypensionorgratuityfromthegovernmentissubjecttoattachmentorexecution.(n)

Art.303.Theobligationtogivesupportshallalsocease:

(1)Uponthedeathoftherecipient;
(2)Whentheresourcesoftheobligorhavebeenreducedtothepointwherehecannotgivethesupport
withoutneglectinghisownneedsandthoseofhisfamily;

(3)Whentherecipientmayengageinatrade,profession,orindustry,orhasobtainedwork,orhas
improvedhisfortuneinsuchawaythathenolongerneedstheallowanceforhissubsistence;

(4)Whentherecipient,beheaforcedheirornot,hascommittedsomeactwhichgivesriseto
disinheritance;

(5)Whentherecipientisadescendant,brotherorsisteroftheobligorandtheneedforsupportis
causedbyhisorherbadconductorbythelackofapplicationtowork,solongasthiscausesubsists.
(152a)

Art.304.Theforegoingprovisionsshallbeapplicabletoothercaseswhere,invirtueofthisCodeorof
anyotherlaw,bywill,orbystipulationthereisarighttoreceivesupport,savewhatisstipulated,
orderedbythetestatororprovidedbylawforthespecialcase.(153a)

TitleX.FUNERALS(n)

Art.305.Thedutyandtherighttomakearrangementsforthefuneralofarelativeshallbein
accordancewiththeorderestablishedforsupport,underArticle294.Incaseofdescendantsofthe
samedegree,orofbrothersandsisters,theoldestshallbepreferred.Incaseofascendants,the
paternalshallhaveabetterright.
Art.306.Everyfuneralshallbeinkeepingwiththesocialpositionofthedeceased.

Art.307.Thefuneralshallbeinaccordancewiththeexpressedwishesofthedeceased.Intheabsence
ofsuchexpression,hisreligiousbeliefsoraffiliationshalldeterminethefuneralrites.Incaseofdoubt,
theformofthefuneralshallbedecideduponbythepersonobligedtomakearrangementsforthe
same,afterconsultingtheothermembersofthefamily.

Art.308.Nohumanremainsshallberetained,interred,disposedoforexhumedwithouttheconsentof
thepersonsmentionedinarticles294and305.

Art.309.Anypersonwhoshowsdisrespecttothedead,orwrongfullyinterfereswithafuneralshallbe
liabletothefamilyofthedeceasedfordamages,materialandmoral.

Art.310.Theconstructionofatombstoneormausoleumshallbedeemedapartofthefuneral
expenses,andshallbechargeabletotheconjugalpartnershipproperty,ifthedeceasedisoneofthe
spouses.

TitleXI.PARENTALAUTHORITY

CHAPTER1
GENERALPROVISIONS

Art.311.Thefatherandmotherjointlyexerciseparentalauthorityovertheirlegitimatechildrenwhoare
notemancipated.Incaseofdisagreement,thefather'sdecisionshallprevail,unlessthereisajudicial
ordertothecontrary.
Childrenareobligedtoobeytheirparentssolongastheyareunderparentalpower,andtoobserve
respectandreverencetowardthemalways.

Recognizednaturalandadoptedchildrenwhoareundertheageofmajorityareundertheparental
authorityofthefatherormotherrecognizingoradoptingthem,andareunderthesameobligation
statedintheprecedingparagraph.

Naturalchildrenbylegalfictionareunderthejointauthorityofthefatherandmother,asprovidedin
thefirstparagraphofthisarticle.(154a)

Art.312.Grandparentsshallbeconsultedbyallmembersofthefamilyonallimportantfamily
questions.(n)

Art.313.Parentalauthoritycannotberenouncedortransferred,exceptincasesofguardianshipor
adoptionapprovedbythecourts,oremancipationbyconcession.

Thecourtsmay,incasesspecifiedbylaw,depriveparentsoftheirauthority.(n)

Art.314.Afoundlingshallbeundertheparentalauthorityofthepersonorinstitutionthathasreared
thesame.(n)

Art.315.Nodescendantcanbecompelled,inacriminalcase,totestifyagainsthisparentsand
ascendants.(n)

CHAPTER2
EFFECTOFPARENTALAUTHORITY
UPONTHEPERSONSOFTHECHILDREN

Art.316.Thefatherandthemotherhave,withrespecttotheirunemancipatedchildren:
(1)Thedutytosupportthem,tohavethemintheircompany,educateandinstructtheminkeepingwith
theirmeansandtorepresenttheminallactionswhichmayredoundtotheirbenefit;
(2)Thepowertocorrectthemandtopunishthemmoderately.(155)

Art.317.Thecourtsmayappointaguardianofthechild'sproperty,oraguardianadlitemwhenthe
bestinterestofthechildsorequires.(n)
Art.318.Uponcausebeingshownbytheparents,thelocalmayormayaidthemintheexerciseoftheir
authorityoverthechild.Ifthechildistobekeptinachildren'shomeorsimilarinstitutionfornotmore
thanonemonth,anorderofthejusticeofthepeaceormunicipaljudgeshallbenecessary,afterdue
hearing,wherethechildshallbeheard.Forhispurpose,thecourtmayappointaguardianadlitem.
(156a)

Art.319.Thefatherandthemothershallsatisfythesupportforthedetainedchild;buttheyshallnot
haveanyinterventionintheregimeoftheinstitutionwherethechildisdetained.Theymayliftthe
detentionwhentheydeemitopportune,withtheapprovalofthecourt.(158a)

CHAPTER3
EFFECTOFPARENTALAUTHORITY
ONTHEPROPERTYOFTHECHILDREN

Art.320.Thefather,orinhisabsencethemother,isthelegaladministratorofthepropertypertaining
tothechildunderparentalauthority.Ifthepropertyisworthmorethantwothousandpesos,thefather
ormothershallgiveabondsubjecttotheapprovaloftheCourtofFirstInstance.(159a)
Art.321.Thepropertywhichtheunemancipatedchildhasacquiredormayacquirewithhisworkor
industry,orbyanylucrativetitle,belongstothechildinownership,andinusufructtothefatheror
motherunderwhomheisunderparentalauthorityandinwhosecompanyhelives;butifthechild,with
theparent'sconsent,shouldliveindependentlyfromthem,heshallbeconsideredasemancipatedfor
allpurposesrelativetosaidproperty,andheshallhaveoveritdominion,usufructandadministration.
(160)

Art.322.Achildwhoearnsmoneyoracquirespropertywithhisownworkorindustryshallbeentitled
toareasonableallowancefromtheearnings,inadditiontotheexpensesmadebytheparentsforhis
supportandeducation.(n)

Art.323.Thefruitsandinterestofthechild'spropertyreferredtoinarticle321shallbeappliedfirstto
theexpensesforthesupportandeducationofthechild.Aftertheyhavebeenfullymet,thedebtsofthe
conjugalpartnershipwhichhaveredoundedtothebenefitofthefamilymaybepaidfromsaidfruitsand
interest.(n)

Art.324.Whateverthechildmayacquirewiththecapitalorpropertyoftheparentsbelongstothe
latterinownershipandinusufruct.Butiftheparentsshouldexpresslygranthimallorpartoftheprofits
thathemayobtain,suchprofitsshallnotbechargedagainsthislegitime.(161)

Art.325.Thepropertyorincomedonated,bequeathedordevisedtotheunemancipatedchildforthe
expensesofhiseducationandinstructionshallpertaintohiminownershipandusufruct;butthefather
ormothershalladministerthesame,ifinthedonationortestamentaryprovisionthecontraryhasnot
beenstated.(162)

Art.326.Whenthepropertyofthechildisworthmorethantwothousandpesos,thefatherormother
shallbeconsideredaguardianofthechild'sproperty,subjecttothedutiesandobligationsofguardians
undertheRulesofCourt.(n)

CHAPTER4
EXTINGUISHMENTOFPARENTALAUTHORITY

Art.327.Parentalauthorityterminates:
(1)Uponthedeathoftheparentsorofthechild;
(2)Uponemancipation;

(3)Uponadoptionofthechild;

(4)Upontheappointmentofageneralguardian.(167a)

Art.328.Themotherwhocontractsasubsequentmarriagelosestheparentalauthorityoverher
children,unlessthedeceasedhusband,fatherofthelatter,hasexpresslyprovidedinhiswillthathis
widowmightmarryagain,andhasorderedthatinsuchcasesheshouldkeepandexerciseparental
authorityovertheirchildren.
Thecourtmayalsoappointaguardianofthechild'spropertyincasethefathershouldcontracta
subsequentmarriage.(168a)

Art.329.Whenthemotherofanillegitimatechildmarriesamanotherthanitsfather,thecourtmay
appointaguardianforthechild.(n)

Art.330.Thefatherandinapropercasethemother,shallloseauthorityovertheirchildren:

(1)Whenbyfinaljudgmentinacriminalcasethepenaltyofdeprivationofsaidauthorityisimposed
uponhimorher;
(2)Whenbyafinaljudgmentinlegalseparationproceedingssuchlossofauthorityisdeclared.(169a)

Art.331.Parentalauthorityissuspendedbytheincapacityorabsenceofthefather,orinapropercase
ofthemother,judiciallydeclared,andalsobycivilinterdiction.(170)
Art.332.Thecourtsmaydeprivetheparentsoftheirauthorityorsuspendtheexerciseofthesameif
theyshouldtreattheirchildrenwithexcessiveharshnessorshouldgivethemcorruptingorders,
counsels,orexamples,orshouldmakethembegorabandonthem.Inthesecases,thecourtsmayalso
deprivetheparentsinwholeorinpart,oftheusufructoverthechild'sproperty,oradoptsuch
measuresastheymaydeemadvisableintheinterestofthechild.(171a)

Art.333.Ifthewidowedmotherwhohascontractedasubsequentmarriageshouldagainbecomea
widow,sheshallrecoverfromthismomentherparentalauthorityoverallherunemancipatedchildren.
(172)

CHAPTER5
ADOPTION

Art.334.Everypersonofage,whoisinfullpossessionofhiscivilrights,mayadopt.(173a)
Art.335.Thefollowingcannotadopt:

(1)Thosewhohavelegitimate,legitimated,acknowledgednaturalchildren,ornaturalchildrenbylegal
fiction;
(2)Theguardian,withrespecttotheward,beforethefinalapprovalofhisaccounts;

(3)Amarriedperson,withouttheconsentoftheotherspouse;

(4)Nonresidentaliens;

(5)ResidentalienswithwhosegovernmenttheRepublicofthePhilippineshasbrokendiplomatic
relations;

(6)Anypersonwhohasbeenconvictedofacrimeinvolvingmoralturpitude,whenthepenaltyimposed
wassixmonths'imprisonmentormore.(174a)

Art.336.Thehusbandandwifemayjointlyadopt.Parentalauthorityshall,insuchcase,beexercisedas
ifthechildweretheirownbynature.(n)
Art.337.Anyperson,evenifofage,maybeadopted,providedtheadopterissixteenyearsolder.(173a)

Art.338.Thefollowingmaybeadopted:

(1)Thenaturalchild,bythenaturalfatherormother;
(2)Otherillegitimatechildren,bythefatherormother;

(3)Astepchild,bythestepfatherorstepmother.(n)

Art.339.Thefollowingcannotbeadopted:
(1)Amarriedperson,withoutthewrittenconsentoftheotherspouse;
(2)AnalienwithwhosegovernmenttheRepublicofthePhilippineshasbrokendiplomaticrelations;

(3)Apersonwhohasalreadybeenadopted.(n)

Art.340.Thewrittenconsentofthefollowingtotheadoptionshallbenecessary:
(1)Thepersontobeadopted,iffourteenyearsofageorover;
(2)Theparents,guardianorpersoninchargeofthepersontobeadopted.(n)

Art.341.Theadoptionshall:
(1)Givetotheadoptedpersonthesamerightsanddutiesasifhewerealegitimatechildoftheadopter:
(2)Dissolvetheauthorityvestedintheparentsbynature;

(3)Maketheadoptedpersonalegalheiroftheadopter;

(4)Entitletheadoptedpersontousetheadopter'ssurname.(n)

Art.342.Theadoptershallnotbealegalheiroftheadoptedperson,whoseparentsbynatureshall
inheritfromhim.(177a)
Art.343.Iftheadopterissurvivedbylegitimateparentsorascendantsandbyanadoptedperson,the
lattershallnothavemoresuccessionalrightsthananacknowledgednaturalchild.(n)

Art.344.Theadoptermaydonateproperty,byanactintervivosorbywill,totheadoptedperson,who
shallacquireownershipthereof.(n)

Art.345.TheproceedingsforadoptionshallbegovernedbytheRulesofCourtinsofarastheyarenotin
conflictwiththisCode.(n)

Art.346.Theadoptionshallberecordedinthelocalcivilregister.(179a)

Art.347.Aminororotherincapacitatedpersonmay,throughaguardianadlitem,askfortherescission
oftheadoptiononthesamegroundsthatcausethelossofparentalauthority.(n)

Art.348.Theadoptermaypetitionthecourtforrevocationoftheadoptioninanyofthesecases:

(1)Iftheadoptedpersonhasattemptedagainstthelifeoftheadopter;
(2)Whentheadoptedminorhasabandonedthehomeoftheadopterformorethanthreeyears;

(3)Whenbyotheractstheadoptedpersonhasdefinitelyrepudiatedtheadoption.(n)

CHAPTER6
SUBSTITUTEPARENTALAUTHORITY(n)

Art.349.Thefollowingpersonsshallexercisesubstituteparentalauthority:
(1)Guardians;
(2)Teachersandprofessors;

(3)Headsofchildren'shomes,orphanages,andsimilarinstitutions;

(4)Directorsoftradeestablishments,withregardtoapprentices;

(5)Grandparents;

(6)Theoldestbrotherorsister.

Art.350.Thepersonsnamedintheprecedingarticleshallexercisereasonablesupervisionoverthe
conductofthechild.
Art.351.Ageneralguardianoraguardianoverthepersonshallhavethesameauthorityovertheward's
personastheparents.Withregardtothechild'sproperty,theRulesofCourtonguardianshipshall
govern.

Art.352.Therelationsbetweenteacherandpupil,professorandstudent,arefixedbygovernment
regulationsandthoseofeachschoolorinstitution.Innocaseshallcorporalpunishmentbe
countenanced.Theteacherorprofessorshallcultivatethebestpotentialitiesoftheheartandmindof
thepupilorstudent.

Art.353.Apprenticesshallbetreatedhumanely.Nocorporalpunishmentagainsttheapprenticeshallbe
permitted.

Art.354.Grandparentsandintheirdefaulttheoldestbrotherorsistershallexerciseparentalauthority
incaseofdeathorabsenceofthechild'sparents.Iftheparentsareliving,orifthechildisunder
guardianship,thegrandparentsmaygiveadviceandcounseltothechild,totheparentsortothe
guardian.

Art.355.Substituteparentalauthorityshallbeexercisedbythegrandparentsinthefollowingorder:

(1)Paternalgrandparents;
(2)Maternalgrandparents.

TitleXII.CAREANDEDUCATIONOFCHILDREN

Art.356.Everychild:
(1)Isentitledtoparentalcare;
(2)Shallreceiveatleastelementaryeducation;

(3)Shallbegivenmoralandcivictrainingbytheparentsorguardian;

(4)Hasarighttoliveinanatmosphereconducivetohisphysical,moralandintellectualdevelopment.

Art.357.Everychildshall:
(1)Obeyandhonorhisparentsorguardian;
(2)Respecthisgrandparents,oldrelatives,andpersonsholdingsubstituteparentalauthority;

(3)Exerthisutmostforhiseducationandtraining;

(4)Cooperatewiththefamilyinallmattersthatmakeforthegoodofthesame.

Art.358.Everyparentandeverypersonholdingsubstituteparentalauthorityshallseetoitthatthe
rightsofthechildarerespectedandhisdutiescompliedwith,andshallparticularly,bypreceptand
example,imbuethechildwithhighmindedness,loveofcountry,venerationforthenationalheroes,
fidelitytodemocracyasawayoflife,andattachmenttotheidealofpermanentworldpeace.
Art.359.Thegovernmentpromotesthefullgrowthofthefacultiesofeverychild.Forthispurpose,the
governmentwillestablish,wheneverpossible:

(1)Schoolsineverybarrio,municipalityandcitywhereoptionalreligiousinstructionshallbetaughtas
partofthecurriculumattheoptionoftheparentorguardian;
(2)Puericultureandsimilarcenters;

(3)CouncilsfortheProtectionofChildren;and

(4)Juvenilecourts.

Art.360.TheCouncilfortheProtectionofChildrenshalllookafterthewelfareofchildreninthe
municipality.Itshall,amongotherfunctions:
(1)Fostertheeducationofeverychildinthemunicipality;
(2)Encouragethecultivationofthedutiesofparents;

(3)Protectandassistabandonedormistreatedchildren,andorphans;

(4)Takestepstopreventjuveniledelinquency;

(5)Adoptmeasuresforthehealthofchildren;

(6)Promotetheopeningandmaintenanceofplaygrounds;

(7)Coordinatetheactivitiesoforganizationsdevotedtothewelfareofchildren,andsecuretheir
cooperation.

Art.361.Juvenilecourtswillbeestablished,asfaraspracticable,ineverycharteredcityorlarge
municipality.
Art.362.Wheneverachildisfounddelinquentbyanycourt,thefather,mother,orguardianmayina
propercasebejudiciallyadmonished.

Art.363.Inallquestionsonthecare,custody,educationandpropertyofchildrenthelatter'swelfare
shallbeparamount.Nomothershallbeseparatedfromherchildundersevenyearsofage,unlessthe
courtfindscompellingreasonsforsuchmeasure.

TitleXIII.USEOFSURNAMES(n)

Art.364.Legitimateandlegitimatedchildrenshallprincipallyusethesurnameofthefather.
Art.365.Anadoptedchildshallbearthesurnameoftheadopter.

Art.366.Anaturalchildacknowledgedbybothparentsshallprincipallyusethesurnameofthefather.If
recognizedbyonlyoneoftheparents,anaturalchildshallemploythesurnameoftherecognizing
parent.

Art.367.Naturalchildrenbylegalfictionshallprincipallyemploythesurnameofthefather.

Art.368.IllegitimatechildrenreferredtoinArticle287shallbearthesurnameofthemother.

Art.369.Childrenconceivedbeforethedecreeannullingavoidablemarriageshallprincipallyusethe
surnameofthefather.

Art.370.Amarriedwomanmayuse:

(1)Hermaidenfirstnameandsurnameandaddherhusband'ssurname,or
(2)Hermaidenfirstnameandherhusband'ssurnameor

(3)Herhusband'sfullname,butprefixingawordindicatingthatsheishiswife,suchas"Mrs."

Art.371.Incaseofannulmentofmarriage,andthewifeistheguiltyparty,sheshallresumehermaiden
nameandsurname.Ifsheistheinnocentspouse,shemayresumehermaidennameandsurname.
However,shemaychoosetocontinueemployingherformerhusband'ssurname,unless:
(1)Thecourtdecreesotherwise,or
(2)Sheortheformerhusbandismarriedagaintoanotherperson.

Art.372.Whenlegalseparationhasbeengranted,thewifeshallcontinueusinghernameandsurname
employedbeforethelegalseparation.
Art.373.Awidowmayusethedeceasedhusband'ssurnameasthoughhewerestillliving,inaccordance
withArticle370.

Art.374.Incaseofidentityofnamesandsurnames,theyoungerpersonshallbeobligedtousesuch
additionalnameorsurnameaswillavoidconfusion.

Art.375.Incaseofidentityofnamesandsurnamesbetweenascendantsanddescendants,theword
"Junior"canbeusedonlybyason.Grandsonsandotherdirectmaledescendantsshalleither:

(1)Addamiddlenameorthemother'ssurname,or
(2)AddtheRomanNumeralsII,III,andsoon.

Art.376.Nopersoncanchangehisnameorsurnamewithoutjudicialauthority.
Art.377.Usurpationofanameandsurnamemaybethesubjectofanactionfordamagesandother
relief.

Art.378.Theunauthorizedorunlawfuluseofanotherperson'ssurnamegivesarightofactiontothe
latter.

Art.379.Theemploymentofpennamesorstagenamesispermitted,provideditisdoneingoodfaith
andthereisnoinjurytothirdpersons.Pennamesandstagenamescannotbeusurped.

Art.380.Exceptasprovidedintheprecedingarticle,nopersonshallusedifferentnamesandsurnames.

TitleXIV.ABSENCE

CHAPTER1
PROVISIONALMEASURESINCASEOFABSENCE

Art.381.Whenapersondisappearsfromhisdomicile,hiswhereaboutsbeingunknown,andwithout
leavinganagenttoadministerhisproperty,thejudge,attheinstanceofaninterestedparty,arelative,
orafriend,mayappointapersontorepresenthiminallthatmaybenecessary.
Thissameruleshallbeobservedwhenundersimilarcircumstancesthepowerconferredbythe
absenteehasexpired.(181a)

Art.382.Theappointmentreferredtointheprecedingarticlehavingbeenmade,thejudgeshalltake
thenecessarymeasurestosafeguardtherightsandinterestsoftheabsenteeandshallspecifythe
powers,obligationsandremunerationofhisrepresentative,regulatingthem,accordingtothe
circumstances,bytherulesconcerningguardians.(182)

Art.383.Intheappointmentofarepresentative,thespousepresentshallbepreferredwhenthereisno
legalseparation.

Iftheabsenteeleftnospouse,orifthespousepresentisaminor,anycompetentpersonmaybe
appointedbythecourt.(183a)

CHAPTER2
DECLARATIONOFABSENCE

Art.384.Twoyearshavingelapsedwithoutanynewsabouttheabsenteeorsincethereceiptofthelast
news,andfiveyearsincasetheabsenteehasleftapersoninchargeoftheadministrationofhis
property,hisabsencemaybedeclared.(184)
Art.385.Thefollowingmayaskforthedeclarationofabsence:

(1)Thespousepresent;
(2)Theheirsinstitutedinawill,whomaypresentanauthenticcopyofthesame;

(3)Therelativeswhomaysucceedbythelawofintestacy;

(4)Thosewhomayhaveoverthepropertyoftheabsenteesomerightsubordinatedtotheconditionof
hisdeath.(185)

Art.386.Thejudicialdeclarationofabsenceshallnottakeeffectuntilsixmonthsafteritspublicationin
anewspaperofgeneralcirculation.(186a)

CHAPTER3
ADMINISTRATIONOFTHEPROPERTYOFTHEABSENTEE

Art.387.Anadministratoroftheabsentee'spropertyshallbeappointedinaccordancewithArticle383.
(187a)
Art.388.Thewifewhoisappointedasanadministratrixofthehusband'spropertycannotalienateor
encumberthehusband'sproperty,orthatoftheconjugalpartnership,withoutjudicialauthority.(188a)

Art.389.Theadministrationshallceaseinanyofthefollowingcases:

(1)Whentheabsenteeappearspersonallyorbymeansofanagent;
(2)Whenthedeathoftheabsenteeisprovedandhistestateorintestateheirsappear;

(3)Whenathirdpersonappears,showingbyaproperdocumentthathehasacquiredtheabsentee's
propertybypurchaseorothertitle.

Inthesecasestheadministratorshallceaseintheperformanceofhisoffice,andthepropertyshallbeat
thedisposalofthosewhomayhavearightthereto.(190)

CHAPTER4
PRESUMPTIONOFDEATH

Art.390.Afteranabsenceofsevenyears,itbeingunknownwhetherornottheabsenteestilllives,he
shallbepresumeddeadforallpurposes,exceptforthoseofsuccession.
Theabsenteeshallnotbepresumeddeadforthepurposeofopeninghissuccessiontillafteranabsence
oftenyears.Ifhedisappearedaftertheageofseventyfiveyears,anabsenceoffiveyearsshallbe
sufficientinorderthathissuccessionmaybeopened.(n)

Art.391.Thefollowingshallbepresumeddeadforallpurposes,includingthedivisionoftheestate
amongtheheirs:

(1)Apersononboardavessellostduringaseavoyage,oranaeroplanewhichismissing,whohasnot
beenheardofforfouryearssincethelossofthevesseloraeroplane;
(2)Apersoninthearmedforceswhohastakenpartinwar,andhasbeenmissingforfouryears;

(3)Apersonwhohasbeenindangerofdeathunderothercircumstancesandhisexistencehasnotbeen
knownforfouryears.(n)

Art.392.Iftheabsenteeappears,orwithoutappearinghisexistenceisproved,heshallrecoverhis
propertyintheconditioninwhichitmaybefound,andthepriceofanypropertythatmayhavebeen
alienatedorthepropertyacquiredtherewith;buthecannotclaimeitherfruitsorrents.(194)

CHAPTER5
EFFECTOFABSENCEUPONTHE
CONTINGENTRIGHTSOFTHEABSENTEE

Art.393.Whoeverclaimsarightpertainingtoapersonwhoseexistenceisnotrecognizedmustprove
thathewaslivingatthetimehisexistencewasnecessaryinordertoacquiresaidright.(195)
Art.394.Withoutprejudicetotheprovisionoftheprecedingarticle,upontheopeningofasuccession
towhichanabsenteeiscalled,hisshareshallaccruetohiscoheirs,unlesshehasheirs,assigns,ora
representative.Theyshallall,asthecasemaybe,makeaninventoryoftheproperty.(196a)

Art.395.Theprovisionsoftheprecedingarticleareunderstoodtobewithoutprejudicetotheactionof
petitionforinheritanceorotherrightswhicharevestedintheabsentee,hisrepresentativesor
successorsininterest.Theserightsshallnotbeextinguishedsavebylapseoftimefixedforprescription.
IntherecordthatismadeintheRegistryoftherealestatewhichaccruestothecoheirs,the
circumstanceofitsbeingsubjecttotheprovisionsofthisarticleshallbestated.(197)

Art.396.Thosewhomayhaveenteredupontheinheritanceshallappropriatethefruitsreceivedingood
faithsolongastheabsenteedoesnotappear,orwhilehisrepresentativesorsuccessorsininterestdo
notbringtheproperactions.(198)

TitleXV.EMANCIPATIONANDAGEOFMAJORITY

CHAPTER1
EMANCIPATION

Art.397.Emancipationtakesplace:
(1)Bythemarriageoftheminor;
(2)Bytheattainmentofmajority;

(3)Bytheconcessionofthefatherorofthemotherwhoexerciseparentalauthority.(314)

Art.398.EmancipationtreatedofinNo.3oftheprecedingarticleshallbeeffectedinapublic
instrumentwhichshallberecordedintheCivilRegister,andunlesssorecorded,itshalltakenoeffect
againstthirdpersons.(316a)
Art.399.Emancipationbymarriageorbyvoluntaryconcessionshallterminateparentalauthorityover
thechild'sperson.Itshallenabletheminortoadministerhispropertyasthoughhewereofage,buthe
cannotborrowmoneyoralienateorencumberrealpropertywithouttheconsentofhisfatheror
mother,orguardian.Hecansueandbesuedincourtonlywiththeassistanceofhisfather,motheror
guardian.(317a)

Art.400.Inorderthatemancipationbyconcessionofthefatherorofthemothermaytakeplace,itis
requiredthattheminorbeeighteenyearsofage,andthathegivehisconsentthereto.(318)

Art.401.Emancipationisfinalorirrevocable.(319a)

CHAPTER2
AGEOFMAJORITY

Art.402.Majoritycommencesupontheattainmentoftheageoftwentyoneyears.
Thepersonwhohasreachedmajorityisqualifiedforallactsofcivillife,savetheexceptionsestablished
bythisCodeinspecialcases.(320a)

Art.403.Notwithstandingtheprovisionsoftheprecedingarticle,adaughterabovetwentyonebut
belowtwentythreeyearsofagecannotleavetheparentalhomewithouttheconsentofthefatheror
motherinwhosecompanyshelives,excepttobecomeawife,orwhensheexercisesaprofessionor
calling,orwhenthefatherormotherhascontractedasubsequentmarriage.(321a)

Art.404.Anorphanwhoisminormay,attheinstanceofanyrelativeorotherperson,obtain
emancipationbyconcessionuponanorderoftheCourtofFirstInstance.(322a)

Art.405.Fortheconcessionandapprovalreferredtointheprecedingarticleitisnecessary:

(1)Thattheminorbeeighteenyearsofage;
(2)Thatheconsentthereto;and

(3)Thattheconcessionbedeemedconvenientfortheminor.

TheconcessionshallberecordedintheCivilRegister.(323a)
Art.406.TheprovisionsofArticle399areapplicabletoanorphanwhohasbeenemancipatedaccording
toArticle404.Thecourtwillgivethenecessaryapprovalwithrespecttothecontractsmentionedin
Article399.Inlitigations,aguardianadlitemfortheminorshallbeappointedbythecourt.(324a)

TitleXVI.CIVILREGISTER

Art.407.Acts,eventsandjudicialdecreesconcerningthecivilstatusofpersonsshallberecordedinthe
civilregister.(325a)
Art.408.Thefollowingshallbeenteredinthecivilregister:

(1)Births;
(2)marriages;
(3)deaths;
(4)legalseparations;
(5)annulmentsofmarriage;
(6)judgmentsdeclaringmarriagesvoidfromthebeginning;
(7)legitimations;
(8)adoptions;
(9)acknowledgmentsofnaturalchildren;
(10)naturalization;
(11)loss,or(12)recoveryofcitizenship;
(13)civilinterdiction;
(14)judicialdeterminationoffiliation;
(15)voluntaryemancipationofaminor;and
(16)changesofname.(326a)
Art.409.Incasesoflegalseparation,adoption,naturalizationandotherjudicialordersmentionedinthe
precedingarticle,itshallbethedutyoftheclerkofthecourtwhichissuedthedecreetoascertain
whetherthesamehasbeenregistered,andifthishasnotbeendone,tosendacopyofsaiddecreeto
thecivilregistryofthecityormunicipalitywherethecourtisfunctioning.(n)
Art.410.Thebooksmakingupthecivilregisterandalldocumentsrelatingtheretoshallbeconsidered
publicdocumentsandshallbeprimafacieevidenceofthefactsthereincontained.(n)

Art.411.Everycivilregistrarshallbecivillyresponsibleforanyunauthorizedalterationmadeinanycivil
register,toanypersonsufferingdamagethereby.However,thecivilregistrarmayexempthimselffrom
suchliabilityifheprovesthathehastakeneveryreasonableprecautiontopreventtheunlawful
alteration.(n)

Art.412.Noentryinacivilregistershallbechangedorcorrected,withoutajudicialorder.(n)

Art.413.Allothermatterspertainingtotheregistrationofcivilstatusshallbegovernedbyspeciallaws.
(n)

BOOKII

PROPERTY,OWNERSHIP,ANDITSMODIFICATIONS

TitleI.CLASSIFICATIONOFPROPERTY

PRELIMINARYPROVISIONS

Art.414.Allthingswhichareormaybetheobjectofappropriationareconsideredeither:
(1)Immovableorrealproperty;or
(2)Movableorpersonalproperty.(333)

CHAPTER1
IMMOVABLEPROPERTY

Art.415.Thefollowingareimmovableproperty:
(1)Land,buildings,roadsandconstructionsofallkindsadheredtothesoil;
(2)Trees,plants,andgrowingfruits,whiletheyareattachedtothelandorformanintegralpartofan
immovable;

(3)Everythingattachedtoanimmovableinafixedmanner,insuchawaythatitcannotbeseparated
therefromwithoutbreakingthematerialordeteriorationoftheobject;

(4)Statues,reliefs,paintingsorotherobjectsforuseorornamentation,placedinbuildingsoronlands
bytheowneroftheimmovableinsuchamannerthatitrevealstheintentiontoattachthem
permanentlytothetenements;

(5)Machinery,receptacles,instrumentsorimplementsintendedbytheownerofthetenementforan
industryorworkswhichmaybecarriedoninabuildingoronapieceofland,andwhichtenddirectlyto
meettheneedsofthesaidindustryorworks;

(6)Animalhouses,pigeonhouses,beehives,fishpondsorbreedingplacesofsimilarnature,incasetheir
ownerhasplacedthemorpreservesthemwiththeintentiontohavethempermanentlyattachedtothe
land,andformingapermanentpartofit;theanimalsintheseplacesareincluded;

(7)Fertilizeractuallyusedonapieceofland;

(8)Mines,quarries,andslagdumps,whilethematterthereofformspartofthebed,andwaterseither
runningorstagnant;

(9)Docksandstructureswhich,thoughfloating,areintendedbytheirnatureandobjecttoremainata
fixedplaceonariver,lake,orcoast;

(10)Contractsforpublicworks,andservitudesandotherrealrightsoverimmovableproperty.(334a)

CHAPTER2
MOVABLEPROPERTY

Art.416.Thefollowingthingsaredeemedtobepersonalproperty:
(1)Thosemovablessusceptibleofappropriationwhicharenotincludedintheprecedingarticle;
(2)Realpropertywhichbyanyspecialprovisionoflawisconsideredaspersonalproperty;

(3)Forcesofnaturewhicharebroughtundercontrolbyscience;and

(4)Ingeneral,allthingswhichcanbetransportedfromplacetoplacewithoutimpairmentofthereal
propertytowhichtheyarefixed.(335a)

Art.417.Thefollowingarealsoconsideredaspersonalproperty:
(1)Obligationsandactionswhichhavefortheirobjectmovablesordemandablesums;and
(2)Sharesofstockofagricultural,commercialandindustrialentities,althoughtheymayhavereal
estate.(336a)

Art.418.Movablepropertyiseitherconsumableornonconsumable.Tothefirstclassbelongthose
movableswhichcannotbeusedinamannerappropriatetotheirnaturewithouttheirbeingconsumed;
tothesecondclassbelongalltheothers.(337)

CHAPTER3
PROPERTYINRELATIONTOTHEPERSONTOWHOMITBELONGS

Art.419.Propertyiseitherofpublicdominionorofprivateownership.(338)
Art.420.Thefollowingthingsarepropertyofpublicdominion:

(1)Thoseintendedforpublicuse,suchasroads,canals,rivers,torrents,portsandbridgesconstructed
bytheState,banks,shores,roadsteads,andothersofsimilarcharacter;
(2)ThosewhichbelongtotheState,withoutbeingforpublicuse,andareintendedforsomepublic
serviceorforthedevelopmentofthenationalwealth.(339a)

Art.421.AllotherpropertyoftheState,whichisnotofthecharacterstatedintheprecedingarticle,is
patrimonialproperty.(340a)
Art.422.Propertyofpublicdominion,whennolongerintendedforpublicuseorforpublicservice,shall
formpartofthepatrimonialpropertyoftheState.(341a)

Art.423.Thepropertyofprovinces,cities,andmunicipalitiesisdividedintopropertyforpublicuseand
patrimonialproperty.(343)

Art.424.Propertyforpublicuse,intheprovinces,cities,andmunicipalities,consistoftheprovincial
roads,citystreets,municipalstreets,thesquares,fountains,publicwaters,promenades,andpublic
worksforpublicservicepaidforbysaidprovinces,cities,ormunicipalities.

AllotherpropertypossessedbyanyofthemispatrimonialandshallbegovernedbythisCode,without
prejudicetotheprovisionsofspeciallaws.(344a)

Art.425.Propertyofprivateownership,besidesthepatrimonialpropertyoftheState,provinces,cities,
andmunicipalities,consistsofallpropertybelongingtoprivatepersons,eitherindividuallyor
collectively.(345a)

PROVISIONSCOMMONTOTHETHREEPRECEDINGCHAPTERS

Art.426.Wheneverbyprovisionofthelaw,oranindividualdeclaration,theexpression"immovable
thingsorproperty,"or"movablethingsorproperty,"isused,itshallbedeemedtoinclude,respectively,
thethingsenumeratedinChapter1andChapter2.
Whenevertheword"muebles,"or"furniture,"isusedalone,itshallnotbedeemedtoincludemoney,
credits,commercialsecurities,stocksandbonds,jewelry,scientificorartisticcollections,books,medals,
arms,clothing,horsesorcarriagesandtheiraccessories,grains,liquidsandmerchandise,orotherthings
whichdonothaveastheirprincipalobjectthefurnishingorornamentingofabuilding,exceptwhere
fromthecontextofthelaw,ortheindividualdeclaration,thecontraryclearlyappears.(346a)

TitleII.OWNERSHIP

CHAPTER1
OWNERSHIPINGENERAL

Art.427.Ownershipmaybeexercisedoverthingsorrights.(n)
Art.428.Theownerhastherighttoenjoyanddisposeofathing,withoutotherlimitationsthanthose
establishedbylaw.

Theownerhasalsoarightofactionagainsttheholderandpossessorofthethinginordertorecoverit.
(348a)

Art.429.Theownerorlawfulpossessorofathinghastherighttoexcludeanypersonfromthe
enjoymentanddisposalthereof.Forthispurpose,hemayusesuchforceasmaybereasonably
necessarytorepelorpreventanactualorthreatenedunlawfulphysicalinvasionorusurpationofhis
property.(n)

Art.430.Everyownermayencloseorfencehislandortenementsbymeansofwalls,ditches,liveor
deadhedges,orbyanyothermeanswithoutdetrimenttoservitudesconstitutedthereon.(388)

Art.431.Theownerofathingcannotmakeusethereofinsuchmannerastoinjuretherightsofathird
person.(n)

Art.432.Theownerofathinghasnorighttoprohibittheinterferenceofanotherwiththesame,ifthe
interferenceisnecessarytoavertanimminentdangerandthethreateneddamage,comparedtothe
damagearisingtotheownerfromtheinterference,ismuchgreater.Theownermaydemandfromthe
personbenefitedindemnityforthedamagetohim.(n)

Art.433.Actualpossessionunderclaimofownershipraisesdisputablepresumptionofownership.The
trueownermustresorttojudicialprocessfortherecoveryoftheproperty.(n)

Art.434.Inanactiontorecover,thepropertymustbeidentified,andtheplaintiffmustrelyonthe
strengthofhistitleandnotontheweaknessofthedefendant'sclaim.(n)

Art.435.Nopersonshallbedeprivedofhispropertyexceptbycompetentauthorityandforpublicuse
andalwaysuponpaymentofjustcompensation.

Shouldthisrequirementbenotfirstcompliedwith,thecourtsshallprotectand,inapropercase,
restoretheownerinhispossession.(349a)

Art.436.Whenanypropertyiscondemnedorseizedbycompetentauthorityintheinterestofhealth,
safetyorsecurity,theownerthereofshallnotbeentitledtocompensation,unlesshecanshowthat
suchcondemnationorseizureisunjustified.(n)

Art.437.Theownerofaparceloflandistheownerofitssurfaceandofeverythingunderit,andhecan
constructthereonanyworksormakeanyplantationsandexcavationswhichhemaydeemproper,
withoutdetrimenttoservitudesandsubjecttospeciallawsandordinances.Hecannotcomplainofthe
reasonablerequirementsofaerialnavigation.(350a)

Art.438.Hiddentreasurebelongstotheowneroftheland,building,orotherpropertyonwhichitis
found.

Nevertheless,whenthediscoveryismadeonthepropertyofanother,oroftheStateoranyofits
subdivisions,andbychance,onehalfthereofshallbeallowedtothefinder.Ifthefinderisatrespasser,
heshallnotbeentitledtoanyshareofthetreasure.

Ifthethingsfoundbeofinteresttoscienceofthearts,theStatemayacquirethemattheirjustprice,
whichshallbedividedinconformitywiththerulestated.(351a)

Art.439.Bytreasureisunderstood,forlegalpurposes,anyhiddenandunknowndepositofmoney,
jewelry,orotherpreciousobjects,thelawfulownershipofwhichdoesnotappear.(352)

CHAPTER3
RIGHTOFACCESSION

GENERALPROVISIONS

Art.440.Theownershipofpropertygivestherightbyaccessiontoeverythingwhichisproduced
thereby,orwhichisincorporatedorattachedthereto,eithernaturallyorartificially.(353)

SECTION1.RightofAccessionwithRespectto
WhatisProducedbyProperty

Art.441.Totheownerbelongs:
(1)Thenaturalfruits;
(2)Theindustrialfruits;

(3)Thecivilfruits.(354)

Art.442.Naturalfruitsarethespontaneousproductsofthesoil,andtheyoungandotherproductsof
animals.
Industrialfruitsarethoseproducedbylandsofanykindthroughcultivationorlabor.

Civilfruitsaretherentsofbuildings,thepriceofleasesoflandsandotherpropertyandtheamountof
perpetualorlifeannuitiesorothersimilarincome.(355a)

Art.443.Hewhoreceivesthefruitshastheobligationtopaytheexpensesmadebyathirdpersonin
theirproduction,gathering,andpreservation.(356)

Art.444.Onlysuchasaremanifestorbornareconsideredasnaturalorindustrialfruits.

Withrespecttoanimals,itissufficientthattheyareinthewombofthemother,althoughunborn.(357)

SECTION2.RightofAccessionwithRespect
toImmovableProperty

Art.445.Whateverisbuilt,plantedorsownonthelandofanotherandtheimprovementsorrepairs
madethereon,belongtotheowneroftheland,subjecttotheprovisionsofthefollowingarticles.(358)
Art.446.Allworks,sowing,andplantingarepresumedmadebytheownerandathisexpense,unless
thecontraryisproved.(359)

Art.447.Theownerofthelandwhomakesthereon,personallyorthroughanother,plantings,
constructionsorworkswiththematerialsofanother,shallpaytheirvalue;and,ifheactedinbadfaith,
heshallalsobeobligedtothereparationofdamages.Theownerofthematerialsshallhavetherightto
removethemonlyincasehecandosowithoutinjurytotheworkconstructed,orwithouttheplantings,
constructionsorworksbeingdestroyed.However,ifthelandowneractedinbadfaith,theownerofthe
materialsmayremovetheminanyevent,witharighttobeindemnifiedfordamages.(360a)

Art.448.Theownerofthelandonwhichanythinghasbeenbuilt,sownorplantedingoodfaith,shall
havetherighttoappropriateashisowntheworks,sowingorplanting,afterpaymentoftheindemnity
providedforinArticles546and548,ortoobligetheonewhobuiltorplantedtopaythepriceofthe
land,andtheonewhosowed,theproperrent.However,thebuilderorplantercannotbeobligedtobuy
thelandifitsvalueisconsiderablymorethanthatofthebuildingortrees.Insuchcase,heshallpay
reasonablerent,iftheownerofthelanddoesnotchoosetoappropriatethebuildingortreesafter
properindemnity.Thepartiesshallagreeuponthetermsoftheleaseandincaseofdisagreement,the
courtshallfixthetermsthereof.(361a)

Art.449.Hewhobuilds,plantsorsowsinbadfaithonthelandofanother,loseswhatisbuilt,plantedor
sownwithoutrighttoindemnity.(362)

Art.450.Theownerofthelandonwhichanythinghasbeenbuilt,plantedorsowninbadfaithmay
demandthedemolitionofthework,orthattheplantingorsowingberemoved,inordertoreplace
thingsintheirformerconditionattheexpenseofthepersonwhobuilt,plantedorsowed;orhemay
compelthebuilderorplantertopaythepriceoftheland,andthesowertheproperrent.(363a)

Art.451.Inthecasesofthetwoprecedingarticles,thelandownerisentitledtodamagesfromthe
builder,planterorsower.(n)

Art.452.Thebuilder,planterorsowerinbadfaithisentitledtoreimbursementforthenecessary
expensesofpreservationoftheland.(n)

Art.453.Iftherewasbadfaith,notonlyonthepartofthepersonwhobuilt,plantedorsowedonthe
landofanother,butalsoonthepartoftheownerofsuchland,therightsofoneandtheothershallbe
thesameasthoughbothhadactedingoodfaith.

Itisunderstoodthatthereisbadfaithonthepartofthelandownerwhenevertheactwasdonewithhis
knowledgeandwithoutoppositiononhispart.(354a)

Art.454.Whenthelandowneractedinbadfaithandthebuilder,planterorsowerproceededingood
faith,theprovisionsofarticle447shallapply.(n)

Art.455.Ifthematerials,plantsorseedsbelongtoathirdpersonwhohasnotactedinbadfaith,the
ownerofthelandshallanswersubsidiarilyfortheirvalueandonlyintheeventthattheonewhomade
useofthemhasnopropertywithwhichtopay.

Thisprovisionshallnotapplyiftheownermakesuseoftherightgrantedbyarticle450.Iftheownerof
thematerials,plantsorseedshasbeenpaidbythebuilder,planterorsower,thelattermaydemand
fromthelandownerthevalueofthematerialsandlabor.(365a)

Art.456.Inthecasesregulatedintheprecedingarticles,goodfaithdoesnotnecessarilyexclude
negligence,whichgivesrighttodamagesunderarticle2176.(n)

Art.457.Totheownersoflandsadjoiningthebanksofriversbelongtheaccretionwhichtheygradually
receivefromtheeffectsofthecurrentofthewaters.(336)

Art.458.Theownersofestatesadjoiningpondsorlagoonsdonotacquirethelandleftdrybythe
naturaldecreaseofthewaters,orlosethatinundatedbytheminextraordinaryfloods.(367)

Art.459.Wheneverthecurrentofariver,creekortorrentsegregatesfromanestateonitsbanka
knownportionoflandandtransfersittoanotherestate,theownerofthelandtowhichthesegregated
portionbelongedretainstheownershipofit,providedthatheremovesthesamewithintwoyears.
(368a)

Art.460.Treesuprootedandcarriedawaybythecurrentofthewatersbelongtotheowneroftheland
uponwhichtheymaybecast,iftheownersdonotclaimthemwithinsixmonths.Ifsuchownersclaim
them,theyshallpaytheexpensesincurredingatheringthemorputtingtheminasafeplace.(369a)

Art.461.Riverbedswhichareabandonedthroughthenaturalchangeinthecourseofthewatersipso
factobelongtotheownerswhoselandsareoccupiedbythenewcourseinproportiontothearealost.
However,theownersofthelandsadjoiningtheoldbedshallhavetherighttoacquirethesameby
payingthevaluethereof,whichvalueshallnotexceedthevalueoftheareaoccupiedbythenewbed.
(370a)

Art.462.Wheneverariver,changingitscoursebynaturalcauses,opensanewbedthroughaprivate
estate,thisbedshallbecomeofpublicdominion.(372a)

Art.463.Wheneverthecurrentofariverdividesitselfintobranches,leavingapieceoflandorpart
thereofisolated,theownerofthelandretainshisownership.Healsoretainsitifaportionoflandis
separatedfromtheestatebythecurrent.(374)

Art.464.IslandswhichmaybeformedontheseaswithinthejurisdictionofthePhilippines,onlakes,
andonnavigableorfloatableriversbelongtotheState.(371a)

Art.465.Islandswhichthroughsuccessiveaccumulationofalluvialdepositsareformedinnonnavigable
andnonfloatablerivers,belongtotheownersofthemarginsorbanksnearesttoeachofthem,orto
theownersofbothmarginsiftheislandisinthemiddleoftheriver,inwhichcaseitshallbedivided
longitudinallyinhalves.Ifasingleislandthusformedbemoredistantfromonemarginthanfromthe
other,theownerofthenearermarginshallbethesoleownerthereof.(373a)

SECTION3.RightofAccession
withRespecttoMovableProperty

Art.466.Whenevertwomovablethingsbelongingtodifferentownersare,withoutbadfaith,unitedin
suchawaythattheyformasingleobject,theowneroftheprincipalthingacquirestheaccessory,
indemnifyingtheformerownerthereofforitsvalue.(375)
Art.467.Theprincipalthing,asbetweentwothingsincorporated,isdeemedtobethattowhichthe
otherhasbeenunitedasanornament,orforitsuseorperfection.(376)

Art.468.Ifitcannotbedeterminedbytherulegivenintheprecedingarticlewhichofthetwothings
incorporatedistheprincipalone,thethingofthegreatervalueshallbesoconsidered,andasbetween
twothingsofequalvalue,thatofthegreatervolume.

Inpaintingandsculpture,writings,printedmatter,engravingandlithographs,theboard,metal,stone,
canvas,paperorparchmentshallbedeemedtheaccessorything.(377)

Art.469.Wheneverthethingsunitedcanbeseparatedwithoutinjury,theirrespectiveownersmay
demandtheirseparation.

Nevertheless,incasethethingunitedfortheuse,embellishmentorperfectionoftheother,ismuch
morepreciousthantheprincipalthing,theowneroftheformermaydemanditsseparation,even
thoughthethingtowhichithasbeenincorporatedmaysuffersomeinjury.(378)

Art.470.Whenevertheowneroftheaccessorythinghasmadetheincorporationinbadfaith,heshall
losethethingincorporatedandshallhavetheobligationtoindemnifytheowneroftheprincipalthing
forthedamageshemayhavesuffered.

Iftheonewhohasactedinbadfaithistheowneroftheprincipalthing,theowneroftheaccessory
thingshallhavearighttochoosebetweentheformerpayinghimitsvalueorthatthethingbelongingto
himbeseparated,eventhoughforthispurposeitbenecessarytodestroytheprincipalthing;andin
bothcases,furthermore,thereshallbeindemnityfordamages.

Ifeitheroneoftheownershasmadetheincorporationwiththeknowledgeandwithouttheobjectionof
theother,theirrespectiverightsshallbedeterminedasthoughbothactedingoodfaith.(379a)

Art.471.Whenevertheownerofthematerialemployedwithouthisconsenthasarighttoan
indemnity,hemaydemandthatthisconsistinthedeliveryofathingequalinkindandvalue,andinall
otherrespects,tothatemployed,orelseinthepricethereof,accordingtoexpertappraisal.(380)

Art.472.Ifbythewilloftheirownerstwothingsofthesameordifferentkindsaremixed,orifthe
mixtureoccursbychance,andinthelattercasethethingsarenotseparablewithoutinjury,eachowner
shallacquirearightproportionaltothepartbelongingtohim,bearinginmindthevalueofthethings
mixedorconfused.(381)

Art.473.Ifbythewillofonlyoneowner,butingoodfaith,twothingsofthesameordifferentkindsare
mixedorconfused,therightsoftheownersshallbedeterminedbytheprovisionsofthepreceding
article.

Iftheonewhocausedthemixtureorconfusionactedinbadfaith,heshalllosethethingbelongingto
himthusmixedorconfused,besidesbeingobligedtopayindemnityforthedamagescausedtothe
owneroftheotherthingwithwhichhisownwasmixed.(382)

Art.474.Onewhoingoodfaithemploysthematerialofanotherinwholeorinpartinordertomakea
thingofadifferentkind,shallappropriatethethingthustransformedashisown,indemnifyingthe
ownerofthematerialforitsvalue.

Ifthematerialismorepreciousthanthetransformedthingorisofmorevalue,itsownermay,athis
option,appropriatethenewthingtohimself,afterfirstpayingindemnityforthevalueofthework,or
demandindemnityforthematerial.

Ifinthemakingofthethingbadfaithintervened,theownerofthematerialshallhavetherightto
appropriatetheworktohimselfwithoutpayinganythingtothemaker,ortodemandofthelatterthat
heindemnifyhimforthevalueofthematerialandthedamageshemayhavesuffered.However,the
ownerofthematerialcannotappropriatetheworkincasethevalueofthelatter,forartisticorscientific
reasons,isconsiderablymorethanthatofthematerial.(383a)

Art.475.Intheprecedingarticles,sentimentalvalueshallbedulyappreciated.(n)

CHAPTER3
QUIETINGOFTITLE(n)

Art.476.Wheneverthereisacloudontitletorealpropertyoranyinteresttherein,byreasonofany
instrument,record,claim,encumbranceorproceedingwhichisapparentlyvalidoreffectivebutisin
truthandinfactinvalid,ineffective,voidable,orunenforceable,andmaybeprejudicialtosaidtitle,an
actionmaybebroughttoremovesuchcloudortoquietthetitle.
Anactionmayalsobebroughttopreventacloudfrombeingcastupontitletorealpropertyorany
interesttherein.

Art.477.Theplaintiffmusthavelegalorequitabletitleto,orinterestintherealpropertywhichisthe
subjectmatteroftheaction.Heneednotbeinpossessionofsaidproperty.

Art.478.Theremayalsobeanactiontoquiettitleorremoveacloudtherefromwhenthecontract,
instrumentorotherobligationhasbeenextinguishedorhasterminated,orhasbeenbarredby
extinctiveprescription.

Art.479.Theplaintiffmustreturntothedefendantallbenefitshemayhavereceivedfromthelatter,or
reimbursehimforexpensesthatmayhaveredoundedtotheplaintiff'sbenefit.

Art.480.Theprinciplesofthegenerallawonthequietingoftitleareherebyadoptedinsofarastheyare
notinconflictwiththisCode.

Art.481.Theprocedureforthequietingoftitleortheremovalofacloudtherefromshallbegoverned
bysuchrulesofcourtastheSupremeCourtshallpromulgated.

CHAPTER4
RUINOUSBUILDINGSANDTREESINDANGEROFFALLING

Art.482.Ifabuilding,wall,column,oranyotherconstructionisindangeroffalling,theownershallbe
obligedtodemolishitortoexecutethenecessaryworkinordertopreventitfromfalling.
Iftheproprietordoesnotcomplywiththisobligation,theadministrativeauthoritiesmayorderthe
demolitionofthestructureattheexpenseoftheowner,ortakemeasurestoinsurepublicsafety.(389a)

Art.483.Wheneveralargetreethreatenstofallinsuchawayastocausedamagetothelandor
tenementofanotherortotravelersoverapublicorprivateroad,theownerofthetreeshallbeobliged
tofellandremoveit;andshouldhenotdoso,itshallbedoneathisexpensebyorderofthe
administrativeauthorities.(390a)

TitleIII.COOWNERSHIP

Art.484.Thereiscoownershipwhenevertheownershipofanundividedthingorrightbelongsto
differentpersons.
Indefaultofcontracts,orofspecialprovisions,coownershipshallbegovernedbytheprovisionsofthis
Title.(392)

Art.485.Theshareofthecoowners,inthebenefitsaswellasinthecharges,shallbeproportionalto
theirrespectiveinterests.Anystipulationinacontracttothecontraryshallbevoid.

Theportionsbelongingtothecoownersinthecoownershipshallbepresumedequal,unlessthe
contraryisproved.(393a)

Art.486.Eachcoownermayusethethingownedincommon,providedhedoessoinaccordancewith
thepurposeforwhichitisintendedandinsuchawayasnottoinjuretheinterestofthecoownership
orpreventtheothercoownersfromusingitaccordingtotheirrights.Thepurposeofthecoownership
maybechangedbyagreement,expressorimplied.(394a)

Art.487.Anyoneofthecoownersmaybringanactioninejectment.(n)

Art.488.Eachcoownershallhavearighttocompeltheothercoownerstocontributetotheexpenses
ofpreservationofthethingorrightownedincommonandtothetaxes.Anyoneofthelattermay
exempthimselffromthisobligationbyrenouncingsomuchofhisundividedinterestasmaybe
equivalenttohisshareoftheexpensesandtaxes.Nosuchwaivershallbemadeifitisprejudicialtothe
coownership.(395a)

Art.489.Repairsforpreservationmaybemadeatthewillofoneofthecoowners,buthemust,if
practicable,firstnotifyhiscoownersofthenecessityforsuchrepairs.Expensestoimproveorembellish
thethingshallbedecideduponbyamajorityasdeterminedinArticle492.(n)

Art.490.Wheneverthedifferentstoriesofahousebelongtodifferentowners,ifthetitlesofownership
donotspecifythetermsunderwhichtheyshouldcontributetothenecessaryexpensesandthereexists
noagreementonthesubject,thefollowingrulesshallbeobserved:

(1)Themainandpartywalls,theroofandtheotherthingsusedincommon,shallbepreservedatthe
expenseofalltheownersinproportiontothevalueofthestorybelongingtoeach;
(2)Eachownershallbearthecostofmaintainingthefloorofhisstory;theflooroftheentrance,front
door,commonyardandsanitaryworkscommontoall,shallbemaintainedattheexpenseofallthe
ownersprorata;

(3)Thestairsfromtheentrancetothefirststoryshallbemaintainedattheexpenseofalltheowners
prorata,withtheexceptionoftheownerofthegroundfloor;thestairsfromthefirsttothesecond
storyshallbepreservedattheexpenseofall,excepttheownerofthegroundfloorandtheownerofthe
firststory;andsoonsuccessively.(396)

Art.491.Noneofthecoownersshall,withouttheconsentoftheothers,makealterationsinthething
ownedincommon,eventhoughbenefitsforallwouldresulttherefrom.However,ifthewithholdingof
theconsentbyoneormoreofthecoownersisclearlyprejudicialtothecommoninterest,thecourts
mayaffordadequaterelief.(397a)
Art.492.Fortheadministrationandbetterenjoymentofthethingownedincommon,theresolutionsof
themajorityofthecoownersshallbebinding.

Thereshallbenomajorityunlesstheresolutionisapprovedbythecoownerswhorepresentthe
controllinginterestintheobjectofthecoownership.

Shouldtherebenomajority,orshouldtheresolutionofthemajoritybeseriouslyprejudicialtothose
interestedinthepropertyownedincommon,thecourt,attheinstanceofaninterestedparty,shall
ordersuchmeasuresasitmaydeemproper,includingtheappointmentofanadministrator.

Wheneverapartofthethingbelongsexclusivelytooneofthecoowners,andtheremainderisowned
incommon,theprecedingprovisionshallapplyonlytothepartownedincommon.(398)

Art.493.Eachcoownershallhavethefullownershipofhispartandofthefruitsandbenefitspertaining
thereto,andhemaythereforealienate,assignormortgageit,andevensubstituteanotherpersoninits
enjoyment,exceptwhenpersonalrightsareinvolved.Buttheeffectofthealienationorthemortgage,
withrespecttothecoowners,shallbelimitedtotheportionwhichmaybeallotedtohiminthedivision
upontheterminationofthecoownership.(399)

Art.494.Nocoownershallbeobligedtoremaininthecoownership.Eachcoownermaydemandat
anytimethepartitionofthethingownedincommon,insofarashisshareisconcerned.

Nevertheless,anagreementtokeepthethingundividedforacertainperiodoftime,notexceedingten
years,shallbevalid.Thistermmaybeextendedbyanewagreement.

Adonorortestatormayprohibitpartitionforaperiodwhichshallnotexceedtwentyyears.

Neithershalltherebeanypartitionwhenitisprohibitedbylaw.

Noprescriptionshallruninfavorofacoownerorcoheiragainsthiscoownersorcoheirssolongashe
expresslyorimpliedlyrecognizesthecoownership.(400a)

Art.495.Notwithstandingtheprovisionsoftheprecedingarticle,thecoownerscannotdemanda
physicaldivisionofthethingownedincommon,whentodosowouldrenderitunserviceableforthe
useforwhichitisintended.ButthecoownershipmaybeterminatedinaccordancewithArticle498.
(401a)

Art.496.Partitionmaybemadebyagreementbetweenthepartiesorbyjudicialproceedings.Partition
shallbegovernedbytheRulesofCourtinsofarastheyareconsistentwiththisCode.(402)

Art.497.Thecreditorsorassigneesofthecoownersmaytakepartinthedivisionofthethingownedin
commonandobjecttoitsbeingeffectedwithouttheirconcurrence.Buttheycannotimpugnany
partitionalreadyexecuted,unlesstherehasbeenfraud,orincaseitwasmadenotwithstandingaformal
oppositionpresentedtopreventit,withoutprejudicetotherightofthedebtororassignortomaintain
itsvalidity.(403)

Art.498.Wheneverthethingisessentiallyindivisibleandthecoownerscannotagreethatitbeallotted
tooneofthemwhoshallindemnifytheothers,itshallbesoldanditsproceedsdistributed.(404)

Art.499.Thepartitionofathingownedincommonshallnotprejudicethirdpersons,whoshallretain
therightsofmortgage,servitudeoranyotherrealrightsbelongingtothembeforethedivisionwas
made.Personalrightspertainingtothirdpersonsagainstthecoownershipshallalsoremaininforce,
notwithstandingthepartition.(405)

Art.500.Uponpartition,thereshallbeamutualaccountingforbenefitsreceivedandreimbursements
forexpensesmade.Likewise,eachcoownershallpayfordamagescausedbyreasonofhisnegligenceor
fraud.(n)

Art.501.Everycoownershall,afterpartition,beliablefordefectsoftitleandqualityoftheportion
assignedtoeachoftheothercoowners.(n)

TitleIV.SOMESPECIALPROPERTIES

CHAPTERI
WATERS

SECTION1.OwnershipofWaters

Art.502.Thefollowingareofpublicdominion:
(1)Riversandtheirnaturalbeds;
(2)Continuousorintermittentwatersofspringsandbrooksrunningintheirnaturalbedsandthebeds
themselves;

(3)Watersrisingcontinuouslyorintermittentlyonlandsofpublicdominion;

(4)LakesandlagoonsformedbyNatureonpubliclands,andtheirbeds;

(5)Rainwatersrunningthroughravinesorsandbeds,whicharealsoofpublicdominion;

(6)Subterraneanwatersonpubliclands;

(7)Watersfoundwithinthezoneofoperationofpublicworks,evenifconstructedbyacontractor;

(8)Watersrisingcontinuouslyorintermittentlyonlandsbelongingtoprivatepersons,totheState,toa
province,ortoacityoramunicipalityfromthemomenttheyleavesuchlands;

(9)Thewastewatersoffountains,sewersandpublicestablishments.(407)

Art.503.Thefollowingareofprivateownership:
(1)Continuousorintermittentwatersrisingonlandsofprivateownership,whilerunningthroughthe
same;
(2)Lakesandlagoons,andtheirbeds,formedbyNatureonsuchlands;

(3)Subterraneanwatersfoundonthesame;

(4)Rainwatersfallingonsaidlands,aslongastheyremainwithintheboundaries;

(5)Thebedsofflowingwaters,continuousorintermittent,formedbyrainwater,andthoseofbrooks,
crossinglandswhicharenotofpublicdominion.

Ineverydrainoraqueduct,thewater,bed,banksandfloodgatesshallbeconsideredasanintegralpart
ofthelandofbuildingforwhichthewatersareintended.Theownersoflands,throughwhichoralong
theboundariesofwhichtheaqueductpasses,cannotclaimownershipoverit,oranyrighttotheuseof
itsbedorbanks,unlesstheclaimisbasedontitlesofownershipspecifyingtherightorownership
claimed.(408)

SECTION2.TheUseofPublicWaters

Art.504.Theuseofpublicwatersisacquired:
(1)Byadministrativeconcession;
(2)Byprescriptionfortenyears.

Theextentoftherightsandobligationsoftheuseshallbethatestablished,inthefirstcase,bythe
termsoftheconcession,and,inthesecondcase,bythemannerandforminwhichthewatershave
beenused.(409a)
Art.505.Everyconcessionfortheuseofwatersisunderstoodtobewithoutprejudicetothirdpersons.
(410)

Art.506.Therighttomakeuseofpublicwatersisextinguishedbythelapseoftheconcessionandby
nonuserforfiveyears.(411a)

SECTION3.TheUseofWatersofPrivateOwnership

Art.507.Theownerofapieceoflandonwhichaspringorbrookrises,beitcontinuousorintermittent,
mayuseitswaterswhiletheyrunthroughthesame,butafterthewatersleavethelandtheyshall
becomepublic,andtheiruseshallbegovernedbytheSpecialLawofWatersofAugust3,1866,andby
theIrrigationLaw.(412a)
Art.508.Theprivateownershipofthebedsofrainwatersdoesnotgivearighttomakeworksor
constructionswhichmaychangetheircoursetothedamageofthirdpersons,orwhosedestruction,by
theforceoffloods,maycausesuchdamage.(413)

Art.509.Noonemayenterprivatepropertytosearchwatersormakeuseofthemwithoutpermission
fromtheowners,exceptasprovidedbytheMiningLaw.(414a)

Art.510.Theownershipwhichtheproprietorofapieceoflandhasoverthewatersrisingthereondoes
notprejudicetherightswhichtheownersoflowerestatesmayhavelegallyacquiredtotheusethereof.
(415)

Art.511.Everyownerofapieceoflandhastherighttoconstructwithinhisproperty,reservoirsforrain
waters,providedhecausesnodamagetothepublicortothirdpersons.(416)

SECTION4.SubterraneanWaters

Art.512.Onlytheownerofapieceofland,oranotherpersonwithhispermission,maymake
explorationsthereonforsubterraneanwaters,exceptasprovidedbytheMiningLaw.
Explorationsforsubterraneanwatersonlandsofpublicdominionmaybemadeonlywiththe
permissionoftheadministrativeauthorities.(417a)

Art.513.WatersartificiallybroughtforthinaccordancewiththeSpecialLawofWatersofAugust3,
1866,belongtothepersonwhobroughtthemup.(418)

Art.514.Whentheownerofwatersartificiallybroughttothesurfaceabandonsthemtotheirnatural
course,theyshallbecomeofpublicdominion.(419)

SECTION5.GeneralProvisions

Art.515.Theownerofapieceoflandonwhichtherearedefensiveworkstocheckwaters,oronwhich,
duetoachangeoftheircourse,itmaybenecessarytoreconstructsuchworks,shallbeobliged,athis
election,eithertomakethenecessaryrepairsorconstructionhimself,ortopermitthemtobedone,
withoutdamagetohim,bytheownersofthelandswhichsufferorareclearlyexposedtosufferinjury.
(420)
Art.516.Theprovisionsoftheprecedingarticleareapplicabletothecaseinwhichitmaybenecessary
toclearapieceoflandofmatter,whoseaccumulationorfallmayobstructthecourseofthewaters,to
thedamageorperilofthirdpersons.(421)

Art.517.Alltheownerswhoparticipateinthebenefitsarisingfromtheworksreferredtointhetwo
precedingarticles,shallbeobligedtocontributetotheexpensesofconstructioninproportiontotheir
respectiveinterests.Thosewhobytheirfaultmayhavecausedthedamageshallbeliableforthe
expenses.(422)

Art.518.AllmattersnotexpresslydeterminedbytheprovisionsofthisChaptershallbegovernedbythe
specialLawofWatersofAugust3,1866,andbytheIrrigationLaw.(425a)

CHAPTER2
MINERALS

Art.519.Miningclaimsandrightsandothermattersconcerningmineralsandminerallandsare
governedbyspeciallaws.(427a)

CHAPTER3
TRADEMARKSANDTRADENAMES

Art.520.Atrademarkortradenamedulyregisteredinthepropergovernmentbureauorofficeis
ownedbyandpertainstotheperson,corporation,orfirmregisteringthesame,subjecttothe
provisionsofspeciallaws.(n)
Art.521.Thegoodwillofabusinessisproperty,andmaybetransferredtogetherwiththerighttouse
thenameunderwhichthebusinessisconducted.(n)

Art.522.Trademarksandtradenamesaregovernedbyspeciallaws.(n)

TitleV.POSSESSION

CHAPTER1
POSSESSIONANDTHEKINDSTHEREOF

Art.523.Possessionistheholdingofathingortheenjoymentofaright.(430a)
Art.524.Possessionmaybeexercisedinone'sownnameorinthatofanother.(413a)

Art.525.Thepossessionofthingsorrightsmaybehadinoneoftwoconcepts:eitherintheconceptof
owner,orinthatoftheholderofthethingorrighttokeeporenjoyit,theownershippertainingto
anotherperson.(432)

Art.526.Heisdeemedapossessoringoodfaithwhoisnotawarethatthereexistsinhistitleormodeof
acquisitionanyflawwhichinvalidatesit.

Heisdeemedapossessorinbadfaithwhopossessesinanycasecontrarytotheforegoing.

Mistakeuponadoubtfulordifficultquestionoflawmaybethebasisofgoodfaith.(433a)

Art.527.Goodfaithisalwayspresumed,anduponhimwhoallegesbadfaithonthepartofapossessor
reststheburdenofproof.(434)

Art.528.Possessionacquiredingoodfaithdoesnotlosethischaracterexceptinthecaseandfromthe
momentfactsexistwhichshowthatthepossessorisnotunawarethathepossessesthething
improperlyorwrongfully.(435a)

Art.529.Itispresumedthatpossessioncontinuestobeenjoyedinthesamecharacterinwhichitwas
acquired,untilthecontraryisproved.(436)

Art.530.Onlythingsandrightswhicharesusceptibleofbeingappropriatedmaybetheobjectof
possession.(437)

CHAPTER2
ACQUISITIONOFPOSSESSION

Art.531.Possessionisacquiredbythematerialoccupationofathingortheexerciseofaright,orbythe
factthatitissubjecttotheactionofourwill,orbytheproperactsandlegalformalitiesestablishedfor
acquiringsuchright.(438a)
Art.532.Possessionmaybeacquiredbythesamepersonwhoistoenjoyit,byhislegalrepresentative,
byhisagent,orbyanypersonwithoutanypowerwhatever:butinthelastcase,thepossessionshallnot
beconsideredasacquireduntilthepersoninwhosenametheactofpossessionwasexecutedhas
ratifiedthesame,withoutprejudicetothejuridicalconsequencesofnegotiorumgestioinapropercase.
(439a)

Art.533.Thepossessionofhereditarypropertyisdeemedtransmittedtotheheirwithoutinterruption
andfromthemomentofthedeathofthedecedent,incasetheinheritanceisaccepted.

Onewhovalidlyrenouncesaninheritanceisdeemednevertohavepossessedthesame.(440)

Art.534.Onwhosucceedsbyhereditarytitleshallnotsuffertheconsequencesofthewrongful
possessionofthedecedent,ifitisnotshownthathewasawareoftheflawsaffectingit;buttheeffects
ofpossessioningoodfaithshallnotbenefithimexceptfromthedateofthedeathofthedecedent.
(442)

Art.535.Minorsandincapacitatedpersonsmayacquirethepossessionofthings;buttheyneedthe
assistanceoftheirlegalrepresentativesinordertoexercisetherightswhichfromthepossessionarisein
theirfavor.(443)

Art.536.Innocasemaypossessionbeacquiredthroughforceorintimidationaslongasthereisa
possessorwhoobjectsthereto.Hewhobelievesthathehasanactionorarighttodepriveanotherof
theholdingofathing,mustinvoketheaidofthecompetentcourt,iftheholdershouldrefusetodeliver
thething.(441a)

Art.537.Actsmerelytolerated,andthoseexecutedclandestinelyandwithouttheknowledgeofthe
possessorofathing,orbyviolence,donotaffectpossession.(444)

Art.538.Possessionasafactcannotberecognizedatthesametimeintwodifferentpersonalities
exceptinthecasesofcopossession.Shouldaquestionariseregardingthefactofpossession,the
presentpossessorshallbepreferred;iftherearetwopossessors,theonelongerinpossession;ifthe
datesofthepossessionarethesame,theonewhopresentsatitle;andifalltheseconditionsareequal,
thethingshallbeplacedinjudicialdepositpendingdeterminationofitspossessionorownership
throughproperproceedings.(445)

CHAPTER3
EFFECTSOFPOSSESSION

Art.539.Everypossessorhasarighttoberespectedinhispossession;andshouldhebedisturbed
thereinheshallbeprotectedinorrestoredtosaidpossessionbythemeansestablishedbythelawsand
theRulesofCourt.
Apossessordeprivedofhispossessionthroughforcibleentrymaywithintendaysfromthefilingofthe
complaintpresentamotiontosecurefromthecompetentcourt,intheactionforforcibleentry,awrit
ofpreliminarymandatoryinjunctiontorestorehiminhispossession.Thecourtshalldecidethemotion
withinthirty(30)daysfromthefilingthereof.(446a)

Art.540.Onlythepossessionacquiredandenjoyedintheconceptofownercanserveasatitlefor
acquiringdominion.(447)

Art.541.Apossessorintheconceptofownerhasinhisfavorthelegalpresumptionthathepossesses
withajusttitleandhecannotbeobligedtoshoworproveit.(448a)

Art.542.Thepossessionofrealpropertypresumesthatofthemovablestherein,solongasitisnot
shownorprovedthattheyshouldbeexcluded.(449)

Art.543.Eachoneoftheparticipantsofathingpossessedincommonshallbedeemedtohave
exclusivelypossessedthepartwhichmaybeallottedtohimuponthedivisionthereof,fortheentire
periodduringwhichthecopossessionlasted.Interruptioninthepossessionofthewholeorapartofa
thingpossessedincommonshallbetotheprejudiceofallthepossessors.However,incaseofcivil
interruption,theRulesofCourtshallapply.(450a)

Art.544.Apossessoringoodfaithisentitledtothefruitsreceivedbeforethepossessionislegally
interrupted.

Naturalandindustrialfruitsareconsideredreceivedfromthetimetheyaregatheredorsevered.

Civilfruitsaredeemedtoaccruedailyandbelongtothepossessoringoodfaithinthatproportion.(451)

Art.545.Ifatthetimethegoodfaithceases,thereshouldbeanynaturalorindustrialfruits,the
possessorshallhavearighttoapartoftheexpensesofcultivation,andtoapartofthenetharvest,
bothinproportiontothetimeofthepossession.

Thechargesshallbedividedonthesamebasisbythetwopossessors.

Theownerofthethingmay,shouldhesodesire,givethepossessoringoodfaiththerighttofinishthe
cultivationandgatheringofthegrowingfruits,asanindemnityforhispartoftheexpensesofcultivation
andthenetproceeds;thepossessoringoodfaithwhoforanyreasonwhatevershouldrefusetoaccept
thisconcession,shalllosetherighttobeindemnifiedinanyothermanner.(452a)

Art.546.Necessaryexpensesshallberefundedtoeverypossessor;butonlythepossessoringoodfaith
mayretainthethinguntilhehasbeenreimbursedtherefor.

Usefulexpensesshallberefundedonlytothepossessoringoodfaithwiththesamerightofretention,
thepersonwhohasdefeatedhiminthepossessionhavingtheoptionofrefundingtheamountofthe
expensesorofpayingtheincreaseinvaluewhichthethingmayhaveacquiredbyreasonthereof.(453a)

Art.547.Iftheusefulimprovementscanberemovedwithoutdamagetotheprincipalthing,the
possessoringoodfaithmayremovethem,unlessthepersonwhorecoversthepossessionexercisesthe
optionunderparagraph2oftheprecedingarticle.(n)

Art.548.Expensesforpureluxuryormerepleasureshallnotberefundedtothepossessoringoodfaith;
buthemayremovetheornamentswithwhichhehasembellishedtheprincipalthingifitsuffersno
injurythereby,andifhissuccessorinthepossessiondoesnotprefertorefundtheamountexpended.
(454)

Art.549.Thepossessorinbadfaithshallreimbursethefruitsreceivedandthosewhichthelegitimate
possessorcouldhavereceived,andshallhavearightonlytotheexpensesmentionedinparagraph1of
Article546andinArticle443.Theexpensesincurredinimprovementsforpureluxuryormerepleasure
shallnotberefundedtothepossessorinbadfaith,buthemayremovetheobjectsforwhichsuch
expenseshavebeenincurred,providedthatthethingsuffersnoinjurythereby,andthatthelawful
possessordoesnotprefertoretainthembypayingthevaluetheymayhaveatthetimeheentersinto
possession.(445a)

Art.550.Thecostsoflitigationoverthepropertyshallbebornebyeverypossessor.(n)

Art.551.Improvementscausedbynatureortimeshallalwaysinsuretothebenefitofthepersonwho
hassucceededinrecoveringpossession.(456)

Art.552.Apossessoringoodfaithshallnotbeliableforthedeteriorationorlossofthethingpossessed,
exceptincasesinwhichitisprovedthathehasactedwithfraudulentintentornegligence,afterthe
judicialsummons.

Apossessorinbadfaithshallbeliablefordeteriorationorlossineverycase,evenifcausedbya
fortuitousevent.(457a)

Art.553.Onewhorecoverspossessionshallnotbeobligedtopayforimprovementswhichhaveceased
toexistatthetimehetakespossessionofthething.(458)

Art.554.Apresentpossessorwhoshowshispossessionatsomeprevioustime,ispresumedtohave
heldpossessionalsoduringtheintermediateperiod,intheabsenceofprooftothecontrary.(459)

Art.555.Apossessormaylosehispossession:

(1)Bytheabandonmentofthething;
(2)Byanassignmentmadetoanothereitherbyonerousorgratuitoustitle;

(3)Bythedestructionortotallossofthething,orbecauseitgoesoutofcommerce;

(4)Bythepossessionofanother,subjecttotheprovisionsofArticle537,ifthenewpossessionhas
lastedlongerthanoneyear.Buttherealrightofpossessionisnotlosttillafterthelapseoftenyears.
(460a)

Art.556.Thepossessionofmovablesisnotdeemedlostsolongastheyremainunderthecontrolofthe
possessor,eventhoughforthetimebeinghemaynotknowtheirwhereabouts.(461)
Art.557.Thepossessionofimmovablesandofrealrightsisnotdeemedlost,ortransferredforpurposes
ofprescriptiontotheprejudiceofthirdpersons,exceptinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofthe
MortgageLawandtheLandRegistrationlaws.(462a)

Art.558.Actsrelatingtopossession,executedoragreedtobyonewhopossessesathingbelongingto
anotherasamereholdertoenjoyorkeepit,inanycharacter,donotbindorprejudicetheowner,
unlesshegavesaidholderexpressauthoritytodosuchacts,orratifiesthemsubsequently.(463)

Art.559.Thepossessionofmovablepropertyacquiredingoodfaithisequivalenttoatitle.
Nevertheless,onewhohaslostanymovableorhasbeenunlawfullydeprivedthereofmayrecoverit
fromthepersoninpossessionofthesame.

Ifthepossessorofamovablelostorwhichtheownerhasbeenunlawfullydeprived,hasacquireditin
goodfaithatapublicsale,theownercannotobtainitsreturnwithoutreimbursingthepricepaid
therefor.(464a)

Art.560.Wildanimalsarepossessedonlywhiletheyareunderone'scontrol;domesticatedortamed
animalsareconsidereddomesticortameiftheyretainthehabitofreturningtothepremisesofthe
possessor.(465)

Art.561.Onewhorecovers,accordingtolaw,possessionunjustlylost,shallbedeemedforallpurposes
whichmayredoundtohisbenefit,tohaveenjoyeditwithoutinterruption.(466)

TitleVI.USUFRUCT

CHAPTER1
USUFRUCTINGENERAL

Art.562.Usufructgivesarighttoenjoythepropertyofanotherwiththeobligationofpreservingits
formandsubstance,unlessthetitleconstitutingitorthelawotherwiseprovides.(467)
Art.563.Usufructisconstitutedbylaw,bythewillofprivatepersonsexpressedinactsintervivosorina
lastwillandtestament,andbyprescription.(468)

Art.564.Usufructmaybeconstitutedonthewholeorapartofthefruitsofthething,infavorofone
morepersons,simultaneouslyorsuccessively,andineverycasefromortoacertainday,purelyor
conditionally.Itmayalsobeconstitutedonaright,provideditisnotstrictlypersonalorintransmissible.
(469)

Art.565.Therightsandobligationsoftheusufructuaryshallbethoseprovidedinthetitleconstituting
theusufruct;indefaultofsuchtitle,orincaseitisdeficient,theprovisionscontainedinthetwo
followingChaptersshallbeobserved.(470)

CHAPTER2
RIGHTSOFTHEUSUFRUCTUARY

Art.566.Theusufructuaryshallbeentitledtoallthenatural,industrialandcivilfruitsofthepropertyin
usufruct.Withrespecttohiddentreasurewhichmaybefoundonthelandortenement,heshallbe
consideredastranger.(471)
Art.567.Naturalorindustrialfruitsgrowingatthetimetheusufructbegins,belongtotheusufructuary.

Thosegrowingatthetimetheusufructterminates,belongtotheowner.

Intheprecedingcases,theusufructuary,atthebeginningoftheusufruct,hasnoobligationtorefundto
theowneranyexpensesincurred;buttheownershallbeobligedtoreimburseattheterminationofthe
usufruct,fromtheproceedsofthegrowingfruits,theordinaryexpensesofcultivation,forseed,and
othersimilarexpensesincurredbytheusufructuary.

Theprovisionsofthisarticleshallnotprejudicetherightsofthirdpersons,acquiredeitheratthe
beginningorattheterminationoftheusufruct.(472)

Art.568.Iftheusufructuaryhasleasedthelandsortenementsgiveninusufruct,andtheusufruct
shouldexpirebeforetheterminationofthelease,heorhisheirsandsuccessorsshallreceiveonlythe
proportionateshareoftherentthatmustbepaidbythelessee.(473)

Art.569.Civilfruitsaredeemedtoaccruedaily,andbelongtotheusufructuaryinproportiontothetime
theusufructmaylast.(474)

Art.570.Wheneverausufructisconstitutedontherighttoreceivearentorperiodicalpension,
whetherinmoneyorinfruits,orintheinterestonbondsorsecuritiespayabletobearer,eachpayment
dueshallbeconsideredastheproceedsorfruitsofsuchright.

Wheneveritconsistsintheenjoymentofbenefitsaccruingfromaparticipationinanyindustrialor
commercialenterprise,thedateofthedistributionofwhichisnotfixed,suchbenefitsshallhavethe
samecharacter.

Ineithercasetheyshallbedistributedascivilfruits,andshallbeappliedinthemannerprescribedinthe
precedingarticle.(475)

Art.571.Theusufructuaryshallhavetherighttoenjoyanyincreasewhichthethinginusufructmay
acquirethroughaccession,theservitudesestablishedinitsfavor,and,ingeneral,allthebenefits
inherenttherein.(479)

Art.572.Theusufructuarymaypersonallyenjoythethinginusufruct,leaseittoanother,oralienatehis
rightofusufruct,evenbyagratuitoustitle;butallthecontractshemayenterintoassuchusufructuary
shallterminateupontheexpirationoftheusufruct,savingleasesofrurallands,whichshallbe
consideredassubsistingduringtheagriculturalyear.(480)

Art.573.Whenevertheusufructincludesthingswhich,withoutbeingconsumed,graduallydeteriorate
throughwearandtear,theusufructuaryshallhavetherighttomakeusethereofinaccordancewiththe
purposeforwhichtheyareintended,andshallnotbeobligedtoreturnthemattheterminationofthe
usufructexceptintheirconditionatthattime;butheshallbeobligedtoindemnifytheownerforany
deteriorationtheymayhavesufferedbyreasonofhisfraudornegligence.(481)

Art.574.Whenevertheusufructincludesthingswhichcannotbeusedwithoutbeingconsumed,the
usufructuaryshallhavetherighttomakeuseofthemundertheobligationofpayingtheirappraised
valueattheterminationoftheusufruct,iftheywereappraisedwhendelivered.Incasetheywerenot
appraised,heshallhavetherighttoreturnatthesamequantityandquality,orpaytheircurrentpriceat
thetimetheusufructceases.(482)

Art.575.Theusufructuaryoffruitbearingtreesandshrubsmaymakeuseofthedeadtrunks,andeven
ofthosecutofforuprootedbyaccident,undertheobligationtoreplacethemwithnewplants.(483a)

Art.576.Ifinconsequenceofacalamityorextraordinaryevent,thetreesorshrubsshallhave
disappearedinsuchconsiderablenumberthatitwouldnotbepossibleoritwouldbetooburdensome
toreplacethem,theusufructuarymayleavethedead,fallenoruprootedtrunksatthedisposalofthe
owner,anddemandthatthelatterremovethemandcleartheland.(484a)

Art.577.Theusufructuaryofwoodlandmayenjoyallthebenefitswhichitmayproduceaccordingtoits
nature.

Ifthewoodlandisacopseorconsistsoftimberforbuilding,theusufructuarymaydosuchordinary
cuttingorfellingastheownerwasinthehabitofdoing,andindefaultofthis,hemaydosoin
accordancewiththecustomoftheplace,astothemanner,amountandseason.

Inanycasethefellingorcuttingoftreesshallbemadeinsuchmannerasnottoprejudicethe
preservationoftheland.

Innurseries,theusufructuarymaymakethenecessarythinningsinorderthattheremainingtreesmay
properlygrow.

Withtheexceptionoftheprovisionsoftheprecedingparagraphs,theusufructuarycannotcutdown
treesunlessitbetorestoreorimprovesomeofthethingsinusufruct,andinsuchcaseshallfirstinform
theownerofthenecessityforthework.(485)

Art.578.Theusufructuaryofanactiontorecoverrealpropertyorarealright,oranymovableproperty,
hastherighttobringtheactionandtoobligetheownerthereoftogivehimtheauthorityforthis
purposeandtofurnishhimwhateverproofhemayhave.Ifinconsequenceoftheenforcementofthe
actionheacquiresthethingclaimed,theusufructshallbelimitedtothefruits,thedominionremaining
withtheowner.(486)

Art.579.Theusufructuarymaymakeonthepropertyheldinusufructsuchusefulimprovementsor
expensesformerepleasureashemaydeemproper,providedhedoesnotalteritsformorsubstance;
butheshallhavenorighttobeindemnifiedtherefor.Hemay,however,removesuchimprovements,
shoulditbepossibletodosowithoutdamagetotheproperty.(487)

Art.580.Theusufructuarymaysetofftheimprovementshemayhavemadeonthepropertyagainst
anydamagetothesame.(488)

Art.581.Theownerofpropertytheusufructofwhichisheldbyanother,mayalienateit,buthecannot
alteritsformorsubstance,ordoanythingthereonwhichmaybeprejudicialtotheusufructuary.(489)

Art.582.Theusufructuaryofapartofathingheldincommonshallexercisealltherightspertainingto
theownerthereofwithrespecttotheadministrationandthecollectionoffruitsorinterest.Shouldthe
coownershipceasebyreasonofthedivisionofthethingheldincommon,theusufructofthepart
allottedtothecoownershallbelongtotheusufructuary.(490)

CHAPTER3
OBLIGATIONSOFTHEUSUFRUCTUARY

Art.583.Theusufructuary,beforeenteringupontheenjoymentoftheproperty,isobliged:
(1)Tomake,afternoticetotheownerorhislegitimaterepresentative,aninventoryofalltheproperty,
whichshallcontainanappraisalofthemovablesandadescriptionoftheconditionoftheimmovables;
(2)Togivesecurity,bindinghimselftofulfilltheobligationsimposeduponhiminaccordancewiththis
Chapter.(491)

Art.584.TheprovisionsofNo.2oftheprecedingarticleshallnotapplytothedonorwhohasreserved
theusufructofthepropertydonated,ortotheparentswhoareusufructuariesoftheirchildren's
property,exceptwhentheparentscontractasecondmarriage.(492a)
Art.585.Theusufructuary,whatevermaybethetitleoftheusufruct,maybeexcusedfromthe
obligationofmakinganinventoryorofgivingsecurity,whennoonewillbeinjuredthereby.(493)

Art.586.Shouldtheusufructuaryfailtogivesecurityinthecasesinwhichheisboundtogiveit,the
ownermaydemandthattheimmovablesbeplacedunderadministration,thatthemovablesbesold,
thatthepublicbonds,instrumentsofcreditpayabletoorderortobearerbeconvertedintoregistered
certificatesordepositedinabankorpublicinstitution,andthatthecapitalorsumsincashandthe
proceedsofthesaleofthemovablepropertybeinvestedinsafesecurities.

Theinterestontheproceedsofthesaleofthemovablesandthatonpublicsecuritiesandbonds,and
theproceedsofthepropertyplacedunderadministration,shallbelongtotheusufructuary.

Furthermore,theownermay,ifhesoprefers,untiltheusufructuarygivessecurityorisexcusedfromso
doing,retaininhispossessionthepropertyinusufructasadministrator,subjecttotheobligationto
delivertotheusufructuarythenetproceedsthereof,afterdeductingthesumswhichmaybeagreed
uponorjudiciallyallowedhimforsuchadministration.(494)

Art.587.Iftheusufructuarywhohasnotgivensecurityclaims,byvirtueofapromiseunderoath,the
deliveryofthefurniturenecessaryforhisuse,andthatheandhisfamilybeallowedtoliveinahouse
includedintheusufruct,thecourtmaygrantthispetition,afterdueconsiderationofthefactsofthe
case.

Thesameruleshallbeobservedwithrespecttoimplements,toolsandothermovableproperty
necessaryforanindustryorvocationinwhichheisengaged.

Iftheownerdoesnotwishthatcertainarticlesbesoldbecauseoftheirartisticworthorbecausethey
haveasentimentalvalue,hemaydemandtheirdeliverytohimuponhisgivingsecurityforthepayment
ofthelegalinterestontheirappraisedvalue.(495)

Art.588.Afterthesecurityhasbeengivenbytheusufructuary,heshallhavearighttoalltheproceeds
andbenefitsfromthedayonwhich,inaccordancewiththetitleconstitutingtheusufruct,heshould
havecommencedtoreceivethem.(496)

Art.589.Theusufructuaryshalltakecareofthethingsgiveninusufructasagoodfatherofafamily.
(497)

Art.590.Ausufructuarywhoalienatesorleaseshisrightofusufructshallanswerforanydamagewhich
thethingsinusufructmaysufferthroughthefaultornegligenceofthepersonwhosubstituteshim.
(498)

Art.591.Iftheusufructbeconstitutedonaflockorherdoflivestock,theusufructuaryshallbeobliged
toreplacewiththeyoungthereoftheanimalsthatdieeachyearfromnaturalcauses,orarelostdueto
therapacityofbeastsofprey.

Iftheanimalsonwhichtheusufructisconstitutedshouldallperish,withoutthefaultofthe
usufructuary,onaccountofsomecontagiousdiseaseoranyotheruncommonevent,theusufructuary
shallfulfillhisobligationbydeliveringtotheownertheremainswhichmayhavebeensavedfromthe
misfortune.

Shouldtheherdorflockperishinpart,alsobyaccidentandwithoutthefaultoftheusufructuary,the
usufructshallcontinueonthepartsaved.

Shouldtheusufructbeonsterileanimals,itshallbeconsidered,withrespecttoitseffects,asthough
constitutedonfungiblethings.(499a)

Art.592.Theusufructuaryisobligedtomaketheordinaryrepairsneededbythethinggiveninusufruct.

Byordinaryrepairsareunderstoodsuchasarerequiredbythewearandtearduetothenaturaluseof
thethingandareindispensableforitspreservation.Shouldtheusufructuaryfailtomakethemafter
demandbytheowner,thelattermaymakethemattheexpenseoftheusufructuary.(500)

Art.593.Extraordinaryrepairsshallbeattheexpenseoftheowner.Theusufructuaryisobligedtonotify
theownerwhentheneedforsuchrepairsisurgent.(501)

Art.594.Iftheownershouldmaketheextraordinaryrepairs,heshallhavearighttodemandofthe
usufructuarythelegalinterestontheamountexpendedforthetimethattheusufructlasts.

Shouldhenotmakethemwhentheyareindispensableforthepreservationofthething,the
usufructuarymaymakethem;butheshallhavearighttodemandoftheowner,attheterminationof
theusufruct,theincreaseinvaluewhichtheimmovablemayhaveacquiredbyreasonoftherepairs.
(502a)

Art.595.Theownermayconstructanyworksandmakeanyimprovementsofwhichtheimmovablein
usufructissusceptible,ormakenewplantingsthereonifitberural,providedthatsuchactsdonot
causeadiminutioninthevalueoftheusufructorprejudicetherightoftheusufructuary.(503)

Art.596.Thepaymentofannualchargesandtaxesandofthoseconsideredasalienonthefruits,shall
beattheexpenseoftheusufructuaryforallthetimethattheusufructlasts.(504)

Art.597.Thetaxeswhich,duringtheusufruct,maybeimposeddirectlyonthecapital,shallbeatthe
expenseoftheowner.

Ifthelatterhaspaidthem,theusufructuaryshallpayhimtheproperinterestonthesumswhichmay
havebeenpaidinthatcharacter;and,ifthesaidsumshavebeenadvancedbytheusufructuary,heshall
recovertheamountthereofattheterminationoftheusufruct.(505)

Art.598.Iftheusufructbeconstitutedonthewholeofapatrimony,andifatthetimeofitsconstitution
theownerhasdebts,theprovisionsofArticles758and759relatingtodonationsshallbeapplied,both
withrespecttothemaintenanceoftheusufructandtotheobligationoftheusufructuarytopaysuch
debts.

Thesameruleshallbeappliedincasetheownerisobliged,atthetimetheusufructisconstituted,to
makeperiodicalpayments,evenifthereshouldbenoknowncapital.(506)

Art.599.Theusufructuarymayclaimanymaturedcreditswhichformapartoftheusufructifhehas
givenorgivesthepropersecurity.Ifhehasbeenexcusedfromgivingsecurityorhasbeenabletogiveit,
orifthatgivenisnotsufficient,heshallneedtheauthorizationoftheowner,orofthecourtindefault
thereof,tocollectsuchcredits.

Theusufructuarywhohasgivensecuritymayusethecapitalhehascollectedinanymannerhemay
deemproper.Theusufructuarywhohasnotgivensecurityshallinvestthesaidcapitalatinterestupon
agreementwiththeowner;indefaultofsuchagreement,withjudicialauthorization;and,ineverycase,
withsecuritysufficienttopreservetheintegrityofthecapitalinusufruct.(507)

Art.600.Theusufructuaryofamortgagedimmovableshallnotbeobligedtopaythedebtforthe
securityofwhichthemortgagewasconstituted.

Shouldtheimmovablebeattachedorsoldjudiciallyforthepaymentofthedebt,theownershallbe
liabletotheusufructuaryforwhateverthelattermaylosebyreasonthereof.(509)

Art.601.Theusufructuaryshallbeobligedtonotifytheownerofanyactofathirdperson,ofwhichhe
mayhaveknowledge,thatmaybeprejudicialtotherightsofownership,andheshallbeliableshouldhe
notdoso,fordamages,asiftheyhadbeencausedthroughhisownfault.(511)

Art.602.Theexpenses,costsandliabilitiesinsuitsbroughtwithregardtotheusufructshallbeborneby
theusufructuary.(512)

CHAPTER4
EXTINGUISHMENTOFUSUFRUCT

Art.603.Usufructisextinguished:
(1)Bythedeathoftheusufructuary,unlessacontraryintentionclearlyappears;
(2)Bytheexpirationoftheperiodforwhichitwasconstituted,orbythefulfillmentofanyresolutory
conditionprovidedinthetitlecreatingtheusufruct;

(3)Bymergeroftheusufructandownershipinthesameperson;

(4)Byrenunciationoftheusufructuary;

(5)Bythetotallossofthethinginusufruct;

(6)Bytheterminationoftherightofthepersonconstitutingtheusufruct;

(7)Byprescription.(513a)

Art.604.Ifthethinggiveninusufructshouldbelostonlyinpart,therightshallcontinueonthe
remainingpart.(514)
Art.605.Usufructcannotbeconstitutedinfavorofatown,corporation,orassociationformorethan
fiftyyears.Ifithasbeenconstituted,andbeforetheexpirationofsuchperiodthetownisabandoned,or
thecorporationorassociationisdissolved,theusufructshallbeextinguishedbyreasonthereof.(515a)

Art.606.Ausufructgrantedforthetimethatmayelapsebeforeathirdpersonattainsacertainage,
shallsubsistforthenumberofyearsspecified,evenifthethirdpersonshoulddiebeforetheperiod
expires,unlesssuchusufructhasbeenexpresslygrantedonlyinconsiderationoftheexistenceofsuch
person.(516)

Art.607.Iftheusufructisconstitutedonimmovablepropertyofwhichabuildingformspart,andthe
lattershouldbedestroyedinanymannerwhatsoever,theusufructuaryshallhavearighttomakeuseof
thelandandthematerials.

Thesameruleshallbeappliediftheusufructisconstitutedonabuildingonlyandthesameshouldbe
destroyed.Butinsuchacase,iftheownershouldwishtoconstructanotherbuilding,heshallhavea
righttooccupythelandandtomakeuseofthematerials,beingobligedtopaytotheusufructuary,
duringthecontinuanceoftheusufruct,theinterestuponthesumequivalenttothevalueoftheland
andofthematerials.(517)

Art.608.Iftheusufructuaryshareswiththeownertheinsuranceofthetenementgiveninusufruct,the
formershall,incaseofloss,continueintheenjoymentofthenewbuilding,shouldonebeconstructed,
orshallreceivetheinterestontheinsuranceindemnityiftheownerdoesnotwishtorebuild.

Shouldtheusufructuaryhaverefusedtocontributetotheinsurance,theownerinsuringthetenement
alone,thelattershallreceivethefullamountoftheinsuranceindemnityincaseofloss,savingalways
therightgrantedtotheusufructuaryintheprecedingarticle.(518a)

Art.609.Shouldthethinginusufructbeexpropriatedforpublicuse,theownershallbeobligedeitherto
replaceitwithanotherthingofthesamevalueandofsimilarconditions,ortopaytheusufructuarythe
legalinterestontheamountoftheindemnityforthewholeperiodoftheusufruct.Iftheownerchooses
thelatteralternative,heshallgivesecurityforthepaymentoftheinterest.(519)

Art.610.Ausufructisnotextinguishedbybaduseofthethinginusufruct;butiftheabuseshouldcause
considerableinjurytotheowner,thelattermaydemandthatthethingbedeliveredtohim,binding
himselftopayannuallytotheusufructuarythenetproceedsofthesame,afterdeductingtheexpenses
andthecompensationwhichmaybeallowedhimforitsadministration.(520)

Art.611.Ausufructconstitutedinfavorofseveralpersonslivingatthetimeofitsconstitutionshallnot
beextinguisheduntildeathofthelastsurvivor.(521)

Art.612.Upontheterminationoftheusufruct,thethinginusufructshallbedeliveredtotheowner,
withoutprejudicetotherightofretentionpertainingtotheusufructuaryorhisheirsfortaxesand
extraordinaryexpenseswhichshouldbereimbursed.Afterthedeliveryhasbeenmade,thesecurityor
mortgageshallbecancelled.(522a)

TitleVII.EASEMENTSOFSERVITUDES

CHAPTER1
EASEMENTSINGENERAL

SECTION1.DifferentKindsofEasements

Art.613.Aneasementorservitudeisanencumbranceimposeduponanimmovableforthebenefitof
anotherimmovablebelongingtoadifferentowner.
Theimmovableinfavorofwhichtheeasementisestablishediscalledthedominantestate;thatwhichis
subjectthereto,theservientestate.(530)

Art.614.Servitudesmayalsobeestablishedforthebenefitofacommunity,orofoneormorepersons
towhomtheencumberedestatedoesnotbelong.(531)

Art.615.Easementsmaybecontinuousordiscontinuous,apparentornonapparent.

Continuouseasementsarethosetheuseofwhichisormaybeincessant,withouttheinterventionof
anyactofman.

Discontinuouseasementsarethosewhichareusedatintervalsanddependupontheactsofman.

Apparenteasementsarethosewhicharemadeknownandarecontinuallykeptinviewbyexternalsigns
thatrevealtheuseandenjoymentofthesame.

Nonapparenteasementsarethosewhichshownoexternalindicationoftheirexistence.(532)

Art.616.Easementsarealsopositiveornegative.

Apositiveeasementisonewhichimposesupontheowneroftheservientestatetheobligationof
allowingsomethingtobedoneorofdoingithimself,andanegativeeasement,thatwhichprohibitsthe
owneroftheservientestatefromdoingsomethingwhichhecouldlawfullydoiftheeasementdidnot
exist.(533)

Art.617.Easementsareinseparablefromtheestatetowhichtheyactivelyorpassivelybelong.(534)

Art.618.Easementsareindivisible.Iftheservientestateisdividedbetweentwoormorepersons,the
easementisnotmodified,andeachofthemmustbearitonthepartwhichcorrespondstohim.

Ifitisthedominantestatethatisdividedbetweentwoormorepersons,eachofthemmayusethe
easementinitsentirety,withoutchangingtheplaceofitsuse,ormakingitmoreburdensomeinany
otherway.(535)

Art.619.Easementsareestablishedeitherbylaworbythewilloftheowners.Theformerarecalled
legalandthelattervoluntaryeasements.(536)

SECTION2.ModesofAcquiringEasements

Art.620.Continuousandapparenteasementsareacquiredeitherbyvirtueofatitleorbyprescription
oftenyears.(537a)
Art.621.Inordertoacquirebyprescriptiontheeasementsreferredtointheprecedingarticle,thetime
ofpossessionshallbecomputedthus:inpositiveeasements,fromthedayonwhichtheownerofthe
dominantestate,orthepersonwhomayhavemadeuseoftheeasement,commencedtoexerciseit
upontheservientestate;andinnegativeeasements,fromthedayonwhichtheownerofthedominant
estateforbade,byaninstrumentacknowledgedbeforeanotarypublic,theowneroftheservientestate,
fromexecutinganactwhichwouldbelawfulwithouttheeasement.(538a)

Art.622.Continuousnonapparenteasements,anddiscontinuousones,whetherapparentornot,may
beacquiredonlybyvirtueofatitle.(539)

Art.623.Theabsenceofadocumentorproofshowingtheoriginofaneasementwhichcannotbe
acquiredbyprescriptionmaybecuredbyadeedofrecognitionbytheowneroftheservientestateor
byafinaljudgment.(540a)

Art.624.Theexistenceofanapparentsignofeasementbetweentwoestates,establishedormaintained
bytheownerofboth,shallbeconsidered,shouldeitherofthembealienated,asatitleinorderthatthe
easementmaycontinueactivelyandpassively,unless,atthetimetheownershipofthetwoestatesis
divided,thecontraryshouldbeprovidedinthetitleofconveyanceofeitherofthem,orthesign
aforesaidshouldberemovedbeforetheexecutionofthedeed.Thisprovisionshallalsoapplyincaseof
thedivisionofathingownedincommonbytwoormorepersons.(541a)

Art.625.Upontheestablishmentofaneasement,alltherightsnecessaryforitsuseareconsidered
granted.(542)

Art.626.Theownerofthedominantestatecannotusetheeasementexceptforthebenefitofthe
immovableoriginallycontemplated.Neithercanheexercisetheeasementinanyothermannerthan
thatpreviouslyestablished.(n)

SECTION3.RightsandObligations
oftheOwnersoftheDominantandServientEstates

Art.627.Theownerofthedominantestatemaymake,athisownexpense,ontheservientstateany
worksnecessaryfortheuseandpreservationoftheservitude,butwithoutalteringitorrenderingit
moreburdensome.
Forthispurposeheshallnotifytheowneroftheservientestate,andshallchoosethemostconvenient
timeandmannersoastocausetheleastinconveniencetotheowneroftheservientestate.(543a)

Art.628.Shouldtherebeseveraldominantestates,theownersofallofthemshallbeobligedto
contributetotheexpensesreferredtointheprecedingarticle,inproportiontothebenefitswhicheach
mayderivefromthework.Anyonewhodoesnotwishtocontributemayexempthimselfbyrenouncing
theeasementforthebenefitoftheothers.

Iftheowneroftheservientestateshouldmakeuseoftheeasementinanymannerwhatsoever,heshall
alsobeobligedtocontributetotheexpensesintheproportionstated,savinganagreementtothe
contrary.(544)

Art.629.Theowneroftheservientestatecannotimpair,inanymannerwhatsoever,theuseofthe
servitude.

Nevertheless,ifbyreasonoftheplaceoriginallyassigned,orofthemannerestablishedfortheuseof
theeasement,thesameshouldbecomeveryinconvenienttotheowneroftheservientestate,orshould
preventhimfrommakinganyimportantworks,repairsorimprovementsthereon,itmaybechangedat
hisexpense,providedheoffersanotherplaceormannerequallyconvenientandinsuchawaythatno
injuryiscausedtherebytotheownerofthedominantestateortothosewhomayhavearighttothe
useoftheeasement.(545)

Art.630.Theowneroftheservientestateretainstheownershipoftheportiononwhichtheeasement
isestablished,andmayusethesameinsuchamannerasnottoaffecttheexerciseoftheeasement.(n)

SECTION4.ModesofExtinguishmentofEasements
Art.631.Easementsareextinguished:

(1)Bymergerinthesamepersonoftheownershipofthedominantandservientestates;
(2)Bynonuserfortenyears;withrespecttodiscontinuouseasements,thisperiodshallbecomputed
fromthedayonwhichtheyceasedtobeused;and,withrespecttocontinuouseasements,fromtheday
onwhichanactcontrarytothesametookplace;

(3)Wheneitherorbothoftheestatesfallintosuchconditionthattheeasementcannotbeused;butit
shallreviveifthesubsequentconditionoftheestatesoreitherofthemshouldagainpermititsuse,
unlesswhentheusebecomespossible,sufficienttimeforprescriptionhaselapsed,inaccordancewith
theprovisionsoftheprecedingnumber;

(4)Bytheexpirationofthetermorthefulfillmentofthecondition,iftheeasementistemporaryor
conditional;

(5)Bytherenunciationoftheownerofthedominantestate;

(6)Bytheredemptionagreeduponbetweentheownersofthedominantandservientestates.(546a)

Art.632.Theformormannerofusingtheeasementmayprescribeastheeasementitself,andinthe
sameway.(547a)
Art.633.Ifthedominantestatebelongstoseveralpersonsincommon,theuseoftheeasementbyany
oneofthempreventsprescriptionwithrespecttotheothers.(548)

CHAPTER2
LEGALEASEMENTS

SECTION1.GeneralProvisions

Art.634.Easementsimposedbylawhavefortheirobjecteitherpublicuseortheinterestofprivate
persons.(549)
Art.635.Allmattersconcerningeasementsestablishedforpublicorcommunaluseshallbegovernedby
thespeciallawsandregulationsrelatingthereto,and,intheabsencethereof,bytheprovisionsofthis
Title.(550)

Art.636.Easementsestablishedbylawintheinterestofprivatepersonsorforprivateuseshallbe
governedbytheprovisionsofthisTitle,withoutprejudicetotheprovisionsofgeneralorlocallawsand
ordinancesforthegeneralwelfare.

Theseeasementsmaybemodifiedbyagreementoftheinterestedparties,wheneverthelawdoesnot
prohibititornoinjuryissufferedbyathirdperson.(551a)

SECTION2.EasementsRelatingtoWaters

Art.637.Lowerestatesareobligedtoreceivethewaterswhichnaturallyandwithouttheintervention
ofmandescendfromthehigherestates,aswellasthestonesorearthwhichtheycarrywiththem.
Theownerofthelowerestatecannotconstructworkswhichwillimpedethiseasement;neithercanthe
ownerofthehigherestatemakeworkswhichwillincreasetheburden.(552)

Art.638.Thebanksofriversandstreams,evenincasetheyareofprivateownership,aresubject
throughouttheirentirelengthandwithinazoneofthreemetersalongtheirmargins,totheeasement
ofpublicuseinthegeneralinterestofnavigation,floatage,fishingandsalvage.

Estatesadjoiningthebanksofnavigableorfloatableriversare,furthermore,subjecttotheeasementof
towpathfortheexclusiveserviceofrivernavigationandfloatage.

Ifitbenecessaryforsuchpurposetooccupylandsofprivateownership,theproperindemnityshallfirst
bepaid.(553a)

Art.639.Wheneverforthediversionortakingofwaterfromariverorbrook,orfortheuseofanyother
continuousordiscontinuousstream,itshouldbenecessarytobuildadam,andthepersonwhoisto
constructitisnottheownerofthebanks,orlandswhichmustsupportit,hemayestablishthe
easementofabutmentofadam,afterpaymentoftheproperindemnity.(554)

Art.640.Compulsoryeasementsfordrawingwaterorforwateringanimalscanbeimposedonlyfor
reasonsofpublicuseinfavorofatownorvillage,afterpaymentoftheproperindemnity.(555)

Art.641.Easementsfordrawingwaterandforwateringanimalscarrywiththemtheobligationofthe
ownersoftheservientestatestoallowpassagetopersonsandanimalstotheplacewheresuch
easementsaretobeused,andtheindemnityshallincludethisservice.(556)

Art.642.Anypersonwhomaywishtouseuponhisownestateanywaterofwhichhecandisposeshall
havetherighttomakeitflowthroughtheinterveningestates,withtheobligationtoindemnifytheir
owners,aswellastheownersofthelowerestatesuponwhichthewatersmayfilterordescend.(557)

Art.643.Onedesiringtomakeuseoftherightgrantedintheprecedingarticleisobliged:

(1)Toprovethathecandisposeofthewaterandthatitissufficientfortheuseforwhichitisintended;
(2)Toshowthattheproposedrightofwayisthemostconvenientandtheleastoneroustothird
persons;

(3)Toindemnifytheowneroftheservientestateinthemannerdeterminedbythelawsand
regulations.(558)

Art.644.Theeasementofaqueductforprivateinterestcannotbeimposedonbuildings,courtyards,
annexes,orouthouses,oronorchardsorgardensalreadyexisting.(559)
Art.645.Theeasementofaqueductdoesnotpreventtheowneroftheservientestatefromclosingor
fencingit,orfrombuildingovertheaqueductinsuchmannerasnottocausethelatteranydamage,or
rendernecessaryrepairsandcleaningsimpossible.(560)

Art.646.Forlegalpurposes,theeasementofaqueductshallbeconsideredascontinuousandapparent,
eventhoughtheflowofthewatermaynotbecontinuous,oritsusedependsupontheneedsofthe
dominantestate,oruponascheduleofalternatedaysorhours.(561)

Art.647.Onewhoforthepurposeofirrigatingorimprovinghisestate,hastoconstructastoplockor
sluicegateinthebedofthestreamfromwhichthewateristobetaken,maydemandthattheowners
ofthebankspermititsconstruction,afterpaymentofdamages,includingthosecausedbythenew
easementtosuchownersandtotheotherirrigators.(562)

Art.648.Theestablishment,extent,formandconditionsoftheservitudesofwaters,towhichthis
sectionrefers,shallbegovernedbythespeciallawsrelatingtheretoinsofarasnoprovisionthereforis
madeinthisCode.(563a)

SECTION3.EasementofRightofWay

Art.649.Theowner,oranypersonwhobyvirtueofarealrightmaycultivateoruseanyimmovable,
whichissurroundedbyotherimmovablespertainingtootherpersonsandwithoutadequateoutlettoa
publichighway,isentitledtodemandarightofwaythroughtheneighboringestates,afterpaymentof
theproperindemnity.
Shouldthiseasementbeestablishedinsuchamannerthatitsusemaybecontinuousforalltheneeds
ofthedominantestate,establishingapermanentpassage,theindemnityshallconsistofthevalueof
thelandoccupiedandtheamountofthedamagecausedtotheservientestate.

Incasetherightofwayislimitedtothenecessarypassageforthecultivationoftheestatesurrounded
byothersandforthegatheringofitscropsthroughtheservientestatewithoutapermanentway,the
indemnityshallconsistinthepaymentofthedamagecausedbysuchencumbrance.

Thiseasementisnotcompulsoryiftheisolationoftheimmovableisduetotheproprietor'sownacts.
(564a)

Art.650.Theeasementofrightofwayshallbeestablishedatthepointleastprejudicialtotheservient
estate,and,insofarasconsistentwiththisrule,wherethedistancefromthedominantestatetoapublic
highwaymaybetheshortest.(565)

Art.651.Thewidthoftheeasementofrightofwayshallbethatwhichissufficientfortheneedsofthe
dominantestate,andmayaccordinglybechangedfromtimetotime.(566a)

Art.652.Wheneverapieceoflandacquiredbysale,exchangeorpartition,issurroundedbyother
estatesofthevendor,exchanger,orcoowner,heshallbeobligedtograntarightofwaywithout
indemnity.

Incaseofasimpledonation,thedonorshallbeindemnifiedbythedoneefortheestablishmentofthe
rightofway.(567a)

Art.653.Inthecaseoftheprecedingarticle,ifitisthelandofthegrantorthatbecomesisolated,he
maydemandarightofwayafterpayingaindemnity.However,thedonorshallnotbeliablefor
indemnity.(n)

Art.654.Iftherightofwayispermanent,thenecessaryrepairsshallbemadebytheownerofthe
dominantestate.Aproportionateshareofthetaxesshallbereimbursedbysaidownertotheproprietor
oftheservientestate.(n)

Art.655.Iftherightofwaygrantedtoasurroundedestateceasestobenecessarybecauseitsowner
hasjoinedittoanotherabuttingonapublicroad,theowneroftheservientestatemaydemandthatthe
easementbeextinguished,returningwhathemayhavereceivedbywayofindemnity.Theintereston
theindemnityshallbedeemedtobeinpaymentofrentfortheuseoftheeasement.

Thesameruleshallbeappliedincaseanewroadisopenedgivingaccesstotheisolatedestate.

Inbothcases,thepublichighwaymustsubstantiallymeettheneedsofthedominantestateinorder
thattheeasementmaybeextinguished.(568a)

Art.656.Ifitbeindispensablefortheconstruction,repair,improvement,alterationorbeautificationof
abuilding,tocarrymaterialsthroughtheestateofanother,ortoraisethereinscaffoldingorother
objectsnecessaryforthework,theownerofsuchestateshallbeobligedtopermittheact,after
receivingpaymentoftheproperindemnityforthedamagecausedhim.(569a)

Art.657.Easementsoftherightofwayforthepassageoflivestockknownasanimalpath,animaltrailor
anyother,andthoseforwateringplaces,restingplacesandanimalfolds,shallbegovernedbythe
ordinancesandregulationsrelatingthereto,and,intheabsencethereof,bytheusagesandcustomsof
theplace.

Withoutprejudicetorightslegallyacquired,theanimalpathshallnotexceedinanycasethewidthof75
meters,andtheanimaltrailthatof37metersand50centimeters.

Wheneveritisnecessarytoestablishacompulsoryeasementoftherightofwayorforawateringplace
foranimals,theprovisionsofthisSectionandthoseofArticles640and641shallbeobserved.Inthis
casethewidthshallnotexceed10meters.(570a)

SECTION4.EasementofPartyWall

Art.658.TheeasementofpartywallshallbegovernedbytheprovisionsofthisTitle,bythelocal
ordinancesandcustomsinsofarastheydonotconflictwiththesame,andbytherulesofcoownership.
(571a)
Art.659.Theexistenceofaneasementofpartywallispresumed,unlessthereisatitle,orexteriorsign,
orprooftothecontrary:

(1)Individingwallsofadjoiningbuildingsuptothepointofcommonelevation;
(2)Individingwallsofgardensoryardssituatedincities,towns,orinruralcommunities;

(3)Infences,wallsandlivehedgesdividingrurallands.(572)

Art.660.Itisunderstoodthatthereisanexteriorsign,contrarytotheeasementofpartywall:
(1)Wheneverinthedividingwallofbuildingsthereisawindoworopening;
(2)Wheneverthedividingwallis,ononeside,straightandplumbonallitsfacement,andontheother,
ithassimilarconditionsontheupperpart,butthelowerpartslantsorprojectsoutward;

(3)Whenevertheentirewallisbuiltwithintheboundariesofoneoftheestates;

(4)Wheneverthedividingwallbearstheburdenofthebindingbeams,floorsandroofframeofoneof
thebuildings,butnotthoseoftheothers;

(5)Wheneverthedividingwallbetweencourtyards,gardens,andtenementsisconstructedinsucha
waythatthecopingshedsthewaterupononlyoneoftheestates;

(6)Wheneverthedividingwall,beingbuiltofmasonry,hassteppingstones,whichatcertainintervals
projectfromthesurfaceononesideonly,butnotontheother;

(7)Wheneverlandsinclosedbyfencesorlivehedgesadjoinotherswhicharenotinclosed.

Inallthesecases,theownershipofthewalls,fencesorhedgesshallbedeemedtobelongexclusivelyto
theownerofthepropertyortenementwhichhasinitsfavorthepresumptionbasedonanyoneof
thesesigns.(573)
Art.661.Ditchesordrainsopenedbetweentwoestatesarealsopresumedascommontoboth,ifthere
isnotitleorsignshowingthecontrary.

Thereisasigncontrarytothepartownershipwhenevertheearthordirtremovedtoopentheditchor
tocleanitisonlyononesidethereof,inwhichcasetheownershipoftheditchshallbelongexclusively
totheownerofthelandhavingthisexteriorsigninitsfavor.(574)

Art.662.Thecostofrepairsandconstructionofpartywallsandthemaintenanceoffences,livehedges,
ditches,anddrainsownedincommon,shallbebornebyalltheownersofthelandsortenements
havingthepartywallintheirfavor,inproportiontotherightofeach.

Nevertheless,anyownermayexempthimselffromcontributingtothischargebyrenouncinghispart
ownership,exceptwhenthepartywallsupportsabuildingbelongingtohim.(575)

Art.663.Iftheownerofabuilding,supportedbyapartywalldesirestodemolishthebuilding,hemay
alsorenouncehispartownershipofthewall,butthecostofallrepairsandworknecessarytoprevent
anydamagewhichthedemolitionmaycausetothepartywall,onthisoccasiononly,shallbeborneby
him.(576)

Art.664.Everyownermayincreasetheheightofthepartywall,doingathisownexpenseandpayingfor
anydamagewhichmaybecausedbythework,eventhoughsuchdamagebetemporary.

Theexpensesofmaintainingthewallinthepartnewlyraisedordeepenedatitsfoundationshallalsobe
paidforbyhim;and,inaddition,theindemnityfortheincreasedexpenseswhichmaybenecessaryfor
thepreservationofthepartywallbyreasonofthegreaterheightordepthwhichhasbeengivenit.

Ifthepartywallcannotbeartheincreasedheight,theownerdesiringtoraiseitshallbeobligedto
reconstructitathisownexpenseand,ifforthispurposeitbenecessarytomakeitthicker,heshallgive
thespacerequiredfromhisownland.(577)

Art.665.Theotherownerswhohavenotcontributedingivingincreasedheight,depthorthicknessto
thewallmay,nevertheless,acquiretherightofpartownershiptherein,bypayingproportionallythe
valueoftheworkatthetimeoftheacquisitionandofthelandusedforitsincreasedthickness.(578a)

Art.666.Everypartownerofapartywallmayuseitinproportiontotherighthemayhaveintheco
ownership,withoutinterferingwiththecommonandrespectiveusesbytheothercoowners.(579a)

SECTION5.EasementofLightandView

Art.667.Nopartownermay,withouttheconsentoftheothers,openthroughthepartywallany
windoworapertureofanykind.(580)
Art.668.Theperiodofprescriptionfortheacquisitionofaneasementoflightandviewshallbe
counted:

(1)Fromthetimeoftheopeningofthewindow,ifitisthroughapartywall;or
(2)Fromthetimeoftheformalprohibitionupontheproprietoroftheadjoininglandortenement,ifthe
windowisthroughawallonthedominantestate.(n)

Art.669.WhenthedistancesinArticle670arenotobserved,theownerofawallwhichisnotpartywall,
adjoiningatenementorpieceoflandbelongingtoanother,canmakeinitopeningstoadmitlightatthe
heightoftheceilingjointsorimmediatelyundertheceiling,andofthesizeofthirtycentimeterssquare,
and,ineverycase,withanirongratingimbeddedinthewallandwithawirescreen.
Nevertheless,theownerofthetenementorpropertyadjoiningthewallinwhichtheopeningsaremade
canclosethemshouldheacquirepartownershipthereof,iftherebenostipulationtothecontrary.

Hecanalsoobstructthembyconstructingabuildingonhislandorbyraisingawallthereoncontiguous
tothathavingsuchopenings,unlessaneasementoflighthasbeenacquired.(581a)

Art.670.Nowindows,apertures,balconies,orothersimilarprojectionswhichaffordadirectviewupon
ortowardsanadjoininglandortenementcanbemade,withoutleavingadistanceoftwometers
betweenthewallinwhichtheyaremadeandsuchcontiguousproperty.

Neithercansideorobliqueviewsuponortowardssuchconterminouspropertybehad,unlesstherebe
adistanceofsixtycentimeters.

Thenonobservanceofthesedistancesdoesnotgiverisetoprescription.(582a)

Art.671.Thedistancereferredtointheprecedingarticleshallbemeasuredincasesofdirectviewsfrom
theouterlineofthewallwhentheopeningsdonotproject,fromtheouterlineofthelatterwhenthey
do,andincasesofobliqueviewfromthedividinglinebetweenthetwoproperties.(583)

Art.672.TheprovisionsofArticle670arenotapplicabletobuildingsseparatedbyapublicwayoralley,
whichisnotlessthanthreemeterswide,subjecttospecialregulationsandlocalordinances.(584a)

Art.673.Wheneverbyanytitlearighthasbeenacquiredtohavedirectviews,balconiesorbelvederes
overlookinganadjoiningproperty,theowneroftheservientestatecannotbuildthereonatlessthana
distanceofthreemeterstobemeasuredinthemannerprovidedinArticle671.Anystipulation
permittingdistanceslessthanthoseprescribedinArticle670isvoid.(585a)

SECTION6.DrainageofBuildings

Art.674.Theownerofabuildingshallbeobligedtoconstructitsrooforcoveringinsuchmannerthat
therainwatershallfallonhisownlandoronastreetorpublicplace,andnotonthelandofhis
neighbor,eventhoughtheadjacentlandmaybelongtotwoormorepersons,oneofwhomistheowner
oftheroof.Evenifitshouldfallonhisownland,theownershallbeobligedtocollectthewaterinsuch
awayasnottocausedamagetotheadjacentlandortenement.(586a)
Art.675.Theownerofatenementorapieceofland,subjecttotheeasementofreceivingwaterfalling
fromroofs,maybuildinsuchmannerastoreceivethewateruponhisownrooforgiveitanotheroutlet
inaccordancewithlocalordinancesorcustoms,andinsuchawayasnottocauseanynuisanceor
damagewhatevertothedominantestate.(587)

Art.676.Whenevertheyardorcourtofahouseissurroundedbyotherhouses,anditisnotpossibleto
giveanoutletthroughthehouseitselftotherainwatercollectedthereon,theestablishmentofan
easementofdrainagecanbedemanded,givinganoutlettothewateratthepointofthecontiguous
landsortenementswhereitsegressmaybeeasiest,andestablishingaconduitforthedrainageinsuch
mannerastocausetheleastdamagetotheservientestate,afterpaymentofthepropertyindemnity.
(583)

SECTION7.IntermediateDistances
andWorksforCertainConstructionsandPlantings

Art.677.Noconstructionscanbebuiltorplantingsmadenearfortifiedplacesorfortresseswithout
compliancewiththeconditionsrequiredinspeciallaws,ordinances,andregulationsrelatingthereto.
(589)
Art.678.Nopersonshallbuildanyaqueduct,well,sewer,furnace,forge,chimney,stable,depositoryof
corrosivesubstances,machinery,orfactorywhichbyreasonofitsnatureorproductsisdangerousor
noxious,withoutobservingthedistancesprescribedbytheregulationsandcustomsoftheplace,and
withoutmakingthenecessaryprotectiveworks,subject,inregardtothemannerthereof,tothe
conditionsprescribedbysuchregulations.Theseprohibitionscannotbealteredorrenouncedby
stipulationonthepartoftheadjoiningproprietors.

Intheabsenceofregulations,suchprecautionsshallbetakenasmaybeconsiderednecessary,inorder
toavoidanydamagetotheneighboringlandsortenements.(590a)

Art.679.Notreesshallbeplantednearatenementorpieceoflandbelongingtoanotherexceptatthe
distanceauthorizedbytheordinancesorcustomsoftheplace,and,intheabsencethereof,atadistance
ofatleasttwometersfromthedividinglineoftheestatesiftalltreesareplantedandatadistanceofat
leastfiftycentimetersifshrubsorsmalltreesareplanted.

Everylandownershallhavetherighttodemandthattreeshereafterplantedatashorterdistancefrom
hislandortenementbeuprooted.

Theprovisionsofthisarticlealsoapplytotreeswhichhavegrownspontaneously.(591a)

Art.680.Ifthebranchesofanytreeshouldextendoveraneighboringestate,tenement,gardenoryard,
theownerofthelattershallhavetherighttodemandthattheybecutoffinsofarastheymayspread
overhisproperty,and,ifitbetherootsofaneighboringtreewhichshouldpenetrateintothelandof
another,thelattermaycutthemoffhimselfwithinhisproperty.(592)

Art.681.Fruitsnaturallyfallinguponadjacentlandbelongtotheownerofsaidland.(n)

SECTION8.EasementAgainstNuisance(n)

Art.682.Everybuildingorpieceoflandissubjecttotheeasementwhichprohibitstheproprietoror
possessorfromcommittingnuisancethroughnoise,jarring,offensiveodor,smoke,heat,dust,water,
glareandothercauses.
Art.683.Subjecttozoning,health,policeandotherlawsandregulations,factoriesandshopsmaybe
maintainedprovidedtheleastpossibleannoyanceiscausedtotheneighborhood.

SECTION9.LateralandSubjacentSupport(n)

Sec.684.Noproprietorshallmakesuchexcavationsuponhislandastodepriveanyadjacentlandor
buildingofsufficientlateralorsubjacentsupport.
Art.685.Anystipulationortestamentaryprovisionallowingexcavationsthatcausedangertoan
adjacentlandorbuildingshallbevoid.

Art.686.Thelegaleasementoflateralandsubjacentsupportisnotonlyforbuildingsstandingatthe
timetheexcavationsaremadebutalsoforconstructionsthatmaybeerected.

Art.687.Anyproprietorintendingtomakeanyexcavationcontemplatedinthethreeprecedingarticles
shallnotifyallownersofadjacentlands.

CHAPTER3
VOLUNTARYEASEMENTS

Art.688.Everyownerofatenementorpieceoflandmayestablishthereontheeasementswhichhe
maydeemsuitable,andinthemannerandformwhichhemaydeembest,providedhedoesnot
contravenethelaws,publicpolicyorpublicorder.(594)
Art.689.Theownerofatenementorpieceofland,theusufructofwhichbelongstoanother,may
imposethereon,withouttheconsentoftheusufructuary,anyservitudeswhichwillnotinjuretheright
ofusufruct.(595)

Art.690.Wheneverthenakedownershipofatenementorpieceoflandbelongstoonepersonandthe
beneficialownershiptoanother,noperpetualvoluntaryeasementmaybeestablishedthereonwithout
theconsentofbothowners.(596)

Art.691.Inordertoimposeaneasementonanundividedtenement,orpieceofland,theconsentofall
thecoownersshallberequired.

Theconsentgivenbysomeonly,mustbeheldinabeyanceuntilthelastoneofallthecoownersshall
haveexpressedhisconformity.

Buttheconsentgivenbyoneofthecoownersseparatelyfromtheothersshallbindthegrantorandhis
successorsnottopreventtheexerciseoftherightgranted.(597a)

Art.692.Thetitleand,inapropercase,thepossessionofaneasementacquiredbyprescriptionshall
determinetherightsofthedominantestateandtheobligationsoftheservientestate.Indefault
thereof,theeasementshallbegovernedbysuchprovisionsofthisTitleasareapplicablethereto.(598)

Art.693.Iftheowneroftheservientestateshouldhaveboundhimself,upontheestablishmentofthe
easement,tobearthecostoftheworkrequiredfortheuseandpreservationthereof,hemayfree
himselffromthisobligationbyrenouncinghispropertytotheownerofthedominantestate.(599)

TitleVIII.NUISANCE(n)

Art.694.Anuisanceisanyact,omission,establishment,business,conditionofproperty,oranything
elsewhich:
(1)Injuresorendangersthehealthorsafetyofothers;or
(2)Annoysoroffendsthesenses;or

(3)Shocks,defiesordisregardsdecencyormorality;or

(4)Obstructsorinterfereswiththefreepassageofanypublichighwayorstreet,oranybodyofwater;
or

(5)Hindersorimpairstheuseofproperty.

Art.695.Nuisanceiseitherpublicorprivate.Apublicnuisanceaffectsacommunityorneighborhoodor
anyconsiderablenumberofpersons,althoughtheextentoftheannoyance,dangerordamageupon
individualsmaybeunequal.Aprivatenuisanceisonethatisnotincludedintheforegoingdefinition.
Art.696.Everysuccessiveownerorpossessorofpropertywhofailsorrefusestoabateanuisancein
thatpropertystartedbyaformerownerorpossessorisliablethereforinthesamemannerastheone
whocreatedit.

Art.697.Theabatementofanuisancedoesnotprecludetherightofanypersoninjuredtorecover
damagesforitspastexistence.

Art.698.Lapseoftimecannotlegalizeanynuisance,whetherpublicorprivate.

Art.699.Theremediesagainstapublicnuisanceare:

(1)AprosecutionunderthePenalCodeoranylocalordinance:or
(2)Acivilaction;or

(3)Abatement,withoutjudicialproceedings.

Art.700.Thedistricthealthofficershalltakecarethatoneoralloftheremediesagainstapublic
nuisanceareavailedof.
Art.701.Ifacivilactionisbroughtbyreasonofthemaintenanceofapublicnuisance,suchactionshall
becommencedbythecityormunicipalmayor.

Art.702.Thedistricthealthofficershalldeterminewhetherornotabatement,withoutjudicial
proceedings,isthebestremedyagainstapublicnuisance.

Art.703.Aprivatepersonmayfileanactiononaccountofapublicnuisance,ifitisspeciallyinjuriousto
himself.

Art.704.Anyprivatepersonmayabateapublicnuisancewhichisspeciallyinjurioustohimbyremoving,
orifnecessary,bydestroyingthethingwhichconstitutesthesame,withoutcommittingabreachofthe
peace,ordoingunnecessaryinjury.Butitisnecessary:

(1)Thatdemandbefirstmadeupontheownerorpossessorofthepropertytoabatethenuisance;
(2)Thatsuchdemandhasbeenrejected;

(3)Thattheabatementbeapprovedbythedistricthealthofficerandexecutedwiththeassistanceof
thelocalpolice;and

(4)Thatthevalueofthedestructiondoesnotexceedthreethousandpesos.

Art.705.Theremediesagainstaprivatenuisanceare:
(1)Acivilaction;or
(2)Abatement,withoutjudicialproceedings.

Art.706.Anypersoninjuredbyaprivatenuisancemayabateitbyremoving,orifnecessary,by
destroyingthethingwhichconstitutesthenuisance,withoutcommittingabreachofthepeaceordoing
unnecessaryinjury.However,itisindispensablethattheprocedureforextrajudicialabatementofa
publicnuisancebyaprivatepersonbefollowed.
Art.707.Aprivatepersonorapublicofficialextrajudiciallyabatinganuisanceshallbeliablefor
damages:

(1)Ifhecausesunnecessaryinjury;or
(2)Ifanallegednuisanceislaterdeclaredbythecourtstobenotarealnuisance.

TitleIX.REGISTRYOFPROPERTY
Art.708.TheRegistryofPropertyhasforitsobjecttheinscriptionorannotationofactsandcontracts
relatingtotheownershipandotherrightsoverimmovableproperty.(605)

Art.709.Thetitlesofownership,orofotherrightsoverimmovableproperty,whicharenotduly
inscribedorannotatedintheRegistryofPropertyshallnotprejudicethirdpersons.(606)

Art.710.ThebooksintheRegistryofPropertyshallbepublicforthosewhohaveaknowninterestin
ascertainingthestatusoftheimmovablesorrealrightsannotatedorinscribedtherein.(607)

Art.711.Fordeterminingwhattitlesaresubjecttoinscriptionorannotation,aswellastheform,
effects,andcancellationofinscriptionsandannotations,themannerofkeepingthebooksinthe
Registry,andthevalueoftheentriescontainedinsaidbooks,theprovisionsoftheMortgageLaw,the
LandRegistrationAct,andotherspeciallawsshallgovern.(608a)

BOOKIII

DIFFERENTMODESOFACQUIRINGOWNERSHIP

PRELIMINARYPROVISION

Art.712.Ownershipisacquiredbyoccupationandbyintellectualcreation.
Ownershipandotherrealrightsoverpropertyareacquiredandtransmittedbylaw,bydonation,by
estateandintestatesuccession,andinconsequenceofcertaincontracts,bytradition.

Theymayalsobeacquiredbymeansofprescription.(609a)

TitleI.OCCUPATION

Art.713.Thingsappropriablebynaturewhicharewithoutanowner,suchasanimalsthataretheobject
ofhuntingandfishing,hiddentreasureandabandonedmovables,areacquiredbyoccupation.(610)
Art.714.Theownershipofapieceoflandcannotbeacquiredbyoccupation.(n)

Art.715.Therighttohuntandtofishisregulatedbyspeciallaws.(611)

Art.716.Theownerofaswarmofbeesshallhavearighttopursuethemtoanother'sland,
indemnifyingthepossessorofthelatterforthedamage.Iftheownerhasnotpursuedtheswarm,or
ceasestodosowithintwoconsecutivedays,thepossessorofthelandmayoccupyorretainthesame.
Theownerofdomesticatedanimalsmayalsoclaimthemwithintwentydaystobecountedfromtheir
occupationbyanotherperson.Thisperiodhavingexpired,theyshallpertaintohimwhohascaughtand
keptthem.(612a)

Art.717.Pigeonsandfishwhichfromtheirrespectivebreedingplacespasstoanotherpertainingtoa
differentownershallbelongtothelatter,providedtheyhavenotbeenenticedbysomearticleoffraud.
(613a)

Art.718.Hewhobychancediscovershiddentreasureinanother'spropertyshallhavetherightgranted
himinarticle438ofthisCode.(614)

Art.719.Whoeverfindsamovable,whichisnottreasure,mustreturnittoitspreviouspossessor.Ifthe
latterisunknown,thefindershallimmediatelydeposititwiththemayorofthecityormunicipality
wherethefindinghastakenplace.

Thefindingshallbepubliclyannouncedbythemayorfortwoconsecutiveweeksinthewayhedeems
best.

Ifthemovablecannotbekeptwithoutdeterioration,orwithoutexpenseswhichconsiderablydiminish
itsvalue,itshallbesoldatpublicauctioneightdaysafterthepublication.

Sixmonthsfromthepublicationhavingelapsedwithouttheownerhavingappeared,thethingfound,or
itsvalue,shallbeawardedtothefinder.Thefinderandtheownershallbeobliged,asthecasemaybe,
toreimbursetheexpenses.(615a)

Art.720.Iftheownershouldappearintime,heshallbeobligedtopay,asarewardtothefinder,one
tenthofthesumorofthepriceofthethingfound.(616a)

TitleII.INTELLECTUALCREATION

Art.721.Byintellectualcreation,thefollowingpersonsacquireownership:
(1)Theauthorwithregardtohisliterary,dramatic,historical,legal,philosophical,scientificorother
work;
(2)Thecomposer;astohismusicalcomposition;

(3)Thepainter,sculptor,orotherartist,withrespecttotheproductofhisart;

(4)Thescientistortechnologistoranyotherpersonwithregardtohisdiscoveryorinvention.(n)

Art.722.Theauthorandthecomposer,mentionedinNos.1and2oftheprecedingarticle,shallhave
theownershipoftheircreationsevenbeforethepublicationofthesame.Oncetheirworksare
published,theirrightsaregovernedbytheCopyrightlaws.
Thepainter,sculptororotherartistshallhavedominionovertheproductofhisartevenbeforeitis
copyrighted.

Thescientistortechnologisthastheownershipofhisdiscoveryorinventionevenbeforeitispatented.
(n)

Art.723.Lettersandotherprivatecommunicationsinwritingareownedbythepersontowhomthey
areaddressedanddelivered,buttheycannotbepublishedordisseminatedwithouttheconsentofthe
writerorhisheirs.However,thecourtmayauthorizetheirpublicationordisseminationifthepublic
goodortheinterestofjusticesorequires.(n)

Art.724.Speciallawsgoverncopyrightandpatent.(429a)

TitleIII.DONATION

CHAPTER1
NATUREOFDONATIONS

Art.725.Donationisanactofliberalitywherebyapersondisposesgratuitouslyofathingorrightin
favorofanother,whoacceptsit.(618a)
Art.726.Whenapersongivestoanotherathingorrightonaccountofthelatter'smeritsorofthe
servicesrenderedbyhimtothedonor,providedtheydonotconstituteademandabledebt,orwhenthe
giftimposesuponthedoneeaburdenwhichislessthanthevalueofthethinggiven,thereisalsoa
donation.(619)

Art.727.Illegalorimpossibleconditionsinsimpleandremuneratorydonationsshallbeconsideredas
notimposed.(n)

Art.728.Donationswhicharetotakeeffectuponthedeathofthedonorpartakeofthenatureof
testamentaryprovisions,andshallbegovernedbytherulesestablishedintheTitleonSuccession.(620)

Art.729.Whenthedonorintendsthatthedonationshalltakeeffectduringthelifetimeofthedonor,
thoughthepropertyshallnotbedeliveredtillafterthedonor'sdeath,thisshallbeadonationinter
vivos.Thefruitsofthepropertyfromthetimeoftheacceptanceofthedonation,shallpertaintothe
donee,unlessthedonorprovidesotherwise.(n)

Art.730.Thefixingofaneventortheimpositionofasuspensivecondition,whichmaytakeplace
beyondthenaturalexpectationoflifeofthedonor,doesnotdestroythenatureoftheactasadonation
intervivos,unlessacontraryintentionappears.(n)

Art.731.Whenapersondonatessomething,subjecttotheresolutoryconditionofthedonor'ssurvival,
thereisadonationintervivos.(n)

Art.732.Donationswhicharetotakeeffectintervivosshallbegovernedbythegeneralprovisionson
contractsandobligationsinallthatisnotdeterminedinthisTitle.(621)

Art.733.Donationswithanonerouscauseshallbegovernedbytherulesoncontractsand
remuneratorydonationsbytheprovisionsofthepresentTitleasregardsthatportionwhichexceedsthe
valueoftheburdenimposed.(622)

Art.734.Thedonationisperfectedfromthemomentthedonorknowsoftheacceptancebythedonee.
(623)

CHAPTER2
PERSONSWHOMAYGIVEORRECEIVEADONATION

Art.735.Allpersonswhomaycontractanddisposeoftheirpropertymaymakeadonation.(624)
Art.736.Guardiansandtrusteescannotdonatethepropertyentrustedtothem.(n)

Art.737.Thedonor'scapacityshallbedeterminedasofthetimeofthemakingofthedonation.(n)

Art.738.Althosewhoarenotspeciallydisqualifiedbylawthereformayacceptdonations.(625)

Art.739.Thefollowingdonationsshallbevoid:

(1)Thosemadebetweenpersonswhowereguiltyofadulteryorconcubinageatthetimeofthe
donation;
(2)Thosemadebetweenpersonsfoundguiltyofthesamecriminaloffense,inconsiderationthereof;

(3)Thosemadetoapublicofficerorhiswife,descedantsandascendants,byreasonofhisoffice.

InthecasereferredtoinNo.1,theactionfordeclarationofnullitymaybebroughtbythespouseofthe
donorordonee;andtheguiltofthedonoranddoneemaybeprovedbypreponderanceofevidencein
thesameaction.(n)
Art.740.Incapacitytosucceedbywillshallbeapplicabletodonationsintervivos.(n)

Art.741.Minorsandotherswhocannotenterintoacontractmaybecomedoneesbutacceptanceshall
bedonethroughtheirparentsorlegalrepresentatives.(626a)

Art.742.Donationsmadetoconceivedandunbornchildrenmaybeacceptedbythosepersonswho
wouldlegallyrepresentthemiftheywerealreadyborn.(627)

Art.743.Donationsmadetoincapacitatedpersonsshallbevoid,thoughsimulatedundertheguiseof
anothercontractorthroughapersonwhoisinterposed.(628)

Art.744.Donationsofthesamethingtotwoormoredifferentdoneesshallbegovernedbythe
provisionsconcerningthesaleofthesamethingtotwoormoredifferentpersons.(n)

Art.745.Thedoneemustacceptthedonationpersonally,orthroughanauthorizedpersonwitha
specialpowerforthepurpose,orwithageneralandsufficientpower;otherwise,thedonationshallbe
void.(630)

Art.746.Acceptancemustbemadeduringthelifetimeofthedonorandofthedonee.(n)

Art.747.Personswhoacceptdonationsinrepresentationofotherswhomaynotdosobythemselves,
shallbeobligedtomakethenotificationandnotationofwhichArticle749speaks.(631)

Art.748.Thedonationofamovablemaybemadeorallyorinwriting.

Anoraldonationrequiresthesimultaneousdeliveryofthethingorofthedocumentrepresentingthe
rightdonated.

Ifthevalueofthepersonalpropertydonatedexceedsfivethousandpesos,thedonationandthe
acceptanceshallbemadeinwriting,otherwise,thedonationshallbevoid.(632a)

Art.749.Inorderthatthedonationofanimmovablemaybevalid,itmustbemadeinapublic
document,specifyingthereinthepropertydonatedandthevalueofthechargeswhichthedoneemust
satisfy.

Theacceptancemaybemadeinthesamedeedofdonationorinaseparatepublicdocument,butit
shallnottakeeffectunlessitisdoneduringthelifetimeofthedonor.

Iftheacceptanceismadeinaseparateinstrument,thedonorshallbenotifiedthereofinanauthentic
form,andthisstepshallbenotedinbothinstruments.(633)

CHAPTER3
EFFECTOFDONATIONSANDLIMITATIONSTHEREON

Art.750.Thedonationsmaycomprehendallthepresentpropertyofthedonor,orpartthereof,
providedhereserves,infullownershiporinusufruct,sufficientmeansforthesupportofhimself,andof
allrelativeswho,atthetimeoftheacceptanceofthedonation,arebylawentitledtobesupportedby
thedonor.Withoutsuchreservation,thedonationshallbereducedinpetitionofanypersonaffected.
(634a)
Art.751.Donationscannotcomprehendfutureproperty.

Byfuturepropertyisunderstoodanythingwhichthedonorcannotdisposeofatthetimeofthe
donation.(635)

Art.752.TheprovisionsofArticle750notwithstanding,nopersonmaygiveorreceive,bywayof
donation,morethanhemaygiveorreceivebywill.

Thedonationshallbeinofficiousinallthatitmayexceedthislimitation.(636)

Art.753.Whenadonationismadetoseveralpersonsjointly,itisunderstoodtobeinequalshares,and
thereshallbenorightofaccretionamongthem,unlessthedonorhasotherwiseprovided.

Theprecedingparagraphshallnotbeapplicabletodonationsmadetothehusbandandwifejointly,
betweenwhomthereshallbearightofaccretion,ifthecontraryhasnotbeenprovidedbythedonor.
(637)

Art.754.Thedoneeissubrogatedtoalltherightsandactionswhichincaseofevictionwouldpertainto
thedonor.Thelatter,ontheotherhand,isnotobligedtowarrantthethingsdonated,savewhenthe
donationisonerous,inwhichcasethedonorshallbeliableforevictiontotheconcurrenceofthe
burden.

Thedonorshallalsobeliableforevictionorhiddendefectsincaseofbadfaithonhispart.(638a)

Art.755.Therighttodisposeofsomeofthethingsdonated,orofsomeamountwhichshallbeacharge
thereon,maybereservedbythedonor;butifheshoulddiewithouthavingmadeuseofthisright,the
propertyoramountreservedshallbelongtothedonee.(639)

Art.756.Theownershipofpropertymayalsobedonatedtoonepersonandtheusufructtoanotheror
others,providedallthedoneesarelivingatthetimeofthedonation.(640a)

Art.757.Reversionmaybevalidlyestablishedinfavorofonlythedonorforanycaseandcircumstances,
butnotinfavorofotherpersonsunlesstheyarealllivingatthetimeofthedonation.

Anyreversionstipulatedbythedonorinfavorofathirdpersoninviolationofwhatisprovidedinthe
precedingparagraphshallbevoid,butshallnotnullifythedonation.(614a)

Art.758.Whenthedonationimposesuponthedoneetheobligationtopaythedebtsofthedonor,if
theclausedoesnotcontainanydeclarationtothecontrary,theformerisunderstoodtobeliabletopay
onlythedebtswhichappeartohavebeenpreviouslycontracted.Innocaseshallthedoneebe
responsibleforthedebtsexceedingthevalueofthepropertydonated,unlessacontraryintention
clearlyappears.(642a)

Art.759.Therebeingnostipulationregardingthepaymentofdebts,thedoneeshallberesponsible
thereforonlywhenthedonationhasbeenmadeinfraudofcreditors.

Thedonationisalwayspresumedtobeinfraudofcreditors,whenatthetimethereofthedonordidnot
reservesufficientpropertytopayhisdebtspriortothedonation.(643)

CHAPTER4
REVOCATIONANDREDUCTIONOFDONATIONS

Art.760.Everydonationintervivos,madebyapersonhavingnochildrenordescendants,legitimateor
legitimatedbysubsequentmarriage,orillegitimate,mayberevokedorreducedasprovidedinthenext
article,bythehappeningofanyoftheseevents:
(1)Ifthedonor,afterthedonation,shouldhavelegitimateorlegitimatedorillegitimatechildren,even
thoughtheybeposthumous;
(2)Ifthechildofthedonor,whomthelatterbelievedtobedeadwhenhemadethedonation,should
turnouttobeliving;

(3)Ifthedonorsubsequentlyadoptaminorchild.(644a)

Art.761.Inthecasesreferredtointheprecedingarticle,thedonationshallberevokedorreduced
insofarasitexceedstheportionthatmaybefreelydisposedofbywill,takingintoaccountthewhole
estateofthedonoratthetimeofthebirth,appearanceoradoptionofachild.(n)
Art.762.Upontherevocationorreductionofthedonationbythebirth,appearanceoradoptionofa
child,thepropertyaffectedshallbereturnedoritsvalueifthedoneehassoldthesame.

Ifthepropertyismortgaged,thedonormayredeemthemortgage,bypayingtheamountguaranteed,
witharighttorecoverthesamefromthedonee.

Whenthepropertycannotbereturned,itshallbeestimatedatwhatitwasworthatthetimeofthe
donation.(645a)

Art.763.Theactionforrevocationorreductiononthegroundssetforthinarticle760shallprescribe
afterfouryearsfromthebirthofthefirstchild,orfromhislegitimation,recognitionoradoption,or
fromthejudicialdeclarationoffiliation,orfromthetimeinformationwasreceivedregardingthe
existenceofthechildbelieveddead.

Thisactioncannotberenounced,andistransmitted,uponthedeathofthedonor,tohislegitimateand
illegitimatechildrenanddescendants.(646a)

Art.764.Thedonationshallberevokedattheinstanceofthedonor,whenthedoneefailstocomply
withanyoftheconditionswhichtheformerimposeduponthelatter.

Inthiscase,thepropertydonatedshallbereturnedtothedonor,thealienationsmadebythedonee
andthemortgagesimposedthereonbyhimbeingvoid,withthelimitationsestablished,withregardto
thirdpersons,bytheMortgageLawandtheLandRegistrationLaws.

Thisactionshallprescribeafterfouryearsfromthenoncompliancewiththecondition,maybe
transmittedtotheheirsofthedonor,andmaybeexercisedagainstthedonee'sheirs.(647a)

Art.765.Thedonationmayalsoberevokedattheinstanceofthedonor,byreasonofingratitudeinthe
followingcases:

(1)Ifthedoneeshouldcommitsomeoffenseagainsttheperson,thehonororthepropertyofthe
donor,orofhiswifeorchildrenunderhisparentalauthority;
(2)Ifthedoneeimputestothedonoranycriminaloffense,oranyactinvolvingmoralturpitude,even
thoughheshouldproveit,unlessthecrimeortheacthasbeencommittedagainstthedoneehimself,
hiswifeorchildrenunderhisauthority;

(3)Ifheundulyrefuseshimsupportwhenthedoneeislegallyormorallyboundtogivesupporttothe
donor.(648a)

Art.766.Althoughthedonationisrevokedonaccountofingratitude,nevertheless,thealienationsand
mortgageseffectedbeforethenotationofthecomplaintforrevocationintheRegistryofPropertyshall
subsist.
Lateronesshallbevoid.(649)
Art.767.Inthecasereferredtointhefirstparagraphoftheprecedingarticle,thedonorshallhavea
righttodemandfromthedoneethevalueofpropertyalienatedwhichhecannotrecoverfromthird
persons,orthesumforwhichthesamehasbeenmortgaged.

Thevalueofsaidpropertyshallbefixedasofthetimeofthedonation.(650)

Art.768.WhenthedonationisrevokedforanyofthecausesstatedinArticle760,orbyreasonof
ingratitude,orwhenitisreducedbecauseitisinofficious,thedoneeshallnotreturnthefruitsexcept
fromthefilingofthecomplaint.

Iftherevocationisbaseduponnoncompliancewithanyoftheconditionsimposedinthedonation,the
doneeshallreturnnotonlythepropertybutalsothefruitsthereofwhichhemayhavereceivedafter
havingfailedtofulfillthecondition.(651)

Art.769.Theactiongrantedtothedonorbyreasonofingratitudecannotberenouncedinadvance.This
actionprescribeswithinoneyear,tobecountedfromthetimethedonorhadknowledgeofthefactand
itwaspossibleforhimtobringtheaction.(652)

Art.770.Thisactionshallnotbetransmittedtotheheirsofthedonor,ifthelatterdidnotinstitutethe
same,althoughhecouldhavedoneso,andevenifheshoulddiebeforetheexpirationofoneyear.

Neithercanthisactionbebroughtagainsttheheirofthedonee,unlessuponthelatter'sdeaththe
complainthasbeenfiled.(653)

Art.771.DonationswhichinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofArticle752,areinofficious,bearingin
mindtheestimatednetvalueofthedonor'spropertyatthetimeofhisdeath,shallbereducedwith
regardtotheexcess;butthisreductionshallnotpreventthedonationsfromtakingeffectduringthelife
ofthedonor,norshallitbarthedoneefromappropriatingthefruits.

ForthereductionofdonationstheprovisionsofthisChapterandofArticles911and912ofthisCode
shallgovern.(654)

Art.772.Onlythosewhoatthetimeofthedonor'sdeathhavearighttothelegitimeandtheirheirsand
successorsininterestmayaskforthereductionorinofficiousdonations.

Thosereferredtointheprecedingparagraphcannotrenouncetheirrightduringthelifetimeofthe
donor,eitherbyexpressdeclaration,orbyconsentingtothedonation.

Thedonees,deviseesandlegatees,whoarenotentitledtothelegitimeandthecreditorsofthe
deceasedcanneitheraskforthereductionnoravailthemselvesthereof.(655a)

Art.773.If,therebeingtwoormoredonations,thedisposableportionisnotsufficienttocoverallof
them,thoseofthemorerecentdateshallbesuppressedorreducedwithregardtotheexcess.(656)

TitleIV.SUCCESSION

CHAPTER1
GENERALPROVISIONS

Art.774.Successionisamodeofacquisitionbyvirtueofwhichtheproperty,rightsandobligationsto
theextentofthevalueoftheinheritance,ofapersonaretransmittedthroughhisdeathtoanotheror
otherseitherbyhiswillorbyoperationoflaw.(n)
Art.775.InthisTitle,"decedent"isthegeneraltermappliedtothepersonwhosepropertyis
transmittedthroughsuccession,whetherornotheleftawill.Ifheleftawill,heisalsocalledthe
testator.(n)

Art.776.Theinheritanceincludesalltheproperty,rightsandobligationsofapersonwhicharenot
extinguishedbyhisdeath.(659)

Art.777.Therightstothesuccessionaretransmittedfromthemomentofthedeathofthedecedent.
(657a)

Art.778.Successionmaybe:

(1)Testamentary;
(2)Legalorintestate;or

(3)Mixed.(n)

Art.779.Testamentarysuccessionisthatwhichresultsfromthedesignationofanheir,madeinawill
executedintheformprescribedbylaw.(n)
Art.780.Mixedsuccessionisthateffectedpartlybywillandpartlybyoperationoflaw.(n)

Art.781.Theinheritanceofapersonincludesnotonlythepropertyandthetransmissiblerightsand
obligationsexistingatthetimeofhisdeath,butalsothosewhichhaveaccruedtheretosincethe
openingofthesuccession.(n)

Art.782.Anheirisapersoncalledtothesuccessioneitherbytheprovisionofawillorbyoperationof
law.

Deviseesandlegateesarepersonstowhomgiftsofrealandpersonalpropertyarerespectivelygivenby
virtueofawill.(n)

CHAPTER2
TESTAMENTARYSUCCESSION

SECTION1.Wills

SUBSECTION1.WillsinGeneral

Art.783.Awillisanactwherebyapersonispermitted,withtheformalitiesprescribedbylaw,tocontrol
toacertaindegreethedispositionofthisestate,totakeeffectafterhisdeath.(667a)
Art.784.Themakingofawillisastrictlypersonalact;itcannotbeleftinwholeorinpartofthe
discretionofathirdperson,oraccomplishedthroughtheinstrumentalityofanagentorattorney.(670a)

Art.785.Thedurationorefficacyofthedesignationofheirs,deviseesorlegatees,orthedetermination
oftheportionswhichtheyaretotake,whenreferredtobyname,cannotbelefttothediscretionofa
thirdperson.(670a)

Art.786.Thetestatormayentrusttoathirdpersonthedistributionofspecificpropertyorsumsof
moneythathemayleaveingeneraltospecifiedclassesorcauses,andalsothedesignationofthe
persons,institutionsorestablishmentstowhichsuchpropertyorsumsaretobegivenorapplied.(671a)

Art.787.Thetestatormaynotmakeatestamentarydispositioninsuchmannerthatanotherpersonhas
todeterminewhetherornotitistobeoperative.(n)

Art.788.Ifatestamentarydispositionadmitsofdifferentinterpretations,incaseofdoubt,that
interpretationbywhichthedispositionistobeoperativeshallbepreferred.(n)

Art.789.Whenthereisanimperfectdescription,orwhennopersonorpropertyexactlyanswersthe
description,mistakesandomissionsmustbecorrected,iftheerrorappearsfromthecontextofthewill
orfromextrinsicevidence,excludingtheoraldeclarationsofthetestatorastohisintention;andwhen
anuncertaintyarisesuponthefaceofthewill,astotheapplicationofanyofitsprovisions,the
testator'sintentionistobeascertainedfromthewordsofthewill,takingintoconsiderationthe
circumstancesunderwhichitwasmade,excludingsuchoraldeclarations.(n)

Art.790.Thewordsofawillaretobetakenintheirordinaryandgrammaticalsense,unlessaclear
intentiontousetheminanothersensecanbegathered,andthatothercanbeascertained.

Technicalwordsinawillaretobetakenintheirtechnicalsense,unlessthecontextclearlyindicatesa
contraryintention,orunlessitsatisfactorilyappearsthathewasunacquaintedwithsuchtechnical
sense.(675a)

Art.791.Thewordsofawillaretoreceiveaninterpretationwhichwillgivetoeveryexpressionsome
effect,ratherthanonewhichwillrenderanyoftheexpressionsinoperative;andoftwomodesof
interpretingawill,thatistobepreferredwhichwillpreventintestacy.(n)

Art.792.Theinvalidityofoneofseveraldispositionscontainedinawilldoesnotresultintheinvalidity
oftheotherdispositions,unlessitistobepresumedthatthetestatorwouldnothavemadesuchother
dispositionsifthefirstinvaliddispositionhadnotbeenmade.(n)

Art.793.Propertyacquiredafterthemakingofawillshallonlypassthereby,asifthetestatorhad
possesseditatthetimeofmakingthewill,shoulditexpresslyappearbythewillthatsuchwashis
intention.(n)

Art.794.Everydeviseorlegacyshallcoveralltheinterestwhichthetestatorcoulddeviceorbequeath
inthepropertydisposedof,unlessitclearlyappearsfromthewillthatheintendedtoconveyaless
interest.(n)

Art.795.Thevalidityofawillastoitsformdependsupontheobservanceofthelawinforceatthetime
itismade.(n)

SUBSECTION2.TestamentaryCapacityandIntent

Art.796.Allpersonswhoarenotexpresslyprohibitedbylawmaymakeawill.(662)
Art.797.Personsofeithersexundereighteenyearsofagecannotmakeawill.(n)

Art.798.Inordertomakeawillitisessentialthatthetestatorbeofsoundmindatthetimeofits
execution.(n)

Art.799.Tobeofsoundmind,itisnotnecessarythatthetestatorbeinfullpossessionofallhis
reasoningfaculties,orthathismindbewhollyunbroken,unimpaired,orunshatteredbydisease,injury
orothercause.

Itshallbesufficientifthetestatorwasableatthetimeofmakingthewilltoknowthenatureofthe
estatetobedisposedof,theproperobjectsofhisbounty,andthecharacterofthetestamentaryact.(n)

Art.800.Thelawpresumesthateverypersonisofsoundmind,intheabsenceofprooftothecontrary.

Theburdenofproofthatthetestatorwasnotofsoundmindatthetimeofmakinghisdispositionsison
thepersonwhoopposestheprobateofthewill;butifthetestator,onemonth,orless,beforemaking
hiswillwaspubliclyknowntobeinsane,thepersonwhomaintainsthevalidityofthewillmustprove
thatthetestatormadeitduringalucidinterval.(n)

Art.801.Superveningincapacitydoesnotinvalidateaneffectivewill,noristhewillofanincapable
validatedbythesuperveningofcapacity.(n)

Art.802.Amarriedwomanmaymakeawillwithouttheconsentofherhusband,andwithoutthe
authorityofthecourt.(n)

Art.803.Amarriedwomanmaydisposebywillofallherseparatepropertyaswellashershareofthe
conjugalpartnershiporabsolutecommunityproperty.(n)

SUBSECTION3.FormsofWills

Art.804.Everywillmustbeinwritingandexecutedinalanguageordialectknowntothetestator.(n)
Art.805.Everywill,otherthanaholographicwill,mustbesubscribedattheendthereofbythetestator
himselforbythetestator'snamewrittenbysomeotherpersoninhispresence,andbyhisexpress
direction,andattestedandsubscribedbythreeormorecrediblewitnessesinthepresenceofthe
testatorandofoneanother.

Thetestatororthepersonrequestedbyhimtowritehisnameandtheinstrumentalwitnessesofthe
will,shallalsosign,asaforesaid,eachandeverypagethereof,exceptthelast,ontheleftmargin,andall
thepagesshallbenumberedcorrelativelyinlettersplacedontheupperpartofeachpage.

Theattestationshallstatethenumberofpagesuseduponwhichthewilliswritten,andthefactthatthe
testatorsignedthewillandeverypagethereof,orcausedsomeotherpersontowritehisname,under
hisexpressdirection,inthepresenceoftheinstrumentalwitnesses,andthatthelatterwitnessedand
signedthewillandallthepagesthereofinthepresenceofthetestatorandofoneanother.

Iftheattestationclauseisinalanguagenotknowntothewitnesses,itshallbeinterpretedtothem.(n)

Art.806.Everywillmustbeacknowledgedbeforeanotarypublicbythetestatorandthewitnesses.The
notarypublicshallnotberequiredtoretainacopyofthewill,orfileanotherwiththeOfficeoftheClerk
ofCourt.(n)

Art.807.Ifthetestatorbedeaf,oradeafmute,hemustpersonallyreadthewill,ifabletodoso;
otherwise,heshalldesignatetwopersonstoreaditandcommunicatetohim,insomepracticable
manner,thecontentsthereof.(n)

Art.808.Ifthetestatorisblind,thewillshallbereadtohimtwice;once,byoneofthesubscribing
witnesses,andagain,bythenotarypublicbeforewhomthewillisacknowledged.(n)

Art.809.Intheabsenceofbadfaith,forgery,orfraud,orundueandimproperpressureandinfluence,
defectsandimperfectionsintheformofattestationorinthelanguageusedthereinshallnotrenderthe
willinvalidifitisprovedthatthewillwasinfactexecutedandattestedinsubstantialcompliancewithall
therequirementsofArticle805.(n)

Art.810.Apersonmayexecuteaholographicwillwhichmustbeentirelywritten,dated,andsignedby
thehandofthetestatorhimself.Itissubjecttonootherform,andmaybemadeinoroutofthe
Philippines,andneednotbewitnessed.(678,688a)

Art.811.Intheprobateofaholographicwill,itshallbenecessarythatatleastonewitnesswhoknows
thehandwritingandsignatureofthetestatorexplicitlydeclarethatthewillandthesignatureareinthe
handwritingofthetestator.Ifthewilliscontested,atleastthreeofsuchwitnessesshallberequired.

Intheabsenceofanycompetentwitnessreferredtointheprecedingparagraph,andifthecourtdeem
itnecessary,experttestimonymayberesortedto.(619a)

Art.812.Inholographicwills,thedispositionsofthetestatorwrittenbelowhissignaturemustbedated
andsignedbyhiminordertomakethemvalidastestamentarydispositions.(n)

Art.813.Whenanumberofdispositionsappearinginaholographicwillaresignedwithoutbeingdated,
andthelastdispositionhasasignatureandadate,suchdatevalidatesthedispositionsprecedingit,
whateverbethetimeofpriordispositions.(n)

Art.814.Incaseofanyinsertion,cancellation,erasureoralterationinaholographicwill,thetestator
mustauthenticatethesamebyhisfullsignature.(n)

Art.815.WhenaFilipinoisinaforeigncountry,heisauthorizedtomakeawillinanyoftheforms
establishedbythelawofthecountryinwhichhemaybe.SuchwillmaybeprobatedinthePhilippines.
(n)

Art.816.ThewillofanalienwhoisabroadproduceseffectinthePhilippinesifmadewiththe
formalitiesprescribedbythelawoftheplaceinwhichheresides,oraccordingtotheformalities
observedinhiscountry,orinconformitywiththosewhichthisCodeprescribes.(n)

Art.817.AwillmadeinthePhilippinesbyacitizenorsubjectofanothercountry,whichisexecutedin
accordancewiththelawofthecountryofwhichheisacitizenorsubject,andwhichmightbeproved
andallowedbythelawofhisowncountry,shallhavethesameeffectasifexecutedaccordingtothe
lawsofthePhilippines.(n)

Art.818.Twoormorepersonscannotmakeawilljointly,orinthesameinstrument,eitherfortheir
reciprocalbenefitorforthebenefitofathirdperson.(669)

Art.819.Wills,prohibitedbytheprecedingarticle,executedbyFilipinosinaforeigncountryshallnotbe
validinthePhilippines,eventhoughauthorizedbythelawsofthecountrywheretheymayhavebeen
executed.(733a)

SUBSECTION4.WitnessestoWills

Art.820.Anypersonofsoundmindandoftheageofeighteenyearsormore,andnotbind,deafor
dumb,andabletoreadandwrite,maybeawitnesstotheexecutionofawillmentionedinArticle805
ofthisCode.(n)
Art.821.Thefollowingaredisqualifiedfrombeingwitnessestoawill:

(1)AnypersonnotdomiciledinthePhilippines;
(2)Thosewhohavebeenconvictedoffalsificationofadocument,perjuryorfalsetestimony.(n)

Art.822.Ifthewitnessesattestingtheexecutionofawillarecompetentatthetimeofattesting,their
becomingsubsequentlyincompetentshallnotpreventtheallowanceofthewill.(n)
Art.823.Ifapersonatteststheexecutionofawill,towhomortowhosespouse,orparent,orchild,a
deviseorlegacyisgivenbysuchwill,suchdeviseorlegacyshall,sofaronlyasconcernssuchperson,or
spouse,orparent,orchildofsuchperson,oranyoneclaimingundersuchpersonorspouse,orparent,
orchild,bevoid,unlesstherearethreeothercompetentwitnessestosuchwill.However,suchperson
soattestingshallbeadmittedasawitnessasifsuchdeviseorlegacyhadnotbeenmadeorgiven.(n)

Art.824.Amerechargeontheestateofthetestatorforthepaymentofdebtsdueatthetimeofthe
testator'sdeathdoesnotpreventhiscreditorsfrombeingcompetentwitnessestohiswill.(n)

SUBSECTION5.CodicilsandIncorporationbyReference
Art.825.Acodicilissupplementoradditiontoawill,madeaftertheexecutionofawillandannexedto
betakenasapartthereof,bywhichdispositionmadeintheoriginalwillisexplained,addedto,or
altered.(n)

Art.826.Inorderthatacodicilmaybeeffective,itshallbeexecutedasinthecaseofawill.(n)

Art.827.Ifawill,executedasrequiredbythisCode,incorporatesintoitselfbyreferenceanydocument
orpaper,suchdocumentorpapershallnotbeconsideredapartofthewillunlessthefollowing
requisitesarepresent:

(1)Thedocumentorpaperreferredtointhewillmustbeinexistenceatthetimeoftheexecutionof
thewill;
(2)Thewillmustclearlydescribeandidentifythesame,statingamongotherthingsthenumberofpages
thereof;

(3)Itmustbeidentifiedbyclearandsatisfactoryproofasthedocumentorpaperreferredtotherein;
and

(4)Itmustbesignedbythetestatorandthewitnessesoneachandeverypage,exceptincaseof
voluminousbooksofaccountorinventories.(n)

SUBSECTION6.RevocationofWillsandTestamentaryDispositions

Art.828.Awillmayberevokedbythetestatoratanytimebeforehisdeath.Anywaiverorrestrictionof
thisrightisvoid.(737a)
Art.829.ArevocationdoneoutsidethePhilippines,byapersonwhodoesnothavehisdomicileinthis
country,isvalidwhenitisdoneaccordingtothelawoftheplacewherethewillwasmade,oraccording
tothelawoftheplaceinwhichthetestatorhadhisdomicileatthetime;andiftherevocationtakes
placeinthiscountry,whenitisinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofthisCode.(n)

Art.830.Nowillshallberevokedexceptinthefollowingcases:

(1)Byimplicationoflaw;or
(2)Bysomewill,codicil,orotherwritingexecutedasprovidedincaseofwills;or

(3)Byburning,tearing,cancelling,orobliteratingthewillwiththeintentionofrevokingit,bythe
testatorhimself,orbysomeotherpersoninhispresence,andbyhisexpressdirection.Ifburned,torn,
cancelled,orobliteratedbysomeotherperson,withouttheexpressdirectionofthetestator,thewill
maystillbeestablished,andtheestatedistributedinaccordancetherewith,ifitscontents,anddue
execution,andthefactofitsunauthorizeddestruction,cancellation,orobliterationareestablished
accordingtotheRulesofCourt.(n)

Art.831.Subsequentwillswhichdonotrevokethepreviousonesinanexpressmanner,annulonlysuch
dispositionsinthepriorwillsasareinconsistentwithorcontrarytothosecontainedinthelatterwills.
(n)
Art.832.Arevocationmadeinasubsequentwillshalltakeeffect,evenifthenewwillshouldbecome
inoperativebyreasonoftheincapacityoftheheirs,deviseesorlegateesdesignatedtherein,orbytheir
renunciation.(740a)

Art.833.Arevocationofawillbasedonafalsecauseoranillegalcauseisnullandvoid.(n)

Art.834.Therecognitionofanillegitimatechilddoesnotloseitslegaleffect,eventhoughthewill
whereinitwasmadeshouldberevoked.(714)

SUBSECTION7.RepublicationandRevivalofWills

Art.835.Thetestatorcannotrepublish,withoutreproducinginasubsequentwill,thedispositions
containedinapreviousonewhichisvoidastoitsform.(n)
Art.836.Theexecutionofacodicilreferringtoapreviouswillhastheeffectofrepublishingthewillas
modifiedbythecodicil.(n)

Art.837.Ifaftermakingawill,thetestatormakesasecondwillexpresslyrevokingthefirst,the
revocationofthesecondwilldoesnotrevivethefirstwill,whichcanberevivedonlybyanotherwillor
codicil.(739a)

SUBSECTION8.AllowanceandDisallowanceofWills

Art.838.Nowillshallpasseitherrealorpersonalpropertyunlessitisprovedandallowedinaccordance
withtheRulesofCourt.
Thetestatorhimselfmay,duringhislifetime,petitionthecourthavingjurisdictionfortheallowanceof
hiswill.Insuchcase,thepertinentprovisionsoftheRulesofCourtfortheallowanceofwillsafterthe
testator'sadeathshallgovern.

TheSupremeCourtshallformulatesuchadditionalRulesofCourtasmaybenecessaryfortheallowance
ofwillsonpetitionofthetestator.

Subjecttotherightofappeal,theallowanceofthewill,eitherduringthelifetimeofthetestatororafter
hisdeath,shallbeconclusiveastoitsdueexecution.(n)

Art.839.Thewillshallbedisallowedinanyofthefollowingcases:

(1)Iftheformalitiesrequiredbylawhavenotbeencompliedwith;
(2)Ifthetestatorwasinsane,orotherwisementallyincapableofmakingawill,atthetimeofits
execution;

(3)Ifitwasexecutedthroughforceorunderduress,ortheinfluenceoffear,orthreats;

(4)Ifitwasprocuredbyundueandimproperpressureandinfluence,onthepartofthebeneficiaryorof
someotherperson;

(5)Ifthesignatureofthetestatorwasprocuredbyfraud;

(6)Ifthetestatoractedbymistakeordidnotintendthattheinstrumenthesignedshouldbehiswillat
thetimeofaffixinghissignaturethereto.(n)

SECTION2.InstitutionofHeir

Art.840.Institutionofheirisanactbyvirtueofwhichatestatordesignatesinhiswillthepersonor
personswhoaretosucceedhiminhispropertyandtransmissiblerightsandobligations.(n)
Art.841.Awillshallbevalideventhoughitshouldnotcontainaninstitutionofanheir,orsuch
institutionshouldnotcomprisetheentireestate,andeventhoughthepersonsoinstitutedshouldnot
accepttheinheritanceorshouldbeincapacitatedtosucceed.

Insuchcasesthetestamentarydispositionsmadeinaccordancewithlawshallbecompliedwithandthe
remainderoftheestateshallpasstothelegalheirs.(764)

Art.842.Onewhohasnocompulsoryheirsmaydisposebywillofallhisestateoranypartofitinfavor
ofanypersonhavingcapacitytosucceed.

Onewhohascompulsoryheirsmaydisposeofhisestateprovidedhedoesnotcontravenethe
provisionsofthisCodewithregardtothelegitimeofsaidheirs.(763a)

Art.843.Thetestatorshalldesignatetheheirbyhisnameandsurname,andwhentherearetwo
personshavingthesamenames,heshallindicatesomecircumstancebywhichtheinstitutedheirmay
beknown.

Eventhoughthetestatormayhaveomittedthenameoftheheir,shouldhedesignatehiminsuch
mannerthattherecanbenodoubtastowhohasbeeninstituted,theinstitutionshallbevalid.(772)

Art.844.Anerrorinthename,surname,orcircumstancesoftheheirshallnotvitiatetheinstitution
whenitispossible,inanyothermanner,toknowwithcertaintythepersoninstituted.

Ifamongpersonshavingthesamenamesandsurnames,thereisasimilarityofcircumstancesinsucha
waythat,evenwiththeuseoftheotherproof,thepersoninstitutedcannotbeidentified,noneofthem
shallbeanheir.(773a)

Art.845.Everydispositioninfavorofanunknownpersonshallbevoid,unlessbysomeeventor
circumstancehisidentitybecomescertain.However,adispositioninfavorofadefiniteclassorgroupof
personsshallbevalid.(750a)

Art.846.Heirsinstitutedwithoutdesignationofsharesshallinheritinequalparts.(765)

Art.847.Whenthetestatorinstitutessomeheirsindividuallyandotherscollectivelyaswhenhesays,"I
designateasmyheirsAandB,andthechildrenofC,"thosecollectivelydesignatedshallbeconsidered
asindividuallyinstituted,unlessitclearlyappearsthattheintentionofthetestatorwasotherwise.
(769a)

Art.848.Ifthetestatorshouldinstitutehisbrothersandsisters,andhehassomeoffullbloodand
othersofhalfblood,theinheritanceshallbedistributedequallyunlessadifferentintentionappears.
(770a)

Art.849.Whenthetestatorcallstothesuccessionapersonandhischildrentheyarealldeemedtohave
beeninstitutedsimultaneouslyandnotsuccessively.(771)

Art.850.Thestatementofafalsecausefortheinstitutionofanheirshallbeconsideredasnotwritten,
unlessitappearsfromthewillthatthetestatorwouldnothavemadesuchinstitutionifhehadknown
thefalsityofsuchcause.(767a)

Art.851.Ifthetestatorhasinstitutedonlyoneheir,andtheinstitutionislimitedtoanaliquotpartof
theinheritance,legalsuccessiontakesplacewithrespecttotheremainderoftheestate.

Thesameruleappliesifthetestatorhasinstitutedseveralheirs,eachbeinglimitedtoanaliquotpart,
andallthepartsdonotcoverthewholeinheritance.(n)

Art.852.Ifitwastheintentionofthetestatorthattheinstitutedheirsshouldbecomesoleheirstothe
wholeestate,orthewholefreeportion,asthecasemaybe,andeachofthemhasbeeninstitutedtoan
aliquotpartoftheinheritanceandtheiraliquotpartstogetherdonotcoverthewholeinheritance,or
thewholefreeportion,eachpartshallbeincreasedproportionally.(n)

Art.853.Ifeachoftheinstitutedheirshasbeengivenanaliquotpartoftheinheritance,andtheparts
togetherexceedthewholeinheritance,orthewholefreeportion,asthecasemaybe,eachpartshallbe
reducedproportionally.(n)

Art.854.Thepreteritionoromissionofone,some,orallofthecompulsoryheirsinthedirectline,
whetherlivingatthetimeoftheexecutionofthewillorbornafterthedeathofthetestator,shallannul
theinstitutionofheir;butthedevisesandlegaciesshallbevalidinsofarastheyarenotinofficious.

Iftheomittedcompulsoryheirsshoulddiebeforethetestator,theinstitutionshallbeeffectual,without
prejudicetotherightofrepresentation.(814a)

Art.855.Theshareofachildordescendantomittedinawillmustfirstbetakenfromthepartofthe
estatenotdisposedofbythewill,ifany;ifthatisnotsufficient,somuchasmaybenecessarymustbe
takenproportionallyfromthesharesoftheothercompulsoryheirs.(1080a)

Art.856.Avoluntaryheirwhodiesbeforethetestatortransmitsnothingtohisheirs.

Acompulsoryheirwhodiesbeforethetestator,apersonincapacitatedtosucceed,andonewho
renouncestheinheritance,shalltransmitnorighttohisownheirsexceptincasesexpresslyprovidedfor
inthisCode.(766a)

SECTION3.SubstitutionofHeirs

Art.857.Substitutionistheappointmentofanotherheirsothathemayenterintotheinheritancein
defaultoftheheiroriginallyinstituted.(n)
Art.858.Substitutionofheirsmaybe:

(1)Simpleorcommon;
(2)Brieforcompendious;

(3)Reciprocal;or

(4)Fideicommissary.(n)

Art.859.Thetestatormaydesignateoneormorepersonstosubstitutetheheirorheirsinstitutedin
casesuchheirorheirsshoulddiebeforehim,orshouldnotwish,orshouldbeincapacitatedtoaccept
theinheritance.
Asimplesubstitution,withoutastatementofthecasestowhichitrefers,shallcomprisethethree
mentionedintheprecedingparagraph,unlessthetestatorhasotherwiseprovided.(774)

Art.860.Twoormorepersonsmaybesubstitutedforone;andonepersonfortwoormoreheirs.(778)

Art.861.Ifheirsinstitutedinunequalsharesshouldbereciprocallysubstituted,thesubstituteshall
acquiretheshareoftheheirwhodies,renounces,orisincapacitated,unlessitclearlyappearsthatthe
intentionofthetestatorwasotherwise.Iftherearemorethanonesubstitute,theyshallhavethesame
shareinthesubstitutionasintheinstitution.(779a)

Art.862.Thesubstituteshallbesubjecttothesamechargesandconditionsimposedupontheinstituted
heir,unlessandtestatorhasexpresslyprovidedthecontrary,orthechargesorconditionsarepersonally
applicableonlytotheheirinstituted.(780)

Art.863.Afideicommissarysubstitutionbyvirtueofwhichthefiduciaryorfirstheirinstitutedis
entrustedwiththeobligationtopreserveandtotransmittoasecondheirthewholeorpartofthe
inheritance,shallbevalidandshalltakeeffect,providedsuchsubstitutiondoesnotgobeyondone
degreefromtheheiroriginallyinstituted,andprovidedfurther,thatthefiduciaryorfirstheirandthe
secondheirarelivingatthetimeofthedeathofthetestator.(781a)

Art.864.Afideicommissarysubstitutioncanneverburdenthelegitime.(782a)

Art.865.Everyfideicommissarysubstitutionmustbeexpresslymadeinorderthatitmaybevalid.

Thefiduciaryshallbeobligedtodelivertheinheritancetothesecondheir,withoutotherdeductions
thanthosewhicharisefromlegitimateexpenses,creditsandimprovements,saveinthecasewherethe
testatorhasprovidedotherwise.(783)

Art.866.Thesecondheirshallacquirearighttothesuccessionfromthetimeofthetestator'sdeath,
eventhoughheshoulddiebeforethefiduciary.Therightofthesecondheirshallpasstohisheirs.(784)

Art.867.Thefollowingshallnottakeeffect:

(1)Fideicommissarysubstitutionswhicharenotmadeinanexpressmanner,eitherbygivingthemthis
name,orimposinguponthefiduciarytheabsoluteobligationtodeliverthepropertytoasecondheir;
(2)Provisionswhichcontainaperpetualprohibitiontoalienate,andevenatemporaryone,beyondthe
limitfixedinarticle863;

(3)Thosewhichimposeupontheheirthechargeofpayingtovariouspersonssuccessively,beyondthe
limitprescribedinarticle863,acertainincomeorpension;

(4)Thosewhichleavetoapersonthewholepartofthehereditarypropertyinorderthathemayapply
orinvestthesameaccordingtosecretinstructionscommunicatedtohimbythetestator.(785a)

Art.868.Thenullityofthefideicommissarysubstitutiondoesnotprejudicethevalidityoftheinstitution
oftheheirsfirstdesignated;thefideicommissaryclauseshallsimplybeconsideredasnotwritten.(786)
Art.869.Aprovisionwherebythetestatorleavestoapersonthewholeorpartoftheinheritance,and
toanothertheusufruct,shallbevalid.Ifhegivestheusufructtovariouspersons,notsimultaneously,
butsuccessively,theprovisionsofArticle863shallapply.(787a)

Art.870.Thedispositionsofthetestatordeclaringallorpartoftheestateinalienableformorethan
twentyyearsarevoid.(n)

SECTION4.ConditionalTestamentaryDispositions
andTestamentaryDispositionsWithaTerm

Art.871.Theinstitutionofanheirmaybemadeconditionally,orforacertainpurposeorcause.(790a)
Art.872.Thetestatorcannotimposeanycharge,condition,orsubstitutionwhatsoeveruponthe
legitimesprescribedinthisCode.Shouldhedoso,thesameshallbeconsideredasnotimposed.(813a)

Art.873.Impossibleconditionsandthosecontrarytolaworgoodcustomsshallbeconsideredasnot
imposedandshallinnomannerprejudicetheheir,evenifthetestatorshouldotherwiseprovide.(792a)

Art.874.Anabsoluteconditionnottocontractafirstorsubsequentmarriageshallbeconsideredasnot
writtenunlesssuchconditionhasbeenimposedonthewidoworwidowerbythedeceasedspouse,or
bythelatter'sascendantsordescendants.

Nevertheless,therightofusufruct,oranallowanceorsomepersonalprestationmaybedevisedor
bequeathedtoanypersonforthetimeduringwhichheorsheshouldremainunmarriedorin
widowhood.(793a)

Art.875.Anydispositionmadeupontheconditionthattheheirshallmakesomeprovisioninhiswillin
favorofthetestatororofanyotherpersonshallbevoid.(794a)

Art.876.Anypurelypotestativeconditionimposeduponanheirmustbefulfilledbyhimassoonashe
learnsofthetestator'sdeath.

Thisruleshallnotapplywhenthecondition,alreadycompliedwith,cannotbefulfilledagain.(795a)

Art.877.Iftheconditioniscasualormixed,itshallbesufficientifithappensorbefulfilledatanytime
beforeorafterthedeathofthetestator,unlesshehasprovidedotherwise.

Shouldithaveexistedorshouldithavebeenfulfilledatthetimethewillwasexecutedandthetestator
wasunawarethereof,itshallbedeemedascompliedwith.

Ifhehadknowledgethereof,theconditionshallbeconsideredfulfilledonlywhenitisofsuchanature
thatitcannolongerexistorbecompliedwithagain.(796)

Art.878.Adispositionwithasuspensivetermdoesnotpreventtheinstitutedheirfromacquiringhis
rightsandtransmittingthemtohisheirsevenbeforethearrivaloftheterm.(799a)

Art.879.Ifthepotestativeconditionimposedupontheheirisnegative,orconsistsinnotdoingornot
givingsomething,heshallcomplybygivingasecuritythathewillnotdoorgivethatwhichhasbeen
prohibitedbythetestator,andthatincaseofcontraventionhewillreturnwhateverhemayhave
received,togetherwithitsfruitsandinterests.(800a)

Art.880.Iftheheirbeinstitutedunderasuspensiveconditionorterm,theestateshallbeplacedunder
administrationuntiltheconditionisfulfilled,oruntilitbecomescertainthatitcannotbefulfilled,or
untilthearrivaloftheterm.

Thesameshallbedoneiftheheirdoesnotgivethesecurityrequiredintheprecedingarticle.(801a)

Art.881.Theappointmentoftheadministratoroftheestatementionedintheprecedingarticle,aswell
asthemanneroftheadministrationandtherightsandobligationsoftheadministratorshallbe
governedbytheRulesofCourt.(804a)

Art.882.Thestatementoftheobjectoftheinstitution,ortheapplicationofthepropertyleftbythe
testator,orthechargeimposedbyhim,shallnotbeconsideredasaconditionunlessitappearsthat
suchwashisintention.

Thatwhichhasbeenleftinthismannermaybeclaimedatonceprovidedthattheinstitutedheirorhis
heirsgivesecurityforcompliancewiththewishesofthetestatorandforthereturnofanythingheor
theymayreceive,togetherwithitsfruitsandinterests,ifheortheyshoulddisregardthisobligation.
(797a)

Art.883.Whenwithoutthefaultoftheheir,aninstitutionreferredtointheprecedingarticlecannot
takeeffectintheexactmannerstatedbythetestator,itshallbecompliedwithinamannermost
analogoustoandinconformitywithhiswishes.

Ifthepersoninterestedintheconditionshouldpreventitsfulfillment,withoutthefaultoftheheir,the
conditionshallbedeemedtohavebeencompliedwith.(798a)

Art.884.Conditionsimposedbythetestatorupontheheirsshallbegovernedbytherulesestablished
forconditionalobligationsinallmattersnotprovidedforbythisSection.(791a)

Art.885.Thedesignationofthedayortimewhentheeffectsoftheinstitutionofanheirshall
commenceorceaseshallbevalid.

Inbothcases,thelegalheirshallbeconsideredascalledtothesuccessionuntilthearrivaloftheperiod
oritsexpiration.Butinthefirstcaseheshallnotenterintopossessionofthepropertyuntilafterhaving
givensufficientsecurity,withtheinterventionoftheinstitutedheir.(805)

SECTION5.Legitime

Art.886.Legitimeisthatpartofthetestator'spropertywhichhecannotdisposeofbecausethelawhas
reserveditforcertainheirswhoare,therefore,calledcompulsoryheirs.(806)
Art.887.Thefollowingarecompulsoryheirs:

(1)Legitimatechildrenanddescendants,withrespecttotheirlegitimateparentsandascendants;
(2)Indefaultoftheforegoing,legitimateparentsandascendants,withrespecttotheirlegitimate
childrenanddescendants;

(3)Thewidoworwidower;

(4)Acknowledgednaturalchildren,andnaturalchildrenbylegalfiction;

(5)OtherillegitimatechildrenreferredtoinArticle287.

CompulsoryheirsmentionedinNos.3,4,and5arenotexcludedbythoseinNos.1and2;neitherdo
theyexcludeoneanother.
Inallcasesofillegitimatechildren,theirfiliationmustbedulyproved.

Thefatherormotherofillegitimatechildrenofthethreeclassesmentioned,shallinheritfromthemin
themannerandtotheextentestablishedbythisCode.(807a)

Art.888.Thelegitimeoflegitimatechildrenanddescendantsconsistsofonehalfofthehereditary
estateofthefatherandofthemother.

Thelattermayfreelydisposeoftheremaininghalf,subjecttotherightsofillegitimatechildrenandof
thesurvivingspouseashereinafterprovided.(808a)

Art.889.Thelegitimeoflegitimateparentsorascendantsconsistsofonehalfofthehereditaryestates
oftheirchildrenanddescendants.

Thechildrenordescendantsmayfreelydisposeoftheotherhalf,subjecttotherightsofillegitimate
childrenandofthesurvivingspouseashereinafterprovided.(809a)

Art.890.Thelegitimereservedforthelegitimateparentsshallbedividedbetweenthemequally;ifone
oftheparentsshouldhavedied,thewholeshallpasstothesurvivor.

Ifthetestatorleavesneitherfathernormother,butissurvivedbyascendantsofequaldegreeofthe
paternalandmaternallines,thelegitimeshallbedividedequallybetweenbothlines.Iftheascendants
shouldbeofdifferentdegrees,itshallpertainentirelytotheonesnearestindegreeofeitherline.(810)

Art.891.Theascendantwhoinheritsfromhisdescendantanypropertywhichthelattermayhave
acquiredbygratuitoustitlefromanotherascendant,orabrotherorsister,isobligedtoreservesuch
propertyashemayhaveacquiredbyoperationoflawforthebenefitofrelativeswhoarewithinthe
thirddegreeandwhobelongtothelinefromwhichsaidpropertycame.(871)

Art.892.Ifonlyonelegitimatechildordescendantofthedeceasedsurvives,thewidoworwidowershall
beentitledtoonefourthofthehereditaryestate.Incaseofalegalseparation,thesurvivingspousemay
inheritifitwasthedeceasedwhohadgivencauseforthesame.

Iftherearetwoormorelegitimatechildrenordescendants,thesurvivingspouseshallbeentitledtoa
portionequaltothelegitimeofeachofthelegitimatechildrenordescendants.

Inbothcases,thelegitimeofthesurvivingspouseshallbetakenfromtheportionthatcanbefreely
disposedofbythetestator.(834a)

Art.893.Ifthetestatorleavesnolegitimatedescendants,butleaveslegitimateascendants,thesurviving
spouseshallhavearighttoonefourthofthehereditaryestate.

Thisfourthshallbetakenfromthefreeportionoftheestate.(836a)

Art.894.Ifthetestatorleavesillegitimatechildren,thesurvivingspouseshallbeentitledtoonethirdof
thehereditaryestateofthedeceasedandtheillegitimatechildrentoanotherthird.Theremainingthird
shallbeatthefreedisposalofthetestator.(n)

Art.895.Thelegitimeofeachoftheacknowledgednaturalchildrenandeachofthenaturalchildrenby
legalfictionshallconsistofonehalfofthelegitimeofeachofthelegitimatechildrenordescendants.

Thelegitimeofanillegitimatechildwhoisneitheranacknowledgednatural,noranaturalchildbylegal
fiction,shallbeequalineverycasetofourfifthsofthelegitimeofanacknowledgednaturalchild.

Thelegitimeoftheillegitimatechildrenshallbetakenfromtheportionoftheestateatthefreedisposal
ofthetestator,providedthatinnocaseshallthetotallegitimeofsuchillegitimatechildrenexceedthat
freeportion,andthatthelegitimeofthesurvivingspousemustfirstbefullysatisfied.(840a)

Art.896.Illegitimatechildrenwhomaysurvivewithlegitimateparentsorascendantsofthedeceased
shallbeentitledtoonefourthofthehereditaryestatetobetakenfromtheportionatthefreedisposal
ofthetestator.(841a)

Art.897.Whenthewidoworwidowersurviveswithlegitimatechildrenordescendants,and
acknowledgednaturalchildren,ornaturalchildrenbylegalfiction,suchsurvivingspouseshallbe
entitledtoaportionequaltothelegitimeofeachofthelegitimatechildrenwhichmustbetakenfrom
thatpartoftheestatewhichthetestatorcanfreelydisposeof.(n)

Art.898.Ifthewidoworwidowersurviveswithlegitimatechildrenordescendants,andwithillegitimate
childrenotherthanacknowledgednatural,ornaturalchildrenbylegalfiction,theshareofthesurviving
spouseshallbethesameasthatprovidedintheprecedingarticle.(n)

Art.899.Whenthewidoworwidowersurviveswithlegitimateparentsorascendantsandwith
illegitimatechildren,suchsurvivingspouseshallbeentitledtooneeighthofthehereditaryestateofthe
deceasedwhichmustbetakenfromthefreeportion,andtheillegitimatechildrenshallbeentitledto
onefourthoftheestatewhichshallbetakenalsofromthedisposableportion.Thetestatormayfreely
disposeoftheremainingoneeighthoftheestate.(n)

Art.900.Iftheonlysurvivoristhewidoworwidower,sheorheshallbeentitledtoonehalfofthe
hereditaryestateofthedeceasedspouse,andthetestatormayfreelydisposeoftheotherhalf.(837a)

Ifthemarriagebetweenthesurvivingspouseandthetestatorwassolemnizedinarticulomortis,and
thetestatordiedwithinthreemonthsfromthetimeofthemarriage,thelegitimeofthesurviving
spouseasthesoleheirshallbeonethirdofthehereditaryestate,exceptwhentheyhavebeenlivingas
husbandandwifeformorethanfiveyears.Inthelattercase,thelegitimeofthesurvivingspouseshall
bethatspecifiedintheprecedingparagraph.(n)

Art.901.Whenthetestatordiesleavingillegitimatechildrenandnoothercompulsoryheirs,such
illegitimatechildrenshallhavearighttoonehalfofthehereditaryestateofthedeceased.

Theotherhalfshallbeatthefreedisposalofthetestator.(842a)

Art.902.Therightsofillegitimatechildrensetforthintheprecedingarticlesaretransmittedupontheir
deathtotheirdescendants,whetherlegitimateorillegitimate.(843a)

Art.903.Thelegitimeoftheparentswhohaveanillegitimatechild,whensuchchildleavesneither
legitimatedescendants,norasurvivingspouse,norillegitimatechildren,isonehalfofthehereditary
estateofsuchillegitimatechild.Ifonlylegitimateorillegitimatechildrenareleft,theparentsarenot
entitledtoanylegitimewhatsoever.Ifonlythewidoworwidowersurviveswithparentsofthe
illegitimatechild,thelegitimeoftheparentsisonefourthofthehereditaryestateofthechild,andthat
ofthesurvivingspousealsoonefourthoftheestate.(n)

Art.904.Thetestatorcannotdeprivehiscompulsoryheirsoftheirlegitime,exceptincasesexpressly
specifiedbylaw.

Neithercanheimposeuponthesameanyburden,encumbrance,condition,orsubstitutionofanykind
whatsoever.(813a)

Art.905.Everyrenunciationorcompromiseasregardsafuturelegitimebetweenthepersonowingit
andhiscompulsoryheirsisvoid,andthelattermayclaimthesameuponthedeathoftheformer;but
theymustbringtocollationwhatevertheymayhavereceivedbyvirtueoftherenunciationor
compromise.(816)

Art.906.Anycompulsoryheirtowhomthetestatorhasleftbyanytitlelessthanthelegitimebelonging
tohimmaydemandthatthesamebefullysatisfied.(815)

Art.907.Testamentarydispositionsthatimpairordiminishthelegitimeofthecompulsoryheirsshallbe
reducedonpetitionofthesame,insofarastheymaybeinofficiousorexcessive.(817)

Art.908.Todeterminethelegitime,thevalueofthepropertyleftatthedeathofthetestatorshallbe
considered,deductingalldebtsandcharges,whichshallnotincludethoseimposedinthewill.

Tothenetvalueofthehereditaryestate,shallbeaddedthevalueofalldonationsbythetestatorthat
aresubjecttocollation,atthetimehemadethem.(818a)

Art.909.Donationsgiventochildrenshallbechargedtotheirlegitime.

Donationsmadetostrangersshallbechargedtothatpartoftheestateofwhichthetestatorcouldhave
disposedbyhislastwill.

Insofarastheymaybeinofficiousormayexceedthedisposableportion,theyshallbereducedaccording
totherulesestablishedbythisCode.(819a)

Art.910.Donationswhichanillegitimatechildmayhavereceivedduringthelifetimeofhisfatheror
mother,shallbechargedtohislegitime.

Shouldtheyexceedtheportionthatcanbefreelydisposedof,theyshallbereducedinthemanner
prescribedbythisCode.(847a)

Art.911.Afterthelegitimehasbeendeterminedinaccordancewiththethreeprecedingarticles,the
reductionshallbemadeasfollows:

(1)Donationsshallberespectedaslongasthelegitimecanbecovered,reducingorannulling,if
necessary,thedevisesorlegaciesmadeinthewill;
(2)Thereductionofthedevisesorlegaciesshallbeprorata,withoutanydistinctionwhatever.

Ifthetestatorhasdirectedthatacertaindeviseorlegacybepaidinpreferencetoothers,itshallnot
sufferanyreductionuntilthelatterhavebeenappliedinfulltothepaymentofthelegitime.

(3)Ifthedeviseorlegacyconsistsofausufructorlifeannuity,whosevaluemaybeconsideredgreater
thanthatofthedisposableportion,thecompulsoryheirsmaychoosebetweencomplyingwiththe
testamentaryprovisionanddeliveringtothedeviseeorlegateethepartoftheinheritanceofwhichthe
testatorcouldfreelydispose.(820a)

Art.912.Ifthedevisesubjecttoreductionshouldconsistofrealproperty,whichcannotbeconveniently
divided,itshallgotothedeviseeifthereductiondoesnotabsorbonehalfofitsvalue;andinacontrary
case,tothecompulsoryheirs;buttheformerandthelattershallreimburseeachotherincashforwhat
respectivelybelongstothem.
Thedeviseewhoisentitledtoalegitimemayretaintheentireproperty,provideditsvaluedoesnot
exceedthatofthedisposableportionandofthesharepertainingtohimaslegitime.(821)

Art.913.Iftheheirsordeviseesdonotchoosetoavailthemselvesoftherightgrantedbythepreceding
article,anyheirordeviseewhodidnothavesuchrightmayexerciseit;shouldthelatternotmakeuse
ofit,thepropertyshallbesoldatpublicauctionattheinstanceofanyoneoftheinterestedparties.
(822)

Art.914.Thetestatormaydeviseandbequeaththefreeportionashemaydeemfit.(n)

SECTION6.Disinheritance

Art.915.Acompulsoryheirmay,inconsequenceofdisinheritance,bedeprivedofhislegitime,for
causesexpresslystatedbylaw.(848a)
Art.916.Disinheritancecanbeeffectedonlythroughawillwhereinthelegalcausethereforshallbe
specified.(849)

Art.917.Theburdenofprovingthetruthofthecausefordisinheritanceshallrestupontheotherheirs
ofthetestator,ifthedisinheritedheirshoulddenyit.(850)

Art.918.Disinheritancewithoutaspecificationofthecause,orforacausethetruthofwhich,if
contradicted,isnotproved,orwhichisnotoneofthosesetforthinthisCode,shallannultheinstitution
ofheirsinsofarasitmayprejudicethepersondisinherited;butthedevisesandlegaciesandother
testamentarydispositionsshallbevalidtosuchextentaswillnotimpairthelegitime.(851a)

Art.919.Thefollowingshallbesufficientcausesforthedisinheritanceofchildrenanddescendants,
legitimateaswellasillegitimate:

(1)Whenachildordescendanthasbeenfoundguiltyofanattemptagainstthelifeofthetestator,his
orherspouse,descendants,orascendants;
(2)Whenachildordescendanthasaccusedthetestatorofacrimeforwhichthelawprescribes
imprisonmentforsixyearsormore,iftheaccusationhasbeenfoundgroundless;

(3)Whenachildordescendanthasbeenconvictedofadulteryorconcubinagewiththespouseofthe
testator;

(4)Whenachildordescendantbyfraud,violence,intimidation,orundueinfluencecausesthetestator
tomakeawillortochangeonealreadymade;

(5)Arefusalwithoutjustifiablecausetosupporttheparentorascendantwhodisinheritssuchchildor
descendant;

(6)Maltreatmentofthetestatorbywordordeed,bythechildordescendant;

(7)Whenachildordescendantleadsadishonorableordisgracefullife;

(8)Convictionofacrimewhichcarrieswithitthepenaltyofcivilinterdiction.(756,853,674a)

Art.920.Thefollowingshallbesufficientcausesforthedisinheritanceofparentsorascendants,
whetherlegitimateorillegitimate:
(1)Whentheparentshaveabandonedtheirchildrenorinducedtheirdaughterstoliveacorruptor
immorallife,orattemptedagainsttheirvirtue;
(2)Whentheparentorascendanthasbeenconvictedofanattemptagainstthelifeofthetestator,his
orherspouse,descendants,orascendants;

(3)Whentheparentorascendanthasaccusedthetestatorofacrimeforwhichthelawprescribes
imprisonmentforsixyearsormore,iftheaccusationhasbeenfoundtobefalse;

(4)Whentheparentorascendanthasbeenconvictedofadulteryorconcubinagewiththespouseofthe
testator;

(5)Whentheparentorascendantbyfraud,violence,intimidation,orundueinfluencecausesthe
testatortomakeawillortochangeonealreadymade;

(6)ThelossofparentalauthorityforcausesspecifiedinthisCode;

(7)Therefusaltosupportthechildrenordescendantswithoutjustifiablecause;

(8)Anattemptbyoneoftheparentsagainstthelifeoftheother,unlesstherehasbeenareconciliation
betweenthem.(756,854,674a)

Art.921.Thefollowingshallbesufficientcausesfordisinheritingaspouse:
(1)Whenthespousehasbeenconvictedofanattemptagainstthelifeofthetestator,hisorher
descendants,orascendants;
(2)Whenthespousehasaccusedthetestatorofacrimeforwhichthelawprescribesimprisonmentof
sixyearsormore,andtheaccusationhasbeenfoundtobefalse;

(3)Whenthespousebyfraud,violence,intimidation,orundueinfluencecausethetestatortomakea
willortochangeonealreadymade;

(4)Whenthespousehasgivencauseforlegalseparation;

(5)Whenthespousehasgivengroundsforthelossofparentalauthority;

(6)Unjustifiablerefusaltosupportthechildrenortheotherspouse.(756,855,674a)

Art.922.Asubsequentreconciliationbetweentheoffenderandtheoffendedpersondeprivesthelatter
oftherighttodisinherit,andrendersineffectualanydisinheritancethatmayhavebeenmade.(856)
Art.923.Thechildrenanddescendantsofthepersondisinheritedshalltakehisorherplaceandshall
preservetherightsofcompulsoryheirswithrespecttothelegitime;butthedisinheritedparentshall
nothavetheusufructoradministrationofthepropertywhichconstitutesthelegitime.(857)

SECTION7.LegaciesandDevises

Art.924.Allthingsandrightswhicharewithinthecommerceofmanbebequeathedordevised.(865a)
Art.925.Atestatormaychargewithlegaciesanddevisesnotonlyhiscompulsoryheirsbutalsothe
legateesanddevisees.

Thelattershallbeliableforthechargeonlytotheextentofthevalueofthelegacyorthedevise
receivedbythem.Thecompulsoryheirsshallnotbeliableforthechargebeyondtheamountofthefree
portiongiventhem.(858a)

Art.926.Whenthetestatorchargesoneoftheheirswithalegacyordevise,healoneshallbebound.

Shouldhenotchargeanyoneinparticular,allshallbeliableinthesameproportioninwhichtheymay
inherit.(859)

Art.927.Iftwoormoreheirstakepossessionoftheestate,theyshallbesolidarilyliableforthelossor
destructionofathingdevisedorbequeathed,eventhoughonlyoneofthemshouldhavebeen
negligent.(n)

Art.928.Theheirwhoisboundtodeliverthelegacyordeviseshallbeliableincaseofeviction,ifthe
thingisindeterminateandisindicatedonlybyitskind.(860)

Art.929.Ifthetestator,heir,orlegateeownsonlyapartof,oraninterestinthethingbequeathed,the
legacyordeviseshallbeunderstoodlimitedtosuchpartorinterest,unlessthetestatorexpressly
declaresthathegivesthethinginitsentirety.(864a)

Art.930.Thelegacyordeviseofathingbelongingtoanotherpersonisvoid,ifthetestatorerroneously
believedthatthethingpertainedtohim.Butifthethingbequeathed,thoughnotbelongingtothe
testatorwhenhemadethewill,afterwardsbecomeshis,bywhatevertitle,thedispositionshalltake
effect.(862a)

Art.931.Ifthetestatorordersthatathingbelongingtoanotherbeacquiredinorderthatitbegiventoa
legateeordevisee,theheiruponwhomtheobligationisimposedortheestatemustacquireitandgive
thesametothelegateeordevisee;butiftheownerofthethingrefusestoalienatethesame,or
demandsanexcessivepricetherefor,theheirortheestateshallonlybeobligedtogivethejustvalueof
thething.(861a)

Art.932.Thelegacyordeviseofathingwhichatthetimeoftheexecutionofthewillalreadybelonged
tothelegateeordeviseeshallbeineffective,eventhoughanotherpersonmayhavesomeinterest
therein.

Ifthetestatorexpresslyordersthatthethingbefreedfromsuchinterestorencumbrance,thelegacyor
deviseshallbevalidtothatextent.(866a)

Art.933.Ifthethingbequeathedbelongedtothelegateeordeviseeatthetimeoftheexecutionofthe
will,thelegacyordeviseshallbewithouteffect,eventhoughitmayhavesubsequentlyalienatedby
him.

Ifthelegateeordeviseeacquiresitgratuitouslyaftersuchtime,hecanclaimnothingbyvirtueofthe
legacyordevise;butifithasbeenacquiredbyoneroustitlehecandemandreimbursementfromthe
heirortheestate.(878a)

Art.934.Ifthetestatorshouldbequeathordevisesomethingpledgedormortgagedtosecurea
recoverabledebtbeforetheexecutionofthewill,theestateisobligedtopaythedebt,unlessthe
contraryintentionappears.

Thesameruleapplieswhenthethingispledgedormortgagedaftertheexecutionofthewill.

Anyothercharge,perpetualortemporary,withwhichthethingbequeathedisburdened,passeswithit
tothelegateeordevisee.(867a)

Art.935.Thelegacyofacreditagainstathirdpersonoroftheremissionorreleaseofadebtofthe
legateeshallbeeffectiveonlyasregardsthatpartofthecreditordebtexistingatthetimeofthedeath
ofthetestator.

Inthefirstcase,theestateshallcomplywiththelegacybyassigningtothelegateeallrightsofactionit
mayhaveagainstthedebtor.Inthesecondcase,bygivingthelegateeanacquittance,shouldherequest
one.

Inbothcases,thelegacyshallcompriseallinterestsonthecreditordebtwhichmaybeduethetestator
atthetimeofhisdeath.(870a)

Art.936.Thelegacyreferredtointheprecedingarticleshalllapseifthetestator,afterhavingmadeit,
shouldbringanactionagainstthedebtorforthepaymentofhisdebt,evenifsuchpaymentshouldnot
havebeeneffectedatthetimeofhisdeath.

Thelegacytothedebtorofthethingpledgedbyhimisunderstoodtodischargeonlytherightofpledge.
(871)

Art.937.Agenericlegacyofreleaseorremissionofdebtscomprisesthoseexistingatthetimeofthe
executionofthewill,butnotsubsequentones.(872)

Art.938.Alegacyordevisemadetoacreditorshallnotbeappliedtohiscredit,unlessthetestatorso
expresslydeclares.

Inthelattercase,thecreditorshallhavetherighttocollecttheexcess,ifany,ofthecreditorofthe
legacyordevise.(837a)

Art.939.Ifthetestatorordersthepaymentofwhathebelievesheowesbutdoesnotinfactowe,the
dispositionshallbeconsideredasnotwritten.Ifasregardsaspecifieddebtmorethantheamount
thereofisorderedpaid,theexcessisnotdue,unlessacontraryintentionappears.

Theforegoingprovisionsarewithoutprejudicetothefulfillmentofnaturalobligations.(n)

Art.940.Inalternativelegaciesordevises,thechoiceispresumedtobelefttotheheiruponwhomthe
obligationtogivethelegacyordevisemaybeimposed,ortheexecutororadministratoroftheestateif
noparticularheirissoobliged.

Iftheheir,legateeordevisee,whomayhavebeengiventhechoice,diesbeforemakingit,thisright
shallpasstotherespectiveheirs.

Oncemade,thechoiceisirrevocable.

Inthealternativelegaciesordevises,exceptashereinprovided,theprovisionsofthisCoderegulating
obligationsofthesamekindshallbeobserved,savesuchmodificationsasmayappearfromthe
intentionexpressedbythetestator.(874a)

Art.941.Alegacyofgenericpersonalpropertyshallbevalideveniftherebenothingsofthesamekind
intheestate.

Adeviseofindeterminaterealpropertyshallbevalidonlyiftherebeimmovablepropertyofitskindin
theestate.

Therightofchoiceshallbelongtotheexecutororadministratorwhoshallcomplywiththelegacybythe
deliveryofathingwhichisneitherofinferiornorofsuperiorquality.(875a)

Art.942.Wheneverthetestatorexpresslyleavestherightofchoicetotheheir,ortothelegateeor
devisee,theformermaygiveorthelattermaychoosewhicheverhemayprefer.(876a)

Art.943.Iftheheir,legateeordeviseecannotmakethechoice,incaseithasbeengrantedhim,hisright
shallpasstohisheirs;butachoiceoncemadeshallbeirrevocable.(877a)

Art.944.Alegacyforeducationlastsuntilthelegateeisofage,orbeyondtheageofmajorityinorder
thatthelegateemayfinishsomeprofessional,vocationalorgeneralcourse,providedhepursueshis
coursediligently.

Alegacyforsupportlastsduringthelifetimeofthelegatee,ifthetestatorhasnototherwiseprovided.

Ifthetestatorhasnotfixedtheamountofsuchlegacies,itshallbefixedinaccordancewiththesocial
standingandthecircumstancesofthelegateeandthevalueoftheestate.

Ifthetestatororduringhislifetimeusedtogivethelegateeacertainsumofmoneyorotherthingsby
wayofsupport,thesameamountshallbedeemedbequeathed,unlessitbemarkedlydisproportionate
tothevalueoftheestate.(879a)

Art.945.Ifaperiodicalpension,oracertainannual,monthly,orweeklyamountisbequeathed,the
legateemaypetitionthecourtforthefirstinstallmentuponthedeathofthetestator,andforthe
followingoneswhichshallbedueatthebeginningofeachperiod;suchpaymentshallnotbereturned,
eventhoughthelegateeshoulddiebeforetheexpirationoftheperiodwhichhascommenced.(880a)

Art.946.Ifthethingbequeathedshouldbesubjecttoausufruct,thelegateeordeviseeshallrespect
suchrightuntilitislegallyextinguished.(868a)

Art.947.Thelegateeordeviseeacquiresarighttothepureandsimplelegaciesordevisesfromthe
deathofthetestator,andtransmitsittohisheirs.(881a)

Art.948.Ifthelegacyordeviceisofaspecificanddeterminatethingpertainingtothetestator,the
legateeordeviseeacquirestheownershipthereofuponthedeathofthetestator,aswellasany
growingfruits,orunbornoffspringofanimals,oruncollectedincome;butnottheincomewhichwas
dueandunpaidbeforethelatter'sdeath.

Fromthemomentofthetestator'sdeath,thethingbequeathedshallbeattheriskofthelegateeor
devisee,whoshall,therefore,bearitslossordeterioration,andshallbebenefitedbyitsincreaseor
improvement,withoutprejudicetotheresponsibilityoftheexecutororadministrator.(882a)

Art.949.Ifthebequestshouldnotbeofaspecificanddeterminatething,butisgenericorofquantity,
itsfruitsandinterestsfromthetimeofthedeathofthetestatorshallpertaintothelegateeordeviseeif
thetestatorhasexpresslysoordered.(884a)

Art.950.Iftheestateshouldnotbesufficienttocoverallthelegaciesordevises,theirpaymentshallbe
madeinthefollowingorder:

(1)Remuneratorylegaciesordevises;
(2)Legaciesordevisesdeclaredbythetestatortobepreferential;

(3)Legaciesforsupport;

(4)Legaciesforeducation;

(5)Legaciesordevisesofaspecific,determinatethingwhichformsapartoftheestate;

(6)Allothersprorata.(887a)

Art.951.Thethingbequeathedshallbedeliveredwithallitsaccessoriesandaccessoriesandinthe
conditioninwhichitmaybeuponthedeathofthetestator.(883a)
Art.952.Theheir,chargedwithalegacyordevise,ortheexecutororadministratoroftheestate,must
delivertheverythingbequeathedifheisabletodosoandcannotdischargethisobligationbypayingits
value.

Legaciesofmoneymustbepaidincash,eventhoughtheheirortheestatemaynothaveany.

Theexpensesnecessaryforthedeliveryofthethingbequeathedshallbefortheaccountoftheheiror
theestate,butwithoutprejudicetothelegitime.(886a)

Art.953.Thelegateeordeviseecannottakepossessionofthethingbequeatheduponhisown
authority,butshallrequestitsdeliveryandpossessionoftheheirchargedwiththelegacyordevise,or
oftheexecutororadministratoroftheestateshouldhebeauthorizedbythecourttodeliverit.(885a)

Art.954.Thelegateeordeviseecannotacceptapartofthelegacyordeviseandrepudiatetheother,if
thelatterbeonerous.

Shouldhediebeforehavingacceptedthelegacyordevise,leavingseveralheirs,someofthelattermay
acceptandtheothersmayrepudiatethesharerespectivelybelongingtotheminthelegacyordevise.
(889a)

Art.955.Thelegateeordeviseeoftwolegaciesordevises,oneofwhichisonerous,cannotrenounce
theonerousoneandaccepttheother.Ifbothareonerousorgratuitous,heshallbefreetoacceptor
renounceboth,ortorenounceeither.Butifthetestatorintendedthatthetwolegaciesordevises
shouldbeinseparablefromeachother,thelegateeordeviseemusteitheracceptorrenounceboth.

Anycompulsoryheirwhoisatthesametimealegateeordeviseemaywaivetheinheritanceandaccept
thelegacyordevise,orrenouncethelatterandaccepttheformer,orwaiveoracceptboth.(890a)

Art.956.Ifthelegateeordeviseecannotorisunwillingtoacceptthelegacyordevise,orifthelegacyor
deviseforanyreasonshouldbecomeineffective,itshallbemergedintothemassoftheestate,except
incasesofsubstitutionandoftherightofaccretion.(888a)

Art.957.Thelegacyordeviseshallbewithouteffect:

(1)Ifthetestatortransformsthethingbequeathedinsuchamannerthatitdoesnotretaineitherthe
formorthedenominationithad;
(2)Ifthetestatorbyanytitleorforanycausealienatesthethingbequeathedoranypartthereof,it
beingunderstoodthatinthelattercasethelegacyordeviseshallbewithouteffectonlywithrespectto
thepartthusalienated.Ifafterthealienationthethingshouldagainbelongtothetestator,evenifitbe
byreasonofnullityofthecontract,thelegacyordeviseshallnotthereafterbevalid,unlessthe
reacquisitionshallhavebeeneffectedbyvirtueoftheexerciseoftherightofrepurchase;

(3)Ifthethingbequeathedistotallylostduringthelifetimeofthetestator,orafterhisdeathwithout
theheir'sfault.Nevertheless,thepersonobligedtopaythelegacyordeviseshallbeliableforevictionif
thethingbequeathedshouldnothavebeendeterminateastoitskind,inaccordancewiththe
provisionsofArticle928.(869a)

Art.958.Amistakeastothenameofthethingbequeathedordevised,isofnoconsequence,ifitis
possibletoidentifythethingwhichthetestatorintendedtobequeathordevise.(n)
Art.959.Adispositionmadeingeneraltermsinfavorofthetestator'srelativesshallbeunderstoodto
beinfavorofthosenearestindegree.(751)

CHAPTER3
LEGALORINTESTATESUCCESSION

SECTION1.GeneralProvisions

Art.960.Legalorintestatesuccessiontakesplace:
(1)Ifapersondieswithoutawill,orwithavoidwill,oronewhichhassubsequentlylostitsvalidity;
(2)Whenthewilldoesnotinstituteanheirto,ordisposeofallthepropertybelongingtothetestator.In
suchcase,legalsuccessionshalltakeplaceonlywithrespecttothepropertyofwhichthetestatorhas
notdisposed;

(3)Ifthesuspensiveconditionattachedtotheinstitutionofheirdoesnothappenorisnotfulfilled,orif
theheirdiesbeforethetestator,orrepudiatestheinheritance,therebeingnosubstitution,andnoright
ofaccretiontakesplace;

(4)Whentheheirinstitutedisincapableofsucceeding,exceptincasesprovidedinthisCode.(912a)

Art.961.Indefaultoftestamentaryheirs,thelawveststheinheritance,inaccordancewiththerules
hereinaftersetforth,inthelegitimateandillegitimaterelativesofthedeceased,inthesurvivingspouse,
andintheState.(913a)
Art.962.Ineveryinheritance,therelativenearestindegreeexcludesthemoredistantones,savingthe
rightofrepresentationwhenitproperlytakesplace.

Relativesinthesamedegreeshallinheritinequalshares,subjecttotheprovisionsofarticle1006with
respecttorelativesofthefullandhalfblood,andofArticle987,paragraph2,concerningdivision
betweenthepaternalandmaternallines.(912a)

SUBSECTION1.Relationship

Art.963.Proximityofrelationshipisdeterminedbythenumberofgenerations.Eachgenerationformsa
degree.(915)
Art.964.Aseriesofdegreesformsaline,whichmaybeeitherdirectorcollateral.

Adirectlineisthatconstitutedbytheseriesofdegreesamongascendantsanddescendants.

Acollaterallineisthatconstitutedbytheseriesofdegreesamongpersonswhoarenotascendantsand
descendants,butwhocomefromacommonancestor.(916a)

Art.965.Thedirectlineiseitherdescendingorascending.

Theformerunitestheheadofthefamilywiththosewhodescendfromhim.

Thelatterbindsapersonwiththosefromwhomhedescends.(917)

Art.966.Intheline,asmanydegreesarecountedastherearegenerationsorpersons,excludingthe
progenitor.

Inthedirectline,ascentismadetothecommonancestor.Thus,thechildisonedegreeremovedfrom
theparent,twofromthegrandfather,andthreefromthegreatgrandparent.

Inthecollateralline,ascentismadetothecommonancestorandthendescentismadetotheperson
withwhomthecomputationistobemade.Thus,apersonistwodegreesremovedfromhisbrother,
threefromhisuncle,whoisthebrotherofhisfather,fourfromhisfirstcousin,andsoforth.(918a)

Art.967.Fullbloodrelationshipisthatexistingbetweenpersonswhohavethesamefatherandthe
samemother.

Halfbloodrelationshipisthatexistingbetweenpersonswhohavethesamefather,butnotthesame
mother,orthesamemother,butnotthesamefather.(920a)

Art.968.Ifthereareseveralrelativesofthesamedegree,andoneorsomeofthemareunwillingor
incapacitatedtosucceed,hisportionshallaccruetotheothersofthesamedegree,savetherightof
representationwhenitshouldtakeplace.(922)

Art.969.Iftheinheritanceshouldberepudiatedbythenearestrelative,shouldtherebeoneonly,orby
allthenearestrelativescalledbylawtosucceed,shouldtherebeseveral,thoseofthefollowingdegree
shallinheritintheirownrightandcannotrepresentthepersonorpersonsrepudiatingtheinheritance.
(923)

SUBSECTION2.RightofRepresentation

Art.970.Representationisarightcreatedbyfictionoflaw,byvirtueofwhichtherepresentativeis
raisedtotheplaceandthedegreeofthepersonrepresented,andacquirestherightswhichthelatter
wouldhaveifhewerelivingorifhecouldhaveinherited.(942a)
Art.971.Therepresentativeiscalledtothesuccessionbythelawandnotbythepersonrepresented.
Therepresentativedoesnotsucceedthepersonrepresentedbuttheonewhomthepersonrepresented
wouldhavesucceeded.(n)

Art.972.Therightofrepresentationtakesplaceinthedirectdescendingline,butneverinthe
ascending.

Inthecollateralline,ittakesplaceonlyinfavorofthechildrenofbrothersorsisters,whethertheybeof
thefullorhalfblood.(925)

Art.973.Inorderthatrepresentationmaytakeplace,itisnecessarythattherepresentativehimselfbe
capableofsucceedingthedecedent.(n)

Art.974.Wheneverthereissuccessionbyrepresentation,thedivisionoftheestateshallbemadeper
stirpes,insuchmannerthattherepresentativeorrepresentativesshallnotinheritmorethanwhatthe
persontheyrepresentwouldinherit,ifhewerelivingorcouldinherit.(926a)

Art.975.Whenchildrenofoneormorebrothersorsistersofthedeceasedsurvive,theyshallinherit
fromthelatterbyrepresentation,iftheysurvivewiththeirunclesoraunts.Butiftheyalonesurvive,
theyshallinheritinequalportions.(927)

Art.976.Apersonmayrepresenthimwhoseinheritancehehasrenounced.(928a)

Art.977.Heirswhorepudiatetheirsharemaynotberepresented.(929a)

SECTION2.OrderofIntestateSuccession

SUBSECTION1.DescendingDirectLine

Art.978.Successionpertains,inthefirstplace,tothedescendingdirectline.(930)
Art.979.Legitimatechildrenandtheirdescendantssucceedtheparentsandotherascendants,without
distinctionastosexorage,andeveniftheyshouldcomefromdifferentmarriages.

Anadoptedchildsucceedstothepropertyoftheadoptingparentsinthesamemannerasalegitimate
child.(931a)

Art.980.Thechildrenofthedeceasedshallalwaysinheritfromhimintheirownright,dividingthe
inheritanceinequalshares.(932)

Art.981.Shouldchildrenofthedeceasedanddescendantsofotherchildrenwhoaredead,survive,the
formershallinheritintheirownright,andthelatterbyrightofrepresentation.(934a)

Art.982.Thegrandchildrenandotherdescendantsshallinheritbyrightofrepresentation,andifany
oneofthemshouldhavedied,leavingseveralheirs,theportionpertainingtohimshallbedivided
amongthelatterinequalportions.(933)

Art.983.Ifillegitimatechildrensurvivewithlegitimatechildren,thesharesoftheformershallbeinthe
proportionsprescribedbyArticle895.(n)

Art.984.Incaseofthedeathofanadoptedchild,leavingnochildrenordescendants,hisparentsand
relativesbyconsanguinityandnotbyadoption,shallbehislegalheirs.(n)

SUBSECTION2.AscendingDirectLine

Art.985.Indefaultoflegitimatechildrenanddescendantsofthedeceased,hisparentsandascendants
shallinheritfromhim,totheexclusionofcollateralrelatives.(935a)
Art.986.Thefatherandmother,ifliving,shallinheritinequalshares.

Shouldoneonlyofthemsurvive,heorsheshallsucceedtotheentireestateofthechild.(936)

Art.987.Indefaultofthefatherandmother,theascendantsnearestindegreeshallinherit.

Shouldtherebemorethanoneofequaldegreebelongingtothesamelinetheyshalldividethe
inheritancepercapita;shouldtheybeofdifferentlinesbutofequaldegree,onehalfshallgotothe
paternalandtheotherhalftothematernalascendants.Ineachlinethedivisionshallbemadeper
capita.(937)

SUBSECTION3.IllegitimateChildren

Art.988.Intheabsenceoflegitimatedescendantsorascendants,theillegitimatechildrenshallsucceed
totheentireestateofthedeceased.(939a)
Art.989.If,togetherwithillegitimatechildren,thereshouldsurvivedescendantsofanotherillegitimate
childwhoisdead,theformershallsucceedintheirownrightandthelatterbyrightofrepresentation.
(940a)

Art.990.Thehereditaryrightsgrantedbythetwoprecedingarticlestoillegitimatechildrenshallbe
transmittedupontheirdeathtotheirdescendants,whoshallinheritbyrightofrepresentationfrom
theirdeceasedgrandparent.(941a)

Art.991.Iflegitimateascendantsareleft,theillegitimatechildrenshalldividetheinheritancewith
them,takingonehalfoftheestate,whateverbethenumberoftheascendantsoroftheillegitimate
children.(942841a)

Art.992.Anillegitimatechildhasnorighttoinheritabintestatofromthelegitimatechildrenand
relativesofhisfatherormother;norshallsuchchildrenorrelativesinheritinthesamemannerfromthe
illegitimatechild.(943a)

Art.993.Ifanillegitimatechildshoulddiewithoutissue,eitherlegitimateorillegitimate,hisfatheror
mothershallsucceedtohisentireestate;andifthechild'sfiliationisdulyprovedastobothparents,
whoarebothliving,theyshallinheritfromhimshareandsharealike.(944)

Art.994.Indefaultofthefatherormother,anillegitimatechildshallbesucceededbyhisorher
survivingspousewhoshallbeentitledtotheentireestate.

Ifthewidoworwidowershouldsurvivewithbrothersandsisters,nephewsandnieces,sheorheshall
inheritonehalfoftheestate,andthelattertheotherhalf.(945a)

SUBSECTION4.SurvivingSpouse

Art.995.Intheabsenceoflegitimatedescendantsandascendants,andillegitimatechildrenandtheir
descendants,whetherlegitimateorillegitimate,thesurvivingspouseshallinherittheentireestate,
withoutprejudicetotherightsofbrothersandsisters,nephewsandnieces,shouldtherebeany,under
article1001.(946a)
Art.996.Ifawidoworwidowerandlegitimatechildrenordescendantsareleft,thesurvivingspousehas
inthesuccessionthesameshareasthatofeachofthechildren.(834a)

Art.997.Whenthewidoworwidowersurviveswithlegitimateparentsorascendants,thesurviving
spouseshallbeentitledtoonehalfoftheestate,andthelegitimateparentsorascendantstotheother
half.(836a)

Art.998.Ifawidoworwidowersurviveswithillegitimatechildren,suchwidoworwidowershallbe
entitledtoonehalfoftheinheritance,andtheillegitimatechildrenortheirdescendants,whether
legitimateorillegitimate,totheotherhalf.(n)

Art.999.Whenthewidoworwidowersurviveswithlegitimatechildrenortheirdescendantsand
illegitimatechildrenortheirdescendants,whetherlegitimateorillegitimate,suchwidoworwidower
shallbeentitledtothesameshareasthatofalegitimatechild.(n)

Art.1000.Iflegitimateascendants,thesurvivingspouse,andillegitimatechildrenareleft,the
ascendantsshallbeentitledtoonehalfoftheinheritance,andtheotherhalfshallbedividedbetween
thesurvivingspouseandtheillegitimatechildrensothatsuchwidoworwidowershallhaveonefourth
oftheestate,andtheillegitimatechildrentheotherfourth.(841a)

Art.1001.Shouldbrothersandsistersortheirchildrensurvivewiththewidoworwidower,thelatter
shallbeentitledtoonehalfoftheinheritanceandthebrothersandsistersortheirchildrentotheother
half.(953,837a)

Art.1002.Incaseofalegalseparation,ifthesurvivingspousegavecausefortheseparation,heorshe
shallnothaveanyoftherightsgrantedintheprecedingarticles.(n)

SUBSECTION5.CollateralRelatives

Art.1003.Iftherearenodescendants,ascendants,illegitimatechildren,orasurvivingspouse,the
collateralrelativesshallsucceedtotheentireestateofthedeceasedinaccordancewiththefollowing
articles.(946a)
Art.1004.Shouldtheonlysurvivorsbebrothersandsistersofthefullblood,theyshallinheritinequal
shares.(947)

Art.1005.Shouldbrothersandsisterssurvivetogetherwithnephewsandnieces,whoarethechildren
ofthedescendant'sbrothersandsistersofthefullblood,theformershallinheritpercapita,andthe
latterperstirpes.(948)

Art.1006.Shouldbrotherandsistersofthefullbloodsurvivetogetherwithbrothersandsistersofthe
halfblood,theformershallbeentitledtoasharedoublethatofthelatter.(949)

Art.1007.Incasebrothersandsistersofthehalfblood,someonthefather'sandsomeonthemother's
side,aretheonlysurvivors,allshallinheritinequalshareswithoutdistinctionastotheoriginofthe
property.(950)

Art.1008.Childrenofbrothersandsistersofthehalfbloodshallsucceedpercapitaorperstirpes,in
accordancewiththeruleslaiddownforthebrothersandsistersofthefullblood.(915)

Art.1009.Shouldtherebeneitherbrothersnorsistersnorchildrenofbrothersorsisters,theother
collateralrelativesshallsucceedtotheestate.

Thelattershallsucceedwithoutdistinctionoflinesorpreferenceamongthembyreasonofrelationship
bythewholeblood.(954a)

Art.1010.Therighttoinheritabintestatoshallnotextendbeyondthefifthdegreeofrelationshipinthe
collateralline.(955a)

SUBSECTION6.TheState

Art.1011.Indefaultofpersonsentitledtosucceedinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofthepreceding
Sections,theStateshallinheritthewholeestate.(956a)
Art.1012.InorderthattheStatemaytakepossessionofthepropertymentionedinthepreceding
article,thepertinentprovisionsoftheRulesofCourtmustbeobserved.(958a)

Art.1013.Afterthepaymentofdebtsandcharges,thepersonalpropertyshallbeassignedtothe
municipalityorcitywherethedeceasedlastresidedinthePhilippines,andtherealestatetothe
municipalitiesorcities,respectively,inwhichthesameissituated.

IfthedeceasedneverresidedinthePhilippines,thewholeestateshallbeassignedtotherespective
municipalitiesorcitieswherethesameislocated.

Suchestateshallbeforthebenefitofpublicschools,andpubliccharitableinstitutionsandcenters,in
suchmunicipalitiesorcities.Thecourtshalldistributetheestateastherespectiveneedsofeach
beneficiarymaywarrant.

Thecourt,attheinstanceofaninterestedparty,oronitsownmotion,mayordertheestablishmentofa
permanenttrust,sothatonlytheincomefromthepropertyshallbeused.(956a)

Art.1014.Ifapersonlegallyentitledtotheestateofthedeceasedappearsandfilesaclaimtheretowith
thecourtwithinfiveyearsfromthedatethepropertywasdeliveredtotheState,suchpersonshallbe
entitledtothepossessionofthesame,orifsoldthemunicipalityorcityshallbeaccountabletohimfor
suchpartoftheproceedsasmaynothavebeenlawfullyspent.(n)

CHAPTER4
PROVISIONSCOMMONTOTESTATEANDINTESTATESUCCESSIONS

SECTION1.RightofAccretion

Art.1015.Accretionisarightbyvirtueofwhich,whentwoormorepersonsarecalledtothesame
inheritance,deviseorlegacy,thepartassignedtotheonewhorenouncesorcannotreceivehisshare,or
whodiedbeforethetestator,isaddedorincorporatedtothatofhiscoheirs,codevisees,orco
legatees.(n)
Art.1016.Inorderthattherightofaccretionmaytakeplaceinatestamentarysuccession,itshallbe
necessary:

(1)Thattwoormorepersonsbecalledtothesameinheritance,ortothesameportionthereof,pro
indiviso;and
(2)Thatoneofthepersonsthuscalleddiebeforethetestator,orrenouncetheinheritance,orbe
incapacitatedtoreceiveit.(928a)

Art.1017.Thewords"onehalfforeach"or"inequalshares"oranyotherswhich,thoughdesignatingan
aliquotpart,donotidentifyitbysuchdescriptionasshallmakeeachheirtheexclusiveownerof
determinateproperty,shallnotexcludetherightofaccretion.
Incaseofmoneyorfungiblegoods,iftheshareofeachheirisnotearmarked,thereshallbearightof
accretion.(983a)

Art.1018.Inlegalsuccessiontheshareofthepersonwhorepudiatestheinheritanceshallalwaysaccrue
tohiscoheirs.(981)

Art.1019.Theheirstowhomtheportiongoesbytherightofaccretiontakeitinthesameproportion
thattheyinherit.(n)

Art.1020.Theheirstowhomtheinheritanceaccruesshallsucceedtoalltherightsandobligations
whichtheheirwhorenouncedorcouldnotreceiveitwouldhavehad.(984)

Art.1021.Amongthecompulsoryheirstherightofaccretionshalltakeplaceonlywhenthefreeportion
islefttotwoormoreofthem,ortoanyoneofthemandtoastranger.

Shouldthepartrepudiatedbethelegitime,theothercoheirsshallsucceedtoitintheirownright,and
notbytherightofaccretion.(985)

Art.1022.Intestamentarysuccession,whentherightofaccretiondoesnottakeplace,thevacant
portionoftheinstitutedheirs,ifnosubstitutehasbeendesignated,shallpasstothelegalheirsofthe
testator,whoshallreceiveitwiththesamechargesandobligations.(986)

Art.1023.Accretionshallalsotakeplaceamongdevisees,legateesandusufructuariesunderthesame
conditionsestablishedforheirs.(987a)

SECTION2.CapacitytoSucceedbyWillofbyIntestacy

Art.1024.Personsnotincapacitatedbylawmaysucceedbywillorabintestato.
Theprovisionsrelatingtoincapacitybywillareequallyapplicabletointestatesuccession.(744,914)

Art.1025.Inordertobecapacitatedtoinherit,theheir,deviseeorlegateemustbelivingatthe
momentthesuccessionopens,exceptincaseofrepresentation,whenitisproper.

Achildalreadyconceivedatthetimeofthedeathofthedecedentiscapableofsucceedingprovidedit
bebornlaterundertheconditionsprescribedinarticle41.(n)

Art.1026.AtestamentarydispositionmaybemadetotheState,provinces,municipalcorporations,
privatecorporations,organizations,orassociationsforreligious,scientific,cultural,educational,or
charitablepurposes.

Allothercorporationsorentitiesmaysucceedunderawill,unlessthereisaprovisiontothecontraryin
theircharterorthelawsoftheircreation,andalwayssubjecttothesame.(746a)

Art.1027.Thefollowingareincapableofsucceeding:

(1)Thepriestwhoheardtheconfessionofthetestatorduringhislastillness,ortheministerofthe
gospelwhoextendedspiritualaidtohimduringthesameperiod;
(2)Therelativesofsuchpriestorministerofthegospelwithinthefourthdegree,thechurch,order,
chapter,community,organization,orinstitutiontowhichsuchpriestorministermaybelong;

(3)Aguardianwithrespecttotestamentarydispositionsgivenbyawardinhisfavorbeforethefinal
accountsoftheguardianshiphavebeenapproved,evenifthetestatorshoulddieaftertheapproval
thereof;nevertheless,anyprovisionmadebythewardinfavoroftheguardianwhenthelatterishis
ascendant,descendant,brother,sister,orspouse,shallbevalid;

(4)Anyattestingwitnesstotheexecutionofawill,thespouse,parents,orchildren,oranyoneclaiming
undersuchwitness,spouse,parents,orchildren;

(5)Anyphysician,surgeon,nurse,healthofficerordruggistwhotookcareofthetestatorduringhislast
illness;

(6)Individuals,associationsandcorporationsnotpermittedbylawtoinherit.(745,752,753,754a)

Art.1028.Theprohibitionsmentionedinarticle739,concerningdonationsintervivosshallapplyto
testamentaryprovisions.(n)
Art.1029.Shouldthetestatordisposeofthewholeorpartofhispropertyforprayersandpiousworks
forthebenefitofhissoul,ingeneraltermsandwithoutspecifyingitsapplication,theexecutor,withthe
court'sapprovalshalldeliveronehalfthereoforitsproceedstothechurchordenominationtowhich
thetestatormaybelong,tobeusedforsuchprayersandpiousworks,andtheotherhalftotheState,
forthepurposesmentionedinArticle1013.(747a)

Art.1030.Testamentaryprovisionsinfavorofthepooringeneral,withoutdesignationofparticular
personsorofanycommunity,shallbedeemedlimitedtothepoorlivinginthedomicileofthetestator
atthetimeofhisdeath,unlessitshouldclearlyappearthathisintentionwasotherwise.

Thedesignationofthepersonswhoaretobeconsideredaspoorandthedistributionoftheproperty
shallbemadebythepersonappointedbythetestatorforthepurpose;indefaultofsuchperson,bythe
executor,andshouldtherebenoexecutor,bythejusticeofthepeace,themayor,andthemunicipal
treasurer,whoshalldecidebyamajorityofvotesallquestionsthatmayarise.Inallthesecases,the
approvaloftheCourtofFirstInstanceshallbenecessary.

Theprecedingparagraphshallapplywhenthetestatorhasdisposedofhispropertyinfavorofthepoor
ofadefinitelocality.(749a)

Art.1031.Atestamentaryprovisioninfavorofadisqualifiedperson,eventhoughmadeundertheguise
ofanonerouscontract,ormadethroughanintermediary,shallbevoid.(755)

Art.1032.Thefollowingareincapableofsucceedingbyreasonofunworthiness:

(1)Parentswhohaveabandonedtheirchildrenorinducedtheirdaughterstoleadacorruptorimmoral
life,orattemptedagainsttheirvirtue;
(2)Anypersonwhohasbeenconvictedofanattemptagainstthelifeofthetestator,hisorherspouse,
descendants,orascendants;

(3)Anypersonwhohasaccusedthetestatorofacrimeforwhichthelawprescribesimprisonmentfor
sixyearsormore,iftheaccusationhasbeenfoundgroundless;

(4)Anyheiroffullagewho,havingknowledgeoftheviolentdeathofthetestator,shouldfailtoreportit
toanofficerofthelawwithinamonth,unlesstheauthoritieshavealreadytakenaction;thisprohibition
shallnotapplytocaseswherein,accordingtolaw,thereisnoobligationtomakeanaccusation;

(5)Anypersonconvictedofadulteryorconcubinagewiththespouseofthetestator;

(6)Anypersonwhobyfraud,violence,intimidation,orundueinfluenceshouldcausethetestatorto
makeawillortochangeonealreadymade;

(7)Anypersonwhobythesamemeanspreventsanotherfrommakingawill,orfromrevokingone
alreadymade,orwhosupplants,conceals,oraltersthelatter'swill;

(8)Anypersonwhofalsifiesorforgesasupposedwillofthedecedent.(756,673,674a)

Art.1033.Thecauseofunworthinessshallbewithouteffectifthetestatorhadknowledgethereofat
thetimehemadethewill,orif,havingknownofthemsubsequently,heshouldcondonethemin
writing.(757a)
Art.1034.Inordertojudgethecapacityoftheheir,deviseeorlegatee,hisqualificationatthetimeof
thedeathofthedecedentshallbethecriterion.

IncasesfallingunderNos.2,3,or5ofArticle1032,itshallbenecessarytowaituntilfinaljudgmentis
rendered,andinthecasefallingunderNo.4,theexpirationofthemonthallowedforthereport.

Iftheinstitution,deviseorlegacyshouldbeconditional,thetimeofthecompliancewiththecondition
shallalsobeconsidered.(758a)

Art.1035.Ifthepersonexcludedfromtheinheritancebyreasonofincapacityshouldbeachildor
descendantofthedecedentandshouldhavechildrenordescendants,thelattershallacquirehisrightto
thelegitime.

Thepersonsoexcludedshallnotenjoytheusufructandadministrationofthepropertythusinheritedby
hischildren.(761a)

Art.1036.Alienationsofhereditaryproperty,andactsofadministrationperformedbytheexcluded
heir,beforethejudicialorderofexclusion,arevalidastothethirdpersonswhoactedingoodfaith;but
thecoheirsshallhavearighttorecoverdamagesfromthedisqualifiedheir.(n)

Art.1037.Theunworthyheirwhoisexcludedfromthesuccessionhasarighttodemandindemnityor
anyexpensesincurredinthepreservationofthehereditaryproperty,andtoenforcesuchcreditsashe
mayhaveagainsttheestate.(n)

Art.1038.Anypersonincapableofsuccession,who,disregardingtheprohibitionstatedinthepreceding
articles,enteredintothepossessionofthehereditaryproperty,shallbeobligedtoreturnittogetherit
itsaccessions.

Heshallbeliableforallthefruitsandrentshemayhavereceived,orcouldhavereceivedthroughthe
exerciseofduediligence.(760a)

Art.1039.Capacitytosucceedisgovernedbythelawofthenationofthedecedent.(n)

Art.1040.Theactionforadeclarationofincapacityandfortherecoveryoftheinheritance,deviseor
legacyshallbebroughtwithinfiveyearsfromthetimethedisqualifiedpersontookpossessionthereof.
Itmaybebroughtbyanyonewhomayhaveaninterestinthesuccession.(762a)

SECTION3.AcceptanceandRepudiationoftheInheritance

Art.1041.Theacceptanceorrepudiationoftheinheritanceisanactwhichispurelyvoluntaryandfree.
(988)
Art.1042.Theeffectsoftheacceptanceorrepudiationshallalwaysretroacttothemomentofthedeath
ofthedecedent.(989)

Art.1043.Nopersonmayacceptorrepudiateaninheritanceunlessheiscertainofthedeathofthe
personfromwhomheistoinherit,andofhisrighttotheinheritance.(991)

Art.1044.Anypersonhavingthefreedisposalofhispropertymayacceptorrepudiateaninheritance.

Anyinheritancelefttominorsorincapacitatedpersonsmaybeacceptedbytheirparentsorguardians.
Parentsorguardiansmayrepudiatetheinheritancelefttotheirwardsonlybyjudicialauthorization.

Therighttoacceptaninheritancelefttothepoorshallbelongtothepersonsdesignatedbythetestator
todeterminethebeneficiariesanddistributetheproperty,orintheirdefault,tothosementionedin
Article1030.(992a)

Art.1045.Thelawfulrepresentativesofcorporations,associations,institutionsandentitiesqualifiedto
acquirepropertymayacceptanyinheritancelefttothelatter,butinordertorepudiateit,theapproval
ofthecourtshallbenecessary.(993a)

Art.1046.Publicofficialestablishmentscanneitheracceptnorrepudiateaninheritancewithoutthe
approvalofthegovernment.(994)

Art.1047.Amarriedwomanofagemayrepudiateaninheritancewithouttheconsentofherhusband.
(995a)

Art.1048.Deafmuteswhocanreadandwritemayacceptorrepudiatetheinheritancepersonallyor
throughanagent.Shouldtheynotbeabletoreadandwrite,theinheritanceshallbeacceptedbytheir
guardians.Theseguardiansmayrepudiatethesamewithjudicialapproval.(996a)

Art.1049.Acceptancemaybeexpressortacit.

Anexpressacceptancemustbemadeinapublicorprivatedocument.

Atacitacceptanceisoneresultingfromactsbywhichtheintentiontoacceptisnecessarilyimplied,or
whichonewouldhavenorighttodoexceptinthecapacityofanheir.

Actsofmerepreservationorprovisionaladministrationdonotimplyanacceptanceoftheinheritanceif,
throughsuchacts,thetitleorcapacityofanheirhasnotbeenassumed.(999a)

Art.1050.Aninheritanceisdeemedaccepted:

(1)Iftheheirssells,donates,orassignshisrighttoastranger,ortohiscoheirs,ortoanyofthem;
(2)Iftheheirrenouncesthesame,eventhoughgratuitously,forthebenefitofoneormoreofhisco
heirs;

(3)Ifherenouncesitforapriceinfavorofallhiscoheirsindiscriminately;butifthisrenunciationshould
begratuitous,andthecoheirsinwhosefavoritismadearethoseuponwhomtheportionrenounced
shoulddevolvebyvirtueofaccretion,theinheritanceshallnotbedeemedasaccepted.(1000)

Art.1051.Therepudiationofaninheritanceshallbemadeinapublicorauthenticinstrument,orby
petitionpresentedtothecourthavingjurisdictionoverthetestamentaryorintestateproceedings.
(1008)
Art.1052.Iftheheirrepudiatestheinheritancetotheprejudiceofhisowncreditors,thelattermay
petitionthecourttoauthorizethemtoacceptitinthenameoftheheir.

Theacceptanceshallbenefitthecreditorsonlytoanextentsufficienttocovertheamountoftheir
credits.Theexcess,shouldtherebeany,shallinnocasepertaintotherenouncer,butshallbe
adjudicatedtothepersonstowhom,inaccordancewiththerulesestablishedinthisCode,itmay
belong.(1001)

Art.1053.Iftheheirshoulddiewithouthavingacceptedorrepudiatedtheinheritancehisrightshallbe
transmittedtohisheirs.(1006)

Art.1054.Shouldtherebeseveralheirscalledtotheinheritance,someofthemmayacceptandthe
othersmayrepudiateit.(1007a)

Art.1055.Ifaperson,whoiscalledtothesameinheritanceasanheirbywillandabintestato,
repudiatestheinheritanceinhiscapacityasatestamentaryheir,heisunderstoodtohaverepudiatedit
inbothcapacities.

Shouldherepudiateitasanintestateheir,withoutknowledgeofhisbeingatestamentaryheir,hemay
stillacceptitinthelattercapacity.(1009)

Art.1056.Theacceptanceorrepudiationofaninheritance,oncemade,isirrevocable,andcannotbe
impugned,exceptwhenitwasmadethroughanyofthecausesthatvitiateconsent,orwhenan
unknownwillappears.(997)

Art.1057.Withinthirtydaysafterthecourthasissuedanorderforthedistributionoftheestatein
accordancewiththeRulesofCourt,theheirs,deviseesandlegateesshallsignifytothecourthaving
jurisdictionwhethertheyacceptorrepudiatetheinheritance.

Iftheydonotdosowithinthattime,theyaredeemedtohaveacceptedtheinheritance.(n)

SECTION4.ExecutorsandAdministrators

Art.1058.Allmattersrelatingtotheappointment,powersanddutiesofexecutorsandadministrators
andconcerningtheadministrationofestatesofdeceasedpersonsshallbegovernedbytheRulesof
Court.(n)
Art.1059.Iftheassetsoftheestateofadecedentwhichcanbeappliedtothepaymentofdebtsarenot
sufficientforthatpurpose,theprovisionsofArticles2239to2251onPreferenceofCreditsshallbe
observed,providedthattheexpensesreferredtoinArticle2244,No.8,shallbethoseinvolvedinthe
administrationofthedecedent'sestate.(n)

Art.1060.Acorporationorassociationauthorizedtoconductthebusinessofatrustcompanyinthe
Philippinesmaybeappointedasanexecutor,administrator,guardianofanestate,ortrustee,inlike
mannerasanindividual;butitshallnotbeappointedguardianofthepersonofaward.(n)

SECTION5.Collation

Art.1061.Everycompulsoryheir,whosucceedswithothercompulsoryheirs,mustbringintothemass
oftheestateanypropertyorrightwhichhemayhavereceivedfromthedecedent,duringthelifetimeof
thelatter,bywayofdonation,oranyothergratuitoustitle,inorderthatitmaybecomputedinthe
determinationofthelegitimeofeachheir,andintheaccountofthepartition.(1035a)
Art.1062.Collationshallnottakeplaceamongcompulsoryheirsifthedonorshouldhavesoexpressly
provided,orifthedoneeshouldrepudiatetheinheritance,unlessthedonationshouldbereducedas
inofficious.(1036)

Art.1063.Propertyleftbywillisnotdeemedsubjecttocollation,ifthetestatorhasnototherwise
provided,butthelegitimeshallinanycaseremainunimpaired.(1037)

Art.1064.Whenthegrandchildren,whosurvivewiththeiruncles,aunts,orcousins,inheritfromtheir
grandparentsinrepresentationoftheirfatherormother,theyshallbringtocollationallthattheir
parents,ifalive,wouldhavebeenobligedtobring,eventhoughsuchgrandchildrenhavenotinherited
theproperty.

Theyshallalsobringtocollationallthattheymayhavereceivedfromthedecedentduringhislifetime,
unlessthetestatorhasprovidedotherwise,inwhichcasehiswishesmustberespected,ifthelegitime
ofthecoheirsisnotprejudiced.(1038)

Art.1065.Parentsarenotobligedtobringtocollationintheinheritanceoftheirascendantsany
propertywhichmayhavebeendonatedbythelattertotheirchildren.(1039)

Art.1066.Neithershalldonationstothespouseofthechildbebroughttocollation;butiftheyhave
beengivenbytheparenttothespousesjointly,thechildshallbeobligedtobringtocollationonehalf
ofthethingdonated.(1040)

Art.1067.Expensesforsupport,education,medicalattendance,eveninextraordinaryillness,
apprenticeship,ordinaryequipment,orcustomarygiftsarenotsubjecttocollation.(1041)

Art.1068.Expensesincurredbytheparentsingivingtheirchildrenaprofessional,vocationalorother
careershallnotbebroughttocollationunlesstheparentssoprovide,orunlesstheyimpairthelegitime;
butwhentheircollationisrequired,thesumwhichthechildwouldhavespentifhehadlivedinthe
houseandcompanyofhisparentsshallbedeductedtherefrom.(1042a)

Art.1069.Anysumspaidbyaparentinsatisfactionofthedebtsofhischildren,electionexpenses,fines,
andsimilarexpensesshallbebroughttocollation.(1043a)

Art.1070.Weddinggiftsbyparentsandascendantsconsistingofjewelry,clothing,andoutfit,shallnot
bereducedasinofficiousexceptinsofarastheymayexceedonetenthofthesumwhichisdisposableby
will.(1044)

Art.1071.Thesamethingsdonatedarenottobebroughttocollationandpartition,butonlytheirvalue
atthetimeofthedonation,eventhoughtheirjustvaluemaynotthenhavebeenassessed.

Theirsubsequentincreaseordeteriorationandeventheirtotallossordestruction,beitaccidentalor
culpable,shallbeforthebenefitoraccountandriskofthedonee.(1045a)

Art.1072.Inthecollationofadonationmadebybothparents,onehalfshallbebroughttothe
inheritanceofthefather,andtheotherhalf,tothatofthemother.Thatgivenbyonealoneshallbe
broughttocollationinhisorherinheritance.(1046a)

Art.1073.Thedonee'sshareoftheestateshallbereducedbyanamountequaltothatalreadyreceived
byhim;andhiscoheirsshallreceiveanequivalent,asmuchaspossible,inpropertyofthesamenature,
classandquality.(1047)

Art.1074.Shouldtheprovisionsoftheprecedingarticlebeimpracticable,ifthepropertydonatedwas
immovable,thecoheirsshallbeentitledtoreceiveitsequivalentincashorsecurities,attherateof
quotation;andshouldtherebeneithercashormarketablesecuritiesintheestate,somuchoftheother
propertyasmaybenecessaryshallbesoldatpublicauction.

Ifthepropertydonatedwasmovable,thecoheirsshallonlyhavearighttoselectanequivalentofother
personalpropertyoftheinheritanceatitsjustprice.(1048)

Art.1075.Thefruitsandinterestofthepropertysubjecttocollationshallnotpertaintotheestate
exceptfromthedayonwhichthesuccessionisopened.

Forthepurposeofascertainingtheiramount,thefruitsandinterestofthepropertyoftheestateofthe
samekindandqualityasthatsubjecttocollationshallbemadethestandardofassessment.(1049)

Art.1076.Thecoheirsareboundtoreimbursetothedoneethenecessaryexpenseswhichhehas
incurredforthepreservationofthepropertydonatedtohim,thoughtheymaynothaveaugmentedits
value.

Thedoneewhocollatesinkindanimmovablewhichhasbeengiventohimmustbereimbursedbyhis
coheirsfortheimprovementswhichhaveincreasedthevalueoftheproperty,andwhichexistatthe
timethepartitionifeffected.

Astoworksmadeontheestateforthemerepleasureofthedonee,noreimbursementisduehimfor
them;hehas,however,therighttoremovethem,ifhecandosowithoutinjuringtheestate.(n)

Art.1077.Shouldanyquestionariseamongthecoheirsupontheobligationtobringtocollationorasto
thethingswhicharesubjecttocollation,thedistributionoftheestateshallnotbeinterruptedforthis
reason,providedadequatesecurityisgiven.(1050)

SECTION6.PartitionandDistributionoftheEstate

SUBSECTION1.Partition

Art.1078.Wheretherearetwoormoreheirs,thewholeestateofthedecedentis,beforeitspartition,
ownedincommonbysuchheirs,subjecttothepaymentofdebtsofthedeceased.(n)
Art.1079.Partition,ingeneral,istheseparation,divisionandassignmentofathingheldincommon
amongthosetowhomitmaybelong.Thethingitselfmaybedivided,oritsvalue.(n)

Art.1080.Shouldapersonmakepartitionofhisestatebyanactintervivos,orbywill,suchpartition
shallberespected,insofarasitdoesnotprejudicethelegitimeofthecompulsoryheirs.

Aparentwho,intheinterestofhisorherfamily,desirestokeepanyagricultural,industrial,or
manufacturingenterpriseintact,mayavailhimselfoftherightgrantedhiminthisarticle,byordering
thatthelegitimeoftheotherchildrentowhomthepropertyisnotassigned,bepaidincash.(1056a)

Art.1081.Apersonmay,byanactintervivosormortiscausa,intrustthemerepowertomakethe
partitionafterhisdeathtoanypersonwhoisnotoneofthecoheirs.

Theprovisionsofthisandoftheprecedingarticleshallbeobservedevenshouldtherebeamongtheco
heirsaminororapersonsubjecttoguardianship;butthemandatary,insuchcase,shallmakean
inventoryofthepropertyoftheestate,afternotifyingthecoheirs,thecreditors,andthelegateesor
devisees.(1057a)

Art.1082.Everyactwhichisintendedtoputanendtoindivisionamongcoheirsandlegateesor
deviseesisdeemedtobeapartition,althoughitshouldpurporttobeasale,andexchange,a
compromise,oranyothertransaction.(n)

Art.1083.Everycoheirhasarighttodemandthedivisionoftheestateunlessthetestatorshouldhave
expresslyforbiddenitspartition,inwhichcasetheperiodofindivisionshallnotexceedtwentyyearsas
providedinarticle494.Thispowerofthetestatortoprohibitdivisionappliestothelegitime.

Eventhoughforbiddenbythetestator,thecoownershipterminateswhenanyofthecausesforwhich
partnershipisdissolvedtakesplace,orwhenthecourtfindsforcompellingreasonsthatdivisionshould
beordered,uponpetitionofoneofthecoheirs.(1051a)

Art.1084.Voluntaryheirsuponwhomsomeconditionhasbeenimposedcannotdemandapartition
untiltheconditionhasbeenfulfilled;buttheothercoheirsmaydemanditbygivingsufficientsecurity
fortherightswhichtheformermayhaveincasetheconditionshouldbecompliedwith,anduntilitis
knownthattheconditionhasnotbeenfulfilledorcanneverbecompliedwith,thepartitionshallbe
understoodtobeprovisional.(1054a)

Art.1085.Inthepartitionoftheestate,equalityshallbeobservedasfaraspossible,dividingthe
propertyintolots,orassigningtoeachofthecoheirsthingsofthesamenature,qualityandkind.(1061)

Art.1086.Shouldathingbeindivisible,orwouldbemuchimpairedbyitsbeingdivided,itmaybe
adjudicatedtooneoftheheirs,providedheshallpaytheotherstheexcessincash.

Nevertheless,ifanyoftheheirsshoulddemandthatthethingbesoldatpublicauctionandthat
strangersbeallowedtobid,thismustbedone.(1062)

Art.1087.Inthepartitionthecoheirsshallreimburseoneanotherfortheincomeandfruitswhicheach
oneofthemmayhavereceivedfromanypropertyoftheestate,foranyusefulandnecessaryexpenses
madeuponsuchproperty,andforanydamagetheretothroughmaliceorneglect.(1063)

Art.1088.Shouldanyoftheheirssellhishereditaryrightstoastrangerbeforethepartition,anyorallof
thecoheirsmaybesubrogatedtotherightsofthepurchaserbyreimbursinghimforthepriceofthe
sale,providedtheydosowithintheperiodofonemonthfromthetimetheywerenotifiedinwritingof
thesalebythevendor.(1067a)

Art.1089.Thetitlesofacquisitionorownershipofeachpropertyshallbedeliveredtothecoheirto
whomsaidpropertyhasbeenadjudicated.(1065a)

Art.1090.Whenthetitlecomprisestwoormorepiecesoflandwhichhavebeenassignedtotwoor
morecoheirs,orwhenitcoversonepieceoflandwhichhasbeendividedbetweentwoormoreco
heirs,thetitleshallbedeliveredtotheonehavingthelargestinterest,andauthenticcopiesofthetitle
shallbefurnishedtotheothercoheirsattheexpenseoftheestate.Iftheinterestofeachcoheir
shouldbethesame,theoldestshallhavethetitle.(1066a)

SUBSECTION2.EffectsofPartition

Art.1091.Apartitionlegallymadeconfersuponeachheirtheexclusiveownershipoftheproperty
adjudicatedtohim.(1068)
Art.1092.Afterthepartitionhasbeenmade,thecoheirsshallbereciprocallyboundtowarrantthetitle
to,andthequalityof,eachpropertyadjudicated.(1069a)

Art.1093.Thereciprocalobligationofwarrantyreferredtointheprecedingarticleshallbe
proportionatetotherespectivehereditarysharesofthecoheirs,butifanyoneofthemshouldbe
insolvent,theothercoheirsshallbeliableforhispartinthesameproportion,deductingthepart
correspondingtotheonewhoshouldbeindemnified.

Thosewhopayfortheinsolventheirshallhavearightofactionagainsthimforreimbursement,should
hisfinancialconditionimprove.(1071)

Art.1094.Anactiontoenforcethewarrantyamongheirsmustbebroughtwithintenyearsfromthe
datetherightofactionaccrues.(n)

Art.1095.Ifacreditshouldbeassignedascollectible,thecoheirsshallnotbeliableforthesubsequent
insolvencyofthedebtoroftheestate,butonlyforhisinsolvencyatthetimethepartitionismade.

Thewarrantyofthesolvencyofthedebtorcanonlybeenforcedduringthefiveyearsfollowingthe
partition.

Coheirsdonotwarrantbaddebts,ifsoknownto,andacceptedby,thedistributee.Butifsuchdebts
arenotassignedtoacoheir,andshouldbecollected,inwholeorinpart,theamountcollectedshallbe
distributedproportionatelyamongtheheirs.(1072a)

Art.1096.Theobligationofwarrantyamongcoheirsshallceaseinthefollowingcases:

(1)Whenthetestatorhimselfhasmadethepartition,unlessitappears,oritmaybereasonably
presumed,thathisintentionwasotherwise,butthelegitimeshallalwaysremainunimpaired;
(2)Whenithasbeensoexpresslystipulatedintheagreementofpartition,unlesstherehasbeenbad
faith;

(3)Whentheevictionisduetoacausesubsequenttothepartition,orhasbeencausedbythefaultof
thedistributeeoftheproperty.(1070a)

SUBSECTION3.RescissionandNullityofPartition

Art.1097.Apartitionmayberescindedorannulledforthesamecausesascontracts.(1073a)
Art.1098.Apartition,judicialorextrajudicial,mayalsoberescindedonaccountoflesion,whenany
oneofthecoheirsreceivedthingswhosevalueisless,byatleastonefourth,thanthesharetowhich
heisentitled,consideringthevalueofthethingsatthetimetheywereadjudicated.(1074a)

Art.1099.Thepartitionmadebythetestatorcannotbeimpugnedonthegroundoflesion,exceptwhen
thelegitimeofthecompulsoryheirsistherebyprejudiced,orwhenitappearsormayreasonablybe
presumed,thattheintentionofthetestatorwasotherwise.(1075)

Art.1100.Theactionforrescissiononaccountoflesionshallprescribeafterfouryearsfromthetime
thepartitionwasmade.(1076)

Art.1101.Theheirwhoissuedshallhavetheoptionofindemnifyingtheplaintifffortheloss,or
consentingtoanewpartition.

Indemnitymaybemadebypaymentincashorbythedeliveryofathingofthesamekindandqualityas
thatawardedtotheplaintiff.

Ifanewpartitionismade,itshallaffectneitherthosewhohavenotbeenprejudicednorthosehavenot
receivedmorethantheirjustshare.(1077a)

Art.1102.Anheirwhohasalienatedthewholeoraconsiderablepartoftherealpropertyadjudicated
tohimcannotmaintainanactionforrescissiononthegroundoflesion,butheshallhavearighttobe
indemnifiedincash.(1078a)

Art.1103.Theomissionofoneormoreobjectsorsecuritiesoftheinheritanceshallnotcausethe
rescissionofthepartitiononthegroundoflesion,butthepartitionshallbecompletedbythe
distributionoftheobjectsorsecuritieswhichhavebeenomitted.(1079a)

Art.1104.Apartitionmadewithpreteritionofanyofthecompulsoryheirsshallnotberescinded,unless
itbeprovedthattherewasbadfaithorfraudonthepartoftheotherpersonsinterested;butthelatter
shallbeproportionatelyobligedtopaytothepersonomittedthesharewhichbelongstohim.(1080)

Art.1105.Apartitionwhichincludesapersonbelievedtobeanheir,butwhoisnot,shallbevoidonly
withrespecttosuchperson.(1081a)

TitleV.PRESCRIPTION

CHAPTER1
GENERALPROVISIONS

Art.1106.Byprescription,oneacquiresownershipandotherrealrightsthroughthelapseoftimeinthe
mannerandundertheconditionslaiddownbylaw.
Inthesameway,rightsandconditionsarelostbyprescription.(1930a)

Art.1107.Personswhoarecapableofacquiringpropertyorrightsbytheotherlegalmodesmayacquire
thesamebymeansofprescription.

Minorsandotherincapacitatedpersonsmayacquirepropertyorrightsbyprescription,eitherpersonally
orthroughtheirparents,guardiansorlegalrepresentatives.(1931a)

Art.1108.Prescription,bothacquisitiveandextinctive,runsagainst:

(1)Minorsandotherincapacitatedpersonswhohaveparents,guardiansorotherlegalrepresentatives;
(2)Absenteeswhohaveadministrators,eitherappointedbythembeforetheirdisappearance,or
appointedbythecourts;

(3)Personslivingabroad,whohavemanagersoradministrators;

(4)Juridicalpersons,excepttheStateanditssubdivisions.

Personswhoaredisqualifiedfromadministeringtheirpropertyhavearighttoclaimdamagesfromtheir
legalrepresentativeswhosenegligencehasbeenthecauseofprescription.(1932a)

Art.1109.Prescriptiondoesnotrunbetweenhusbandandwife,eventhoughtherebeaseparationof
propertyagreeduponinthemarriagesettlementsorbyjudicialdecree.
Neitherdoesprescriptionrunbetweenparentsandchildren,duringtheminorityorinsanityofthe
latter,andbetweenguardianandwardduringthecontinuanceoftheguardianship.(n)

Art.1110.Prescription,acquisitiveandextinctive,runsinfavorof,oragainstamarriedwoman.(n)

Art.1111.Prescriptionobtainedbyacoproprietororacoownershallbenefittheothers.(1933)

Art.1112.Personswithcapacitytoalienatepropertymayrenounceprescriptionalreadyobtained,but
nottherighttoprescribeinthefuture.

Prescriptionisdeemedtohavebeentacitlyrenouncedwhentherenunciationresultsfromactswhich
implytheabandonmentoftherightacquired.(1935)

Art.1113.Allthingswhicharewithinthecommerceofmenaresusceptibleofprescription,unless
otherwiseprovided.PropertyoftheStateoranyofitssubdivisionsnotpatrimonialincharactershallnot
betheobjectofprescription.(1936a)

Art.1114.Creditorsandallotherpersonsinterestedinmakingtheprescriptioneffectivemayavail
themselvesthereofnotwithstandingtheexpressortacitrenunciationbythedebtororproprietor.
(1937)

Art.1115.TheprovisionsofthepresentTitleareunderstoodtobewithoutprejudicetowhatinthis
Codeorinspeciallawsisestablishedwithrespecttospecificcasesofprescription.(1938)

Art.1116.PrescriptionalreadyrunningbeforetheeffectivityofthisCodeshallbegovernedbylaws
previouslyinforce;butifsincethetimethisCodetookeffecttheentireperiodhereinrequiredfor
prescriptionshouldelapse,thepresentCodeshallbeapplicable,eventhoughbytheformerlawsa
longerperiodmightberequired.(1939)

CHAPTER2
PRESCRIPTIONOFOWNERSHIPANDOTHERREALRIGHTS

Art.1117.Acquisitiveprescriptionofdominionandotherrealrightsmaybeordinaryorextraordinary.
Ordinaryacquisitiveprescriptionrequirespossessionofthingsingoodfaithandwithjusttitleforthe
timefixedbylaw.(1940a)

Art.1118.Possessionhastobeintheconceptofanowner,public,peacefulanduninterrupted.(1941)

Art.1119.Actsofpossessorycharacterexecutedinvirtueoflicenseorbymeretoleranceoftheowner
shallnotbeavailableforthepurposesofpossession.(1942)

Art.1120.Possessionisinterruptedforthepurposesofprescription,naturallyorcivilly.(1943)

Art.1121.Possessionisnaturallyinterruptedwhenthroughanycauseitshouldceaseformorethanone
year.

Theoldpossessionisnotrevivedifanewpossessionshouldbeexercisedbythesameadverseclaimant.
(1944a)

Art.1122.Ifthenaturalinterruptionisforonlyoneyearorless,thetimeelapsedshallbecountedin
favoroftheprescription.(n)

Art.1123.Civilinterruptionisproducedbyjudicialsummonstothepossessor.(1945a)

Art.1124.Judicialsummonsshallbedeemednottohavebeenissuedandshallnotgiveriseto
interruption:

(1)Ifitshouldbevoidforlackoflegalsolemnities;
(2)Iftheplaintiffshoulddesistfromthecomplaintorshouldallowtheproceedingstolapse;

(3)Ifthepossessorshouldbeabsolvedfromthecomplaint.

Inallthesecases,theperiodoftheinterruptionshallbecountedfortheprescription.(1946a)

Art.1125.Anyexpressortacitrecognitionwhichthepossessormaymakeoftheowner'srightalso
interruptspossession.(1948)
Art.1126.AgainstatitlerecordedintheRegistryofProperty,ordinaryprescriptionofownershiporreal
rightsshallnottakeplacetotheprejudiceofathirdperson,exceptinvirtueofanothertitlealso
recorded;andthetimeshallbegintorunfromtherecordingofthelatter.

AstolandsregisteredundertheLandRegistrationAct,theprovisionsofthatspeciallawshallgovern.
(1949a)

Art.1127.Thegoodfaithofthepossessorconsistsinthereasonablebeliefthatthepersonfromwhom
hereceivedthethingwastheownerthereof,andcouldtransmithisownership.(1950a)

Art.1128.TheconditionsofgoodfaithrequiredforpossessioninArticles526,527,528,and529ofthis
Codearelikewisenecessaryforthedeterminationofgoodfaithintheprescriptionofownershipand
otherrealrights.(1951)

Art.1129.Forthepurposesofprescription,thereisjusttitlewhentheadverseclaimantcameinto
possessionofthepropertythroughoneofthemodesrecognizedbylawfortheacquisitionofownership
orotherrealrights,butthegrantorwasnottheownerorcouldnottransmitanyright.(n)

Art.1130.Thetitleforprescriptionmustbetrueandvalid.(1953)

Art.1131.Forthepurposesofprescription,justtitlemustbeproved;itisneverpresumed.(1954a)

Art.1132.Theownershipofmovablesprescribesthroughuninterruptedpossessionforfouryearsin
goodfaith.

Theownershipofpersonalpropertyalsoprescribesthroughuninterruptedpossessionforeightyears,
withoutneedofanyothercondition.

Withregardtotherightoftheownertorecoverpersonalpropertylostorofwhichhehasbeenillegally
deprived,aswellaswithrespecttomovablesacquiredinapublicsale,fair,ormarket,orfroma
merchant'sstoretheprovisionsofArticles559and1505ofthisCodeshallbeobserved.(1955a)

Art.1133.Movablespossessedthroughacrimecanneverbeacquiredthroughprescriptionbythe
offender.(1956a)

Art.1134.Ownershipandotherrealrightsoverimmovablepropertyareacquiredbyordinary
prescriptionthroughpossessionoftenyears.(1957a)

Art.1135.Incasetheadverseclaimantpossessesbymistakeanareagreater,orlessthanthatexpressed
inhistitle,prescriptionshallbebasedonthepossession.(n)

Art.1136.Possessioninwartime,whenthecivilcourtsarenotopen,shallnotbecountedinfavorofthe
adverseclaimant.

Art.1137.Ownershipandotherrealrightsoverimmovablesalsoprescribethroughuninterrupted
adversepossessionthereofforthirtyyears,withoutneedoftitleorofgoodfaith.(1959a)

Art.1138.Inthecomputationoftimenecessaryforprescriptionthefollowingrulesshallbeobserved:

(1)Thepresentpossessormaycompletetheperiodnecessaryforprescriptionbytackinghispossession
tothatofhisgrantororpredecessorininterest;
(2)Itispresumedthatthepresentpossessorwhowasalsothepossessorataprevioustime,has
continuedtobeinpossessionduringtheinterveningtime,unlessthereisprooftothecontrary;

(3)Thefirstdayshallbeexcludedandthelastdayincluded.(1960a)

CHAPTER3
PRESCRIPTIONOFACTIONS

Art.1139.Actionsprescribebythemerelapseoftimefixedbylaw.(1961)
Art.1140.Actionstorecovermovablesshallprescribeeightyearsfromthetimethepossessionthereof
islost,unlessthepossessorhasacquiredtheownershipbyprescriptionforalessperiod,accordingto
Articles1132,andwithoutprejudicetotheprovisionsofArticles559,1505,and1133.(1962a)

Art.1141.Realactionsoverimmovablesprescribeafterthirtyyears.

Thisprovisioniswithoutprejudicetowhatisestablishedfortheacquisitionofownershipandotherreal
rightsbyprescription.(1963)

Art.1142.Amortgageactionprescribesaftertenyears.(1964a)

Art.1143.Thefollowingrights,amongothersspecifiedelsewhereinthisCode,arenotextinguishedby
prescription:

(1)Todemandarightofway,regulatedinArticle649;
(2)Tobringanactiontoabateapublicorprivatenuisance.(n)

Art.1144.Thefollowingactionsmustbebroughtwithintenyearsfromthetimetherightofaction
accrues:
(1)Uponawrittencontract;
(2)Uponanobligationcreatedbylaw;

(3)Uponajudgment.(n)

Art.1145.Thefollowingactionsmustbecommencedwithinsixyears:
(1)Uponanoralcontract;
(2)Uponaquasicontract.(n)

Art.1146.Thefollowingactionsmustbeinstitutedwithinfouryears:
(1)Uponaninjurytotherightsoftheplaintiff;
(2)Uponaquasidelict;

However,whentheactionarisesfromoroutofanyact,activity,orconductofanypublicofficer
involvingtheexerciseofpowersorauthorityarisingfromMartialLawincludingthearrest,detention
and/ortrialoftheplaintiff,thesamemustbebroughtwithinone(1)year.(AsamendedbyPDNo.1755,
Dec.24,1980.)
Art.1147.Thefollowingactionsmustbefiledwithinoneyear:

(1)Forforcibleentryanddetainer;
(2)Fordefamation.(n)

Art.1148.ThelimitationsofactionmentionedinArticles1140to1142,and1144to1147arewithout
prejudicetothosespecifiedinotherpartsofthisCode,intheCodeofCommerce,andinspeciallaws.(n)
Art.1149.AllotheractionswhoseperiodsarenotfixedinthisCodeorinotherlawsmustbebrought
withinfiveyearsfromthetimetherightofactionaccrues.(n)

Art.1150.Thetimeforprescriptionforallkindsofactions,whenthereisnospecialprovisionwhich
ordainsotherwise,shallbecountedfromthedaytheymaybebrought.(1969)

Art.1151.Thetimefortheprescriptionofactionswhichhavefortheirobjecttheenforcementof
obligationstopayprincipalwithinterestorannuityrunsfromthelastpaymentoftheannuityorofthe
interest.(1970a)

Art.1152.Theperiodforprescriptionofactionstodemandthefulfillmentofobligationdeclaredbya
judgmentcommencesfromthetimethejudgmentbecamefinal.(1971)

Art.1153.Theperiodforprescriptionofactionstodemandaccountingrunsfromthedaythepersons
whoshouldrenderthesameceaseintheirfunctions.

Theperiodfortheactionarisingfromtheresultoftheaccountingrunsfromthedatewhensaidresult
wasrecognizedbyagreementoftheinterestedparties.(1972)

Art.1154.Theperiodduringwhichtheobligeewaspreventedbyafortuitouseventfromenforcinghis
rightisnotreckonedagainsthim.(n)

Art.1155.Theprescriptionofactionsisinterruptedwhentheyarefiledbeforethecourt,whenthereis
awrittenextrajudicialdemandbythecreditors,andwhenthereisanywrittenacknowledgmentofthe
debtbythedebtor.(1973a)

BOOKIV

OBLIGATIONSANDCONTRACTS

Title.I.OBLIGATIONS

CHAPTER1
GENERALPROVISIONS

Art.1156.Anobligationisajuridicalnecessitytogive,todoornottodo.(n)
Art.1157.Obligationsarisefrom:

(1)Law;
(2)Contracts;

(3)Quasicontracts;

(4)Actsoromissionspunishedbylaw;and

(5)Quasidelicts.(1089a)

Art.1158.Obligationsderivedfromlawarenotpresumed.OnlythoseexpresslydeterminedinthisCode
orinspeciallawsaredemandable,andshallberegulatedbythepreceptsofthelawwhichestablishes
them;andastowhathasnotbeenforeseen,bytheprovisionsofthisBook.(1090)
Art.1159.Obligationsarisingfromcontractshavetheforceoflawbetweenthecontractingpartiesand
shouldbecompliedwithingoodfaith.(1091a)

Art.1160.ObligationsderivedfromquasicontractsshallbesubjecttotheprovisionsofChapter1,Title
XVII,ofthisBook.(n)

Art.1161.Civilobligationsarisingfromcriminaloffensesshallbegovernedbythepenallaws,subjectto
theprovisionsofArticle2177,andofthepertinentprovisionsofChapter2,PreliminaryTitle,onHuman
Relations,andofTitleXVIIIofthisBook,regulatingdamages.(1092a)

Art.1162.ObligationsderivedfromquasidelictsshallbegovernedbytheprovisionsofChapter2,Title
XVIIofthisBook,andbyspeciallaws.(1093a)

CHAPTER2
NATUREANDEFFECTOFOBLIGATIONS

Art.1163.Everypersonobligedtogivesomethingisalsoobligedtotakecareofitwiththeproper
diligenceofagoodfatherofafamily,unlessthelaworthestipulationofthepartiesrequiresanother
standardofcare.(1094a)
Art.1164.Thecreditorhasarighttothefruitsofthethingfromthetimetheobligationtodeliverit
arises.However,heshallacquirenorealrightoverituntilthesamehasbeendeliveredtohim.(1095)

Art.1165.Whenwhatistobedeliveredisadeterminatething,thecreditor,inadditiontotheright
grantedhimbyArticle1170,maycompelthedebtortomakethedelivery.

Ifthethingisindeterminateorgeneric,hemayaskthattheobligationbecompliedwithattheexpense
ofthedebtor.

Iftheobligordelays,orhaspromisedtodeliverthesamethingtotwoormorepersonswhodonothave
thesameinterest,heshallberesponsibleforanyfortuitouseventuntilhehaseffectedthedelivery.
(1096)

Art.1166.Theobligationtogiveadeterminatethingincludesthatofdeliveringallitsaccessionsand
accessories,eventhoughtheymaynothavebeenmentioned.(1097a)

Art.1167.Ifapersonobligedtodosomethingfailstodoit,thesameshallbeexecutedathiscost.

Thissameruleshallbeobservedifhedoesitincontraventionofthetenoroftheobligation.
Furthermore,itmaybedecreedthatwhathasbeenpoorlydonebeundone.(1098)

Art.1168.Whentheobligationconsistsinnotdoing,andtheobligordoeswhathasbeenforbiddenhim,
itshallalsobeundoneathisexpense.(1099a)

Art.1169.Thoseobligedtodeliverortodosomethingincurindelayfromthetimetheobligeejudicially
orextrajudiciallydemandsfromthemthefulfillmentoftheirobligation.

However,thedemandbythecreditorshallnotbenecessaryinorderthatdelaymayexist:

(1)Whentheobligationorthelawexpresslysodeclare;or
(2)Whenfromthenatureandthecircumstancesoftheobligationitappearsthatthedesignationofthe
timewhenthethingistobedeliveredortheserviceistoberenderedwasacontrollingmotiveforthe
establishmentofthecontract;or

(3)Whendemandwouldbeuseless,aswhentheobligorhasrendereditbeyondhispowertoperform.

Inreciprocalobligations,neitherpartyincursindelayiftheotherdoesnotcomplyorisnotreadyto
complyinapropermannerwithwhatisincumbentuponhim.Fromthemomentoneoftheparties
fulfillshisobligation,delaybytheotherbegins.(1100a)
Art.1170.Thosewhointheperformanceoftheirobligationsareguiltyoffraud,negligence,ordelay,
andthosewhoinanymannercontravenethetenorthereof,areliablefordamages.(1101)

Art.1171.Responsibilityarisingfromfraudisdemandableinallobligations.Anywaiverofanactionfor
futurefraudisvoid.(1102a)

Art.1172.Responsibilityarisingfromnegligenceintheperformanceofeverykindofobligationisalso
demandable,butsuchliabilitymayberegulatedbythecourts,accordingtothecircumstances.(1103)

Art.1173.Thefaultornegligenceoftheobligorconsistsintheomissionofthatdiligencewhichis
requiredbythenatureoftheobligationandcorrespondswiththecircumstancesofthepersons,ofthe
timeandoftheplace.Whennegligenceshowsbadfaith,theprovisionsofArticles1171and2201,
paragraph2,shallapply.

Ifthelaworcontractdoesnotstatethediligencewhichistobeobservedintheperformance,that
whichisexpectedofagoodfatherofafamilyshallberequired.(1104a)

Art.1174.Exceptincasesexpresslyspecifiedbythelaw,orwhenitisotherwisedeclaredbystipulation,
orwhenthenatureoftheobligationrequirestheassumptionofrisk,nopersonshallberesponsiblefor
thoseeventswhichcouldnotbeforeseen,orwhich,thoughforeseen,wereinevitable.(1105a)

Art.1175.Usurioustransactionsshallbegovernedbyspeciallaws.(n)

Art.1176.Thereceiptoftheprincipalbythecreditorwithoutreservationwithrespecttotheinterest,
shallgiverisetothepresumptionthatsaidinteresthasbeenpaid.

Thereceiptofalaterinstallmentofadebtwithoutreservationastopriorinstallments,shalllikewise
raisethepresumptionthatsuchinstallmentshavebeenpaid.(1110a)

Art.1177.Thecreditors,afterhavingpursuedthepropertyinpossessionofthedebtortosatisfytheir
claims,mayexercisealltherightsandbringalltheactionsofthelatterforthesamepurpose,savethose
whichareinherentinhisperson;theymayalsoimpugntheactswhichthedebtormayhavedoneto
defraudthem.(1111)

Art.1178.Subjecttothelaws,allrightsacquiredinvirtueofanobligationaretransmissible,iftherehas
beennostipulationtothecontrary.(1112)

CHAPTER3
DIFFERENTKINDSOFOBLIGATIONS

SECTION1.PureandConditionalObligations

Art.1179.Everyobligationwhoseperformancedoesnotdependuponafutureoruncertainevent,or
uponapasteventunknowntotheparties,isdemandableatonce.
Everyobligationwhichcontainsaresolutoryconditionshallalsobedemandable,withoutprejudiceto
theeffectsofthehappeningoftheevent.(1113)

Art.1180.Whenthedebtorbindshimselftopaywhenhismeanspermithimtodoso,theobligation
shallbedeemedtobeonewithaperiod,subjecttotheprovisionsofArticle1197.(n)

Art.1181.Inconditionalobligations,theacquisitionofrights,aswellastheextinguishmentorlossof
thosealreadyacquired,shalldependuponthehappeningoftheeventwhichconstitutesthecondition.
(1114)

Art.1182.Whenthefulfillmentoftheconditiondependsuponthesolewillofthedebtor,the
conditionalobligationshallbevoid.Ifitdependsuponchanceoruponthewillofathirdperson,the
obligationshalltakeeffectinconformitywiththeprovisionsofthisCode.(1115)

Art.1183.Impossibleconditions,thosecontrarytogoodcustomsorpublicpolicyandthoseprohibited
bylawshallannultheobligationwhichdependsuponthem.Iftheobligationisdivisible,thatpart
thereofwhichisnotaffectedbytheimpossibleorunlawfulconditionshallbevalid.

Theconditionnottodoanimpossiblethingshallbeconsideredasnothavingbeenagreedupon.
(1116a)

Art.1184.Theconditionthatsomeeventhappenatadeterminatetimeshallextinguishtheobligation
assoonasthetimeexpiresorifithasbecomeindubitablethattheeventwillnottakeplace.(1117)

Art.1185.Theconditionthatsomeeventwillnothappenatadeterminatetimeshallrenderthe
obligationeffectivefromthemomentthetimeindicatedhaselapsed,orifithasbecomeevidentthat
theeventcannotoccur.

Ifnotimehasbeenfixed,theconditionshallbedeemedfulfilledatsuchtimeasmayhaveprobably
beencontemplated,bearinginmindthenatureoftheobligation.(1118)

Art.1186.Theconditionshallbedeemedfulfilledwhentheobligorvoluntarilypreventsitsfulfillment.
(1119)

Art.1187.Theeffectsofaconditionalobligationtogive,oncetheconditionhasbeenfulfilled,shall
retroacttothedayoftheconstitutionoftheobligation.Nevertheless,whentheobligationimposes
reciprocalprestationsupontheparties,thefruitsandinterestsduringthependencyofthecondition
shallbedeemedtohavebeenmutuallycompensated.Iftheobligationisunilateral,thedebtorshall
appropriatethefruitsandinterestsreceived,unlessfromthenatureandcircumstancesoftheobligation
itshouldbeinferredthattheintentionofthepersonconstitutingthesamewasdifferent.

Inobligationstodoandnottodo,thecourtsshalldetermine,ineachcase,theretroactiveeffectofthe
conditionthathasbeencompliedwith.(1120)

Art.1188.Thecreditormay,beforethefulfillmentofthecondition,bringtheappropriateactionsforthe
preservationofhisright.

Thedebtormayrecoverwhatduringthesametimehehaspaidbymistakeincaseofasuspensive
condition.(1121a)

Art.1189.Whentheconditionshavebeenimposedwiththeintentionofsuspendingtheefficacyofan
obligationtogive,thefollowingrulesshallbeobservedincaseoftheimprovement,lossor
deteriorationofthethingduringthependencyofthecondition:

(1)Ifthethingislostwithoutthefaultofthedebtor,theobligationshallbeextinguished;
(2)Ifthethingislostthroughthefaultofthedebtor,heshallbeobligedtopaydamages;itis
understoodthatthethingislostwhenitperishes,orgoesoutofcommerce,ordisappearsinsuchaway
thatitsexistenceisunknownoritcannotberecovered;

(3)Whenthethingdeteriorateswithoutthefaultofthedebtor,theimpairmentistobebornebythe
creditor;

(4)Ifitdeterioratesthroughthefaultofthedebtor,thecreditormaychoosebetweentherescissionof
theobligationanditsfulfillment,withindemnityfordamagesineithercase;

(5)Ifthethingisimprovedbyitsnature,orbytime,theimprovementshallinuretothebenefitofthe
creditor;

(6)Ifitisimprovedattheexpenseofthedebtor,heshallhavenootherrightthanthatgrantedtothe
usufructuary.(1122)

Art.1190.Whentheconditionshavefortheirpurposetheextinguishmentofanobligationtogive,the
parties,uponthefulfillmentofsaidconditions,shallreturntoeachotherwhattheyhavereceived.
Incaseoftheloss,deteriorationorimprovementofthething,theprovisionswhich,withrespecttothe
debtor,arelaiddownintheprecedingarticleshallbeappliedtothepartywhoisboundtoreturn.

Asfortheobligationstodoandnottodo,theprovisionsofthesecondparagraphofArticle1187shall
beobservedasregardstheeffectoftheextinguishmentoftheobligation.(1123)

Art.1191.Thepowertorescindobligationsisimpliedinreciprocalones,incaseoneoftheobligors
shouldnotcomplywithwhatisincumbentuponhim.

Theinjuredpartymaychoosebetweenthefulfillmentandtherescissionoftheobligation,withthe
paymentofdamagesineithercase.Hemayalsoseekrescission,evenafterhehaschosenfulfillment,if
thelattershouldbecomeimpossible.

Thecourtshalldecreetherescissionclaimed,unlesstherebejustcauseauthorizingthefixingofa
period.

Thisisunderstoodtobewithoutprejudicetotherightsofthirdpersonswhohaveacquiredthething,in
accordancewithArticles1385and1388andtheMortgageLaw.(1124)

Art.1192.Incasebothpartieshavecommittedabreachoftheobligation,theliabilityofthefirst
infractorshallbeequitablytemperedbythecourts.Ifitcannotbedeterminedwhichofthepartiesfirst
violatedthecontract,thesameshallbedeemedextinguished,andeachshallbearhisowndamages.(n)

SECTION2.ObligationswithaPeriod

Art.1193.Obligationsforwhosefulfillmentadaycertainhasbeenfixed,shallbedemandableonlywhen
thatdaycomes.
Obligationswitharesolutoryperiodtakeeffectatonce,butterminateuponarrivalofthedaycertain.

Adaycertainisunderstoodtobethatwhichmustnecessarilycome,althoughitmaynotbeknown
when.

Iftheuncertaintyconsistsinwhetherthedaywillcomeornot,theobligationisconditional,anditshall
beregulatedbytherulesoftheprecedingSection.(1125a)

Art.1194.Incaseofloss,deteriorationorimprovementofthethingbeforethearrivalofthedaycertain,
therulesinArticle1189shallbeobserved.(n)

Art.1195.Anythingpaidordeliveredbeforethearrivaloftheperiod,theobligorbeingunawareofthe
periodorbelievingthattheobligationhasbecomedueanddemandable,mayberecovered,withthe
fruitsandinterests.(1126a)

Art.1196.Wheneverinanobligationaperiodisdesignated,itispresumedtohavebeenestablishedfor
thebenefitofboththecreditorandthedebtor,unlessfromthetenorofthesameorother
circumstancesitshouldappearthattheperiodhasbeenestablishedinfavorofoneoroftheother.
(1127)

Art.1197.Iftheobligationdoesnotfixaperiod,butfromitsnatureandthecircumstancesitcanbe
inferredthataperiodwasintended,thecourtsmayfixthedurationthereof.

Thecourtsshallalsofixthedurationoftheperiodwhenitdependsuponthewillofthedebtor.

Ineverycase,thecourtsshalldeterminesuchperiodasmayunderthecircumstanceshavebeen
probablycontemplatedbytheparties.Oncefixedbythecourts,theperiodcannotbechangedbythem.
(1128a)

Art.1198.Thedebtorshallloseeveryrighttomakeuseoftheperiod:

(1)Whenaftertheobligationhasbeencontracted,hebecomesinsolvent,unlesshegivesaguarantyor
securityforthedebt;

(2)Whenhedoesnotfurnishtothecreditortheguarantiesorsecuritieswhichhehaspromised;

(3)Whenbyhisownactshehasimpairedsaidguarantiesorsecuritiesaftertheirestablishment,and
whenthroughafortuitouseventtheydisappear,unlessheimmediatelygivesnewonesequally
satisfactory;

(4)Whenthedebtorviolatesanyundertaking,inconsiderationofwhichthecreditoragreedtothe
period;

(5)Whenthedebtorattemptstoabscond.(1129a)

SECTION3.AlternativeObligations

Art.1199.Apersonalternativelyboundbydifferentprestationsshallcompletelyperformoneofthem.
Thecreditorcannotbecompelledtoreceivepartofoneandpartoftheotherundertaking.(1131)

Art.1200.Therightofchoicebelongstothedebtor,unlessithasbeenexpresslygrantedtothecreditor.

Thedebtorshallhavenorighttochoosethoseprestationswhichareimpossible,unlawfulorwhich
couldnothavebeentheobjectoftheobligation.(1132)

Art.1201.Thechoiceshallproducenoeffectexceptfromthetimeithasbeencommunicated.(1133)

Art.1202.Thedebtorshalllosetherightofchoicewhenamongtheprestationswherebyheis
alternativelybound,onlyoneispracticable.(1134)

Art.1203.Ifthroughthecreditor'sactsthedebtorcannotmakeachoiceaccordingtothetermsofthe
obligation,thelattermayrescindthecontractwithdamages.(n)

Art.1204.Thecreditorshallhavearighttoindemnityfordamageswhen,throughthefaultofthe
debtor,allthethingswhicharealternativelytheobjectoftheobligationhavebeenlost,orthe
complianceoftheobligationhasbecomeimpossible.

Theindemnityshallbefixedtakingasabasisthevalueofthelastthingwhichdisappeared,orthatof
theservicewhichlastbecameimpossible.

Damagesotherthanthevalueofthelastthingorservicemayalsobeawarded.(1135a)

Art.1205.Whenthechoicehasbeenexpresslygiventothecreditor,theobligationshallceasetobe
alternativefromthedaywhentheselectionhasbeencommunicatedtothedebtor.

Untilthentheresponsibilityofthedebtorshallbegovernedbythefollowingrules:

(1)Ifoneofthethingsislostthroughafortuitousevent,heshallperformtheobligationbydelivering
thatwhichthecreditorshouldchoosefromamongtheremainder,orthatwhichremainsifonlyone
subsists;
(2)Ifthelossofoneofthethingsoccursthroughthefaultofthedebtor,thecreditormayclaimanyof
thosesubsisting,orthepriceofthatwhich,throughthefaultoftheformer,hasdisappeared,witha
righttodamages;

(3)Ifallthethingsarelostthroughthefaultofthedebtor,thechoicebythecreditorshallfalluponthe
priceofanyoneofthem,alsowithindemnityfordamages.

Thesamerulesshallbeappliedtoobligationstodoornottodoincaseone,someorallofthe
prestationsshouldbecomeimpossible.(1136a)
Art.1206.Whenonlyoneprestationhasbeenagreedupon,buttheobligormayrenderanotherin
substitution,theobligationiscalledfacultative.

Thelossordeteriorationofthethingintendedasasubstitute,throughthenegligenceoftheobligor,
doesnotrenderhimliable.Butoncethesubstitutionhasbeenmade,theobligorisliableforthelossof
thesubstituteonaccountofhisdelay,negligenceorfraud.(n)

SECTION4.JointandSolidaryObligations

Art.1207.Theconcurrenceoftwoormorecreditorsoroftwoormoredebtorsinoneandthesame
obligationdoesnotimplythateachoneoftheformerhasarighttodemand,orthateachoneofthe
latterisboundtorender,entirecompliancewiththeprestation.Thereisasolidaryliabilityonlywhen
theobligationexpresslysostates,orwhenthelaworthenatureoftheobligationrequiressolidarity.
(1137a)
Art.1208.Iffromthelaw,orthenatureorthewordingoftheobligationstowhichtheprecedingarticle
refersthecontrarydoesnotappear,thecreditordebtshallbepresumedtobedividedintoasmany
sharesastherearecreditorsordebtors,thecreditsordebtsbeingconsidereddistinctfromone
another,subjecttotheRulesofCourtgoverningthemultiplicityofsuits.(1138a)

Art.1209.Ifthedivisionisimpossible,therightofthecreditorsmaybeprejudicedonlybytheir
collectiveacts,andthedebtcanbeenforcedonlybyproceedingagainstallthedebtors.Ifoneofthe
lattershouldbeinsolvent,theothersshallnotbeliableforhisshare.(1139)

Art.1210.Theindivisibilityofanobligationdoesnotnecessarilygiverisetosolidarity.Nordoes
solidarityofitselfimplyindivisibility.(n)

Art.1211.Solidaritymayexistalthoughthecreditorsandthedebtorsmaynotbeboundinthesame
mannerandbythesameperiodsandconditions.(1140)

Art.1212.Eachoneofthesolidarycreditorsmaydowhatevermaybeusefultotheothers,butnot
anythingwhichmaybeprejudicialtothelatter.(1141a)

Art.1213.Asolidarycreditorcannotassignhisrightswithouttheconsentoftheothers.(n)

Art.1214.Thedebtormaypayanyoneofthesolidarycreditors;butifanydemand,judicialor
extrajudicial,hasbeenmadebyoneofthem,paymentshouldbemadetohim.(1142a)

Art.1215.Novation,compensation,confusionorremissionofthedebt,madebyanyofthesolidary
creditorsorwithanyofthesolidarydebtors,shallextinguishtheobligation,withoutprejudicetothe
provisionsofArticle1219.

Thecreditorwhomayhaveexecutedanyoftheseacts,aswellashewhocollectsthedebt,shallbe
liabletotheothersfortheshareintheobligationcorrespondingtothem.(1143)

Art.1216.Thecreditormayproceedagainstanyoneofthesolidarydebtorsorsomeorallofthem
simultaneously.Thedemandmadeagainstoneofthemshallnotbeanobstacletothosewhichmay
subsequentlybedirectedagainsttheothers,solongasthedebthasnotbeenfullycollected.(1144a)

Art.1217.Paymentmadebyoneofthesolidarydebtorsextinguishestheobligation.Iftwoormore
solidarydebtorsoffertopay,thecreditormaychoosewhichoffertoaccept.

Hewhomadethepaymentmayclaimfromhiscodebtorsonlythesharewhichcorrespondstoeach,
withtheinterestforthepaymentalreadymade.Ifthepaymentismadebeforethedebtisdue,no
interestfortheinterveningperiodmaybedemanded.

Whenoneofthesolidarydebtorscannot,becauseofhisinsolvency,reimbursehissharetothedebtor
payingtheobligation,suchshareshallbebornebyallhiscodebtors,inproportiontothedebtofeach.
(1145a)

Art.1218.Paymentbyasolidarydebtorshallnotentitlehimtoreimbursementfromhiscodebtorsif
suchpaymentismadeaftertheobligationhasprescribedorbecomeillegal.(n)

Art.1219.Theremissionmadebythecreditorofthesharewhichaffectsoneofthesolidarydebtors
doesnotreleasethelatterfromhisresponsibilitytowardsthecodebtors,incasethedebthadbeen
totallypaidbyanyoneofthembeforetheremissionwaseffected.(1146a)

Art.1220.Theremissionofthewholeobligation,obtainedbyoneofthesolidarydebtors,doesnot
entitlehimtoreimbursementfromhiscodebtors.(n)

Art.1221.Ifthethinghasbeenlostoriftheprestationhasbecomeimpossiblewithoutthefaultofthe
solidarydebtors,theobligationshallbeextinguished.

Iftherewasfaultonthepartofanyoneofthem,allshallberesponsibletothecreditor,fortheprice
andthepaymentofdamagesandinterest,withoutprejudicetotheiractionagainsttheguiltyor
negligentdebtor.

Ifthroughafortuitousevent,thethingislostortheperformancehasbecomeimpossibleafteroneof
thesolidarydebtorshasincurredindelaythroughthejudicialorextrajudicialdemanduponhimbythe
creditor,theprovisionsoftheprecedingparagraphshallapply.(1147a)

Art.1222.Asolidarydebtormay,inactionsfiledbythecreditor,availhimselfofalldefenseswhichare
derivedfromthenatureoftheobligationandofthosewhicharepersonaltohim,orpertaintohisown
share.Withrespecttothosewhichpersonallybelongtotheothers,hemayavailhimselfthereofonlyas
regardsthatpartofthedebtforwhichthelatterareresponsible.(1148a)

SECTION5.DivisibleandIndivisibleObligations

Art.1223.Thedivisibilityorindivisibilityofthethingsthataretheobjectofobligationsinwhichthereis
onlyonedebtorandonlyonecreditordoesnotalterormodifytheprovisionsofChapter2ofthisTitle.
(1149)
Art.1224.Ajointindivisibleobligationgivesrisetoindemnityfordamagesfromthetimeanyoneofthe
debtorsdoesnotcomplywithhisundertaking.Thedebtorswhomayhavebeenreadytofulfilltheir
promisesshallnotcontributetotheindemnitybeyondthecorrespondingportionofthepriceofthe
thingorofthevalueoftheserviceinwhichtheobligationconsists.(1150)

Art.1225.Forthepurposesoftheprecedingarticles,obligationstogivedefinitethingsandthosewhich
arenotsusceptibleofpartialperformanceshallbedeemedtobeindivisible.

Whentheobligationhasforitsobjecttheexecutionofacertainnumberofdaysofwork,the
accomplishmentofworkbymetricalunits,oranalogousthingswhichbytheirnaturearesusceptibleof
partialperformance,itshallbedivisible.

However,eventhoughtheobjectorservicemaybephysicallydivisible,anobligationisindivisibleifso
providedbylaworintendedbytheparties.

Inobligationsnottodo,divisibilityorindivisibilityshallbedeterminedbythecharacteroftheprestation
ineachparticularcase.(1151a)

SECTION6.ObligationswithaPenalClause

Art.1226.Inobligationswithapenalclause,thepenaltyshallsubstitutetheindemnityfordamagesand
thepaymentofinterestsincaseofnoncompliance,ifthereisnostipulationtothecontrary.
Nevertheless,damagesshallbepaidiftheobligorrefusestopaythepenaltyorisguiltyoffraudinthe
fulfillmentoftheobligation.
ThepenaltymaybeenforcedonlywhenitisdemandableinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofthisCode.
(1152a)

Art.1227.Thedebtorcannotexempthimselffromtheperformanceoftheobligationbypayingthe
penalty,saveinthecasewherethisrighthasbeenexpresslyreservedforhim.Neithercanthecreditor
demandthefulfillmentoftheobligationandthesatisfactionofthepenaltyatthesametime,unlessthis
righthasbeenclearlygrantedhim.However,ifafterthecreditorhasdecidedtorequirethefulfillment
oftheobligation,theperformancethereofshouldbecomeimpossiblewithouthisfault,thepenaltymay
beenforced.(1153a)

Art.1228.Proofofactualdamagessufferedbythecreditorisnotnecessaryinorderthatthepenalty
maybedemanded.(n)

Art.1229.Thejudgeshallequitablyreducethepenaltywhentheprincipalobligationhasbeenpartlyor
irregularlycompliedwithbythedebtor.Eveniftherehasbeennoperformance,thepenaltymayalsobe
reducedbythecourtsifitisiniquitousorunconscionable.(1154a)

Art.1230.Thenullityofthepenalclausedoesnotcarrywithitthatoftheprincipalobligation.

Thenullityoftheprincipalobligationcarrieswithitthatofthepenalclause.(1155)

CHAPTER4
EXTINGUISHMENTOFOBLIGATIONS

GENERALPROVISIONS

Art.1231.Obligationsareextinguished:
(1)Bypaymentorperformance:
(2)Bythelossofthethingdue:

(3)Bythecondonationorremissionofthedebt;

(4)Bytheconfusionormergeroftherightsofcreditoranddebtor;

(5)Bycompensation;

(6)Bynovation.

Othercausesofextinguishmentofobligations,suchasannulment,rescission,fulfillmentofaresolutory
condition,andprescription,aregovernedelsewhereinthisCode.(1156a)

SECTION1.PaymentorPerformance

Art.1232.Paymentmeansnotonlythedeliveryofmoneybutalsotheperformance,inanyother
manner,ofanobligation.(n)
Art.1233.Adebtshallnotbeunderstoodtohavebeenpaidunlessthethingorserviceinwhichthe
obligationconsistshasbeencompletelydeliveredorrendered,asthecasemaybe.(1157)

Art.1234.Iftheobligationhasbeensubstantiallyperformedingoodfaith,theobligormayrecoveras
thoughtherehadbeenastrictandcompletefulfillment,lessdamagessufferedbytheobligee.(n)

Art.1235.Whentheobligeeacceptstheperformance,knowingitsincompletenessorirregularity,and
withoutexpressinganyprotestorobjection,theobligationisdeemedfullycompliedwith.(n)

Art.1236.Thecreditorisnotboundtoacceptpaymentorperformancebyathirdpersonwhohasno
interestinthefulfillmentoftheobligation,unlessthereisastipulationtothecontrary.

Whoeverpaysforanothermaydemandfromthedebtorwhathehaspaid,exceptthatifhepaid
withouttheknowledgeoragainstthewillofthedebtor,hecanrecoveronlyinsofarasthepaymenthas
beenbeneficialtothedebtor.(1158a)

Art.1237.Whoeverpaysonbehalfofthedebtorwithouttheknowledgeoragainstthewillofthelatter,
cannotcompelthecreditortosubrogatehiminhisrights,suchasthosearisingfromamortgage,
guaranty,orpenalty.(1159a)

Art.1238.Paymentmadebyathirdpersonwhodoesnotintendtobereimbursedbythedebtoris
deemedtobeadonation,whichrequiresthedebtor'sconsent.Butthepaymentisinanycasevalidas
tothecreditorwhohasacceptedit.(n)

Art.1239.Inobligationstogive,paymentmadebyonewhodoesnothavethefreedisposalofthething
dueandcapacitytoalienateitshallnotbevalid,withoutprejudicetotheprovisionsofArticle1427
undertheTitleon"NaturalObligations."(1160a)

Art.1240.Paymentshallbemadetothepersoninwhosefavortheobligationhasbeenconstituted,or
hissuccessorininterest,oranypersonauthorizedtoreceiveit.(1162a)

Art.1241.Paymenttoapersonwhoisincapacitatedtoadministerhispropertyshallbevalidifhehas
keptthethingdelivered,orinsofarasthepaymenthasbeenbeneficialtohim.

Paymentmadetoathirdpersonshallalsobevalidinsofarasithasredoundedtothebenefitofthe
creditor.Suchbenefittothecreditorneednotbeprovedinthefollowingcases:

(1)Ifafterthepayment,thethirdpersonacquiresthecreditor'srights;
(2)Ifthecreditorratifiesthepaymenttothethirdperson;

(3)Ifbythecreditor'sconduct,thedebtorhasbeenledtobelievethatthethirdpersonhadauthorityto
receivethepayment.(1163a)

Art.1242.Paymentmadeingoodfaithtoanypersoninpossessionofthecreditshallreleasethedebtor.
(1164)

Art.1243.Paymentmadetothecreditorbythedebtorafterthelatterhasbeenjudiciallyorderedto
retainthedebtshallnotbevalid.(1165)
Art.1244.Thedebtorofathingcannotcompelthecreditortoreceiveadifferentone,althoughthe
lattermaybeofthesamevalueas,ormorevaluablethanthatwhichisdue.

Inobligationstodoornottodo,anactorforbearancecannotbesubstitutedbyanotheractor
forbearanceagainsttheobligee'swill.(1166a)

Art.1245.Dationinpayment,wherebypropertyisalienatedtothecreditorinsatisfactionofadebtin
money,shallbegovernedbythelawofsales.(n)

Art.1246.Whentheobligationconsistsinthedeliveryofanindeterminateorgenericthing,whose
qualityandcircumstanceshavenotbeenstated,thecreditorcannotdemandathingofsuperiorquality.
Neithercanthedebtordeliverathingofinferiorquality.Thepurposeoftheobligationandother
circumstancesshallbetakenintoconsideration.(1167a)

Art.1247.Unlessitisotherwisestipulated,theextrajudicialexpensesrequiredbythepaymentshallbe
fortheaccountofthedebtor.Withregardtojudicialcosts,theRulesofCourtshallgovern.(1168a)

Art.1248.Unlessthereisanexpressstipulationtothateffect,thecreditorcannotbecompelledpartially
toreceivetheprestationsinwhichtheobligationconsists.Neithermaythedebtorberequiredtomake
partialpayments.

However,whenthedebtisinpartliquidatedandinpartunliquidated,thecreditormaydemandandthe
debtormayeffectthepaymentoftheformerwithoutwaitingfortheliquidationofthelatter.(1169a)

Art.1249.Thepaymentofdebtsinmoneyshallbemadeinthecurrencystipulated,andifitisnot
possibletodeliversuchcurrency,theninthecurrencywhichislegaltenderinthePhilippines.

Thedeliveryofpromissorynotespayabletoorder,orbillsofexchangeorothermercantiledocuments
shallproducetheeffectofpaymentonlywhentheyhavebeencashed,orwhenthroughthefaultofthe
creditortheyhavebeenimpaired.

Inthemeantime,theactionderivedfromtheoriginalobligationshallbeheldintheabeyance.(1170)

Art.1250.Incaseanextraordinaryinflationordeflationofthecurrencystipulatedshouldsupervene,
thevalueofthecurrencyatthetimeoftheestablishmentoftheobligationshallbethebasisof
payment,unlessthereisanagreementtothecontrary.(n)

Art.1251.Paymentshallbemadeintheplacedesignatedintheobligation.

Therebeingnoexpressstipulationandiftheundertakingistodeliveradeterminatething,thepayment
shallbemadewhereverthethingmightbeatthemomenttheobligationwasconstituted.

Inanyothercasetheplaceofpaymentshallbethedomicileofthedebtor.

Ifthedebtorchangeshisdomicileinbadfaithorafterhehasincurredindelay,theadditionalexpenses
shallbebornebyhim.

TheseprovisionsarewithoutprejudicetovenueundertheRulesofCourt.(1171a)

SUBSECTION1.ApplicationofPayments

Art.1252.Hewhohasvariousdebtsofthesamekindinfavorofoneandthesamecreditor,maydeclare
atthetimeofmakingthepayment,towhichofthemthesamemustbeapplied.Unlessthepartiesso
stipulate,orwhentheapplicationofpaymentismadebythepartyforwhosebenefitthetermhasbeen
constituted,applicationshallnotbemadeastodebtswhicharenotyetdue.
Ifthedebtoracceptsfromthecreditorareceiptinwhichanapplicationofthepaymentismade,the
formercannotcomplainofthesame,unlessthereisacauseforinvalidatingthecontract.(1172a)

Art.1253.Ifthedebtproducesinterest,paymentoftheprincipalshallnotbedeemedtohavebeen
madeuntiltheinterestshavebeencovered.(1173)

Art.1254.Whenthepaymentcannotbeappliedinaccordancewiththeprecedingrules,orifapplication
cannotbeinferredfromothercircumstances,thedebtwhichismostoneroustothedebtor,among
thosedue,shallbedeemedtohavebeensatisfied.

Ifthedebtsdueareofthesamenatureandburden,thepaymentshallbeappliedtoallofthem
proportionately.(1174a)

SUBSECTION2.PaymentbyCession

Art.1255.Thedebtormaycedeorassignhispropertytohiscreditorsinpaymentofhisdebts.This
cession,unlessthereisstipulationtothecontrary,shallonlyreleasethedebtorfromresponsibilityfor
thenetproceedsofthethingassigned.Theagreementswhich,ontheeffectofthecession,aremade
betweenthedebtorandhiscreditorsshallbegovernedbyspeciallaws.(1175a)

SUBSECTION3.TenderofPaymentandConsignation

Art.1256.Ifthecreditortowhomtenderofpaymenthasbeenmaderefuseswithoutjustcauseto
acceptit,thedebtorshallbereleasedfromresponsibilitybytheconsignationofthethingorsumdue.
Consignationaloneshallproducethesameeffectinthefollowingcases:

(1)Whenthecreditorisabsentorunknown,ordoesnotappearattheplaceofpayment;
(2)Whenheisincapacitatedtoreceivethepaymentatthetimeitisdue;

(3)When,withoutjustcause,herefusestogiveareceipt;

(4)Whentwoormorepersonsclaimthesamerighttocollect;

(5)Whenthetitleoftheobligationhasbeenlost.(1176a)

Art.1257.Inorderthattheconsignationofthethingduemayreleasetheobligor,itmustfirstbe
announcedtothepersonsinterestedinthefulfillmentoftheobligation.
Theconsignationshallbeineffectualifitisnotmadestrictlyinconsonancewiththeprovisionswhich
regulatepayment.(1177)

Art.1258.Consignationshallbemadebydepositingthethingsdueatthedisposalofjudicialauthority,
beforewhomthetenderofpaymentshallbeproved,inapropercase,andtheannouncementofthe
consignationinothercases.

Theconsignationhavingbeenmade,theinterestedpartiesshallalsobenotifiedthereof.(1178)

Art.1259.Theexpensesofconsignation,whenproperlymade,shallbechargedagainstthecreditor.
(1178)

Art.1260.Oncetheconsignationhasbeendulymade,thedebtormayaskthejudgetoorderthe
cancellationoftheobligation.

Beforethecreditorhasacceptedtheconsignation,orbeforeajudicialdeclarationthattheconsignation
hasbeenproperlymade,thedebtormaywithdrawthethingorthesumdeposited,allowingthe
obligationtoremaininforce.(1180)

Art.1261.If,theconsignationhavingbeenmade,thecreditorshouldauthorizethedebtortowithdraw
thesame,heshallloseeverypreferencewhichhemayhaveoverthething.Thecodebtors,guarantors
andsuretiesshallbereleased.(1181a)

SECTION2.LossoftheThingDue

Art.1262.Anobligationwhichconsistsinthedeliveryofadeterminatethingshallbeextinguishedifit
shouldbelostordestroyedwithoutthefaultofthedebtor,andbeforehehasincurredindelay.
Whenbylaworstipulation,theobligorisliableevenforfortuitousevents,thelossofthethingdoesnot
extinguishtheobligation,andheshallberesponsiblefordamages.Thesameruleapplieswhenthe
natureoftheobligationrequirestheassumptionofrisk.(1182a)

Art.1263.Inanobligationtodeliveragenericthing,thelossordestructionofanythingofthesamekind
doesnotextinguishtheobligation.(n)

Art.1264.Thecourtsshalldeterminewhether,underthecircumstances,thepartiallossoftheobjectof
theobligationissoimportantastoextinguishtheobligation.(n)

Art.1265.Wheneverthethingislostinthepossessionofthedebtor,itshallbepresumedthattheloss
wasduetohisfault,unlessthereisprooftothecontrary,andwithoutprejudicetotheprovisionsof
article1165.Thispresumptiondoesnotapplyincaseofearthquake,flood,storm,orothernatural
calamity.(1183a)

Art.1266.Thedebtorinobligationstodoshallalsobereleasedwhentheprestationbecomeslegallyor
physicallyimpossiblewithoutthefaultoftheobligor.(1184a)

Art.1267.Whentheservicehasbecomesodifficultastobemanifestlybeyondthecontemplationofthe
parties,theobligormayalsobereleasedtherefrom,inwholeorinpart.(n)

Art.1268.Whenthedebtofathingcertainanddeterminateproceedsfromacriminaloffense,the
debtorshallnotbeexemptedfromthepaymentofitsprice,whatevermaybethecausefortheloss,
unlessthethinghavingbeenofferedbyhimtothepersonwhoshouldreceiveit,thelatterrefused
withoutjustificationtoacceptit.(1185)

Art.1269.Theobligationhavingbeenextinguishedbythelossofthething,thecreditorshallhaveallthe
rightsofactionwhichthedebtormayhaveagainstthirdpersonsbyreasonoftheloss.(1186)

SECTION3.CondonationorRemissionoftheDebt

Art.1270.Condonationorremissionisessentiallygratuitous,andrequirestheacceptancebythe
obligor.Itmaybemadeexpresslyorimpliedly.
Oneandtheotherkindshallbesubjecttotheruleswhichgoverninofficiousdonations.Express
condonationshall,furthermore,complywiththeformsofdonation.(1187)

Art.1271.Thedeliveryofaprivatedocumentevidencingacredit,madevoluntarilybythecreditorto
thedebtor,impliestherenunciationoftheactionwhichtheformerhadagainstthelatter.

Ifinordertonullifythiswaiveritshouldbeclaimedtobeinofficious,thedebtorandhisheirsmay
upholditbyprovingthatthedeliveryofthedocumentwasmadeinvirtueofpaymentofthedebt.
(1188)

Art.1272.Whenevertheprivatedocumentinwhichthedebtappearsisfoundinthepossessionofthe
debtor,itshallbepresumedthatthecreditordelivereditvoluntarily,unlessthecontraryisproved.
(1189)

Art.1273.Therenunciationoftheprincipaldebtshallextinguishtheaccessoryobligations;butthe
waiverofthelattershallleavetheformerinforce.(1190)

Art.1274.Itispresumedthattheaccessoryobligationofpledgehasbeenremittedwhenthething
pledged,afteritsdeliverytothecreditor,isfoundinthepossessionofthedebtor,orofathirdperson
whoownsthething.(1191a)

SECTION4.ConfusionorMergerofRights

Art.1275.Theobligationisextinguishedfromthetimethecharactersofcreditoranddebtoraremerged
inthesameperson.(1192a)
Art.1276.Mergerwhichtakesplaceinthepersonoftheprincipaldebtororcreditorbenefitsthe
guarantors.Confusionwhichtakesplaceinthepersonofanyofthelatterdoesnotextinguishthe
obligation.(1193)

Art.1277.Confusiondoesnotextinguishajointobligationexceptasregardsthesharecorrespondingto
thecreditorordebtorinwhomthetwocharactersconcur.(1194)

SECTION5.Compensation

Art.1278.Compensationshalltakeplacewhentwopersons,intheirownright,arecreditorsand
debtorsofeachother.(1195)
Art.1279.Inorderthatcompensationmaybeproper,itisnecessary:

(1)Thateachoneoftheobligorsbeboundprincipally,andthathebeatthesametimeaprincipal
creditoroftheother;
(2)Thatbothdebtsconsistinasumofmoney,orifthethingsdueareconsumable,theybeofthesame
kind,andalsoofthesamequalityifthelatterhasbeenstated;

(3)Thatthetwodebtsbedue;

(4)Thattheybeliquidatedanddemandable;

(5)Thatoverneitherofthemtherebeanyretentionorcontroversy,commencedbythirdpersonsand
communicatedinduetimetothedebtor.(1196)

Art.1280.Notwithstandingtheprovisionsoftheprecedingarticle,theguarantormaysetup
compensationasregardswhatthecreditormayowetheprincipaldebtor.(1197)
Art.1281.Compensationmaybetotalorpartial.Whenthetwodebtsareofthesameamount,thereisa
totalcompensation.(n)

Art.1282.Thepartiesmayagreeuponthecompensationofdebtswhicharenotyetdue.(n)

Art.1283.Ifoneofthepartiestoasuitoveranobligationhasaclaimfordamagesagainsttheother,the
formermaysetitoffbyprovinghisrighttosaiddamagesandtheamountthereof.(n)

Art.1284.Whenoneorbothdebtsarerescissibleorvoidable,theymaybecompensatedagainsteach
otherbeforetheyarejudiciallyrescindedoravoided.(n)

Art.1285.Thedebtorwhohasconsentedtotheassignmentofrightsmadebyacreditorinfavorofa
thirdperson,cannotsetupagainsttheassigneethecompensationwhichwouldpertaintohimagainst
theassignor,unlesstheassignorwasnotifiedbythedebtoratthetimehegavehisconsent,thathe
reservedhisrighttothecompensation.

Ifthecreditorcommunicatedthecessiontohimbutthedebtordidnotconsentthereto,thelattermay
setupthecompensationofdebtsprevioustothecession,butnotofsubsequentones.

Iftheassignmentismadewithouttheknowledgeofthedebtor,hemaysetupthecompensationofall
creditspriortothesameandalsolateronesuntilhehadknowledgeoftheassignment.(1198a)

Art.1286.Compensationtakesplacebyoperationoflaw,eventhoughthedebtsmaybepayableat
differentplaces,butthereshallbeanindemnityforexpensesofexchangeortransportationtotheplace
ofpayment.(1199a)

Art.1287.Compensationshallnotbeproperwhenoneofthedebtsarisesfromadepositumorfromthe
obligationsofadepositaryorofabaileeincommodatum.

Neithercancompensationbesetupagainstacreditorwhohasaclaimforsupportduebygratuitous
title,withoutprejudicetotheprovisionsofparagraph2ofArticle301.(1200a)

Art.1288.Neithershalltherebecompensationifoneofthedebtsconsistsincivilliabilityarisingfroma
penaloffense.(n)

Art.1289.Ifapersonshouldhaveagainsthimseveraldebtswhicharesusceptibleofcompensation,the
rulesontheapplicationofpaymentsshallapplytotheorderofthecompensation.(1201)

Art.1290.WhenalltherequisitesmentionedinArticle1279arepresent,compensationtakeseffectby
operationoflaw,andextinguishesbothdebtstotheconcurrentamount,eventhoughthecreditorsand
debtorsarenotawareofthecompensation.(1202a)

SECTION6.Novation

Art.1291.Obligationsmaybemodifiedby:
(1)Changingtheirobjectorprincipalconditions;
(2)Substitutingthepersonofthedebtor;

(3)Subrogatingathirdpersonintherightsofthecreditor.(1203)

Art.1292.Inorderthatanobligationmaybeextinguishedbyanotherwhichsubstitutethesame,itis
imperativethatitbesodeclaredinunequivocalterms,orthattheoldandthenewobligationsbeon
everypointincompatiblewitheachother.(1204)
Art.1293.Novationwhichconsistsinsubstitutinganewdebtorintheplaceoftheoriginalone,maybe
madeevenwithouttheknowledgeoragainstthewillofthelatter,butnotwithouttheconsentofthe
creditor.PaymentbythenewdebtorgiveshimtherightsmentionedinArticles1236and1237.(1205a)

Art.1294.Ifthesubstitutioniswithouttheknowledgeoragainstthewillofthedebtor,thenewdebtor's
insolvencyornonfulfillmentoftheobligationsshallnotgiverisetoanyliabilityonthepartofthe
originaldebtor.(n)

Art.1295.Theinsolvencyofthenewdebtor,whohasbeenproposedbytheoriginaldebtorand
acceptedbythecreditor,shallnotrevivetheactionofthelatteragainsttheoriginalobligor,except
whensaidinsolvencywasalreadyexistingandofpublicknowledge,orknowntothedebtor,whenthe
delegatedhisdebt.(1206a)

Art.1296.Whentheprincipalobligationisextinguishedinconsequenceofanovation,accessory
obligationsmaysubsistonlyinsofarastheymaybenefitthirdpersonswhodidnotgivetheirconsent.
(1207)

Art.1297.Ifthenewobligationisvoid,theoriginaloneshallsubsist,unlessthepartiesintendedthatthe
formerrelationshouldbeextinguishedinanyevent.(n)

Art.1298.Thenovationisvoidiftheoriginalobligationwasvoid,exceptwhenannulmentmaybe
claimedonlybythedebtororwhenratificationvalidatesactswhicharevoidable.(1208a)

Art.1299.Iftheoriginalobligationwassubjecttoasuspensiveorresolutorycondition,thenew
obligationshallbeunderthesamecondition,unlessitisotherwisestipulated.(n)

Art.1300.Subrogationofathirdpersonintherightsofthecreditoriseitherlegalorconventional.The
formerisnotpresumed,exceptincasesexpresslymentionedinthisCode;thelattermustbeclearly
establishedinorderthatitmaytakeeffect.(1209a)

Art.1301.Conventionalsubrogationofathirdpersonrequirestheconsentoftheoriginalpartiesandof
thethirdperson.(n)

Art.1302.Itispresumedthatthereislegalsubrogation:

(1)Whenacreditorpaysanothercreditorwhoispreferred,evenwithoutthedebtor'sknowledge;
(2)Whenathirdperson,notinterestedintheobligation,payswiththeexpressortacitapprovalofthe
debtor;

(3)When,evenwithouttheknowledgeofthedebtor,apersoninterestedinthefulfillmentofthe
obligationpays,withoutprejudicetotheeffectsofconfusionastothelatter'sshare.(1210a)

Art.1303.Subrogationtransferstothepersonssubrogatedthecreditwithalltherightsthereto
appertaining,eitheragainstthedebtororagainstthirdperson,betheyguarantorsorpossessorsof
mortgages,subjecttostipulationinaconventionalsubrogation.(1212a)
Art.1304.Acreditor,towhompartialpaymenthasbeenmade,mayexercisehisrightfortheremainder,
andheshallbepreferredtothepersonwhohasbeensubrogatedinhisplaceinvirtueofthepartial
paymentofthesamecredit.(1213)

TitleII.CONTRACTS

CHAPTER1
GENERALPROVISIONS

Art.1305.Acontractisameetingofmindsbetweentwopersonswherebyonebindshimself,with
respecttotheother,togivesomethingortorendersomeservice.(1254a)
Art.1306.Thecontractingpartiesmayestablishsuchstipulations,clauses,termsandconditionsasthey
maydeemconvenient,providedtheyarenotcontrarytolaw,morals,goodcustoms,publicorder,or
publicpolicy.(1255a)

Art.1307.Innominatecontractsshallberegulatedbythestipulationsoftheparties,bytheprovisionsof
TitlesIandIIofthisBook,bytherulesgoverningthemostanalogousnominatecontracts,andbythe
customsoftheplace.(n)

Art.1308.Thecontractmustbindbothcontractingparties;itsvalidityorcompliancecannotbeleftto
thewillofoneofthem.(1256a)

Art.1309.Thedeterminationoftheperformancemaybelefttoathirdperson,whosedecisionshallnot
bebindinguntilithasbeenmadeknowntobothcontractingparties.(n)

Art.1310.Thedeterminationshallnotbeobligatoryifitisevidentlyinequitable.Insuchcase,thecourts
shalldecidewhatisequitableunderthecircumstances.(n)

Art.1311.Contractstakeeffectonlybetweentheparties,theirassignsandheirs,exceptincasewhere
therightsandobligationsarisingfromthecontractarenottransmissiblebytheirnature,orby
stipulationorbyprovisionoflaw.Theheirisnotliablebeyondthevalueofthepropertyhereceived
fromthedecedent.

Ifacontractshouldcontainsomestipulationinfavorofathirdperson,hemaydemanditsfulfillment
providedhecommunicatedhisacceptancetotheobligorbeforeitsrevocation.Amereincidental
benefitorinterestofapersonisnotsufficient.Thecontractingpartiesmusthaveclearlyand
deliberatelyconferredafavoruponathirdperson.(1257a)

Art.1312.Incontractscreatingrealrights,thirdpersonswhocomeintopossessionoftheobjectofthe
contractareboundthereby,subjecttotheprovisionsoftheMortgageLawandtheLandRegistration
Laws.(n)

Art.1313.Creditorsareprotectedincasesofcontractsintendedtodefraudthem.(n)

Art.1314.Anythirdpersonwhoinducesanothertoviolatehiscontractshallbeliablefordamagesto
theothercontractingparty.(n)

Art.1315.Contractsareperfectedbymereconsent,andfromthatmomentthepartiesareboundnot
onlytothefulfillmentofwhathasbeenexpresslystipulatedbutalsotoalltheconsequenceswhich,
accordingtotheirnature,maybeinkeepingwithgoodfaith,usageandlaw.(1258)

Art.1316.Realcontracts,suchasdeposit,pledgeandCommodatum,arenotperfecteduntilthedelivery
oftheobjectoftheobligation.(n)

Art.1317.Noonemaycontractinthenameofanotherwithoutbeingauthorizedbythelatter,orunless
hehasbylawarighttorepresenthim.

Acontractenteredintointhenameofanotherbyonewhohasnoauthorityorlegalrepresentation,or
whohasactedbeyondhispowers,shallbeunenforceable,unlessitisratified,expresslyorimpliedly,by
thepersononwhosebehalfithasbeenexecuted,beforeitisrevokedbytheothercontractingparty.
(1259a)

CHAPTER2
ESSENTIALREQUISITESOFCONTRACTS

GENERALPROVISIONS

Art.1318.Thereisnocontractunlessthefollowingrequisitesconcur:
(1)Consentofthecontractingparties;
(2)Objectcertainwhichisthesubjectmatterofthecontract;

(3)Causeoftheobligationwhichisestablished.(1261)

SECTION1.Consent

Art.1319.Consentismanifestedbythemeetingoftheofferandtheacceptanceuponthethingandthe
causewhicharetoconstitutethecontract.Theoffermustbecertainandtheacceptanceabsolute.A
qualifiedacceptanceconstitutesacounteroffer.
Acceptancemadebyletterortelegramdoesnotbindtheoffererexceptfromthetimeitcametohis
knowledge.Thecontract,insuchacase,ispresumedtohavebeenenteredintointheplacewherethe
offerwasmade.(1262a)

Art.1320.Anacceptancemaybeexpressorimplied.(n)

Art.1321.Thepersonmakingtheoffermayfixthetime,place,andmannerofacceptance,allofwhich
mustbecompliedwith.(n)

Art.1322.Anoffermadethroughanagentisacceptedfromthetimeacceptanceiscommunicatedto
him.(n)

Art.1323.Anofferbecomesineffectiveuponthedeath,civilinterdiction,insanity,orinsolvencyof
eitherpartybeforeacceptanceisconveyed.(n)

Art.1324.Whentheoffererhasallowedtheoffereeacertainperiodtoaccept,theoffermaybe
withdrawnatanytimebeforeacceptancebycommunicatingsuchwithdrawal,exceptwhentheoption
isfoundeduponaconsideration,assomethingpaidorpromised.(n)

Art.1325.Unlessitappearsotherwise,businessadvertisementsofthingsforsalearenotdefiniteoffers,
butmereinvitationstomakeanoffer.(n)

Art.1326.Advertisementsforbiddersaresimplyinvitationstomakeproposals,andtheadvertiserisnot
boundtoacceptthehighestorlowestbidder,unlessthecontraryappears.(n)

Art.1327.Thefollowingcannotgiveconsenttoacontract:

(1)Unemancipatedminors;
(2)Insaneordementedpersons,anddeafmuteswhodonotknowhowtowrite.(1263a)

Art.1328.Contractsenteredintoduringalucidintervalarevalid.Contractsagreedtoinastateof
drunkennessorduringahypnoticspellarevoidable.(n)
Art.1329.TheincapacitydeclaredinArticle1327issubjecttothemodificationsdeterminedbylaw,and
isunderstoodtobewithoutprejudicetospecialdisqualificationsestablishedinthelaws.(1264)

Art.1330.Acontractwhereconsentisgiventhroughmistake,violence,intimidation,undueinfluence,
orfraudisvoidable.(1265a)

Art.1331.Inorderthatmistakemayinvalidateconsent,itshouldrefertothesubstanceofthething
whichistheobjectofthecontract,ortothoseconditionswhichhaveprincipallymovedoneorboth
partiestoenterintothecontract.

Mistakeastotheidentityorqualificationsofoneofthepartieswillvitiateconsentonlywhensuch
identityorqualificationshavebeentheprincipalcauseofthecontract.

Asimplemistakeofaccountshallgiverisetoitscorrection.(1266a)

Art.1332.Whenoneofthepartiesisunabletoread,orifthecontractisinalanguagenotunderstood
byhim,andmistakeorfraudisalleged,thepersonenforcingthecontractmustshowthattheterms
thereofhavebeenfullyexplainedtotheformer.(n)

Art.1333.Thereisnomistakeifthepartyallegingitknewthedoubt,contingencyorriskaffectingthe
objectofthecontract.(n)

Art.1334.Mutualerrorastothelegaleffectofanagreementwhentherealpurposeofthepartiesis
frustrated,mayvitiateconsent.(n)

Art.1335.Thereisviolencewheninordertowrestconsent,seriousorirresistibleforceisemployed.

Thereisintimidationwhenoneofthecontractingpartiesiscompelledbyareasonableandwell
groundedfearofanimminentandgraveeviluponhispersonorproperty,oruponthepersonor
propertyofhisspouse,descendantsorascendants,togivehisconsent.

Todeterminethedegreeofintimidation,theage,sexandconditionofthepersonshallbebornein
mind.

Athreattoenforceone'sclaimthroughcompetentauthority,iftheclaimisjustorlegal,doesnotvitiate
consent.(1267a)

Art.1336.Violenceorintimidationshallannultheobligation,althoughitmayhavebeenemployedbya
thirdpersonwhodidnottakepartinthecontract.(1268)

Art.1337.Thereisundueinfluencewhenapersontakesimproperadvantageofhispoweroverthewill
ofanother,deprivingthelatterofareasonablefreedomofchoice.Thefollowingcircumstancesshallbe
considered:theconfidential,family,spiritualandotherrelationsbetweentheparties,orthefactthat
thepersonallegedtohavebeenundulyinfluencedwassufferingfrommentalweakness,orwas
ignorantorinfinancialdistress.(n)

Art.1338.Thereisfraudwhen,throughinsidiouswordsormachinationsofoneofthecontracting
parties,theotherisinducedtoenterintoacontractwhich,withoutthem,hewouldnothaveagreedto.
(1269)

Art.1339.Failuretodisclosefacts,whenthereisadutytorevealthem,aswhenthepartiesarebound
byconfidentialrelations,constitutesfraud.(n)

Art.1340.Theusualexaggerationsintrade,whentheotherpartyhadanopportunitytoknowthefacts,
arenotinthemselvesfraudulent.(n)

Art.1341.Amereexpressionofanopiniondoesnotsignifyfraud,unlessmadebyanexpertandthe
otherpartyhasreliedontheformer'sspecialknowledge.(n)

Art.1342.Misrepresentationbyathirdpersondoesnotvitiateconsent,unlesssuchmisrepresentation
hascreatedsubstantialmistakeandthesameismutual.(n)

Art.1343.Misrepresentationmadeingoodfaithisnotfraudulentbutmayconstituteerror.(n)

Art.1344.Inorderthatfraudmaymakeacontractvoidable,itshouldbeseriousandshouldnothave
beenemployedbybothcontractingparties.

Incidentalfraudonlyobligesthepersonemployingittopaydamages.(1270)

Art.1345.Simulationofacontractmaybeabsoluteorrelative.Theformertakesplacewhentheparties
donotintendtobeboundatall;thelatter,whenthepartiesconcealtheirtrueagreement.(n)

Art.1346.Anabsolutelysimulatedorfictitiouscontractisvoid.Arelativesimulation,whenitdoesnot
prejudiceathirdpersonandisnotintendedforanypurposecontrarytolaw,morals,goodcustoms,
publicorderorpublicpolicybindsthepartiestotheirrealagreement.(n)

SECTION2.ObjectofContracts

Art.1347.Allthingswhicharenotoutsidethecommerceofmen,includingfuturethings,maybethe
objectofacontract.Allrightswhicharenotintransmissiblemayalsobetheobjectofcontracts.
Nocontractmaybeenteredintouponfutureinheritanceexceptincasesexpresslyauthorizedbylaw.

Allserviceswhicharenotcontrarytolaw,morals,goodcustoms,publicorderorpublicpolicymay
likewisebetheobjectofacontract.(1271a)

Art.1348.Impossiblethingsorservicescannotbetheobjectofcontracts.(1272)

Art.1349.Theobjectofeverycontractmustbedeterminateastoitskind.Thefactthatthequantityis
notdeterminateshallnotbeanobstacletotheexistenceofthecontract,provideditispossibleto
determinethesame,withouttheneedofanewcontractbetweentheparties.(1273)

SECTION3.CauseofContracts

Art.1350.Inonerouscontractsthecauseisunderstoodtobe,foreachcontractingparty,theprestation
orpromiseofathingorservicebytheother;inremuneratoryones,theserviceorbenefitwhichis
remunerated;andincontractsofpurebeneficence,themereliberalityofthebenefactor.(1274)
Art.1351.Theparticularmotivesofthepartiesinenteringintoacontractaredifferentfromthecause
thereof.(n)

Art.1352.Contractswithoutcause,orwithunlawfulcause,producenoeffectwhatever.Thecauseis
unlawfulifitiscontrarytolaw,morals,goodcustoms,publicorderorpublicpolicy.(1275a)

Art.1353.Thestatementofafalsecauseincontractsshallrenderthemvoid,ifitshouldnotbeproved
thattheywerefoundeduponanothercausewhichistrueandlawful.(1276)

Art.1354.Althoughthecauseisnotstatedinthecontract,itispresumedthatitexistsandislawful,
unlessthedebtorprovesthecontrary.(1277)

Art.1355.Exceptincasesspecifiedbylaw,lesionorinadequacyofcauseshallnotinvalidateacontract,
unlesstherehasbeenfraud,mistakeorundueinfluence.(n)

CHAPTER3
FORMOFCONTRACTS

Art.1356.Contractsshallbeobligatory,inwhateverformtheymayhavebeenenteredinto,providedall
theessentialrequisitesfortheirvalidityarepresent.However,whenthelawrequiresthatacontractbe
insomeforminorderthatitmaybevalidorenforceable,orthatacontractbeprovedinacertainway,
thatrequirementisabsoluteandindispensable.Insuchcases,therightofthepartiesstatedinthe
followingarticlecannotbeexercised.(1278a)
Art.1357.Ifthelawrequiresadocumentorotherspecialform,asintheactsandcontractsenumerated
inthefollowingarticle,thecontractingpartiesmaycompeleachothertoobservethatform,oncethe
contracthasbeenperfected.Thisrightmaybeexercisedsimultaneouslywiththeactionuponthe
contract.(1279a)

Art.1358.Thefollowingmustappearinapublicdocument:

(1)Actsandcontractswhichhavefortheirobjectthecreation,transmission,modificationor
extinguishmentofrealrightsoverimmovableproperty;salesofrealpropertyorofaninterestthereina
governedbyArticles1403,No.2,and1405;
(2)Thecession,repudiationorrenunciationofhereditaryrightsorofthoseoftheconjugalpartnership
ofgains;

(3)Thepowertoadministerproperty,oranyotherpowerwhichhasforitsobjectanactappearingor
whichshouldappearinapublicdocument,orshouldprejudiceathirdperson;

(4)Thecessionofactionsorrightsproceedingfromanactappearinginapublicdocument.

Allothercontractswheretheamountinvolvedexceedsfivehundredpesosmustappearinwriting,even
aprivateone.Butsalesofgoods,chattelsorthingsinactionaregovernedbyArticles,1403,No.2and
1405.(1280a)

CHAPTER4
REFORMATIONOFINSTRUMENTS(n)

Art.1359.When,therehavingbeenameetingofthemindsofthepartiestoacontract,theirtrue
intentionisnotexpressedintheinstrumentpurportingtoembodytheagreement,byreasonofmistake,
fraud,inequitableconductoraccident,oneofthepartiesmayaskforthereformationoftheinstrument
totheendthatsuchtrueintentionmaybeexpressed.
Ifmistake,fraud,inequitableconduct,oraccidenthaspreventedameetingofthemindsoftheparties,
theproperremedyisnotreformationoftheinstrumentbutannulmentofthecontract.

Art.1360.Theprinciplesofthegenerallawonthereformationofinstrumentsareherebyadopted
insofarastheyarenotinconflictwiththeprovisionsofthisCode.

Art.1361.Whenamutualmistakeofthepartiescausesthefailureoftheinstrumenttodisclosetheir
realagreement,saidinstrumentmaybereformed.

Art.1362.Ifonepartywasmistakenandtheotheractedfraudulentlyorinequitablyinsuchawaythat
theinstrumentdoesnotshowtheirtrueintention,theformermayaskforthereformationofthe
instrument.

Art.1363.Whenonepartywasmistakenandtheotherkneworbelievedthattheinstrumentdidnot
statetheirrealagreement,butconcealedthatfactfromtheformer,theinstrumentmaybereformed.

Art.1364.Whenthroughtheignorance,lackofskill,negligenceorbadfaithonthepartoftheperson
draftingtheinstrumentoroftheclerkortypist,theinstrumentdoesnotexpressthetrueintentionof
theparties,thecourtsmayorderthattheinstrumentbereformed.

Art.1365.Iftwopartiesagreeuponthemortgageorpledgeofrealorpersonalproperty,butthe
instrumentstatesthatthepropertyissoldabsolutelyorwitharightofrepurchase,reformationofthe
instrumentisproper.

Art.1366.Thereshallbenoreformationinthefollowingcases:

(1)Simpledonationsintervivoswhereinnoconditionisimposed;
(2)Wills;

(3)Whentherealagreementisvoid.

Art.1367.Whenoneofthepartieshasbroughtanactiontoenforcetheinstrument,hecannot
subsequentlyaskforitsreformation.
Art.1368.Reformationmaybeorderedattheinstanceofeitherpartyorhissuccessorsininterest,ifthe
mistakewasmutual;otherwise,uponpetitionoftheinjuredparty,orhisheirsandassigns.

Art.1369.Theprocedureforthereformationofinstrumentshallbegovernedbyrulesofcourttobe
promulgatedbytheSupremeCourt.

CHAPTER5
INTERPRETATIONOFCONTRACTS

Art.1370.Ifthetermsofacontractareclearandleavenodoubtupontheintentionofthecontracting
parties,theliteralmeaningofitsstipulationsshallcontrol.
Ifthewordsappeartobecontrarytotheevidentintentionoftheparties,thelattershallprevailoverthe
former.(1281)

Art.1371.Inordertojudgetheintentionofthecontractingparties,theircontemporaneousand
subsequentactsshallbeprincipallyconsidered.(1282)

Art.1372.Howevergeneralthetermsofacontractmaybe,theyshallnotbeunderstoodto
comprehendthingsthataredistinctandcasesthataredifferentfromthoseuponwhichtheparties
intendedtoagree.(1283)

Art.1373.Ifsomestipulationofanycontractshouldadmitofseveralmeanings,itshallbeunderstoodas
bearingthatimportwhichismostadequatetorenderiteffectual.(1284)

Art.1374.Thevariousstipulationsofacontractshallbeinterpretedtogether,attributingtothedoubtful
onesthatsensewhichmayresultfromallofthemtakenjointly.(1285)

Art.1375.Wordswhichmayhavedifferentsignificationsshallbeunderstoodinthatwhichismostin
keepingwiththenatureandobjectofthecontract.(1286)

Art.1376.Theusageorcustomoftheplaceshallbeborneinmindintheinterpretationofthe
ambiguitiesofacontract,andshallfilltheomissionofstipulationswhichareordinarilyestablished.
(1287)

Art.1377.Theinterpretationofobscurewordsorstipulationsinacontractshallnotfavorthepartywho
causedtheobscurity.(1288)

Art.1378.Whenitisabsolutelyimpossibletosettledoubtsbytherulesestablishedinthepreceding
articles,andthedoubtsrefertoincidentalcircumstancesofagratuitouscontract,theleasttransmission
ofrightsandinterestsshallprevail.Ifthecontractisonerous,thedoubtshallbesettledinfavorofthe
greatestreciprocityofinterests.

Ifthedoubtsarecastupontheprincipalobjectofthecontractinsuchawaythatitcannotbeknown
whatmayhavebeentheintentionorwilloftheparties,thecontractshallbenullandvoid.(1289)

Art.1379.TheprinciplesofinterpretationstatedinRule123oftheRulesofCourtshalllikewisebe
observedintheconstructionofcontracts.(n)

CHAPTER6
RESCISSIBLECONTRACTS

Art.1380.Contractsvalidlyagreeduponmayberescindedinthecasesestablishedbylaw.(1290)
Art.1381.Thefollowingcontractsarerescissible:

(1)Thosewhichareenteredintobyguardianswheneverthewardswhomtheyrepresentsufferlesion
bymorethanonefourthofthevalueofthethingswhicharetheobjectthereof;
(2)Thoseagreeduponinrepresentationofabsentees,ifthelattersufferthelesionstatedinthe
precedingnumber;

(3)Thoseundertakeninfraudofcreditorswhenthelattercannotinanyothermannercollecttheclaims
duethem;

(4)Thosewhichrefertothingsunderlitigationiftheyhavebeenenteredintobythedefendantwithout
theknowledgeandapprovalofthelitigantsorofcompetentjudicialauthority;

(5)Allothercontractsspeciallydeclaredbylawtobesubjecttorescission.(1291a)

Art.1382.Paymentsmadeinastateofinsolvencyforobligationstowhosefulfillmentthedebtorcould
notbecompelledatthetimetheywereeffected,arealsorescissible.(1292)
Art.1383.Theactionforrescissionissubsidiary;itcannotbeinstitutedexceptwhenthepartysuffering
damagehasnootherlegalmeanstoobtainreparationforthesame.(1294)

Art.1384.Rescissionshallbeonlytotheextentnecessarytocoverthedamagescaused.(n)

Art.1385.Rescissioncreatestheobligationtoreturnthethingswhichweretheobjectofthecontract,
togetherwiththeirfruits,andthepricewithitsinterest;consequently,itcanbecarriedoutonlywhen
hewhodemandsrescissioncanreturnwhateverhemaybeobligedtorestore.

Neithershallrescissiontakeplacewhenthethingswhicharetheobjectofthecontractarelegallyinthe
possessionofthirdpersonswhodidnotactinbadfaith.

Inthiscase,indemnityfordamagesmaybedemandedfromthepersoncausingtheloss.(1295)

Art.1386.RescissionreferredtoinNos.1and2ofArticle1381shallnottakeplacewithrespectto
contractsapprovedbythecourts.(1296a)

Art.1387.Allcontractsbyvirtueofwhichthedebtoralienatespropertybygratuitoustitlearepresumed
tohavebeenenteredintoinfraudofcreditors,whenthedonordidnotreservesufficientpropertyto
payalldebtscontractedbeforethedonation.

Alienationsbyoneroustitlearealsopresumedfraudulentwhenmadebypersonsagainstwhomsome
judgmenthasbeenissued.Thedecisionorattachmentneednotrefertothepropertyalienated,and
neednothavebeenobtainedbythepartyseekingtherescission.

Inadditiontothesepresumptions,thedesigntodefraudcreditorsmaybeprovedinanyothermanner
recognizedbythelawofevidence.(1297a)

Art.1388.Whoeveracquiresinbadfaiththethingsalienatedinfraudofcreditors,shallindemnifythe
latterfordamagessufferedbythemonaccountofthealienation,whenever,duetoanycause,itshould
beimpossibleforhimtoreturnthem.

Iftherearetwoormorealienations,thefirstacquirershallbeliablefirst,andsoonsuccessively.(1298a)

Art.1389.Theactiontoclaimrescissionmustbecommencedwithinfouryears.

Forpersonsunderguardianshipandforabsentees,theperiodoffouryearsshallnotbeginuntilthe
terminationoftheformer'sincapacity,oruntilthedomicileofthelatterisknown.(1299)

CHAPTER7
VOIDABLECONTRACTS

Art.1390.Thefollowingcontractsarevoidableorannullable,eventhoughtheremayhavebeenno
damagetothecontractingparties:
(1)Thosewhereoneofthepartiesisincapableofgivingconsenttoacontract;
(2)Thosewheretheconsentisvitiatedbymistake,violence,intimidation,undueinfluenceorfraud.

Thesecontractsarebinding,unlesstheyareannulledbyaproperactionincourt.Theyaresusceptibleof
ratification.(n)
Art.1391.Theactionforannulmentshallbebroughtwithinfouryears.

Thisperiodshallbegin:

Incasesofintimidation,violenceorundueinfluence,fromthetimethedefectoftheconsentceases.
Incaseofmistakeorfraud,fromthetimeofthediscoveryofthesame.

Andwhentheactionreferstocontractsenteredintobyminorsorotherincapacitatedpersons,fromthe
timetheguardianshipceases.(1301a)
Art.1392.Ratificationextinguishestheactiontoannulavoidablecontract.(1309a)

Art.1393.Ratificationmaybeeffectedexpresslyortacitly.Itisunderstoodthatthereisatacit
ratificationif,withknowledgeofthereasonwhichrendersthecontractvoidableandsuchreasonhaving
ceased,thepersonwhohasarighttoinvokeitshouldexecuteanactwhichnecessarilyimpliesan
intentiontowaivehisright.(1311a)

Art.1394.Ratificationmaybeeffectedbytheguardianoftheincapacitatedperson.(n)

Art.1395.Ratificationdoesnotrequiretheconformityofthecontractingpartywhohasnorighttobring
theactionforannulment.(1312)

Art.1396.Ratificationcleansesthecontractfromallitsdefectsfromthemomentitwasconstituted.
(1313)

Art.1397.Theactionfortheannulmentofcontractsmaybeinstitutedbyallwhoaretherebyobliged
principallyorsubsidiarily.However,personswhoarecapablecannotallegetheincapacityofthosewith
whomtheycontracted;norcanthosewhoexertedintimidation,violence,orundueinfluence,or
employedfraud,orcausedmistakebasetheiractionupontheseflawsofthecontract.(1302a)

Art.1398.Anobligationhavingbeenannulled,thecontractingpartiesshallrestoretoeachotherthe
thingswhichhavebeenthesubjectmatterofthecontract,withtheirfruits,andthepricewithits
interest,exceptincasesprovidedbylaw.

Inobligationstorenderservice,thevaluethereofshallbethebasisfordamages.(1303a)

Art.1399.Whenthedefectofthecontractconsistsintheincapacityofoneoftheparties,the
incapacitatedpersonisnotobligedtomakeanyrestitutionexceptinsofarashehasbeenbenefitedby
thethingorpricereceivedbyhim.(1304)

Art.1400.Wheneverthepersonobligedbythedecreeofannulmenttoreturnthethingcannotdoso
becauseithasbeenlostthroughhisfault,heshallreturnthefruitsreceivedandthevalueofthethingat
thetimeoftheloss,withinterestfromthesamedate.(1307a)

Art.1401.Theactionforannulmentofcontractsshallbeextinguishedwhenthethingwhichisthe
objectthereofislostthroughthefraudorfaultofthepersonwhohasarighttoinstitutethe
proceedings.

Iftherightofactionisbasedupontheincapacityofanyoneofthecontractingparties,thelossofthe
thingshallnotbeanobstacletothesuccessoftheaction,unlesssaidlosstookplacethroughthefraud
orfaultoftheplaintiff.(1314a)

Art.1402.Aslongasoneofthecontractingpartiesdoesnotrestorewhatinvirtueofthedecreeof
annulmentheisboundtoreturn,theothercannotbecompelledtocomplywithwhatisincumbent
uponhim.(1308)

CHAPTER8
UNENFORCEABLECONTRACTS(n)

Art.1403.Thefollowingcontractsareunenforceable,unlesstheyareratified:
(1)Thoseenteredintointhenameofanotherpersonbyonewhohasbeengivennoauthorityorlegal
representation,orwhohasactedbeyondhispowers;
(2)ThosethatdonotcomplywiththeStatuteofFraudsassetforthinthisnumber.Inthefollowing
casesanagreementhereaftermadeshallbeunenforceablebyaction,unlessthesame,orsomenoteor
memorandum,thereof,beinwriting,andsubscribedbythepartycharged,orbyhisagent;evidence,
therefore,oftheagreementcannotbereceivedwithoutthewriting,orasecondaryevidenceofits
contents:

(a)Anagreementthatbyitstermsisnottobeperformedwithinayearfromthemakingthereof;
(b)Aspecialpromisetoanswerforthedebt,default,ormiscarriageofanother;

(c)Anagreementmadeinconsiderationofmarriage,otherthanamutualpromisetomarry;

(d)Anagreementforthesaleofgoods,chattelsorthingsinaction,atapricenotlessthanfivehundred
pesos,unlessthebuyeracceptandreceivepartofsuchgoodsandchattels,ortheevidences,orsomeof
them,ofsuchthingsinactionorpayatthetimesomepartofthepurchasemoney;butwhenasaleis
madebyauctionandentryismadebytheauctioneerinhissalesbook,atthetimeofthesale,ofthe
amountandkindofpropertysold,termsofsale,price,namesofthepurchasersandpersononwhose
accountthesaleismade,itisasufficientmemorandum;

(e)Anagreementoftheleasingforalongerperiodthanoneyear,orforthesaleofrealpropertyorof
aninteresttherein;

(f)Arepresentationastothecreditofathirdperson.

(3)Thosewherebothpartiesareincapableofgivingconsenttoacontract.
Art.1404.UnauthorizedcontractsaregovernedbyArticle1317andtheprinciplesofagencyinTitleXof
thisBook.
Art.1405.ContractsinfringingtheStatuteofFrauds,referredtoinNo.2ofArticle1403,areratifiedby
thefailuretoobjecttothepresentationoforalevidencetoprovethesame,orbytheacceptanceof
benefitunderthem.

Art.1406.WhenacontractisenforceableundertheStatuteofFrauds,andapublicdocumentis
necessaryforitsregistrationintheRegistryofDeeds,thepartiesmayavailthemselvesoftheright
underArticle1357.

Art.1407.Inacontractwherebothpartiesareincapableofgivingconsent,expressorimplied
ratificationbytheparent,orguardian,asthecasemaybe,ofoneofthecontractingpartiesshallgive
thecontractthesameeffectasifonlyoneofthemwereincapacitated.

Ifratificationismadebytheparentsorguardians,asthecasemaybe,ofbothcontractingparties,the
contractshallbevalidatedfromtheinception.

Art.1408.Unenforceablecontractscannotbeassailedbythirdpersons.

CHAPTER9
VOIDANDINEXISTENTCONTRACTS

Art.1409.Thefollowingcontractsareinexistentandvoidfromthebeginning:
(1)Thosewhosecause,objectorpurposeiscontrarytolaw,morals,goodcustoms,publicorderor
publicpolicy;
(2)Thosewhichareabsolutelysimulatedorfictitious;

(3)Thosewhosecauseorobjectdidnotexistatthetimeofthetransaction;

(4)Thosewhoseobjectisoutsidethecommerceofmen;

(5)Thosewhichcontemplateanimpossibleservice;

(6)Thosewheretheintentionofthepartiesrelativetotheprincipalobjectofthecontractcannotbe
ascertained;

(7)Thoseexpresslyprohibitedordeclaredvoidbylaw.

Thesecontractscannotberatified.Neithercantherighttosetupthedefenseofillegalitybewaived.
Art.1410.Theactionordefenseforthedeclarationoftheinexistenceofacontractdoesnotprescribe.

Art.1411.Whenthenullityproceedsfromtheillegalityofthecauseorobjectofthecontract,andthe
actconstitutesacriminaloffense,bothpartiesbeinginparidelicto,theyshallhavenoactionagainst
eachother,andbothshallbeprosecuted.Moreover,theprovisionsofthePenalCoderelativetothe
disposalofeffectsorinstrumentsofacrimeshallbeapplicabletothethingsorthepriceofthecontract.

Thisruleshallbeapplicablewhenonlyoneofthepartiesisguilty;buttheinnocentonemayclaimwhat
hehasgiven,andshallnotbeboundtocomplywithhispromise.(1305)

Art.1412.Iftheactinwhichtheunlawfulorforbiddencauseconsistsdoesnotconstituteacriminal
offense,thefollowingrulesshallbeobserved:

(1)Whenthefaultisonthepartofbothcontractingparties,neithermayrecoverwhathehasgivenby
virtueofthecontract,ordemandtheperformanceoftheother'sundertaking;
(2)Whenonlyoneofthecontractingpartiesisatfault,hecannotrecoverwhathehasgivenbyreason
ofthecontract,oraskforthefulfillmentofwhathasbeenpromisedhim.Theother,whoisnotatfault,
maydemandthereturnofwhathehasgivenwithoutanyobligationtocomplyhispromise.(1306)

Art.1413.Interestpaidinexcessoftheinterestallowedbytheusurylawsmayberecoveredbythe
debtor,withinterestthereonfromthedateofthepayment.
Art.1414.Whenmoneyispaidorpropertydeliveredforanillegalpurpose,thecontractmaybe
repudiatedbyoneofthepartiesbeforethepurposehasbeenaccomplished,orbeforeanydamagehas
beencausedtoathirdperson.Insuchcase,thecourtsmay,ifthepublicinterestwillthusbesubserved,
allowthepartyrepudiatingthecontracttorecoverthemoneyorproperty.

Art.1415.Whereoneofthepartiestoanillegalcontractisincapableofgivingconsent,thecourtsmay,
iftheinterestofjusticesodemandsallowrecoveryofmoneyorpropertydeliveredbytheincapacitated
person.

Art.1416.Whentheagreementisnotillegalpersebutismerelyprohibited,andtheprohibitionbythe
lawisdesignatedfortheprotectionoftheplaintiff,hemay,ifpublicpolicyistherebyenhanced,recover
whathehaspaidordelivered.

Art.1417.Whenthepriceofanyarticleorcommodityisdeterminedbystatute,orbyauthorityoflaw,
anypersonpayinganyamountinexcessofthemaximumpriceallowedmayrecoversuchexcess.

Art.1418.Whenthelawfixes,orauthorizesthefixingofthemaximumnumberofhoursoflabor,anda
contractisenteredintowherebyalaborerundertakestoworklongerthanthemaximumthusfixed,he
maydemandadditionalcompensationforservicerenderedbeyondthetimelimit.

Art.1419.Whenthelawsets,orauthorizesthesettingofaminimumwageforlaborers,andacontract
isagreeduponbywhichalaboreracceptsalowerwage,heshallbeentitledtorecoverthedeficiency.

Art.1420.Incaseofadivisiblecontract,iftheillegaltermscanbeseparatedfromthelegalones,the
lattermaybeenforced.

Art.1421.Thedefenseofillegalityofcontractisnotavailabletothirdpersonswhoseinterestsarenot
directlyaffected.

Art.1422.Acontractwhichisthedirectresultofapreviousillegalcontract,isalsovoidandinexistent.

TitleIII.NATURALOBLIGATIONS

Art.1423.Obligationsarecivilornatural.Civilobligationsgivearightofactiontocompeltheir
performance.Naturalobligations,notbeingbasedonpositivelawbutonequityandnaturallaw,donot
grantarightofactiontoenforcetheirperformance,butaftervoluntaryfulfillmentbytheobligor,they
authorizetheretentionofwhathasbeendeliveredorrenderedbyreasonthereof.Somenatural
obligationsaresetforthinthefollowingarticles.
Art.1424.Whenarighttosueuponacivilobligationhaslapsedbyextinctiveprescription,theobligor
whovoluntarilyperformsthecontractcannotrecoverwhathehasdeliveredorthevalueoftheservice
hehasrendered.

Art.1425.Whenwithouttheknowledgeoragainstthewillofthedebtor,athirdpersonpaysadebt
whichtheobligorisnotlegallyboundtopaybecausetheactionthereonhasprescribed,butthedebtor
latervoluntarilyreimbursesthethirdperson,theobligorcannotrecoverwhathehaspaid.

Art.1426.Whenaminorbetweeneighteenandtwentyoneyearsofagewhohasenteredintoa
contractwithouttheconsentoftheparentorguardian,aftertheannulmentofthecontractvoluntarily
returnsthewholethingorpricereceived,notwithstandingthefactthehehasnotbeenbenefited
thereby,thereisnorighttodemandthethingorpricethusreturned.

Art.1427.Whenaminorbetweeneighteenandtwentyoneyearsofage,whohasenteredintoa
contractwithouttheconsentoftheparentorguardian,voluntarilypaysasumofmoneyordeliversa
fungiblethinginfulfillmentoftheobligation,thereshallbenorighttorecoverthesamefromthe
obligeewhohasspentorconsumeditingoodfaith.(1160A)

Art.1428.When,afteranactiontoenforceacivilobligationhasfailedthedefendantvoluntarily
performstheobligation,hecannotdemandthereturnofwhathehasdeliveredorthepaymentofthe
valueoftheservicehehasrendered.

Art.1429.Whenatestateorintestateheirvoluntarilypaysadebtofthedecedentexceedingthevalue
ofthepropertywhichhereceivedbywillorbythelawofintestacyfromtheestateofthedeceased,the
paymentisvalidandcannotberescindedbythepayer.

Art.1430.Whenawillisdeclaredvoidbecauseithasnotbeenexecutedinaccordancewiththe
formalitiesrequiredbylaw,butoneoftheintestateheirs,afterthesettlementofthedebtsofthe
deceased,paysalegacyincompliancewithaclauseinthedefectivewill,thepaymentiseffectiveand
irrevocable.

TitleIV.ESTOPPEL(n)

Art.1431.Throughestoppelanadmissionorrepresentationisrenderedconclusiveupontheperson
makingit,andcannotbedeniedordisprovedasagainstthepersonrelyingthereon.
Art.1432.Theprinciplesofestoppelareherebyadoptedinsofarastheyarenotinconflictwiththe
provisionsofthisCode,theCodeofCommerce,theRulesofCourtandspeciallaws.

Art.1433.Estoppelmaybeinpaisorbydeed.

Art.1434.Whenapersonwhoisnottheownerofathingsellsoralienatesanddeliversit,andlaterthe
sellerorgrantoracquirestitlethereto,suchtitlepassesbyoperationoflawtothebuyerorgrantee.

Art.1435.Ifapersoninrepresentationofanothersellsoralienatesathing,theformercannot
subsequentlysetuphisowntitleasagainstthebuyerorgrantee.

Art.1436.Alesseeorabaileeisestoppedfromassertingtitletothethingleasedorreceived,asagainst
thelessororbailor.

Art.1437.Wheninacontractbetweenthirdpersonsconcerningimmovableproperty,oneofthemis
misledbyapersonwithrespecttotheownershiporrealrightovertherealestate,thelatteris
precludedfromassertinghislegaltitleorinteresttherein,providedalltheserequisitesarepresent:

(1)Theremustbefraudulentrepresentationorwrongfulconcealmentoffactsknowntotheparty
estopped;
(2)Thepartyprecludedmustintendthattheothershouldactuponthefactsasmisrepresented;

(3)Thepartymisledmusthavebeenunawareofthetruefacts;and

(4)Thepartydefraudedmusthaveactedinaccordancewiththemisrepresentation.

Art.1438.Onewhohasallowedanothertoassumeapparentownershipofpersonalpropertyforthe
purposeofmakinganytransferofit,cannot,ifhereceivedthesumforwhichapledgehasbeen
constituted,setuphisowntitletodefeatthepledgeoftheproperty,madebytheothertoapledgee
whoreceivedthesameingoodfaithandforvalue.
Art.1439.Estoppeliseffectiveonlyasbetweenthepartiestheretoortheirsuccessorsininterest.

TitleV.TRUSTS(n)

CHAPTER1
GENERALPROVISIONS

Art.1440.Apersonwhoestablishesatrustiscalledthetrustor;oneinwhomconfidenceisreposedas
regardspropertyforthebenefitofanotherpersonisknownasthetrustee;andthepersonforwhose
benefitthetrusthasbeencreatedisreferredtoasthebeneficiary.
Art.1441.Trustsareeitherexpressorimplied.Expresstrustsarecreatedbytheintentionofthetrustor
oroftheparties.Impliedtrustscomeintobeingbyoperationoflaw.

Art.1442.Theprinciplesofthegenerallawoftrusts,insofarastheyarenotinconflictwiththisCode,
theCodeofCommerce,theRulesofCourtandspeciallawsareherebyadopted.

CHAPTER2
EXPRESSTRUSTS

Art.1443.Noexpresstrustsconcerninganimmovableoranyinterestthereinmaybeprovedbyparol
evidence.
Art.1444.Noparticularwordsarerequiredforthecreationofanexpresstrust,itbeingsufficientthata
trustisclearlyintended.

Art.1445.Notrustshallfailbecausethetrusteeappointeddeclinesthedesignation,unlessthecontrary
shouldappearintheinstrumentconstitutingthetrust.

Art.1446.Acceptancebythebeneficiaryisnecessary.Nevertheless,ifthetrustimposesnoonerous
conditionuponthebeneficiary,hisacceptanceshallbepresumed,ifthereisnoprooftothecontrary.

CHAPTER3
IMPLIEDTRUSTS

Art.1447.Theenumerationofthefollowingcasesofimpliedtrustdoesnotexcludeothersestablished
bythegenerallawoftrust,butthelimitationlaiddowninArticle1442shallbeapplicable.
Art.1448.Thereisanimpliedtrustwhenpropertyissold,andthelegalestateisgrantedtooneparty
butthepriceispaidbyanotherforthepurposeofhavingthebeneficialinterestoftheproperty.The
formeristhetrustee,whilethelatteristhebeneficiary.However,ifthepersontowhomthetitleis
conveyedisachild,legitimateorillegitimate,oftheonepayingthepriceofthesale,notrustisimplied
bylaw,itbeingdisputablypresumedthatthereisagiftinfavorofthechild.

Art.1449.Thereisalsoanimpliedtrustwhenadonationismadetoapersonbutitappearsthat
althoughthelegalestateistransmittedtothedonee,heneverthelessiseithertohavenobeneficial
interestoronlyapartthereof.

Art.1450.Ifthepriceofasaleofpropertyisloanedorpaidbyonepersonforthebenefitofanotherand
theconveyanceismadetothelenderorpayortosecurethepaymentofthedebt,atrustarisesby
operationoflawinfavorofthepersontowhomthemoneyisloanedorforwhomitsispaid.Thelatter
mayredeemthepropertyandcompelaconveyancethereoftohim.

Art.1451.Whenlandpassesbysuccessiontoanypersonandhecausesthelegaltitletobeputinthe
nameofanother,atrustisestablishedbyimplicationoflawforthebenefitofthetrueowner.

Art.1452.Iftwoormorepersonsagreetopurchasepropertyandbycommonconsentthelegaltitleis
takeninthenameofoneofthemforthebenefitofall,atrustiscreatedbyforceoflawinfavorofthe
othersinproportiontotheinterestofeach.

Art.1453.Whenpropertyisconveyedtoapersoninrelianceuponhisdeclaredintentiontoholditfor,
ortransferittoanotherorthegrantor,thereisanimpliedtrustinfavorofthepersonwhosebenefitis
contemplated.

Art.1454.Ifanabsoluteconveyanceofpropertyismadeinordertosecuretheperformanceofan
obligationofthegrantortowardthegrantee,atrustbyvirtueoflawisestablished.Ifthefulfillmentof
theobligationisofferedbythegrantorwhenitbecomesdue,hemaydemandthereconveyanceofthe
propertytohim.

Art.1455.Whenanytrustee,guardianorotherpersonholdingafiduciaryrelationshipusestrustfunds
forthepurchaseofpropertyandcausestheconveyancetobemadetohimortoathirdperson,atrust
isestablishedbyoperationoflawinfavorofthepersontowhomthefundsbelong.

Art.1456.Ifpropertyisacquiredthroughmistakeorfraud,thepersonobtainingitis,byforceoflaw,
consideredatrusteeofanimpliedtrustforthebenefitofthepersonfromwhomthepropertycomes.

Art.1457.Animpliedtrustmaybeprovedbyoralevidence.

TitleVI.SALES

CHAPTER1
NATUREANDFORMOFTHECONTRACT

Art.1458.Bythecontractofsaleoneofthecontractingpartiesobligateshimselftotransferthe
ownershipandtodeliveradeterminatething,andtheothertopaythereforapricecertaininmoneyor
itsequivalent.
Acontractofsalemaybeabsoluteorconditional.(1445a)

Art.1459.Thethingmustbelicitandthevendormusthavearighttotransfertheownershipthereofat
thetimeitisdelivered.(n)

Art.1460.Athingisdeterminatewhenitisparticularlydesignatedorphysicalsegregatedfromallother
ofthesameclass.

Therequisitethatathingbedeterminateissatisfiedifatthetimethecontractisenteredinto,thething
iscapableofbeingmadedeterminatewithoutthenecessityofaneworfurtheragreementbetweenthe
parties.(n)

Art.1461.Thingshavingapotentialexistencemaybetheobjectofthecontractofsale.

Theefficacyofthesaleofamerehopeorexpectancyisdeemedsubjecttotheconditionthatthething
willcomeintoexistence.

Thesaleofavainhopeorexpectancyisvoid.(n)

Art.1462.Thegoodswhichformthesubjectofacontractofsalemaybeeitherexistinggoods,ownedor
possessedbytheseller,orgoodstobemanufactured,raised,oracquiredbythesellerafterthe
perfectionofthecontractofsale,inthisTitlecalled"futuregoods."

Theremaybeacontractofsaleofgoods,whoseacquisitionbythesellerdependsuponacontingency
whichmayormaynothappen.(n)

Art.1463.Thesoleownerofathingmaysellanundividedinteresttherein.(n)

Art.1464.Inthecaseoffungiblegoods,theremaybeasaleofanundividedshareofaspecificmass,
thoughthesellerpurportstosellandthebuyertobuyadefinitenumber,weightormeasureofthe
goodsinthemass,andthoughthenumber,weightormeasureofthegoodsinthemassis
undetermined.Bysuchasalethebuyerbecomesownerincommonofsuchashareofthemassasthe
number,weightormeasureboughtbearstothenumber,weightormeasureofthemass.Ifthemass
containslessthanthenumber,weightormeasurebought,thebuyerbecomestheownerofthewhole
massandthesellerisboundtomakegoodthedeficiencyfromgoodsofthesamekindandquality,
unlessacontraryintentappears.(n)

Art.1465.Thingssubjecttoaresolutoryconditionmaybetheobjectofthecontractofsale.(n)

Art.1466.Inconstruingacontractcontainingprovisionscharacteristicofboththecontractofsaleandof
thecontractofagencytosell,theessentialclausesofthewholeinstrumentshallbeconsidered.(n)

Art.1467.Acontractforthedeliveryatacertainpriceofanarticlewhichthevendorintheordinary
courseofhisbusinessmanufacturesorprocuresforthegeneralmarket,whetherthesameisonhandat
thetimeornot,isacontractofsale,butifthegoodsaretobemanufacturedspeciallyforthecustomer
anduponhisspecialorder,andnotforthegeneralmarket,itisacontractforapieceofwork.(n)

Art.1468.Iftheconsiderationofthecontractconsistspartlyinmoney,andpartlyinanotherthing,the
transactionshallbecharacterizedbythemanifestintentionoftheparties.Ifsuchintentiondoesnot
clearlyappear,itshallbeconsideredabarterifthevalueofthethinggivenasapartofthe
considerationexceedstheamountofthemoneyoritsequivalent;otherwise,itisasale.(1446a)

Art.1469.Inorderthatthepricemaybeconsideredcertain,itshallbesufficientthatitbesowith
referencetoanotherthingcertain,orthatthedeterminationthereofbelefttothejudgmentofaspecial
personorpersons.

Shouldsuchpersonorpersonsbeunableorunwillingtofixit,thecontractshallbeinefficacious,unless
thepartiessubsequentlyagreeupontheprice.

Ifthethirdpersonorpersonsactedinbadfaithorbymistake,thecourtsmayfixtheprice.

Wheresuchthirdpersonorpersonsarepreventedfromfixingthepriceortermsbyfaultoftheselleror
thebuyer,thepartynotinfaultmayhavesuchremediesagainstthepartyinfaultasareallowedthe
sellerorthebuyer,asthecasemaybe.(1447a)

Art.1470.Grossinadequacyofpricedoesnotaffectacontractofsale,exceptasitmayindicateadefect
intheconsent,orthatthepartiesreallyintendedadonationorsomeotheractorcontract.(n)

Art.1471.Ifthepriceissimulated,thesaleisvoid,buttheactmaybeshowntohavebeeninrealitya
donation,orsomeotheractorcontract.(n)

Art.1472.Thepriceofsecurities,grain,liquids,andotherthingsshallalsobeconsideredcertain,when
thepricefixedisthatwhichthethingsoldwouldhaveonadefiniteday,orinaparticularexchangeor
market,orwhenanamountisfixedaboveorbelowthepriceonsuchday,orinsuchexchangeor
market,providedsaidamountbecertain.(1448)

Art.1473.Thefixingofthepricecanneverbelefttothediscretionofoneofthecontractingparties.
However,ifthepricefixedbyoneofthepartiesisacceptedbytheother,thesaleisperfected.(1449a)

Art.1474.Wherethepricecannotbedeterminedinaccordancewiththeprecedingarticles,orinany
othermanner,thecontractisinefficacious.However,ifthethingoranypartthereofhasbeendelivered
toandappropriatedbythebuyerhemustpayareasonablepricetherefor.Whatisareasonablepriceis
aquestionoffactdependentonthecircumstancesofeachparticularcase.(n)

Art.1475.Thecontractofsaleisperfectedatthemomentthereisameetingofmindsuponthething
whichistheobjectofthecontractandupontheprice.

Fromthatmoment,thepartiesmayreciprocallydemandperformance,subjecttotheprovisionsofthe
lawgoverningtheformofcontracts.(1450a)

Art.1476.Inthecaseofasalebyauction:

(1)Wheregoodsareputupforsalebyauctioninlots,eachlotisthesubjectofaseparatecontractof
sale.
(2)Asalebyauctionisperfectedwhentheauctioneerannouncesitsperfectionbythefallofthe
hammer,orinothercustomarymanner.Untilsuchannouncementismade,anybiddermayretracthis
bid;andtheauctioneermaywithdrawthegoodsfromthesaleunlesstheauctionhasbeenannounced
tobewithoutreserve.

(3)Arighttobidmaybereservedexpresslybyoronbehalfoftheseller,unlessotherwiseprovidedby
laworbystipulation.

(4)Wherenoticehasnotbeengiventhatasalebyauctionissubjecttoarighttobidonbehalfofthe
seller,itshallnotbelawfulforthesellertobidhimselfortoemployorinduceanypersontobidatsuch
saleonhisbehalforfortheauctioneer,toemployorinduceanypersontobidatsuchsaleonbehalfof
thesellerorknowinglytotakeanybidfromtheselleroranypersonemployedbyhim.Anysale
contraveningthisrulemaybetreatedasfraudulentbythebuyer.(n)

Art.1477.Theownershipofthethingsoldshallbetransferredtothevendeeupontheactualor
constructivedeliverythereof.(n)
Art.1478.Thepartiesmaystipulatethatownershipinthethingshallnotpasstothepurchaseruntilhe
hasfullypaidtheprice.(n)

Art.1479.Apromisetobuyandselladeterminatethingforapricecertainisreciprocallydemandable.

Anacceptedunilateralpromisetobuyortoselladeterminatethingforapricecertainisbindingupon
thepromissorifthepromiseissupportedbyaconsiderationdistinctfromtheprice.(1451a)

Art.1480.Anyinjurytoorbenefitfromthethingsold,afterthecontracthasbeenperfected,fromthe
momentoftheperfectionofthecontracttothetimeofdelivery,shallbegovernedbyArticles1163to
1165,and1262.

Thisruleshallapplytothesaleoffungiblethings,madeindependentlyandforasingleprice,orwithout
considerationoftheirweight,number,ormeasure.

Shouldfungiblethingsbesoldforapricefixedaccordingtoweight,number,ormeasure,theriskshall
notbeimputedtothevendeeuntiltheyhavebeenweighed,counted,ormeasuredanddelivered,
unlessthelatterhasincurredindelay.(1452a)

Art.1481.Inthecontractofsaleofgoodsbydescriptionorbysample,thecontractmayberescindedif
thebulkofthegoodsdelivereddonotcorrespondwiththedescriptionorthesample,andifthe
contractbebysampleaswellasdescription,itisnotsufficientthatthebulkofgoodscorrespondwith
thesampleiftheydonotalsocorrespondwiththedescription.

Thebuyershallhaveareasonableopportunityofcomparingthebulkwiththedescriptionorthesample.
(n)

Art.1482.Wheneverearnestmoneyisgiveninacontractofsale,itshallbeconsideredaspartofthe
priceandasproofoftheperfectionofthecontract.(1454a)

Art.1483.SubjecttotheprovisionsoftheStatuteofFraudsandofanyotherapplicablestatute,a
contractofsalemaybemadeinwriting,orbywordofmouth,orpartlyinwritingandpartlybywordof
mouth,ormaybeinferredfromtheconductoftheparties.(n)

Art.1484.Inacontractofsaleofpersonalpropertythepriceofwhichispayableininstallments,the
vendormayexerciseanyofthefollowingremedies:

(1)Exactfulfillmentoftheobligation,shouldthevendeefailtopay;
(2)Cancelthesale,shouldthevendee'sfailuretopaycovertwoormoreinstallments;

(3)Foreclosethechattelmortgageonthethingsold,ifonehasbeenconstituted,shouldthevendee's
failuretopaycovertwoormoreinstallments.Inthiscase,heshallhavenofurtheractionagainstthe
purchasertorecoveranyunpaidbalanceoftheprice.Anyagreementtothecontraryshallbevoid.
(1454Aa)

Art.1485.Theprecedingarticleshallbeappliedtocontractspurportingtobeleasesofpersonal
propertywithoptiontobuy,whenthelessorhasdeprivedthelesseeofthepossessionorenjoymentof
thething.(1454Aa)
Art.1486.Inthecasereferredtointwoprecedingarticles,astipulationthattheinstallmentsorrents
paidshallnotbereturnedtothevendeeorlesseeshallbevalidinsofarasthesamemaynotbe
unconscionableunderthecircumstances.(n)

Art.1487.Theexpensesfortheexecutionandregistrationofthesaleshallbebornebythevendor,
unlessthereisastipulationtothecontrary.(1455a)

Art.1488.Theexpropriationofpropertyforpublicuseisgovernedbyspeciallaws.(1456)

CHAPTER2
CAPACITYTOBUYORSELL

Art.1489.AllpersonswhoareauthorizedinthisCodetoobligatethemselves,mayenterintoacontract
ofsale,savingthemodificationscontainedinthefollowingarticles.
Wherenecessariesarethosesoldanddeliveredtoaminororotherpersonwithoutcapacitytoact,he
mustpayareasonablepricetherefor.NecessariesarethosereferredtoinArticle290.(1457a)

Art.1490.Thehusbandandthewifecannotsellpropertytoeachother,except:

(1)Whenaseparationofpropertywasagreeduponinthemarriagesettlements;or
(2)WhentherehasbeenajudicialseparationorpropertyunderArticle191.(1458a)

Art.1491.Thefollowingpersonscannotacquirebypurchase,evenatapublicorjudicialauction,either
inpersonorthroughthemediationofanother:
(1)Theguardian,thepropertyofthepersonorpersonswhomaybeunderhisguardianship;
(2)Agents,thepropertywhoseadministrationorsalemayhavebeenentrustedtothem,unlessthe
consentoftheprincipalhasbeengiven;

(3)Executorsandadministrators,thepropertyoftheestateunderadministration;

(4)Publicofficersandemployees,thepropertyoftheStateorofanysubdivisionthereof,orofany
governmentownedorcontrolledcorporation,orinstitution,theadministrationofwhichhasbeen
intrustedtothem;thisprovisionshallapplytojudgesandgovernmentexpertswho,inanymanner
whatsoever,takepartinthesale;

(5)Justices,judges,prosecutingattorneys,clerksofsuperiorandinferiorcourts,andotherofficersand
employeesconnectedwiththeadministrationofjustice,thepropertyandrightsinlitigationorlevied
uponanexecutionbeforethecourtwithinwhosejurisdictionorterritorytheyexercisetheirrespective
functions;thisprohibitionincludestheactofacquiringbyassignmentandshallapplytolawyers,with
respecttothepropertyandrightswhichmaybetheobjectofanylitigationinwhichtheymaytakepart
byvirtueoftheirprofession.

(6)Anyothersspeciallydisqualifiedbylaw.(1459a)

Art.1492.Theprohibitionsinthetwoprecedingarticlesareapplicabletosalesinlegalredemption,
compromisesandrenunciations.(n)

CHAPTER3
EFFECTSOFTHECONTRACT
WHENTHETHINGSOLDHASBEENLOST

Art.1493.Ifatthetimethecontractofsaleisperfected,thethingwhichistheobjectofthecontracthas
beenentirelylost,thecontractshallbewithoutanyeffect.
Butifthethingshouldhavebeenlostinpartonly,thevendeemaychoosebetweenwithdrawingfrom
thecontractanddemandingtheremainingpart,payingitspriceinproportiontothetotalsumagreed
upon.(1460a)

Art.1494.Wherethepartiespurportasaleofspecificgoods,andthegoodswithouttheknowledgeof
thesellerhaveperishedinpartorhavewhollyorinamaterialpartsodeterioratedinqualityastobe
substantiallychangedincharacter,thebuyermayathisoptiontreatthesale:

(1)Asavoided;or
(2)Asvalidinalloftheexistinggoodsorinsomuchthereofashavenotdeteriorated,andasbindingthe
buyertopaytheagreedpriceforthegoodsinwhichtheownershipwillpass,ifthesalewasdivisible.(n)

CHAPTER4
OBLIGATIONSOFTHEVENDOR

SECTION1.GeneralProvisions

Art.1495.Thevendorisboundtotransfertheownershipofanddeliver,aswellaswarrantthething
whichistheobjectofthesale.(1461a)
Art.1496.Theownershipofthethingsoldisacquiredbythevendeefromthemomentitisdeliveredto
himinanyofthewaysspecifiedinArticles1497to1501,orinanyothermannersignifyingan
agreementthatthepossessionistransferredfromthevendortothevendee.(n)

SECTION2.DeliveryoftheThingSold

Art.1497.Thethingsoldshallbeunderstoodasdelivered,whenitisplacedinthecontroland
possessionofthevendee.(1462a)
Art.1498.Whenthesaleismadethroughapublicinstrument,theexecutionthereofshallbeequivalent
tothedeliveryofthethingwhichistheobjectofthecontract,iffromthedeedthecontrarydoesnot
appearorcannotclearlybeinferred.

Withregardtomovableproperty,itsdeliverymayalsobemadebythedeliveryofthekeysoftheplace
ordepositorywhereitisstoredorkept.(1463a)

Art.1499.Thedeliveryofmovablepropertymaylikewisebemadebythemereconsentoragreementof
thecontractingparties,ifthethingsoldcannotbetransferredtothepossessionofthevendeeatthe
timeofthesale,orifthelatteralreadyhaditinhispossessionforanyotherreason.(1463a)

Art.1500.Theremayalsobetraditionconstitutumpossessorium.(n)

Art.1501.Withrespecttoincorporealproperty,theprovisionsofthefirstparagraphofarticle1498shall
govern.Inanyothercasewhereinsaidprovisionsarenotapplicable,theplacingofthetitlesof
ownershipinthepossessionofthevendeeortheusebythevendeeofhisrights,withthevendor's
consent,shallbeunderstoodasadelivery.(1464)

Art.1502.Whengoodsaredeliveredtothebuyer"onsaleorreturn"togivethebuyeranoptionto
returnthegoodsinsteadofpayingtheprice,theownershippassestothebuyerofdelivery,buthemay
revesttheownershipinthesellerbyreturningortenderingthegoodswithinthetimefixedinthe
contract,or,ifnotimehasbeenfixed,withinareasonabletime.(n)

Whengoodsaredeliveredtothebuyeronapprovalorontrialoronsatisfaction,orothersimilarterms,
theownershipthereinpassestothebuyer:

(1)Whenhesignifieshisapprovaloracceptancetothesellerordoesanyotheractadoptingthe
transaction;
(2)Ifhedoesnotsignifyhisapprovaloracceptancetotheseller,butretainsthegoodswithoutgiving
noticeofrejection,thenifatimehasbeenfixedforthereturnofthegoods,ontheexpirationofsuch
time,and,ifnotimehasbeenfixed,ontheexpirationofareasonabletime.Whatisareasonabletimeis
aquestionoffact.(n)

Art.1503.Whenthereisacontractofsaleofspecificgoods,thesellermay,bythetermsofthecontract,
reservetherightofpossessionorownershipinthegoodsuntilcertainconditionshavebeenfulfilled.
Therightofpossessionorownershipmaybethusreservednotwithstandingthedeliveryofthegoodsto
thebuyerortoacarrierorotherbaileeforthepurposeoftransmissiontothebuyer.
Wheregoodsareshipped,andbythebillofladingthegoodsaredeliverabletothesellerorhisagent,or
totheorderofthesellerorofhisagent,thesellertherebyreservestheownershipinthegoods.But,if
exceptfortheformofthebilloflading,theownershipwouldhavepassedtothebuyeronshipmentof
thegoods,theseller'spropertyinthegoodsshallbedeemedtobeonlyforthepurposeofsecuring
performancebythebuyerofhisobligationsunderthecontract.

Wheregoodsareshipped,andbythebillofladingthegoodsaredeliverabletoorderofthebuyerorof
hisagent,butpossessionofthebillofladingisretainedbythesellerorhisagent,thesellerthereby
reservesarighttothepossessionofthegoodsasagainstthebuyer.

Wherethesellerofgoodsdrawsonthebuyerforthepriceandtransmitsthebillofexchangeandbillof
ladingtogethertothebuyertosecureacceptanceorpaymentofthebillofexchange,thebuyeris
boundtoreturnthebillofladingifhedoesnothonorthebillofexchange,andifhewrongfullyretains
thebillofladingheacquiresnoaddedrightthereby.If,however,thebillofladingprovidesthatthe
goodsaredeliverabletothebuyerortotheorderofthebuyer,orisindorsedinblank,ortothebuyer
bytheconsigneenamedtherein,onewhopurchasesingoodfaith,forvalue,thebilloflading,orgoods
fromthebuyerwillobtaintheownershipinthegoods,althoughthebillofexchangehasnotbeen
honored,providedthatsuchpurchaserhasreceiveddeliveryofthebillofladingindorsedbythe
consigneenamedtherein,orofthegoods,withoutnoticeofthefactsmakingthetransferwrongful.(n)

Art.1504.Unlessotherwiseagreed,thegoodsremainattheseller'sriskuntiltheownershipthereinis
transferredtothebuyer,butwhentheownershipthereinistransferredtothebuyerthegoodsareat
thebuyer'sriskwhetheractualdeliveryhasbeenmadeornot,exceptthat:

(1)Wheredeliveryofthegoodshasbeenmadetothebuyerortoabaileeforthebuyer,inpursuanceof
thecontractandtheownershipinthegoodshasbeenretainedbythesellermerelytosecure
performancebythebuyerofhisobligationsunderthecontract,thegoodsareatthebuyer'sriskfrom
thetimeofsuchdelivery;
(2)Whereactualdeliveryhasbeendelayedthroughthefaultofeitherthebuyerorsellerthegoodsare
attheriskofthepartyinfault.(n)

Art.1505.SubjecttotheprovisionsofthisTitle,wheregoodsaresoldbyapersonwhoisnottheowner
thereof,andwhodoesnotsellthemunderauthorityorwiththeconsentoftheowner,thebuyer
acquiresnobettertitletothegoodsthanthesellerhad,unlesstheownerofthegoodsisbyhisconduct
precludedfromdenyingtheseller'sauthoritytosell.
NothinginthisTitle,however,shallaffect:

(1)Theprovisionsofanyfactors'act,recordinglaws,oranyotherprovisionoflawenablingtheapparent
ownerofgoodstodisposeofthemasifhewerethetrueownerthereof;
(2)Thevalidityofanycontractofsaleunderstatutorypowerofsaleorundertheorderofacourtof
competentjurisdiction;

(3)Purchasesmadeinamerchant'sstore,orinfairs,ormarkets,inaccordancewiththeCodeof
Commerceandspeciallaws.(n)

Art.1506.Wherethesellerofgoodshasavoidabletitlethereto,buthistitlehasnotbeenavoidedat
thetimeofthesale,thebuyeracquiresagoodtitletothegoods,providedhebuysthemingoodfaith,
forvalue,andwithoutnoticeoftheseller'sdefectoftitle.(n)
Art.1507.Adocumentoftitleinwhichitisstatedthatthegoodsreferredtothereinwillbedeliveredto
thebearer,ortotheorderofanypersonnamedinsuchdocumentisanegotiabledocumentoftitle.(n)

Art.1508.Anegotiabledocumentoftitlemaybenegotiatedbydelivery:

(1)Wherebythetermsofthedocumentthecarrier,warehousemanorotherbaileeissuingthesame
undertakestodeliverthegoodstothebearer;or
(2)Wherebythetermsofthedocumentthecarrier,warehousemanorotherbaileeissuingthesame
undertakestodeliverthegoodstotheorderofaspecifiedperson,andsuchpersonorasubsequent
endorseeofthedocumenthasindorseditinblankortothebearer.

Wherebythetermsofanegotiabledocumentoftitlethegoodsaredeliverabletobearerorwherea
negotiabledocumentoftitlehasbeenindorsedinblankortobearer,anyholdermayindorsethesame
tohimselfortoanyspecifiedperson,andinsuchcasethedocumentshallthereafterbenegotiatedonly
bytheendorsementofsuchendorsee.(n)
Art.1509.Anegotiabledocumentoftitlemaybenegotiatedbytheendorsementofthepersonto
whoseorderthegoodsarebythetermsofthedocumentdeliverable.Suchendorsementmaybein
blank,tobearerortoaspecifiedperson.Ifindorsedtoaspecifiedperson,itmaybeagainnegotiatedby
theendorsementofsuchpersoninblank,tobearerortoanotherspecifiedperson.Subsequent
negotiationsmaybemadeinlikemanner.(n)

Art.1510.Ifadocumentoftitlewhichcontainsanundertakingbyacarrier,warehousemanorother
baileetodeliverthegoodstobearer,toaspecifiedpersonororderofaspecifiedpersonorwhich
containswordsoflikeimport,hasplaceduponitthewords"notnegotiable,""nonnegotiable"orthe
like,suchdocumentmayneverthelessbenegotiatedbytheholderandisanegotiabledocumentoftitle
withinthemeaningofthisTitle.ButnothinginthisTitlecontainedshallbeconstruedaslimitingor
definingtheeffectupontheobligationsofthecarrier,warehouseman,orotherbaileeissuinga
documentoftitleorplacingthereonthewords"notnegotiable,""nonnegotiable,"orthelike.(n)

Art.1511.Adocumentoftitlewhichisnotinsuchformthatitcanbenegotiatedbydeliverymaybe
transferredbytheholderbydeliverytoapurchaserordonee.Anonnegotiabledocumentcannotbe
negotiatedandtheendorsementofsuchadocumentgivesthetransfereenoadditionalright.(n)

Art.1512.Anegotiabledocumentoftitlemaybenegotiated:

(1)Bytheownertherefor;or
(2)Byanypersontowhomthepossessionorcustodyofthedocumenthasbeenentrustedbythe
owner,if,bythetermsofthedocumentthebaileeissuingthedocumentundertakestodeliverthe
goodstotheorderofthepersontowhomthepossessionorcustodyofthedocumenthasbeen
entrusted,orifatthetimeofsuchentrustingthedocumentisinsuchformthatitmaybenegotiatedby
delivery.(n)

Art.1513.Apersontowhomanegotiabledocumentoftitlehasbeendulynegotiatedacquiresthereby:
(1)Suchtitletothegoodsasthepersonnegotiatingthedocumenttohimhadorhadabilitytoconveyto
apurchaseringoodfaithforvalueandalsosuchtitletothegoodsasthepersontowhoseorderthe
goodsweretobedeliveredbythetermsofthedocumenthadorhadabilitytoconveytoapurchaserin
goodfaithforvalue;and
(2)Thedirectobligationofthebaileeissuingthedocumenttoholdpossessionofthegoodsforhim
accordingtothetermsofthedocumentasfullyasifsuchbaileehadcontracteddirectlywithhim.(n)

Art.1514.Apersontowhomadocumentoftitlehasbeentransferred,butnotnegotiated,acquires
thereby,asagainstthetransferor,thetitletothegoods,subjecttothetermsofanyagreementwiththe
transferor.
Ifthedocumentisnonnegotiable,suchpersonalsoacquirestherighttonotifythebaileewhoissued
thedocumentofthetransferthereof,andtherebytoacquirethedirectobligationofsuchbaileetohold
possessionofthegoodsforhimaccordingtothetermsofthedocument.

Priortothenotificationtosuchbaileebythetransferorortransfereeofanonnegotiabledocumentof
title,thetitleofthetransfereetothegoodsandtherighttoacquiretheobligationofsuchbaileemaybe
defeatedbythelevyofanattachmentofexecutionuponthegoodsbyacreditorofthetransferor,orby
anotificationtosuchbaileebythetransferororasubsequentpurchaserfromthetransferofa
subsequentsaleofthegoodsbythetransferor.(n)

Art.1515.Whereanegotiabledocumentoftitleistransferredforvaluebydelivery,andthe
endorsementofthetransferorisessentialfornegotiation,thetransfereeacquiresarightagainstthe
transferortocompelhimtoendorsethedocumentunlessacontraryintentionappears.Thenegotiation
shalltakeeffectasofthetimewhentheendorsementisactuallymade.(n)

Art.1516.Apersonwhoforvaluenegotiatesortransfersadocumentoftitlebyendorsementor
delivery,includingonewhoassignsforvalueaclaimsecuredbyadocumentoftitleunlessacontrary
intentionappears,warrants:

(1)Thatthedocumentisgenuine;
(2)Thathehasalegalrighttonegotiateortransferit;

(3)Thathehasknowledgeofnofactwhichwouldimpairthevalidityorworthofthedocument;and

(4)Thathehasarighttotransferthetitletothegoodsandthatthegoodsaremerchantableorfitfora
particularpurpose,wheneversuchwarrantieswouldhavebeenimpliedifthecontractoftheparties
hadbeentotransferwithoutadocumentoftitlethegoodsrepresentedthereby.(n)

Art.1517.Theendorsementofadocumentoftitleshallnotmaketheendorserliableforanyfailureon
thepartofthebaileewhoissuedthedocumentorpreviousendorsersthereoftofulfilltheirrespective
obligations.(n)
Art.1518.Thevalidityofthenegotiationofanegotiabledocumentoftitleisnotimpairedbythefact
thatthenegotiationwasabreachofdutyonthepartofthepersonmakingthenegotiation,orbythe
factthattheownerofthedocumentwasdeprivedofthepossessionofthesamebyloss,theft,fraud,
accident,mistake,duress,orconversion,ifthepersontowhomthedocumentwasnegotiatedora
persontowhomthedocumentwassubsequentlynegotiatedpaidvaluethereforingoodfaithwithout
noticeofthebreachofduty,orloss,theft,fraud,accident,mistake,duressorconversion.(n)

Art.1519.Ifgoodsaredeliveredtoabaileebytheownerorbyapersonwhoseactinconveyingthetitle
tothemtoapurchaseringoodfaithforvaluewouldbindtheownerandanegotiabledocumentoftitle
isissuedforthemtheycannotthereafter,whileinpossessionofsuchbailee,beattachedby
garnishmentorotherwiseorbeleviedunderanexecutionunlessthedocumentbefirstsurrenderedto
thebaileeoritsnegotiationenjoined.Thebaileeshallinnocasebecompelledtodeliveruptheactual
possessionofthegoodsuntilthedocumentissurrenderedtohimorimpoundedbythecourt.(n)

Art.1520.Acreditorwhosedebtoristheownerofanegotiabledocumentoftitleshallbeentitledto
suchaidfromcourtsofappropriatejurisdictionbyinjunctionandotherwiseinattachingsuchdocument
orinsatisfyingtheclaimbymeansthereofasisallowedatlaworinequityinregardtopropertywhich
cannotreadilybeattachedorlevieduponbyordinarylegalprocess.(n)

Art.1521.Whetheritisforthebuyertotakepossessionofthegoodsorofthesellertosendthemto
thebuyerisaquestiondependingineachcaseonthecontract,expressorimplied,betweentheparties.
Apartfromanysuchcontract,expressorimplied,orusageoftradetothecontrary,theplaceofdelivery
istheseller'splaceofbusinessifhehasone,andifnothisresidence;butincaseofacontractofsaleof
specificgoods,whichtotheknowledgeofthepartieswhenthecontractorthesalewasmadewerein
someotherplace,thenthatplaceistheplaceofdelivery.

Wherebyacontractofsalethesellerisboundtosendthegoodstothebuyer,butnotimeforsending
themisfixed,thesellerisboundtosendthemwithinareasonabletime.

Wherethegoodsatthetimeofsaleareinthepossessionofathirdperson,thesellerhasnotfulfilledhis
obligationtodelivertothebuyerunlessanduntilsuchthirdpersonacknowledgestothebuyerthathe
holdsthegoodsonthebuyer'sbehalf.

Demandortenderofdeliverymaybetreatedasineffectualunlessmadeatareasonablehour.Whatisa
reasonablehourisaquestionoffact.

Unlessotherwiseagreed,theexpensesofandincidentaltoputtingthegoodsintoadeliverablestate
mustbebornebytheseller.(n)

Art.1522.Wherethesellerdeliverstothebuyeraquantityofgoodslessthanhecontractedtosell,the
buyermayrejectthem,butifthebuyeracceptsorretainsthegoodssodelivered,knowingthatthe
sellerisnotgoingtoperformthecontractinfull,hemustpayforthematthecontractrate.If,however,
thebuyerhasusedordisposedofthegoodsdeliveredbeforeheknowsthatthesellerisnotgoingto
performhiscontractinfull,thebuyershallnotbeliableformorethanthefairvaluetohimofthegoods
soreceived.

Wherethesellerdeliverstothebuyeraquantityofgoodslargerthanhecontractedtosell,thebuyer
mayacceptthegoodsincludedinthecontractandrejecttherest.Ifthebuyeracceptsthewholeofthe
goodssodeliveredhemustpayforthematthecontractrate.

Wherethesellerdeliverstothebuyerthegoodshecontractedtosellmixedwithgoodsofadifferent
descriptionnotincludedinthecontract,thebuyermayacceptthegoodswhichareinaccordancewith
thecontractandrejecttherest.

Intheprecedingtwoparagraphs,ifthesubjectmatterisindivisible,thebuyermayrejectthewholeof
thegoods.

Theprovisionsofthisarticlearesubjecttoanyusageoftrade,specialagreement,orcourseofdealing
betweentheparties.(n)

Art.1523.Where,inpursuanceofacontractofsale,thesellerisauthorizedorrequiredtosendthe
goodstothebuyer,deliveryofthegoodstoacarrier,whethernamedbythebuyerornot,forthe
purposeoftransmissiontothebuyerisdeemedtobeadeliveryofthegoodstothebuyer,exceptinthe
caseprovidedforinArticle1503,first,secondandthirdparagraphs,orunlessacontraryintentappears.

Unlessotherwiseauthorizedbythebuyer,thesellermustmakesuchcontractwiththecarrieronbehalf
ofthebuyerasmaybereasonable,havingregardtothenatureofthegoodsandtheother
circumstancesofthecase.Iftheselleromitsotodo,andthegoodsarelostordamagedincourseof
transit,thebuyermaydeclinetotreatthedeliverytothecarrierasadeliverytohimself,ormayhold
thesellerresponsibleindamages.

Unlessotherwiseagreed,wheregoodsaresentbythesellertothebuyerundercircumstancesinwhich
thesellerknowsoroughttoknowthatitisusualtoinsure,thesellermustgivesuchnoticetothebuyer
asmayenablehimtoinsurethemduringtheirtransit,and,ifthesellerfailstodoso,thegoodsshallbe
deemedtobeathisriskduringsuchtransit.(n)

Art.1524.Thevendorshallnotbeboundtodeliverthethingsold,ifthevendeehasnotpaidhimthe
price,orifnoperiodforthepaymenthasbeenfixedinthecontract.(1466)

Art.1525.ThesellerofgoodsisdeemedtobeanunpaidsellerwithinthemeaningofthisTitle:

(1)Whenthewholeofthepricehasnotbeenpaidortendered;
(2)Whenabillofexchangeorothernegotiableinstrumenthasbeenreceivedasconditionalpayment,
andtheconditiononwhichitwasreceivedhasbeenbrokenbyreasonofthedishonorofthe
instrument,theinsolvencyofthebuyer,orotherwise.

InArticles1525to1535theterm"seller"includesanagentofthesellertowhomthebillofladinghas
beenindorsed,oraconsignororagentwhohashimselfpaid,orisdirectlyresponsiblefortheprice,or
anyotherpersonwhoisinthepositionofaseller.(n)
Art.1526.SubjecttotheprovisionsofthisTitle,notwithstandingthattheownershipinthegoodsmay
havepassedtothebuyer,theunpaidsellerofgoods,assuch,has:

(1)Alienonthegoodsorrighttoretainthemforthepricewhileheisinpossessionofthem;
(2)Incaseoftheinsolvencyofthebuyer,arightofstoppingthegoodsintransituafterhehasparted
withthepossessionofthem;

(3)ArightofresaleaslimitedbythisTitle;

(4)ArighttorescindthesaleaslikewiselimitedbythisTitle.

Wheretheownershipinthegoodshasnotpassedtothebuyer,theunpaidsellerhas,inadditiontohis
otherremediesarightofwithholdingdeliverysimilartoandcoextensivewithhisrightsoflienand
stoppageintransituwheretheownershiphaspassedtothebuyer.(n)
Art.1527.SubjecttotheprovisionsofthisTitle,theunpaidsellerofgoodswhoisinpossessionofthem
isentitledtoretainpossessionofthemuntilpaymentortenderofthepriceinthefollowingcases,
namely:

(1)Wherethegoodshavebeensoldwithoutanystipulationastocredit;
(2)Wherethegoodshavebeensoldoncredit,butthetermofcredithasexpired;

(3)Wherethebuyerbecomesinsolvent.

Thesellermayexercisehisrightofliennotwithstandingthatheisinpossessionofthegoodsasagentor
baileeforthebuyer.(n)
Art.1528.Whereanunpaidsellerhasmadepartdeliveryofthegoods,hemayexercisehisrightoflien
ontheremainder,unlesssuchpartdeliveryhasbeenmadeundersuchcircumstancesastoshowan
intenttowaivethelienorrightofretention.(n)

Art.1529.Theunpaidsellerofgoodsloseshislienthereon:

(1)Whenhedeliversthegoodstoacarrierorotherbaileeforthepurposeoftransmissiontothebuyer
withoutreservingtheownershipinthegoodsortherighttothepossessionthereof;
(2)Whenthebuyerorhisagentlawfullyobtainspossessionofthegoods;

(3)Bywaiverthereof.

Theunpaidsellerofgoods,havingalienthereon,doesnotlosehislienbyreasononlythathehas
obtainedjudgmentordecreeforthepriceofthegoods.(n)
Art.1530.SubjecttotheprovisionsofthisTitle,whenthebuyerofgoodsisorbecomesinsolvent,the
unpaidsellerwhohaspartedwiththepossessionofthegoodshastherightofstoppingthemintransitu,
thatistosay,hemayresumepossessionofthegoodsatanytimewhiletheyareintransit,andhewill
thenbecomeentitledtothesamerightsinregardtothegoodsashewouldhavehadifhehadnever
partedwiththepossession.(n)

Art.1531.Goodsareintransitwithinthemeaningoftheprecedingarticle:

(1)Fromthetimewhentheyaredeliveredtoacarrierbyland,water,orair,orotherbaileeforthe
purposeoftransmissiontothebuyer,untilthebuyer,orhisagentinthatbehalf,takesdeliveryofthem
fromsuchcarrierorotherbailee;
(2)Ifthegoodsarerejectedbythebuyer,andthecarrierorotherbaileecontinuesinpossessionof
them,evenifthesellerhasrefusedtoreceivethemback.

Goodsarenolongerintransitwithinthemeaningoftheprecedingarticle:
(1)Ifthebuyer,orhisagentinthatbehalf,obtainsdeliveryofthegoodsbeforetheirarrivalatthe
appointeddestination;
(2)If,afterthearrivalofthegoodsattheappointeddestination,thecarrierorotherbailee
acknowledgestothebuyerorhisagentthatheholdsthegoodsonhisbehalfandcontinuesin
possessionofthemasbaileeforthebuyerorhisagent;anditisimmaterialthatfurtherdestinationfor
thegoodsmayhavebeenindicatedbythebuyer;

(3)Ifthecarrierorotherbaileewrongfullyrefusestodeliverthegoodstothebuyerorhisagentinthat
behalf.

Ifthegoodsaredeliveredtoaship,freighttrain,truck,orairplanecharteredbythebuyer,itisa
questiondependingonthecircumstancesoftheparticularcase,whethertheyareinthepossessionof
thecarrierassuchorasagentofthebuyer.
Ifpartdeliveryofthegoodshasbeenmadetothebuyer,orhisagentinthatbehalf,theremainderof
thegoodsmaybestoppedintransitu,unlesssuchpartdeliveryhasbeenundersuchcircumstancesasto
showanagreementwiththebuyertogiveuppossessionofthewholeofthegoods.(n)

Art.1532.Theunpaidsellermayexercisehisrightofstoppageintransitueitherbyobtainingactual
possessionofthegoodsorbygivingnoticeofhisclaimtothecarrierorotherbaileeinwhosepossession
thegoodsare.Suchnoticemaybegiveneithertothepersoninactualpossessionofthegoodsortohis
principal.Inthelattercasethenotice,tobeeffectual,mustbegivenatsuchtimeandundersuch
circumstancesthattheprincipal,bytheexerciseofreasonablediligence,maypreventadeliverytothe
buyer.

Whennoticeofstoppageintransituisgivenbythesellertothecarrier,orotherbaileeinpossessionof
thegoods,hemustredeliverthegoodsto,oraccordingtothedirectionsof,theseller.Theexpensesof
suchdeliverymustbebornebytheseller.If,however,anegotiabledocumentoftitlerepresentingthe
goodshasbeenissuedbythecarrierorotherbailee,heshallnotobligedtodeliverorjustifiedin
deliveringthegoodstothesellerunlesssuchdocumentisfirstsurrenderedforcancellation.(n)

Art.1533.Wherethegoodsareofperishablenature,orwherethesellerexpresslyreservestherightof
resaleincasethebuyershouldmakedefault,orwherethebuyerhasbeenindefaultinthepaymentof
thepriceforanunreasonabletime,anunpaidsellerhavingarightoflienorhavingstoppedthegoodsin
transitumayresellthegoods.Heshallnotthereafterbeliabletotheoriginalbuyeruponthecontractof
saleorforanyprofitmadebysuchresale,butmayrecoverfromthebuyerdamagesforanyloss
occasionedbythebreachofthecontractofsale.

Wherearesaleismade,asauthorizedinthisarticle,thebuyeracquiresagoodtitleasagainstthe
originalbuyer.

Itisnotessentialtothevalidityofresalethatnoticeofanintentiontoresellthegoodsbegivenbythe
sellertotheoriginalbuyer.Butwheretherighttoresellisnotbasedontheperishablenatureofthe
goodsoruponanexpressprovisionofthecontractofsale,thegivingorfailuretogivesuchnoticeshall
berelevantinanyissueinvolvingthequestionwhetherthebuyerhadbeenindefaultforan
unreasonabletimebeforetheresalewasmade.

Itisnotessentialtothevalidityofaresalethatnoticeofthetimeandplaceofsuchresaleshouldbe
givenbythesellertotheoriginalbuyer.

Thesellerisboundtoexercisereasonablecareandjudgmentinmakingaresale,andsubjecttothis
requirementmaymakearesaleeitherbypublicorprivatesale.Hecannot,however,directlyor
indirectlybuythegoods.(n)

Art.1534.Anunpaidsellerhavingtherightoflienorhavingstoppedthegoodsintransitu,mayrescind
thetransferoftitleandresumetheownershipinthegoods,whereheexpresslyreservedtherighttodo
soincasethebuyershouldmakedefault,orwherethebuyerhasbeenindefaultinthepaymentofthe
priceforanunreasonabletime.Thesellershallnotthereafterbeliabletothebuyeruponthecontractof
sale,butmayrecoverfromthebuyerdamagesforanylossoccasionedbythebreachofthecontract.

Thetransferoftitleshallnotbeheldtohavebeenrescindedbyanunpaidselleruntilhehasmanifested
bynoticetothebuyerorbysomeotherovertactanintentiontorescind.Itisnotnecessarythatsuch
overtactshouldbecommunicatedtothebuyer,butthegivingorfailuretogivenoticetothebuyerof
theintentiontorescindshallberelevantinanyissueinvolvingthequestionwhetherthebuyerhadbeen
indefaultforanunreasonabletimebeforetherightofrescissionwasasserted.(n)

Art.1535.SubjecttotheprovisionsofthisTitle,theunpaidseller'srightoflienorstoppageintransituis
notaffectedbyanysale,orotherdispositionofthegoodswhichthebuyermayhavemade,unlessthe
sellerhasassentedthereto.

If,however,anegotiabledocumentoftitlehasbeenissuedforgoods,noseller'slienorrightof
stoppageintransitushalldefeattherightofanypurchaserforvalueingoodfaithtowhomsuch
documenthasbeennegotiated,whethersuchnegotiationbepriororsubsequenttothenotificationto
thecarrier,orotherbaileewhoissuedsuchdocument,oftheseller'sclaimtoalienorrightofstoppage
intransitu.(n)

Art.1536.Thevendorisnotboundtodeliverthethingsoldincasethevendeeshouldlosetherightto
makeuseofthetermsasprovidedinArticle1198.(1467a)

Art.1537.Thevendorisboundtodeliverthethingsoldanditsaccessionsandaccessoriesinthe
conditioninwhichtheywereupontheperfectionofthecontract.

Allthefruitsshallpertaintothevendeefromthedayonwhichthecontractwasperfected.(1468a)

Art.1538.Incaseofloss,deteriorationorimprovementofthethingbeforeitsdelivery,therulesin
Article1189shallbeobserved,thevendorbeingconsideredthedebtor.(n)

Art.1539.Theobligationtodeliverthethingsoldincludesthatofplacinginthecontrolofthevendeeall
thatismentionedinthecontract,inconformitywiththefollowingrules:

Ifthesaleofrealestateshouldbemadewithastatementofitsarea,attherateofacertainpricefora
unitofmeasureornumber,thevendorshallbeobligedtodelivertothevendee,ifthelattershould
demandit,allthatmayhavebeenstatedinthecontract;but,shouldthisbenotpossible,thevendee
maychoosebetweenaproportionalreductionofthepriceandtherescissionofthecontract,provided
that,inthelattercase,thelackintheareabenotlessthanonetenthofthatstated.

Thesameshallbedone,evenwhentheareaisthesame,ifanypartoftheimmovableisnotofthe
qualityspecifiedinthecontract.

Therescission,inthiscase,shallonlytakeplaceatthewillofthevendee,whentheinferiorvalueofthe
thingsoldexceedsonetenthofthepriceagreedupon.

Nevertheless,ifthevendeewouldnothaveboughttheimmovablehadheknownofitssmallerareaof
inferiorquality,hemayrescindthesale.(1469a)

Art.1540.If,inthecaseoftheprecedingarticle,thereisagreaterareaornumberintheimmovable
thanthatstatedinthecontract,thevendeemayaccepttheareaincludedinthecontractandrejectthe
rest.Ifheacceptsthewholearea,hemustpayforthesameatthecontractrate.(1470a)

Art.1541.Theprovisionsofthetwoprecedingarticlesshallapplytojudicialsales.(n)

Art.1542.Inthesaleofrealestate,madeforalumpsumandnotattherateofacertainsumforaunit
ofmeasureornumber,thereshallbenoincreaseordecreaseoftheprice,althoughtherebeagreater
orlessareaornumberthanthatstatedinthecontract.

Thesameruleshallbeappliedwhentwoormoreimmovablesassoldforasingleprice;butif,besides
mentioningtheboundaries,whichisindispensableineveryconveyanceofrealestate,itsareaor
numbershouldbedesignatedinthecontract,thevendorshallbeboundtodeliverallthatisincluded
withinsaidboundaries,evenwhenitexceedstheareaornumberspecifiedinthecontract;and,should
henotbeabletodoso,heshallsufferareductionintheprice,inproportiontowhatislackinginthe
areaornumber,unlessthecontractisrescindedbecausethevendeedoesnotaccedetothefailureto
deliverwhathasbeenstipulated.(1471)

Art.1543.TheactionsarisingfromArticles1539and1542shallprescribeinsixmonths,countedfrom
thedayofdelivery.(1472a)

Art.1544.Ifthesamethingshouldhavebeensoldtodifferentvendees,theownershipshallbe
transferredtothepersonwhomayhavefirsttakenpossessionthereofingoodfaith,ifitshouldbe
movableproperty.

Shoulditbeimmovableproperty,theownershipshallbelongtothepersonacquiringitwhoingood
faithfirstrecordeditintheRegistryofProperty.

Shouldtherebenoinscription,theownershipshallpertaintothepersonwhoingoodfaithwasfirstin
thepossession;and,intheabsencethereof,tothepersonwhopresentstheoldesttitle,providedthere
isgoodfaith.(1473)

SECTION3.ConditionsandWarranties

Art.1545.Wheretheobligationofeitherpartytoacontractofsaleissubjecttoanyconditionwhichis
notperformed,suchpartymayrefusetoproceedwiththecontractorhemaywaiveperformanceofthe
condition.Iftheotherpartyhaspromisedthattheconditionshouldhappenorbeperformed,suchfirst
mentionedpartymayalsotreatthenonperformanceoftheconditionasabreachofwarranty.
Wheretheownershipinthethinghasnotpassed,thebuyermaytreatthefulfillmentbythesellerofhis
obligationtodeliverthesameasdescribedandaswarrantedexpresslyorbyimplicationinthecontract
ofsaleasaconditionoftheobligationofthebuyertoperformhispromisetoacceptandpayforthe
thing.(n)

Art.1546.Anyaffirmationoffactoranypromisebythesellerrelatingtothethingisanexpress
warrantyifthenaturaltendencyofsuchaffirmationorpromiseistoinducethebuyertopurchasethe
same,andifthebuyerpurchasethethingrelyingthereon.Noaffirmationofthevalueofthething,nor
anystatementpurportingtobeastatementoftheseller'sopiniononly,shallbeconstruedasa
warranty,unlessthesellermadesuchaffirmationorstatementasanexpertanditwasrelieduponby
thebuyer.(n)

Art.1547.Inacontractofsale,unlessacontraryintentionappears,thereis:

(1)Animpliedwarrantyonthepartofthesellerthathehasarighttosellthethingatthetimewhenthe
ownershipistopass,andthatthebuyershallfromthattimehaveandenjoythelegalandpeaceful
possessionofthething;
(2)Animpliedwarrantythatthethingshallbefreefromanyhiddenfaultsordefects,oranychargeor
encumbrancenotdeclaredorknowntothebuyer.

ThisArticleshallnot,however,beheldtorenderliableasheriff,auctioneer,mortgagee,pledgee,or
otherpersonprofessingtosellbyvirtueofauthorityinfactorlaw,forthesaleofathinginwhichathird
personhasalegalorequitableinterest.(n)

SUBSECTION1.WarrantyinCaseofEviction

Art.1548.Evictionshalltakeplacewheneverbyafinaljudgmentbasedonarightpriortothesaleoran
actimputabletothevendor,thevendeeisdeprivedofthewholeorofapartofthethingpurchased.
Thevendorshallanswerfortheevictioneventhoughnothinghasbeensaidinthecontractonthe
subject.

Thecontractingparties,however,mayincrease,diminish,orsuppressthislegalobligationofthevendor.
(1475a)

Art.1549.Thevendeeneednotappealfromthedecisioninorderthatthevendormaybecomeliablefor
eviction.(n)

Art.1550.Whenadversepossessionhadbeencommencedbeforethesalebuttheprescriptiveperiodis
completedafterthetransfer,thevendorshallnotbeliableforeviction.(n)

Art.1551.Ifthepropertyissoldfornonpaymentoftaxesdueandnotmadeknowntothevendee
beforethesale,thevendorisliableforeviction.(n)

Art.1552.Thejudgmentdebtorisalsoresponsibleforevictioninjudicialsales,unlessitisotherwise
decreedinthejudgment.(n)

Art.1553.Anystipulationexemptingthevendorfromtheobligationtoanswerforevictionshallbevoid,
ifheactedinbadfaith.(1476)

Art.1554.Ifthevendeehasrenouncedtherighttowarrantyincaseofeviction,andevictionshouldtake
place,thevendorshallonlypaythevaluewhichthethingsoldhadatthetimeoftheeviction.Should
thevendeehavemadethewaiverwithknowledgeoftherisksofevictionandassumedits
consequences,thevendorshallnotbeliable.(1477)

Art.1555.Whenthewarrantyhasbeenagreeduponornothinghasbeenstipulatedonthispoint,in
caseevictionoccurs,thevendeeshallhavetherighttodemandofthevendor:

(1)Thereturnofthevaluewhichthethingsoldhadatthetimeoftheeviction,beitgreaterorlessthan
thepriceofthesale;
(2)Theincomeorfruits,ifhehasbeenorderedtodeliverthemtothepartywhowonthesuitagainst
him;

(3)Thecostsofthesuitwhichcausedtheeviction,and,inapropercase,thoseofthesuitbrought
againstthevendorforthewarranty;

(4)Theexpensesofthecontract,ifthevendeehaspaidthem;

(5)Thedamagesandinterests,andornamentalexpenses,ifthesalewasmadeinbadfaith.(1478)

Art.1556.Shouldthevendeelose,byreasonoftheeviction,apartofthethingsoldofsuchimportance,
inrelationtothewhole,thathewouldnothaveboughtitwithoutsaidpart,hemaydemandthe
rescissionofthecontract;butwiththeobligationtoreturnthethingwithoutotherencumbrancesthat
thosewhichithadwhenheacquiredit.
Hemayexercisethisrightofaction,insteadofenforcingthevendor'sliabilityforeviction.

Thesameruleshallbeobservedwhentwoormorethingshavebeenjointlysoldforalumpsum,orfora
separatepriceforeachofthem,ifitshouldclearlyappearthatthevendeewouldnothavepurchased
onewithouttheother.(1479a)

Art.1557.Thewarrantycannotbeenforceduntilafinaljudgmenthasbeenrendered,wherebythe
vendeelosesthethingacquiredorapartthereof.(1480)

Art.1558.Thevendorshallnotbeobligedtomakegoodtheproperwarranty,unlessheissummonedin
thesuitforevictionattheinstanceofthevendee.(1481a)

Art.1559.Thedefendantvendeeshallask,withinthetimefixedintheRulesofCourtforansweringthe
complaint,thatthevendorbemadeacodefendant.(1482a)

Art.1560.Iftheimmovablesoldshouldbeencumberedwithanynonapparentburdenorservitude,not
mentionedintheagreement,ofsuchanaturethatitmustbepresumedthatthevendeewouldnothave
acquiredithadhebeenawarethereof,hemayaskfortherescissionofthecontract,unlessheshould
prefertheappropriateindemnity.Neitherrightcanbeexercisedifthenonapparentburdenor
servitudeisrecordedintheRegistryofProperty,unlessthereisanexpresswarrantythatthethingis
freefromallburdensandencumbrances.

Withinoneyear,tobecomputedfromtheexecutionofthedeed,thevendeemaybringtheactionfor
rescission,orsuefordamages.

Oneyearhavingelapsed,hemayonlybringanactionfordamageswithinanequalperiod,tobecounted
fromthedateonwhichhediscoveredtheburdenorservitude.(1483a)

SUBSECTION2.WarrantyAgainstHiddenDefects
oforEncumbrancesUpontheThingSold

Art.1561.Thevendorshallberesponsibleforwarrantyagainstthehiddendefectswhichthethingsold
mayhave,shouldtheyrenderitunfitfortheuseforwhichitisintended,orshouldtheydiminishits
fitnessforsuchusetosuchanextentthat,hadthevendeebeenawarethereof,hewouldnothave
acquireditorwouldhavegivenalowerpriceforit;butsaidvendorshallnotbeanswerableforpatent
defectsorthosewhichmaybevisible,orforthosewhicharenotvisibleifthevendeeisanexpertwho,
byreasonofhistradeorprofession,shouldhaveknownthem.(1484a)
Art.1562.Inasaleofgoods,thereisanimpliedwarrantyorconditionastothequalityorfitnessofthe
goods,asfollows:

(1)Wherethebuyer,expresslyorbyimplication,makesknowntothesellertheparticularpurposefor
whichthegoodsareacquired,anditappearsthatthebuyerreliesontheseller'sskillorjudgment
(whetherhebethegrowerormanufacturerornot),thereisanimpliedwarrantythatthegoodsshallbe
reasonablyfitforsuchpurpose;
(2)Wherethegoodsarebroughtbydescriptionfromasellerwhodealsingoodsofthatdescription
(whetherhebethegrowerormanufacturerornot),thereisanimpliedwarrantythatthegoodsshallbe
ofmerchantablequality.(n)

Art.1563.Inthecaseofcontractofsaleofaspecifiedarticleunderitspatentorothertradename,there
isnowarrantyastoitsfitnessforanyparticularpurpose,unlessthereisastipulationtothecontrary.(n)
Art.1564.Animpliedwarrantyorconditionastothequalityorfitnessforaparticularpurposemaybe
annexedbytheusageoftrade.(n)

Art.1565.Inthecaseofacontractofsalebysample,ifthesellerisadealeringoodsofthatkind,there
isanimpliedwarrantythatthegoodsshallbefreefromanydefectrenderingthemunmerchantable
whichwouldnotbeapparentonreasonableexaminationofthesample.(n)

Art.1566.Thevendorisresponsibletothevendeeforanyhiddenfaultsordefectsinthethingsold,
eventhoughhewasnotawarethereof.

Thisprovisionshallnotapplyifthecontraryhasbeenstipulated,andthevendorwasnotawareofthe
hiddenfaultsordefectsinthethingsold.(1485)

Art.1567.InthecasesofArticles1561,1562,1564,1565and1566,thevendeemayelectbetween
withdrawingfromthecontractanddemandingaproportionatereductionoftheprice,withdamagesin
eithercase.(1486a)

Art.1568.Ifthethingsoldshouldbelostinconsequenceofthehiddenfaults,andthevendorwasaware
ofthem,heshallbeartheloss,andshallbeobligedtoreturnthepriceandrefundtheexpensesofthe
contract,withdamages.Ifhewasnotawareofthem,heshallonlyreturnthepriceandinterestthereon,
andreimbursetheexpensesofthecontractwhichthevendeemighthavepaid.(1487a)

Art.1569.Ifthethingsoldhadanyhiddenfaultatthetimeofthesale,andshouldthereafterbelostby
afortuitouseventorthroughthefaultofthevendee,thelattermaydemandofthevendortheprice
whichhepaid,lessthevaluewhichthethinghadwhenitwaslost.

Ifthevendoractedinbadfaith,heshallpaydamagestothevendee.(1488a)

Art.1570.TheprecedingarticlesofthisSubsectionshallbeapplicabletojudicialsales,exceptthatthe
judgmentdebtorshallnotbeliablefordamages.(1489a)

Art.1571.Actionsarisingfromtheprovisionsoftheprecedingtenarticlesshallbebarredaftersix
months,fromthedeliveryofthethingsold.(1490)

Art.1572.Iftwoormoreanimalsaresoldtogether,whetherforalumpsumorforaseparatepricefor
eachofthem,theredhibitorydefectofoneshallonlygiverisetoitsredhibition,andnotthatofthe
others;unlessitshouldappearthatthevendeewouldnothavepurchasedthesoundanimaloranimals
withoutthedefectiveone.

Thelattercaseshallbepresumedwhenateam,yokepair,orsetisbought,evenifaseparatepricehas
beenfixedforeachoneoftheanimalscomposingthesame.(1491)

Art.1573.Theprovisionsoftheprecedingarticlewithrespecttothesaleofanimalsshallinlikemanner
beapplicabletothesaleofotherthings.(1492)

Art.1574.Thereisnowarrantyagainsthiddendefectsofanimalssoldatfairsoratpublicauctions,orof
livestocksoldascondemned.(1493a)

Art.1575.Thesaleofanimalssufferingfromcontagiousdiseasesshallbevoid.

Acontractofsaleofanimalsshallalsobevoidiftheuseorserviceforwhichtheyareacquiredhasbeen
statedinthecontract,andtheyarefoundtobeunfittherefor.(1494a)

Art.1576.Ifthehiddendefectofanimals,evenincaseaprofessionalinspectionhasbeenmade,should
beofsuchanaturethatexpertknowledgeisnotsufficienttodiscoverit,thedefectshallbeconsidered
asredhibitory.

Butiftheveterinarian,throughignoranceorbadfaithshouldfailtodiscoverordiscloseit,heshallbe
liablefordamages.(1495)

Art.1577.Theredhibitoryaction,basedonthefaultsordefectsofanimals,mustbebroughtwithinforty
daysfromthedateoftheirdeliverytothevendee.

Thisactioncanonlybeexercisedwithrespecttofaultsanddefectswhicharedeterminedbylaworby
localcustoms.(1496a)

Art.1578.Iftheanimalshoulddiewithinthreedaysafteritspurchase,thevendorshallbeliableifthe
diseasewhichcausethedeathexistedatthetimeofthecontract.(1497a)

Art.1579.Ifthesaleberescinded,theanimalshallbereturnedintheconditioninwhichitwassoldand
delivered,thevendeebeinganswerableforanyinjuryduetohisnegligence,andnotarisingfromthe
redhibitoryfaultordefect.(1498)

Art.1580.Inthesaleofanimalswithredhibitorydefects,thevendeeshallalsoenjoytheright
mentionedinarticle1567;buthemustmakeusethereofwithinthesameperiodwhichhasbeenfixed
fortheexerciseoftheredhibitoryaction.(1499)

Art.1581.Theformofsaleoflargecattleshallbegovernedbyspeciallaws.(n)

CHAPTER5
OBLIGATIONSOFTHEVENDEE

Art.1582.Thevendeeisboundtoacceptdeliveryandtopaythepriceofthethingsoldatthetimeand
placestipulatedinthecontract.
Ifthetimeandplaceshouldnothavebeenstipulated,thepaymentmustbemadeatthetimeandplace
ofthedeliveryofthethingsold.(1500a)

Art.1583.Unlessotherwiseagreed,thebuyerofgoodsisnotboundtoacceptdeliverythereofby
installments.

Wherethereisacontractofsaleofgoodstobedeliveredbystatedinstallments,whicharetobe
separatelypaidfor,andthesellermakesdefectivedeliveriesinrespectofoneormoreinstalments,or
thebuyerneglectsorrefuseswithoutjustcausetotakedeliveryoforpayforonemoreinstalments,it
dependsineachcaseonthetermsofthecontractandthecircumstancesofthecase,whetherthe
breachofcontractissomaterialastojustifytheinjuredpartyinrefusingtoproceedfurtherandsuing
fordamagesforbreachoftheentirecontract,orwhetherthebreachisseverable,givingrisetoaclaim
forcompensationbutnottoarighttotreatthewholecontractasbroken.(n)

Art.1584.Wheregoodsaredeliveredtothebuyer,whichhehasnotpreviouslyexamined,heisnot
deemedtohaveacceptedthemunlessanduntilhehashadareasonableopportunityofexaminingthem
forthepurposeofascertainingwhethertheyareinconformitywiththecontractifthereisno
stipulationtothecontrary.

Unlessotherwiseagreed,whenthesellertendersdeliveryofgoodstothebuyer,heisbound,on
request,toaffordthebuyerareasonableopportunityofexaminingthegoodsforthepurposeof
ascertainingwhethertheyareinconformitywiththecontract.

Wheregoodsaredeliveredtoacarrierbytheseller,inaccordancewithanorderfromoragreement
withthebuyer,uponthetermsthatthegoodsshallnotbedeliveredbythecarriertothebuyeruntilhe
haspaidtheprice,whethersuchtermsareindicatedbymarkingthegoodswiththewords"collecton
delivery,"orotherwise,thebuyerisnotentitledtoexaminethegoodsbeforethepaymentoftheprice,
intheabsenceofagreementorusageoftradepermittingsuchexamination.(n)

Art.1585.Thebuyerisdeemedtohaveacceptedthegoodswhenheintimatestothesellerthathehas
acceptedthem,orwhenthegoodshavebeendeliveredtohim,andhedoesanyactinrelationtothem
whichisinconsistentwiththeownershipoftheseller,orwhen,afterthelapseofareasonabletime,he
retainsthegoodswithoutintimatingtothesellerthathehasrejectedthem.(n)

Art.1586.Intheabsenceofexpressorimpliedagreementoftheparties,acceptanceofthegoodsbythe
buyershallnotdischargethesellerfromliabilityindamagesorotherlegalremedyforbreachofany
promiseorwarrantyinthecontractofsale.But,if,afteracceptanceofthegoods,thebuyerfailstogive
noticetothesellerofthebreachinanypromiseofwarrantywithinareasonabletimeafterthebuyer
knows,oroughttoknowofsuchbreach,thesellershallnotbeliabletherefor.(n)

Art.1587.Unlessotherwiseagreed,wheregoodsaredeliveredtothebuyer,andherefusestoaccept
them,havingtherightsotodo,heisnotboundtoreturnthemtotheseller,butitissufficientifhe
notifiesthesellerthatherefusestoacceptthem.Ifhevoluntarilyconstituteshimselfadepositary
thereof,heshallbeliableassuch.(n)

Art.1588.Ifthereisnostipulationasspecifiedinthefirstparagraphofarticle1523,whenthebuyer's
refusaltoacceptthegoodsiswithoutjustcause,thetitletheretopassestohimfromthemomentthey
areplacedathisdisposal.(n)

Art.1589.Thevendeeshalloweinterestfortheperiodbetweenthedeliveryofthethingandthe
paymentoftheprice,inthefollowingthreecases:

(1)Shouldithavebeensostipulated;
(2)Shouldthethingsoldanddeliveredproducefruitsorincome;

(3)Shouldhebeindefault,fromthetimeofjudicialorextrajudicialdemandforthepaymentofthe
price.(1501a)

Art.1590.Shouldthevendeebedisturbedinthepossessionorownershipofthethingacquired,or
shouldhehavereasonablegroundstofearsuchdisturbance,byavindicatoryactionoraforeclosureof
mortgage,hemaysuspendthepaymentofthepriceuntilthevendorhascausedthedisturbanceor
dangertocease,unlessthelattergivessecurityforthereturnofthepriceinapropercase,orithas
beenstipulatedthat,notwithstandinganysuchcontingency,thevendeeshallbeboundtomakethe
payment.Amereactoftrespassshallnotauthorizethesuspensionofthepaymentoftheprice.(1502a)
Art.1591.Shouldthevendorhavereasonablegroundstofearthelossofimmovablepropertysoldand
itsprice,hemayimmediatelysuefortherescissionofthesale.

Shouldsuchgroundnotexist,theprovisionsofArticle1191shallbeobserved.(1503)

Art.1592.Inthesaleofimmovableproperty,eventhoughitmayhavebeenstipulatedthatuponfailure
topaythepriceatthetimeagreedupontherescissionofthecontractshallofrighttakeplace,the
vendeemaypay,evenaftertheexpirationoftheperiod,aslongasnodemandforrescissionofthe
contracthasbeenmadeuponhimeitherjudiciallyorbyanotarialact.Afterthedemand,thecourtmay
notgranthimanewterm.(1504a)

Art.1593.Withrespecttomovableproperty,therescissionofthesaleshallofrighttakeplaceinthe
interestofthevendor,ifthevendee,upontheexpirationoftheperiodfixedforthedeliveryofthe
thing,shouldnothaveappearedtoreceiveit,or,havingappeared,heshouldnothavetenderedthe
priceatthesametime,unlessalongerperiodhasbeenstipulatedforitspayment.(1505)

CHAPTER6
ACTIONSFORBREACHOFCONTRACTOFSALEOFGOODS

Art.1594.Actionsforbreachofthecontractofsaleofgoodsshallbegovernedparticularlybythe
provisionsofthisChapter,andastomattersnotspecificallyprovidedforherein,byotherapplicable
provisionsofthisTitle.(n)
Art.1595.Where,underacontractofsale,theownershipofthegoodshaspassedtothebuyerandhe
wrongfullyneglectsorrefusestopayforthegoodsaccordingtothetermsofthecontractofsale,the
sellermaymaintainanactionagainsthimforthepriceofthegoods.

Where,underacontractofsale,thepriceispayableonacertainday,irrespectiveofdeliveryorof
transferoftitleandthebuyerwrongfullyneglectsorrefusestopaysuchprice,thesellermaymaintain
anactionforthepricealthoughtheownershipinthegoodshasnotpassed.Butitshallbeadefenseto
suchanactionthattheselleratanytimebeforethejudgmentinsuchactionhasmanifestedaninability
toperformthecontractofsaleonhispartoranintentionnottoperformit.

Althoughtheownershipinthegoodshasnotpassed,iftheycannotreadilyberesoldforareasonable
price,andiftheprovisionsofarticle1596,fourthparagraph,arenotapplicable,thesellermayofferto
deliverthegoodstothebuyer,and,ifthebuyerrefusestoreceivethem,maynotifythebuyerthatthe
goodsarethereafterheldbythesellerasbaileeforthebuyer.Thereafterthesellermaytreatthegoods
asthebuyer'sandmaymaintainanactionfortheprice.(n)

Art.1596.Wherethebuyerwrongfullyneglectsorrefusestoacceptandpayforthegoods,theseller
maymaintainanactionagainsthimfordamagesfornonacceptance.

Themeasureofdamagesistheestimatedlossdirectlyandnaturallyresultingintheordinarycourseof
eventsfromthebuyer'sbreachofcontract.

Wherethereisanavailablemarketforthegoodsinquestion,themeasureofdamagesis,intheabsence
ofspecialcircumstancesshowingproximatedamageofadifferentamount,thedifferencebetweenthe
contractpriceandthemarketorcurrentpriceatthetimeortimeswhenthegoodsoughttohavebeen
accepted,or,ifnotimewasfixedforacceptance,thenatthetimeoftherefusaltoaccept.

If,whilelabororexpenseofmaterialamountisnecessaryonthepartofthesellertoenablehimtofulfill
hisobligationsunderthecontractofsale,thebuyerrepudiatesthecontractornotifiesthesellerto
proceednofurthertherewith,thebuyershallbeliabletothesellerforlaborperformedorexpenses
madebeforereceivingnoticeofthebuyer'srepudiationorcountermand.Theprofitthesellerwould
havemadeifthecontractorthesalehadbeenfullyperformedshallbeconsideredinawardingthe
damages.(n)

Art.1597.Wherethegoodshavenotbeendeliveredtothebuyer,andthebuyerhasrepudiatedthe
contractofsale,orhasmanifestedhisinabilitytoperformhisobligationsthereunder,orhascommitted
abreachthereof,thesellermaytotallyrescindthecontractofsalebygivingnoticeofhiselectionsoto
dotothebuyer.(n)

Art.1598.Wherethesellerhasbrokenacontracttodeliverspecificorascertainedgoods,acourtmay,
ontheapplicationofthebuyer,directthatthecontractshallbeperformedspecifically,withoutgiving
thesellertheoptionofretainingthegoodsonpaymentofdamages.Thejudgmentordecreemaybe
unconditional,oruponsuchtermsandconditionsastodamages,paymentofthepriceandotherwise,
asthecourtmaydeemjust.(n)

Art.1599.Wherethereisabreachofwarrantybytheseller,thebuyermay,athiselection:

(1)Acceptorkeepthegoodsandsetupagainsttheseller,thebreachofwarrantybywayofrecoupment
indiminutionorextinctionoftheprice;
(2)Acceptorkeepthegoodsandmaintainanactionagainstthesellerfordamagesforthebreachof
warranty;

(3)Refusetoacceptthegoods,andmaintainanactionagainstthesellerfordamagesforthebreachof
warranty;

(4)Rescindthecontractofsaleandrefusetoreceivethegoodsorifthegoodshavealreadybeen
received,returnthemoroffertoreturnthemtothesellerandrecoverthepriceoranypartthereof
whichhasbeenpaid.

Whenthebuyerhasclaimedandbeengrantedaremedyinanyoneoftheseways,nootherremedycan
thereafterbegranted,withoutprejudicetotheprovisionsofthesecondparagraphofArticle1191.

Wherethegoodshavebeendeliveredtothebuyer,hecannotrescindthesaleifheknewofthebreach
ofwarrantywhenheacceptedthegoodswithoutprotest,orifhefailstonotifythesellerwithina
reasonabletimeoftheelectiontorescind,orifhefailstoreturnortooffertoreturnthegoodstothe
sellerinsubstantiallyasgoodconditionastheywereinatthetimetheownershipwastransferredtothe
buyer.Butifdeteriorationorinjuryofthegoodsisduetothebreachorwarranty,suchdeteriorationor
injuryshallnotpreventthebuyerfromreturningorofferingtoreturnthegoodstothesellerand
rescindingthesale.

Wherethebuyerisentitledtorescindthesaleandelectstodoso,heshallceasetobeliableforthe
priceuponreturningorofferingtoreturnthegoods.Ifthepriceoranypartthereofhasalreadybeen
paid,thesellershallbeliabletorepaysomuchthereofashasbeenpaid,concurrentlywiththereturnof
thegoods,orimmediatelyafteranoffertoreturnthegoodsinexchangeforrepaymentoftheprice.

Wherethebuyerisentitledtorescindthesaleandelectstodoso,ifthesellerrefusestoacceptanoffer
ofthebuyertoreturnthegoods,thebuyershallthereafterbedeemedtoholdthegoodsasbaileefor
theseller,butsubjecttoalientosecurepaymentofanyportionofthepricewhichhasbeenpaid,and
withtheremediesfortheenforcementofsuchlienallowedtoanunpaidsellerbyArticle1526.

(5)Inthecaseofbreachofwarrantyofquality,suchloss,intheabsenceofspecialcircumstances
showingproximatedamageofagreateramount,isthedifferencebetweenthevalueofthegoodsatthe
timeofdeliverytothebuyerandthevaluetheywouldhavehadiftheyhadansweredtothewarranty.
(n)

CHAPTER7
EXTINGUISHMENTOFSALE

Art.1600.Salesareextinguishedbythesamecausesasallotherobligations,bythosestatedinthe
precedingarticlesofthisTitle,andbyconventionalorlegalredemption.(1506)

SECTION1.ConventionalRedemption

Art.1601.Conventionalredemptionshalltakeplacewhenthevendorreservestherighttorepurchase
thethingsold,withtheobligationtocomplywiththeprovisionsofArticle1616andotherstipulations
whichmayhavebeenagreedupon.(1507)
Art.1602.Thecontractshallbepresumedtobeanequitablemortgage,inanyofthefollowingcases:

(1)Whenthepriceofasalewithrighttorepurchaseisunusuallyinadequate;
(2)Whenthevendorremainsinpossessionaslesseeorotherwise;

(3)Whenuponoraftertheexpirationoftherighttorepurchaseanotherinstrumentextendingthe
periodofredemptionorgrantinganewperiodisexecuted;

(4)Whenthepurchaserretainsforhimselfapartofthepurchaseprice;

(5)Whenthevendorbindshimselftopaythetaxesonthethingsold;

(6)Inanyothercasewhereitmaybefairlyinferredthattherealintentionofthepartiesisthatthe
transactionshallsecurethepaymentofadebtortheperformanceofanyotherobligation.

Inanyoftheforegoingcases,anymoney,fruits,orotherbenefittobereceivedbythevendeeasrentor
otherwiseshallbeconsideredasinterestwhichshallbesubjecttotheusurylaws.(n)
Art.1603.Incaseofdoubt,acontractpurportingtobeasalewithrighttorepurchaseshallbeconstrued
asanequitablemortgage.(n)

Art.1604.TheprovisionsofArticle1602shallalsoapplytoacontractpurportingtobeanabsolutesale.
(n)

Art.1605.InthecasesreferredtoinArticles1602and1604,theapparentvendormayaskforthe
reformationoftheinstrument.(n)

Art.1606.TherightreferredtoinArticle1601,intheabsenceofanexpressagreement,shalllastfour
yearsfromthedateofthecontract.

Shouldtherebeanagreement,theperiodcannotexceedtenyears.

However,thevendormaystillexercisetherighttorepurchasewithinthirtydaysfromthetimefinal
judgmentwasrenderedinacivilactiononthebasisthatthecontractwasatruesalewithrightto
repurchase.(1508a)

Art.1607.Incaseofrealproperty,theconsolidationofownershipinthevendeebyvirtueofthefailure
ofthevendortocomplywiththeprovisionsofarticle1616shallnotberecordedintheRegistryof
Propertywithoutajudicialorder,afterthevendorhasbeendulyheard.(n)

Art.1608.Thevendormaybringhisactionagainsteverypossessorwhoserightisderivedfromthe
vendee,evenifinthesecondcontractnomentionshouldhavebeenmadeoftherighttorepurchase,
withoutprejudicetotheprovisionsoftheMortgageLawandtheLandRegistrationLawwithrespectto
thirdpersons.(1510)

Art.1609.Thevendeeissubrogatedtothevendor'srightsandactions.(1511)

Art.1610.Thecreditorsofthevendorcannotmakeuseoftherightofredemptionagainstthevendee,
untilaftertheyhaveexhaustedthepropertyofthevendor.(1512)

Art.1611.Inasalewitharighttorepurchase,thevendeeofapartofanundividedimmovablewho
acquiresthewholethereofinthecaseofarticle498,maycompelthevendortoredeemthewhole
property,ifthelatterwishestomakeuseoftherightofredemption.(1513)

Art.1612.Ifseveralpersons,jointlyandinthesamecontract,shouldsellanundividedimmovablewitha
rightofrepurchase,noneofthemmayexercisethisrightformorethanhisrespectiveshare.

Thesameruleshallapplyifthepersonwhosoldanimmovablealonehasleftseveralheirs,inwhichcase
eachofthelattermayonlyredeemthepartwhichhemayhaveacquired.(1514)

Art.1613.Inthecaseoftheprecedingarticle,thevendeemaydemandofallthevendorsorcoheirs
thattheycometoanagreementuponthepurchaseofthewholethingsold;andshouldtheyfailtodo
so,thevendeecannotbecompelledtoconsenttoapartialredemption.(1515)

Art.1614.Eachoneofthecoownersofanundividedimmovablewhomayhavesoldhisshare
separately,mayindependentlyexercisetherightofrepurchaseasregardshisownshare,andthe
vendeecannotcompelhimtoredeemthewholeproperty.(1516)

Art.1615.Ifthevendeeshouldleaveseveralheirs,theactionforredemptioncannotbebroughtagainst
eachofthemexceptforhisownshare,whetherthethingbeundivided,orithasbeenpartitioned
amongthem.

Butiftheinheritancehasbeendivided,andthethingsoldhasbeenawardedtooneoftheheirs,the
actionforredemptionmaybeinstitutedagainsthimforthewhole.(1517)

Art.1616.Thevendorcannotavailhimselfoftherightofrepurchasewithoutreturningtothevendee
thepriceofthesale,andinaddition:

(1)Theexpensesofthecontract,andanyotherlegitimatepaymentsmadebyreasonofthesale;
(2)Thenecessaryandusefulexpensesmadeonthethingsold.(1518)

Art.1617.Ifatthetimeoftheexecutionofthesalethereshouldbeontheland,visibleorgrowing
fruits,thereshallbenoreimbursementfororproratingofthoseexistingatthetimeofredemption,ifno
indemnitywaspaidbythepurchaserwhenthesalewasexecuted.
Shouldtherehavebeennofruitsatthetimeofthesaleandsomeexistatthetimeofredemption,they
shallbeproratedbetweentheredemptionerandthevendee,givingthelatterthepartcorrespondingto
thetimehepossessedthelandinthelastyear,countedfromtheanniversaryofthedateofthesale.
(1519a)

Art.1618.Thevendorwhorecoversthethingsoldshallreceiveitfreefromallchargesormortgages
constitutedbythevendee,butheshallrespecttheleaseswhichthelattermayhaveexecutedingood
faith,andinaccordancewiththecustomoftheplacewherethelandissituated.(1520)

SECTION2.LegalRedemption

Art.1619.Legalredemptionistherighttobesubrogated,uponthesametermsandconditions
stipulatedinthecontract,intheplaceofonewhoacquiresathingbypurchaseordationinpayment,or
byanyothertransactionwherebyownershipistransmittedbyoneroustitle.(1521a)
Art.1620.Acoownerofathingmayexercisetherightofredemptionincasethesharesofalltheother
coownersorofanyofthem,aresoldtoathirdperson.Ifthepriceofthealienationisgrosslyexcessive,
theredemptionershallpayonlyareasonableone.

Shouldtwoormorecoownersdesiretoexercisetherightofredemption,theymayonlydosoin
proportiontothesharetheymayrespectivelyhaveinthethingownedincommon.(1522a)

Art.1621.Theownersofadjoininglandsshallalsohavetherightofredemptionwhenapieceofrural
land,theareaofwhichdoesnotexceedonehectare,isalienated,unlessthegranteedoesnotownany
ruralland.

Thisrightisnotapplicabletoadjacentlandswhichareseparatedbybrooks,drains,ravines,roadsand
otherapparentservitudesforthebenefitofotherestates.

Iftwoormoreadjoiningownersdesiretoexercisetherightofredemptionatthesametime,theowner
oftheadjoininglandofsmallerareashallbepreferred;andshouldbothlandshavethesamearea,the
onewhofirstrequestedtheredemption.(1523a)

Art.1622.Wheneverapieceofurbanlandwhichissosmallandsosituatedthatamajorportionthereof
cannotbeusedforanypracticalpurposewithinareasonabletime,havingbeenboughtmerelyfor
speculation,isabouttoberesold,theownerofanyadjoininglandhasarightofpreemptionata
reasonableprice.

Iftheresalehasbeenperfected,theowneroftheadjoininglandshallhavearightofredemption,also
atareasonableprice.

Whentwoormoreownersofadjoininglandswishtoexercisetherightof

preemptionorredemption,theownerwhoseintendeduseofthelandinquestionappearsbest
justifiedshallbepreferred.(n)

Art.1623.Therightoflegalpreemptionorredemptionshallnotbeexercisedexceptwithinthirtydays
fromthenoticeinwritingbytheprospectivevendor,orbythevendor,asthecasemaybe.Thedeedof
saleshallnotberecordedintheRegistryofProperty,unlessaccompaniedbyanaffidavitofthevendor
thathehasgivenwrittennoticethereoftoallpossibleredemptioners.

Therightofredemptionofcoownersexcludesthatofadjoiningowners.(1524a)

CHAPTER8
ASSIGNMENTOFCREDITSANDOTHERINCORPOREALRIGHTS

Art.1624.Anassignmentofcreditorsandotherincorporealrightsshallbeperfectedinaccordancewith
theprovisionsofArticle1475.(n)
Art.1625.Anassignmentofacredit,rightoractionshallproducenoeffectasagainstthirdperson,
unlessitappearsinapublicinstrument,ortheinstrumentisrecordedintheRegistryofPropertyincase
theassignmentinvolvesrealproperty.(1526)

Art.1626.Thedebtorwho,beforehavingknowledgeoftheassignment,payshiscreditorshallbe
releasedfromtheobligation.(1527)

Art.1627.Theassignmentofacreditincludesalltheaccessoryrights,suchasaguaranty,mortgage,
pledgeorpreference.(1528)

Art.1628.Thevendoringoodfaithshallberesponsiblefortheexistenceandlegalityofthecreditatthe
timeofthesale,unlessitshouldhavebeensoldasdoubtful;butnotforthesolvencyofthedebtor,
unlessithasbeensoexpresslystipulatedorunlesstheinsolvencywaspriortothesaleandofcommon
knowledge.

EveninthesecasesheshallonlybeliableforthepricereceivedandfortheexpensesspecifiedinNo.1
ofArticle1616.

Thevendorinbadfaithshallalwaysbeanswerableforthepaymentofallexpenses,andfordamages.
(1529)

Art.1629.Incasetheassignoringoodfaithshouldhavemadehimselfresponsibleforthesolvencyof
thedebtor,andthecontractingpartiesshouldnothaveagreeduponthedurationoftheliability,itshall
lastforoneyearonly,fromthetimeoftheassignmentiftheperiodhadalreadyexpired.

Ifthecreditshouldbepayablewithinatermorperiodwhichhasnotyetexpired,theliabilityshallcease
oneyearafterthematurity.(1530a)

Art.1630.Onewhosellsaninheritancewithoutenumeratingthethingsofwhichitiscomposed,shall
onlybeanswerableforhischaracterasanheir.(1531)

Art.1631.Onewhosellsforalumpsumthewholeofcertainrights,rents,orproducts,shallcomplyby
answeringforthelegitimacyofthewholeingeneral;butheshallnotbeobligedtowarranteachofthe
variouspartsofwhichitmaybecomposed,exceptinthecaseofevictionfromthewholeorthepartof
greatervalue.(1532a)

Art.1632.Shouldthevendorhaveprofitedbysomeofthefruitsorreceivedanythingfromthe
inheritancesold,heshallpaythevendeethereof,ifthecontraryhasnotbeenstipulated.(1533)

Art.1633.Thevendeeshall,onhispart,reimbursethevendorforallthatthelattermayhavepaidfor
thedebtsofandchargesontheestateandsatisfythecreditshemayhaveagainstthesame,unless
thereisanagreementtothecontrary.(1534)

Art.1634.Whenacreditorotherincorporealrightinlitigationissold,thedebtorshallhavearightto
extinguishitbyreimbursingtheassigneeforthepricethelatterpaidtherefor,thejudicialcostsincurred
byhim,andtheinterestonthepricefromthedayonwhichthesamewaspaid.

Acreditorotherincorporealrightshallbeconsideredinlitigationfromthetimethecomplaint
concerningthesameisanswered.

Thedebtormayexercisehisrightwithinthirtydaysfromthedatetheassigneedemandspaymentfrom
him.(1535)

Art.1635.Fromtheprovisionsoftheprecedingarticleshallbeexceptedtheassignmentsorsalesmade:

(1)Toacoheirorcoowneroftherightassigned;
(2)Toacreditorinpaymentofhiscredit;

(3)Tothepossessorofatenementorpieceoflandwhichissubjecttotherightinlitigationassigned.
(1536)

CHAPTER9
GENERALPROVISIONS

Art.1636.IntheprecedingarticlesinthisTitlegoverningthesaleofgoods,unlessthecontextorsubject
matterotherwiserequires:
(1)"Documentoftitletogoods"includesanybilloflading,dockwarrant,"quedan,"orwarehouse
receiptororderforthedeliveryofgoods,oranyotherdocumentusedintheordinarycourseof
businessinthesaleortransferofgoods,asproofofthepossessionorcontrolofthegoods,or
authorizingorpurportingtoauthorizethepossessorofthedocumenttotransferorreceive,eitherby
endorsementorbydelivery,goodsrepresentedbysuchdocument.
"Goods"includesallchattelspersonalbutnotthingsinactionormoneyoflegaltenderinthe
Philippines.Thetermincludesgrowingfruitsorcrops.

"Order"relatingtodocumentsoftitlemeansanorderbyendorsementonthedocuments.

"Qualityofgoods"includestheirstateorcondition.

"Specificgoods"meansgoodsidentifiedandagreeduponatthetimeacontractofsaleismade.

Anantecedentorpreexistingclaim,whetherformoneyornot,constitutes"value"wheregoodsor
documentsoftitlearetakeneitherinsatisfactionthereoforassecuritytherefor.

(2)ApersonisinsolventwithinthemeaningofthisTitlewhoeitherhasceasedtopayhisdebtsinthe
ordinarycourseofbusinessorcannotpayhisdebtsastheybecomedue,whetherinsolvency
proceedingshavebeencommencedornot.

(3)Goodsareina"deliverablestate"withinthemeaningofthisTitlewhentheyareinsuchastatethat
thebuyerwould,underthecontract,beboundtotakedeliveryofthem.(n)

Art.1637.TheprovisionsofthisTitlearesubjecttotheruleslaiddownbytheMortgageLawandthe
LandRegistrationLawwithregardtoimmovableproperty.(1537a)

TitleVII.BARTEROREXCHANGE

Art.1638.Bythecontractofbarterorexchangeoneofthepartiesbindshimselftogiveonethingin
considerationoftheother'spromisetogiveanotherthing.(1538a)
Art.1639.Ifoneofthecontractingparties,havingreceivedthethingpromisedhiminbarter,should
provethatitdidnotbelongtothepersonwhogaveit,hecannotbecompelledtodeliverthatwhichhe
offeredinexchange,butheshallbeentitledtodamages.(1539a)

Art.1640.Onewholosesbyevictionthethingreceivedinbartermayrecoverthatwhichhegavein
exchangewitharighttodamages,orhemayonlydemandanindemnityfordamages.However,hecan
onlymakeuseoftherighttorecoverthethingwhichhehasdeliveredwhilethesameremainsinthe
possessionoftheotherparty,andwithoutprejudicetotherightsacquiredingoodfaithinthe
meantimebyathirdperson.(1540a)

Art.1641.AstoallmattersnotspecificallyprovidedforinthisTitle,bartershallbegovernedbythe
provisionsoftheprecedingTitlerelatingtosales.(1541a)

TitleVIII.LEASE

CHAPTER1
GENERALPROVISIONS

Art.1642.Thecontractofleasemaybeofthings,orofworkandservice.(1542)
Art.1643.Intheleaseofthings,oneofthepartiesbindshimselftogivetoanothertheenjoymentoruse
ofathingforapricecertain,andforaperiodwhichmaybedefiniteorindefinite.However,noleasefor
morethanninetynineyearsshallbevalid.(1543a)

Art.1644.Intheleaseofworkorservice,oneofthepartiesbindshimselftoexecuteapieceofworkor
torendertotheothersomeserviceforapricecertain,buttherelationofprincipalandagentdoesnot
existbetweenthem.(1544a)

Art.1645.Consumablegoodscannotbethesubjectmatterofacontractoflease,exceptwhentheyare
merelytobeexhibitedorwhentheyareaccessorytoanindustrialestablishment.(1545a)

CHAPTER2
LEASEOFRURALANDURBANLANDS

SECTION1.GeneralProvisions

Art.1646.ThepersonsdisqualifiedtobuyreferredtoinArticles1490and1491,arealsodisqualifiedto
becomelesseesofthethingsmentionedtherein.(n)
Art.1647.IfaleaseistoberecordedintheRegistryofProperty,thefollowingpersonscannotconstitute
thesamewithoutproperauthority:thehusbandwithrespecttothewife'sparaphernalrealestate,the
fatherorguardianastothepropertyoftheminororward,andthemanagerwithoutspecialpower.
(1548a)

Art.1648.EveryleaseofrealestatemayberecordedintheRegistryofProperty.Unlessaleaseis
recorded,itshallnotbebindinguponthirdpersons.(1549a)

Art.1649.Thelesseecannotassigntheleasewithouttheconsentofthelessor,unlessthereisa
stipulationtothecontrary.(n)

Art.1650.Wheninthecontractofleaseofthingsthereisnoexpressprohibition,thelesseemaysublet
thethingleased,inwholeorinpart,withoutprejudicetohisresponsibilityfortheperformanceofthe
contracttowardthelessor.(1550)

Art.1651.Withoutprejudicetohisobligationtowardthesublessor,thesublesseeisboundtothelessor
forallactswhichrefertotheuseandpreservationofthethingleasedinthemannerstipulatedbetween
thelessorandthelessee.(1551)

Art.1652.Thesublesseeissubsidiarilyliabletothelessorforanyrentduefromthelessee.However,
thesublesseeshallnotberesponsiblebeyondtheamountofrentduefromhim,inaccordancewiththe
termsofthesublease,atthetimeoftheextrajudicialdemandbythelessor.

Paymentsofrentinadvancebythesublesseeshallbedeemednottohavebeenmade,sofarasthe
lessor'sclaimisconcerned,unlesssaidpaymentswereeffectedinvirtueofthecustomoftheplace.
(1552a)

Art.1653.Theprovisionsgoverningwarranty,containedintheTitleonSales,shallbeapplicabletothe
contractoflease.

Inthecaseswherethereturnofthepriceisrequired,reductionshallbemadeinproportiontothetime
duringwhichthelesseeenjoyedthething.(1553)

SECTION2.RightsandObligationsoftheLessorandtheLessee
Art.1654.Thelessorisobliged:

(1)Todeliverthethingwhichistheobjectofthecontractinsuchaconditionastorenderitfitforthe
useintended;
(2)Tomakeonthesameduringtheleaseallthenecessaryrepairsinordertokeepitsuitablefortheuse
towhichithasbeendevoted,unlessthereisastipulationtothecontrary;

(3)Tomaintainthelesseeinthepeacefulandadequateenjoymentoftheleasefortheentireduration
ofthecontract.(1554a)

Art.1655.Ifthethingleasedistotallydestroyedbyafortuitousevent,theleaseisextinguished.Ifthe
destructionispartial,thelesseemaychoosebetweenaproportionalreductionoftherentanda
rescissionofthelease.(n)
Art.1656.Thelessorofabusinessorindustrialestablishmentmaycontinueengaginginthesame
businessorindustrytowhichthelesseedevotesthethingleased,unlessthereisastipulationtothe
contrary.(n)

Art.1657.Thelesseeisobliged:

(1)Topaythepriceoftheleaseaccordingtothetermsstipulated;
(2)Tousethethingleasedasadiligentfatherofafamily,devotingittotheusestipulated;andinthe
absenceofstipulation,tothatwhichmaybeinferredfromthenatureofthethingleased,accordingto
thecustomoftheplace;

(3)Topayexpensesforthedeedoflease.(1555)

Art.1658.Thelesseemaysuspendthepaymentoftherentincasethelessorfailstomakethenecessary
repairsortomaintainthelesseeinpeacefulandadequateenjoymentofthepropertyleased.(n)
Art.1659.IfthelessororthelesseeshouldnotcomplywiththeobligationssetforthinArticles1654and
1657,theaggrievedpartymayaskfortherescissionofthecontractandindemnificationfordamages,or
onlythelatter,allowingthecontracttoremaininforce.(1556)

Art.1660.Ifadwellingplaceoranyotherbuildingintendedforhumanhabitationisinsuchacondition
thatitsusebringsimminentandseriousdangertolifeorhealth,thelesseemayterminatetheleaseat
oncebynotifyingthelessor,evenifatthetimethecontractwasperfectedtheformerknewofthe
dangerousconditionorwaivedtherighttorescindtheleaseonaccountofthiscondition.(n)

Art.1661.Thelessorcannotaltertheformofthethingleasedinsuchawayastoimpairtheuseto
whichthethingisdevotedunderthetermsofthelease.(1557a)

Art.1662.Ifduringtheleaseitshouldbecomenecessarytomakesomeurgentrepairsuponthething
leased,whichcannotbedeferreduntiltheterminationofthelease,thelesseeisobligedtotoleratethe
work,althoughitmaybeveryannoyingtohim,andalthoughduringthesame,hemaybedeprivedofa
partofthepremises.

Iftherepairslastmorethanfortydaystherentshallbereducedinproportiontothetimeincludingthe
firstfortydaysandthepartofthepropertyofwhichthelesseehasbeendeprived.

Whentheworkisofsuchanaturethattheportionwhichthelesseeandhisfamilyneedfortheir
dwellingbecomesuninhabitable,hemayrescindthecontractifthemainpurposeoftheleaseisto
provideadwellingplaceforthelessee.(1558a)

Art.1663.Thelesseeisobligedtobringtotheknowledgeoftheproprietor,withintheshortestpossible
time,everyusurpationoruntowardactwhichanythirdpersonmayhavecommittedormaybeopenly
preparingtocarryoutuponthethingleased.

Heisalsoobligedtoadvisetheowner,withthesameurgency,oftheneedofallrepairsincludedinNo.
2ofArticle1654.

Inbothcasesthelesseeshallbeliableforthedamageswhich,throughhisnegligence,maybesuffered
bytheproprietor.

Ifthelessorfailstomakeurgentrepairs,thelessee,inordertoavoidanimminentdanger,mayorder
therepairsatthelessor'scost.(1559a)

Art.1664.Thelessorisnotobligedtoanswerforamereactoftrespasswhichathirdpersonmaycause
ontheuseofthethingleased;butthelesseeshallhaveadirectactionagainsttheintruder.

Thereisamereactoftrespasswhenthethirdpersonclaimsnorightwhatever.(1560a)

Art.1665.Thelesseeshallreturnthethingleased,upontheterminationofthelease,ashereceivedit,
savewhathasbeenlostorimpairedbythelapseoftime,orbyordinarywearandtear,orfroman
inevitablecause.(1561a)

Art.1666.Intheabsenceofastatementconcerningtheconditionofthethingatthetimetheleasewas
constituted,thelawpresumesthatthelesseereceiveditingoodcondition,unlessthereisprooftothe
contrary.(1562)

Art.1667.Thelesseeisresponsibleforthedeteriorationorlossofthethingleased,unlessheproves
thatittookplacewithouthisfault.Thisburdenofproofonthelesseedoesnotapplywhenthe
destructionisduetoearthquake,flood,stormorothernaturalcalamity.(1563a)

Art.1668.Thelesseeisliableforanydeteriorationcausedbymembersofhishouseholdandbyguests
andvisitors.(1564a)

Art.1669.Iftheleasewasmadeforadeterminatetime,itceasesuponthedayfixed,withouttheneed
ofademand.(1565)

Art.1670.Ifattheendofthecontractthelesseeshouldcontinueenjoyingthethingleasedforfifteen
dayswiththeacquiescenceofthelessor,andunlessanoticetothecontrarybyeitherpartyhas
previouslybeengiven,itisunderstoodthatthereisanimpliednewlease,notfortheperiodofthe
originalcontract,butforthetimeestablishedinArticles1682and1687.Theothertermsoftheoriginal
contractshallberevived.(1566a)

Art.1671.Ifthelesseecontinuesenjoyingthethingaftertheexpirationofthecontract,overthelessor's
objection,theformershallbesubjecttotheresponsibilitiesofapossessorinbadfaith.(n)

Art.1672.Incaseofanimpliednewlease,theobligationscontractedbyathirdpersonforthesecurity
oftheprincipalcontractshallceasewithrespecttothenewlease.(1567)

Art.1673.Thelessormayjudiciallyejectthelesseeforanyofthefollowingcauses:

(1)Whentheperiodagreedupon,orthatwhichisfixedforthedurationofleasesunderArticles1682
and1687,hasexpired;
(2)Lackofpaymentofthepricestipulated;

(3)Violationofanyoftheconditionsagreeduponinthecontract;

(4)Whenthelesseedevotesthethingleasedtoanyuseorservicenotstipulatedwhichcausesthe
deteriorationthereof;orifhedoesnotobservetherequirementinNo.2ofArticle1657,asregardsthe
usethereof.

Theejectmentoftenantsofagriculturallandsisgovernedbyspeciallaws.(1569a)
Art.1674.InejectmentcaseswhereanappealistakentheremedygrantedinArticle539,second
paragraph,shallalsoapply,ifthehighercourtissatisfiedthatthelessee'sappealisfrivolousordilatory,
orthatthelessor'sappealisprimafaciemeritorious.Theperiodoftendaysreferredtoinsaidarticle
shallbecountedfromthetimetheappealisperfected.(n)

Art.1675.ExceptincasesstatedinArticle1673,thelesseeshallhavearighttomakeuseoftheperiods
establishedinArticles1682and1687.(1570)

Art.1676.ThepurchaserofapieceoflandwhichisunderaleasethatisnotrecordedintheRegistryof
Propertymayterminatethelease,savewhenthereisastipulationtothecontraryinthecontractof
sale,orwhenthepurchaserknowsoftheexistenceofthelease.

Ifthebuyermakesuseofthisright,thelesseemaydemandthathebeallowedtogatherthefruitsof
theharvestwhichcorrespondstothecurrentagriculturalyearandthatthevendorindemnifyhimfor
damagessuffered.

Ifthesaleisfictitious,forthepurposeofextinguishingthelease,thesupposedvendeecannotmakeuse
oftherightgrantedinthefirstparagraphofthisarticle.Thesaleispresumedtobefictitiousifatthe
timethesupposedvendeedemandstheterminationofthelease,thesaleisnotrecordedintheRegistry
ofProperty.(1571a)

Art.1677.Thepurchaserinasalewiththerightofredemptioncannotmakeuseofthepowertoeject
thelesseeuntiltheendoftheperiodfortheredemption.(1572)

Art.1678.Ifthelesseemakes,ingoodfaith,usefulimprovementswhicharesuitabletotheusefor
whichtheleaseisintended,withoutalteringtheformorsubstanceofthepropertyleased,thelessor
upontheterminationoftheleaseshallpaythelesseeonehalfofthevalueoftheimprovementsatthat
time.Shouldthelessorrefusetoreimbursesaidamount,thelesseemayremovetheimprovements,
eventhoughtheprincipalthingmaysufferdamagethereby.Heshallnot,however,causeanymore
impairmentuponthepropertyleasedthanisnecessary.

Withregardtoornamentalexpenses,thelesseeshallnotbeentitledtoanyreimbursement,buthemay
removetheornamentalobjects,providednodamageiscausedtotheprincipalthing,andthelessor
doesnotchoosetoretainthembypayingtheirvalueatthetimetheleaseisextinguished.(n)

Art.1679.Ifnothinghasbeenstipulatedconcerningtheplaceandthetimeforthepaymentofthelease,
theprovisionsorArticle1251shallbeobservedasregardstheplace;andwithrespecttothetime,the
customoftheplaceshallbefollowed.(1574)

SECTION3.SpecialProvisionsforLeasesofRuralLands

Art.1680.Thelesseeshallhavenorighttoareductionoftherentonaccountofthesterilityoftheland
leased,orbyreasonofthelossoffruitsduetoordinaryfortuitousevents;butheshallhavesuchrightin
caseofthelossofmorethanonehalfofthefruitsthroughextraordinaryandunforeseenfortuitous
events,savealwayswhenthereisaspecificstipulationtothecontrary.
Extraordinaryfortuitouseventsareunderstoodtobe:fire,war,pestilence,unusualflood,locusts,
earthquake,orotherswhichareuncommon,andwhichthecontractingpartiescouldnothave
reasonablyforeseen.(1575)

Art.1681.Neitherdoesthelesseehaveanyrighttoareductionoftherentifthefruitsarelostafterthey
havebeenseparatedfromtheirstalk,rootortrunk.(1576)

Art.1682.Theleaseofapieceofruralland,whenitsdurationhasnotbeenfixed,isunderstoodtohave
beenforallthetimenecessaryforthegatheringofthefruitswhichthewholeestateleasedmayyieldin
oneyear,orwhichitmayyieldonce,althoughtwoormoreyearshavetoelapseforthepurpose.
(1577a)

Art.1683.Theoutgoinglesseeshallallowtheincominglesseeorthelessortheuseofthepremisesand
othermeansnecessaryforthepreparatorylaborforthefollowingyear;and,reciprocally,theincoming
lesseeorthelessorisunderobligationtopermittheoutgoinglesseetodowhatevermaybenecessary
forthegatheringorharvestingandutilizationofthefruits,allinaccordancewiththecustomofthe
place.(1578a)

Art.1684.Landtenancyonsharesshallbegovernedbyspeciallaws,thestipulationsoftheparties,the
provisionsonpartnershipandbythecustomsoftheplace.(1579a)

Art.1685.Thetenantonsharescannotbeejectedexceptincasesspecifiedbylaw.(n)

SECTION4.SpecialProvisionsoftheLeaseofUrbanLands
Art.1686.Indefaultofaspecialstipulation,thecustomoftheplaceshallbeobservedwithregardtothe
kindofrepairsonurbanpropertyforwhichthelessorshallbeliable.Incaseofdoubtitisunderstood
thattherepairsarechargeableagainsthim.(1580a)

Art.1687.Iftheperiodfortheleasehasnotbeenfixed,itisunderstoodtobefromyeartoyear,ifthe
rentagreeduponisannual;frommonthtomonth,ifitismonthly;fromweektoweek,iftherentis
weekly;andfromdaytoday,iftherentistobepaiddaily.However,eventhoughamonthlyrentispaid,
andnoperiodfortheleasehasbeenset,thecourtsmayfixalongertermfortheleaseafterthelessee
hasoccupiedthepremisesforoveroneyear.Iftherentisweekly,thecourtsmaylikewisedeterminea
longerperiodafterthelesseehasbeeninpossessionforoversixmonths.Incaseofdailyrent,the
courtsmayalsofixalongerperiodafterthelesseehasstayedintheplaceforoveronemonth.(1581a)

Art.1688.Whenthelessorofahouse,orpartthereof,usedasadwellingforafamily,orwhenthe
lessorofastore,orindustrialestablishment,alsoleasesthefurniture,theleaseofthelattershallbe
deemedtobeforthedurationoftheleaseofthepremises.(1582)

CHAPTER3
WORKANDLABOR

SECTION1.HouseholdService(n)

Art.1689.Householdserviceshallalwaysbereasonablycompensated.Anystipulationthathousehold
serviceiswithoutcompensationshallbevoid.Suchcompensationshallbeinadditiontothehouse
helper'slodging,food,andmedicalattendance.
Art.1690.Theheadofthefamilyshallfurnish,freeofcharge,tothehousehelper,suitableandsanitary
quartersaswellasadequatefoodandmedicalattendance.

Art.1691.Ifthehousehelperisundertheageofeighteenyears,theheadofthefamilyshallgivean
opportunitytothehousehelperforatleastelementaryeducation.Thecostofsucheducationshallbea
partofthehousehelper'scompensation,unlessthereisastipulationtothecontrary.

Art.1692.Nocontractforhouseholdserviceshalllastformorethantwoyears.However,suchcontract
mayberenewedfromyeartoyear.

Art.1693.Thehousehelper'sclothesshallbesubjecttostipulation.However,anycontractfor
householdserviceshallbevoidiftherebythehousehelpercannotaffordtoacquiresuitableclothing.

Art.1694.Theheadofthefamilyshalltreatthehousehelperinajustandhumanemanner.Innocase
shallphysicalviolencebeuseduponthehousehelper.

Art.1695.Househelpershallnotberequiredtoworkmorethantenhoursaday.Everyhousehelper
shallbeallowedfourdays'vacationeachmonth,withpay.

Art.1696.Incaseofdeathofthehousehelper,theheadofthefamilyshallbearthefuneralexpensesif
thehousehelperhasnorelativesintheplacewheretheheadofthefamilylives,withsufficientmeans
therefor.

Art.1697.Iftheperiodforhouseholdserviceisfixedneithertheheadofthefamilynorthehousehelper
mayterminatethecontractbeforetheexpirationoftheterm,exceptforajustcause.Ifthehouse
helperisunjustlydismissed,heshallbepaidthecompensationalreadyearnedplusthatforfifteendays
bywayofindemnity.Ifthehousehelperleaveswithoutjustifiablereason,heshallforfeitanysalarydue
himandunpaid,fornotexceedingfifteendays.

Art.1698.Ifthedurationofthehouseholdserviceisnotdeterminedeitherbystipulationorbythe
natureoftheservice,theheadofthefamilyorthehousehelpermaygivenoticetoputanendtothe
servicerelation,accordingtothefollowingrules:

(1)Ifthecompensationispaidbytheday,noticemaybegivenonanydaythattheserviceshallendat
thecloseofthefollowingday;
(2)Ifthecompensationispaidbytheweek,noticemaybegiven,atthelatestonthefirstbusinessday
oftheweek,thattheserviceshallbeterminatedattheendoftheseventhdayfromthebeginningof
theweek;

(3)Ifthecompensationispaidbythemonth,noticemaybegiven,atthelatest,onthefifthdayofthe
month,thattheserviceshallceaseattheendofthemonth.

Art.1699.Upontheextinguishmentoftheservicerelation,thehousehelpermaydemandfromthe
headofthefamilyawrittenstatementonthenatureanddurationoftheserviceandtheefficiencyand
conductofthehousehelper.

SECTION2.ContractofLabor(n)

Art.1700.Therelationsbetweencapitalandlaborarenotmerelycontractual.Theyaresoimpressed
withpublicinterestthatlaborcontractsmustyieldtothecommongood.Therefore,suchcontractsare
subjecttothespeciallawsonlaborunions,collectivebargaining,strikesandlockouts,closedshop,
wages,workingconditions,hoursoflaborandsimilarsubjects.
Art.1701.Neithercapitalnorlaborshallactoppressivelyagainsttheother,orimpairtheinterestor
convenienceofthepublic.

Art.1702.Incaseofdoubt,alllaborlegislationandalllaborcontractsshallbeconstruedinfavorofthe
safetyanddecentlivingforthelaborer.

Art.1703.Nocontractwhichpracticallyamountstoinvoluntaryservitude,underanyguisewhatsoever,
shallbevalid.

Art.1704.Incollectivebargaining,thelaborunionormembersoftheboardorcommitteesigningthe
contractshallbeliablefornonfulfillmentthereof.

Art.1705.Thelaborer'swagesshallbepaidinlegalcurrency.

Art.1706.Withholdingofthewages,exceptforadebtdue,shallnotbemadebytheemployer.

Art.1707.Thelaborer'swagesshallbealienonthegoodsmanufacturedortheworkdone.

Art.1708.Thelaborer'swagesshallnotbesubjecttoexecutionorattachment,exceptfordebts
incurredforfood,shelter,clothingandmedicalattendance.

Art.1709.Theemployershallneitherseizenorretainanytoolorotherarticlesbelongingtothelaborer.

Art.1710.DismissaloflaborersshallbesubjecttothesupervisionoftheGovernment,underspecial
laws.

Art.1711.Ownersofenterprisesandotheremployersareobligedtopaycompensationforthedeathof
orinjuriestotheirlaborers,workmen,mechanicsorotheremployees,eventhoughtheeventmayhave
beenpurelyaccidentalorentirelyduetoafortuitouscause,ifthedeathorpersonalinjuryaroseoutof
andinthecourseoftheemployment.Theemployerisalsoliableforcompensationiftheemployee
contractsanyillnessordiseasecausedbysuchemploymentorastheresultofthenatureofthe
employment.Ifthemishapwasduetotheemployee'sownnotoriousnegligence,orvoluntaryact,or
drunkenness,theemployershallnotbeliableforcompensation.Whentheemployee'slackofduecare
contributedtohisdeathorinjury,thecompensationshallbeequitablyreduced.

Art.1712.Ifthedeathorinjuryisduetothenegligenceofafellowworker,thelatterandtheemployer
shallbesolidarilyliableforcompensation.Ifafellowworker'sintentionalmaliciousactistheonlycause
ofthedeathorinjury,theemployershallnotbeanswerable,unlessitshouldbeshownthatthelatter
didnotexerciseduediligenceintheselectionorsupervisionoftheplaintiff'sfellowworker.

SECTION3.ContractforaPieceofWork

Art.1713.Bythecontractforapieceofworkthecontractorbindshimselftoexecuteapieceofworkfor
theemployer,inconsiderationofacertainpriceorcompensation.Thecontractormayeitheremploy
onlyhislabororskill,oralsofurnishthematerial.(1588a)
Art.1714.Ifthecontractoragreestoproducetheworkfrommaterialfurnishedbyhim,heshalldeliver
thethingproducedtotheemployerandtransferdominionoverthething.Thiscontractshallbe
governedbythefollowingarticlesaswellasbythepertinentprovisionsonwarrantyoftitleandagainst
hiddendefectsandthepaymentofpriceinacontractofsale.(n)

Art.1715.Thecontractshallexecutetheworkinsuchamannerthatithasthequalitiesagreedupon
andhasnodefectswhichdestroyorlessenitsvalueorfitnessforitsordinaryorstipulateduse.Should
theworkbenotofsuchquality,theemployermayrequirethatthecontractorremovethedefector
executeanotherwork.Ifthecontractfailsorrefusestocomplywiththisobligation,theemployermay
havethedefectremovedoranotherworkexecuted,atthecontractor'scost.(n)

Art.1716.Anagreementwaivingorlimitingthecontractor'sliabilityforanydefectintheworkisvoidif
thecontractoractedfraudulently.(n)

Art.1717.Ifthecontractorboundhimselftofurnishthematerial,heshallsufferthelossifthework
shouldbedestroyedbeforeitsdelivery,savewhentherehasbeendelayinreceivingit.(1589)

Art.1718.Thecontractorwhohasundertakentoputonlyhisworkorskill,cannotclaimany
compensationiftheworkshouldbedestroyedbeforeitsdelivery,unlesstherehasbeendelayin
receivingit,orifthedestructionwascausedbythepoorqualityofthematerial,providedthisfactwas
communicatedinduetimetotheowner.Ifthematerialislostthroughafortuitousevent,thecontractis
extinguished.(1590a)

Art.1719.Acceptanceoftheworkbytheemployerrelievesthecontractorofliabilityforanydefectin
thework,unless:

(1)Thedefectishiddenandtheemployerisnot,byhisspecialknowledge,expectedtorecognizethe
same;or
(2)Theemployerexpresslyreserveshisrightsagainstthecontractorbyreasonofthedefect.(n)

Art.1720.Thepriceorcompensationshallbepaidatthetimeandplaceofdeliveryofthework,unless
thereisastipulationtothecontrary.Iftheworkistobedeliveredpartially,thepriceorcompensation
foreachparthavingbeenfixed,thesumshallbepaidatthetimeandplaceofdelivery,intheabsenceif
stipulation.(n)
Art.1721.If,intheexecutionofthework,anactoftheemployerisrequired,andheincursindelayor
failstoperformtheact,thecontractorisentitledtoareasonablecompensation.

Theamountofthecompensationiscomputed,ontheonehand,bythedurationofthedelayandthe
amountofthecompensationstipulated,andontheotherhand,bywhatthecontractorhassavedin
expensesbyreasonofthedelayorisabletoearnbyadifferentemploymentofhistimeandindustry.
(n)

Art.1722.Iftheworkcannotbecompletedonaccountofadefectinthematerialfurnishedbythe
employer,orbecauseofordersfromtheemployer,withoutanyfaultonthepartofthecontractor,the
latterhasarighttoanequitablepartofthecompensationproportionallytotheworkdone,and
reimbursementforproperexpensesmade.(n)

Art.1723.Theengineerorarchitectwhodrewuptheplansandspecificationsforabuildingisliablefor
damagesifwithinfifteenyearsfromthecompletionofthestructure,thesameshouldcollapseby
reasonofadefectinthoseplansandspecifications,orduetothedefectsintheground.Thecontractor
islikewiseresponsibleforthedamagesiftheedificefalls,withinthesameperiod,onaccountofdefects
intheconstructionortheuseofmaterialsofinferiorqualityfurnishedbyhim,orduetoanyviolationof
thetermsofthecontract.Iftheengineerorarchitectsupervisestheconstruction,heshallbesolidarily
liablewiththecontractor.

Acceptanceofthebuilding,aftercompletion,doesnotimplywaiverofanyofthecauseofactionby
reasonofanydefectmentionedintheprecedingparagraph.

Theactionmustbebroughtwithintenyearsfollowingthecollapseofthebuilding.(n)

Art.1724.Thecontractorwhoundertakestobuildastructureoranyotherworkforastipulatedprice,in
conformitywithplansandspecificationsagreeduponwiththelandowner,canneitherwithdrawfrom
thecontractnordemandanincreaseinthepriceonaccountofthehighercostoflaborormaterials,
savewhentherehasbeenachangeintheplansandspecifications,provided:

(1)Suchchangehasbeenauthorizedbytheproprietorinwriting;and
(2)Theadditionalpricetobepaidtothecontractorhasbeendeterminedinwritingbybothparties.
(1593a)

Art.1725.Theownermaywithdrawatwillfromtheconstructionofthework,althoughitmayhave
beencommenced,indemnifyingthecontractorforallthelatter'sexpenses,work,andtheusefulness
whichtheownermayobtaintherefrom,anddamages.(1594a)
Art.1726.Whenapieceofworkhasbeenentrustedtoapersonbyreasonofhispersonalqualifications,
thecontractisrescindeduponhisdeath.

Inthiscasetheproprietorshallpaytheheirsofthecontractorinproportiontothepriceagreedupon,
thevalueofthepartoftheworkdone,andofthematerialsprepared,providedthelatteryieldhim
somebenefit.

Thesameruleshallapplyifthecontractorcannotfinishtheworkduetocircumstancesbeyondhis
control.(1595)

Art.1727.Thecontractorisresponsiblefortheworkdonebypersonsemployedbyhim.(1596)

Art.1728.Thecontractorisliableforalltheclaimsoflaborersandothersemployedbyhim,andofthird
personsfordeathorphysicalinjuriesduringtheconstruction.(n)

Art.1729.Thosewhoputtheirlaboruponorfurnishmaterialsforapieceofworkundertakenbythe
contractorhaveanactionagainsttheowneruptotheamountowingfromthelattertothecontractorat
thetimetheclaimismade.However,thefollowingshallnotprejudicethelaborers,employeesand
furnishersofmaterials:

(1)Paymentsmadebytheownertothecontractorbeforetheyaredue;
(2)Renunciationbythecontractorofanyamountduehimfromtheowner.

Thisarticleissubjecttotheprovisionsofspeciallaws.(1597a)
Art.1730.Ifitisagreedthattheworkshallbeaccomplishedtothesatisfactionoftheproprietor,itis
understoodthatincaseofdisagreementthequestionshallbesubjecttoexpertjudgment.

Iftheworkissubjecttotheapprovalofathirdperson,hisdecisionshallbefinal,exceptincaseoffraud
ormanifesterror.(1598a)

Art.1731.Hewhohasexecutedworkuponamovablehasarighttoretainitbywayofpledgeuntilheis
paid.(1600)

SECTION4.CommonCarriers(n)

SUBSECTION1.GeneralProvisions

Art.1732.Commoncarriersarepersons,corporations,firmsorassociationsengagedinthebusinessof
carryingortransportingpassengersorgoodsorboth,byland,water,orair,forcompensation,offering
theirservicestothepublic.
Art.1733.Commoncarriers,fromthenatureoftheirbusinessandforreasonsofpublicpolicy,are
boundtoobserveextraordinarydiligenceinthevigilanceoverthegoodsandforthesafetyofthe
passengerstransportedbythem,accordingtoallthecircumstancesofeachcase.

SuchextraordinarydiligenceinthevigilanceoverthegoodsisfurtherexpressedinArticles1734,1735,
and1745,Nos.5,6,and7,whiletheextraordinarydiligenceforthesafetyofthepassengersisfurther
setforthinArticles1755and1756.

SUBSECTION2.VigilanceOverGoods

Art.1734.Commoncarriersareresponsiblefortheloss,destruction,ordeteriorationofthegoods,
unlessthesameisduetoanyofthefollowingcausesonly:
(1)Flood,storm,earthquake,lightning,orothernaturaldisasterorcalamity;
(2)Actofthepublicenemyinwar,whetherinternationalorcivil;

(3)Actofomissionoftheshipperorownerofthegoods;

(4)Thecharacterofthegoodsordefectsinthepackingorinthecontainers;

(5)Orderoractofcompetentpublicauthority.

Art.1735.InallcasesotherthanthosementionedinNos.1,2,3,4,and5oftheprecedingarticle,ifthe
goodsarelost,destroyedordeteriorated,commoncarriersarepresumedtohavebeenatfaultorto
haveactednegligently,unlesstheyprovethattheyobservedextraordinarydiligenceasrequiredin
Article1733.
Art.1736.Theextraordinaryresponsibilityofthecommoncarrierlastsfromthetimethegoodsare
unconditionallyplacedinthepossessionof,andreceivedbythecarrierfortransportationuntilthesame
aredelivered,actuallyorconstructively,bythecarriertotheconsignee,ortothepersonwhohasaright
toreceivethem,withoutprejudicetotheprovisionsofArticle1738.

Art.1737.Thecommoncarrier'sdutytoobserveextraordinarydiligenceoverthegoodsremainsinfull
forceandeffectevenwhentheyaretemporarilyunloadedorstoredintransit,unlesstheshipperor
ownerhasmadeuseoftherightofstoppageintransitu.

Art.1738.Theextraordinaryliabilityofthecommoncarriercontinuestobeoperativeevenduringthe
timethegoodsarestoredinawarehouseofthecarrierattheplaceofdestination,untiltheconsignee
hasbeenadvisedofthearrivalofthegoodsandhashadreasonableopportunitythereaftertoremove
themorotherwisedisposeofthem.

Art.1739.Inorderthatthecommoncarriermaybeexemptedfromresponsibility,thenaturaldisaster
musthavebeentheproximateandonlycauseoftheloss.However,thecommoncarriermustexercise
duediligencetopreventorminimizelossbefore,duringandaftertheoccurrenceofflood,stormor
othernaturaldisasterinorderthatthecommoncarriermaybeexemptedfromliabilityfortheloss,
destruction,ordeteriorationofthegoods.Thesamedutyisincumbentuponthecommoncarrierincase
ofanactofthepublicenemyreferredtoinArticle1734,No.2.

Art.1740.Ifthecommoncarriernegligentlyincursindelayintransportingthegoods,anaturaldisaster
shallnotfreesuchcarrierfromresponsibility.

Art.1741.Iftheshipperorownermerelycontributedtotheloss,destructionordeteriorationofthe
goods,theproximatecausethereofbeingthenegligenceofthecommoncarrier,thelattershallbeliable
indamages,whichhowever,shallbeequitablyreduced.

Art.1742.Eveniftheloss,destruction,ordeteriorationofthegoodsshouldbecausedbythecharacter
ofthegoods,orthefaultynatureofthepackingorofthecontainers,thecommoncarriermustexercise
duediligencetoforestallorlessentheloss.

Art.1743.Ifthroughtheorderofpublicauthoritythegoodsareseizedordestroyed,thecommon
carrierisnotresponsible,providedsaidpublicauthorityhadpowertoissuetheorder.

Art.1744.Astipulationbetweenthecommoncarrierandtheshipperorownerlimitingtheliabilityof
theformerfortheloss,destruction,ordeteriorationofthegoodstoadegreelessthanextraordinary
diligenceshallbevalid,provideditbe:

(1)Inwriting,signedbytheshipperorowner;
(2)Supportedbyavaluableconsiderationotherthantheservicerenderedbythecommoncarrier;and

(3)Reasonable,justandnotcontrarytopublicpolicy.

Art.1745.Anyofthefollowingorsimilarstipulationsshallbeconsideredunreasonable,unjustand
contrarytopublicpolicy:
(1)Thatthegoodsaretransportedattheriskoftheownerorshipper;
(2)Thatthecommoncarrierwillnotbeliableforanyloss,destruction,ordeteriorationofthegoods;

(3)Thatthecommoncarrierneednotobserveanydiligenceinthecustodyofthegoods;

(4)Thatthecommoncarriershallexerciseadegreeofdiligencelessthanthatofagoodfatherofa
family,orofamanofordinaryprudenceinthevigilanceoverthemovablestransported;

(5)Thatthecommoncarriershallnotberesponsiblefortheactsoromissionofhisoritsemployees;

(6)Thatthecommoncarrier'sliabilityforactscommittedbythieves,orofrobberswhodonotactwith
graveorirresistiblethreat,violenceorforce,isdispensedwithordiminished;

(7)Thatthecommoncarrierisnotresponsiblefortheloss,destruction,ordeteriorationofgoodson
accountofthedefectiveconditionofthecar,vehicle,ship,airplaneorotherequipmentusedinthe
contractofcarriage.

Art.1746.Anagreementlimitingthecommoncarrier'sliabilitymaybeannulledbytheshipperorowner
ifthecommoncarrierrefusedtocarrythegoodsunlesstheformeragreedtosuchstipulation.
Art.1747.Ifthecommoncarrier,withoutjustcause,delaysthetransportationofthegoodsorchanges
thestipulatedorusualroute,thecontractlimitingthecommoncarrier'sliabilitycannotbeavailedofin
caseoftheloss,destruction,ordeteriorationofthegoods.

Art.1748.Anagreementlimitingthecommoncarrier'sliabilityfordelayonaccountofstrikesorriotsis
valid.

Art.1749.Astipulationthatthecommoncarrier'sliabilityislimitedtothevalueofthegoodsappearing
inthebilloflading,unlesstheshipperorownerdeclaresagreatervalue,isbinding.

Art.1750.Acontractfixingthesumthatmayberecovered.bytheownerorshipperfortheloss,
destruction,ordeteriorationofthegoodsisvalid,ifitisreasonableandjustunderthecircumstances,
andhasbeenfairlyandfreelyagreedupon.

Art.1751.Thefactthatthecommoncarrierhasnocompetitoralongthelineorroute,orapartthereof,
towhichthecontractrefersshallbetakenintoconsiderationonthequestionofwhetherornota
stipulationlimitingthecommoncarrier'sliabilityisreasonable,justandinconsonancewithpublic
policy.

Art.1752.Evenwhenthereisanagreementlimitingtheliabilityofthecommoncarrierinthevigilance
overthegoods,thecommoncarrierisdisputablypresumedtohavebeennegligentincaseoftheirloss,
destructionordeterioration.

Art.1753.Thelawofthecountrytowhichthegoodsaretobetransportedshallgoverntheliabilityof
thecommoncarrierfortheirloss,destructionordeterioration.

Art.1754.TheprovisionsofArticles1733to1753shallapplytothepassenger'sbaggagewhichisnotin
hispersonalcustodyorinthatofhisemployee.Astootherbaggage,therulesinArticles1998and2000
to2003concerningtheresponsibilityofhotelkeepersshallbeapplicable.

SUBSECTION3.SafetyofPassengers

Art.1755.Acommoncarrierisboundtocarrythepassengerssafelyasfarashumancareandforesight
canprovide,usingtheutmostdiligenceofverycautiouspersons,withadueregardforallthe
circumstances.
Art.1756.Incaseofdeathoforinjuriestopassengers,commoncarriersarepresumedtohavebeenat
faultortohaveactednegligently,unlesstheyprovethattheyobservedextraordinarydiligenceas
prescribedinArticles1733and1755.

Art.1757.TheresponsibilityofacommoncarrierforthesafetyofpassengersasrequiredinArticles
1733and1755cannotbedispensedwithorlessenedbystipulation,bythepostingofnotices,by
statementsontickets,orotherwise.

Art.1758.Whenapassengeriscarriedgratuitously,astipulationlimitingthecommoncarrier'sliability
fornegligenceisvalid,butnotforwilfulactsorgrossnegligence.

Thereductionoffaredoesnotjustifyanylimitationofthecommoncarrier'sliability.

Art.1759.Commoncarriersareliableforthedeathoforinjuriestopassengersthroughthenegligence
orwilfulactsoftheformer'semployees,althoughsuchemployeesmayhaveactedbeyondthescopeof
theirauthorityorinviolationoftheordersofthecommoncarriers.

Thisliabilityofthecommoncarriersdoesnotceaseuponproofthattheyexercisedallthediligenceofa
goodfatherofafamilyintheselectionandsupervisionoftheiremployees.

Art.1760.Thecommoncarrier'sresponsibilityprescribedintheprecedingarticlecannotbeeliminated
orlimitedbystipulation,bythepostingofnotices,bystatementsontheticketsorotherwise.

Art.1761.Thepassengermustobservethediligenceofagoodfatherofafamilytoavoidinjuryto
himself.

Art.1762.Thecontributorynegligenceofthepassengerdoesnotbarrecoveryofdamagesforhisdeath
orinjuries,iftheproximatecausethereofisthenegligenceofthecommoncarrier,buttheamountof
damagesshallbeequitablyreduced.

Art.1763.Acommoncarrierisresponsibleforinjuriessufferedbyapassengeronaccountofthewilful
actsornegligenceofotherpassengersorofstrangers,ifthecommoncarrier'semployeesthroughthe
exerciseofthediligenceofagoodfatherofafamilycouldhavepreventedorstoppedtheactor
omission.

SUBSECTION4.CommonProvisions

Art.1764.DamagesincasescomprisedinthisSectionshallbeawardedinaccordancewithTitleXVIIIof
thisBook,concerningDamages.Article2206shallalsoapplytothedeathofapassengercausedbythe
breachofcontractbyacommoncarrier.
Art.1765.ThePublicServiceCommissionmay,onitsownmotionoronpetitionofanyinterestedparty,
afterduehearing,cancelthecertificateofpublicconveniencegrantedtoanycommoncarrierthat
repeatedlyfailstocomplywithhisoritsdutytoobserveextraordinarydiligenceasprescribedinthis
Section.

Art.1766.InallmattersnotregulatedbythisCode,therightsandobligationsofcommoncarriersshall
begovernedbytheCodeofCommerceandbyspeciallaws.

TitleIX.PARTNERSHIP

CHAPTER1
GENERALPROVISIONS

Art.1767.Bythecontractofpartnershiptwoormorepersonsbindthemselvestocontributemoney,
property,orindustrytoacommonfund,withtheintentionofdividingtheprofitsamongthemselves.
Twoormorepersonsmayalsoformapartnershipfortheexerciseofaprofession.(1665a)

Art.1768.Thepartnershiphasajudicialpersonalityseparateanddistinctfromthatofeachofthe
partners,evenincaseoffailuretocomplywiththerequirementsofArticle1772,firstparagraph.(n)

Art.1769.Indeterminingwhetherapartnershipexists,theserulesshallapply:

(1)ExceptasprovidedbyArticle1825,personswhoarenotpartnersastoeachotherarenotpartners
astothirdpersons;
(2)Coownershiporcopossessiondoesnotofitselfestablishapartnership,whethersuchcoownersor
copossessorsdoordonotshareanyprofitsmadebytheuseoftheproperty;

(3)Thesharingofgrossreturnsdoesnotofitselfestablishapartnership,whetherornotthepersons
sharingthemhaveajointorcommonrightorinterestinanypropertyfromwhichthereturnsare
derived;

(4)Thereceiptbyapersonofashareoftheprofitsofabusinessisprimafacieevidencethatheisa
partnerinthebusiness,butnosuchinferenceshallbedrawnifsuchprofitswerereceivedinpayment:

(a)Asadebtbyinstallmentsorotherwise;
(b)Aswagesofanemployeeorrenttoalandlord;

(c)Asanannuitytoawidoworrepresentativeofadeceasedpartner;

(d)Asinterestonaloan,thoughtheamountofpaymentvarywiththeprofitsofthebusiness;

(e)Astheconsiderationforthesaleofagoodwillofabusinessorotherpropertybyinstallmentsor
otherwise.(n)

Art.1770.Apartnershipmusthavealawfulobjectorpurpose,andmustbeestablishedforthecommon
benefitorinterestofthepartners.
Whenanunlawfulpartnershipisdissolvedbyajudicialdecree,theprofitsshallbeconfiscatedinfavor
oftheState,withoutprejudicetotheprovisionsofthePenalCodegoverningtheconfiscationofthe
instrumentsandeffectsofacrime.(1666a)

Art.1771.Apartnershipmaybeconstitutedinanyform,exceptwhereimmovablepropertyorreal
rightsarecontributedthereto,inwhichcaseapublicinstrumentshallbenecessary.(1667a)

Art.1772.Everycontractofpartnershiphavingacapitalofthreethousandpesosormore,inmoneyor
property,shallappearinapublicinstrument,whichmustberecordedintheOfficeoftheSecuritiesand
ExchangeCommission.

Failuretocomplywiththerequirementsoftheprecedingparagraphshallnotaffecttheliabilityofthe
partnershipandthemembersthereoftothirdpersons.(n)

Art.1773.Acontractofpartnershipisvoid,wheneverimmovablepropertyiscontributedthereto,ifan
inventoryofsaidpropertyisnotmade,signedbytheparties,andattachedtothepublicinstrument.
(1668a)

Art.1774.Anyimmovablepropertyoraninterestthereinmaybeacquiredinthepartnershipname.
Titlesoacquiredcanbeconveyedonlyinthepartnershipname.(n)

Art.1775.Associationsandsocieties,whosearticlesarekeptsecretamongthemembers,andwherein
anyoneofthemembersmaycontractinhisownnamewiththirdpersons,shallhavenojuridical
personality,andshallbegovernedbytheprovisionsrelatingtocoownership.(1669)

Art.1776.Astoitsobject,apartnershipiseitheruniversalorparticular.Asregardstheliabilityofthe
partners,apartnershipmaybegeneralorlimited.(1671a)

Art.1777.Auniversalpartnershipmayrefertoallthepresentpropertyortoalltheprofits.(1672)

Art.1778.Apartnershipofallpresentpropertyisthatinwhichthepartnerscontributealltheproperty
whichactuallybelongstothemtoacommonfund,withtheintentionofdividingthesameamong
themselves,aswellasalltheprofitswhichtheymayacquiretherewith.(1673)

Art.1779.Inauniversalpartnershipofallpresentproperty,thepropertywhichbelongstoeachofthe
partnersatthetimeoftheconstitutionofthepartnership,becomesthecommonpropertyofallthe
partners,aswellasalltheprofitswhichtheymayacquiretherewith.

Astipulationforthecommonenjoymentofanyotherprofitsmayalsobemade;butthepropertywhich
thepartnersmayacquiresubsequentlybyinheritance,legacy,ordonationcannotbeincludedinsuch
stipulation,exceptthefruitsthereof.(1674a)

Art.1780.Auniversalpartnershipofprofitscomprisesallthatthepartnersmayacquirebytheirindustry
orworkduringtheexistenceofthepartnership.

Movableorimmovablepropertywhicheachofthepartnersmaypossessatthetimeofthecelebration
ofthecontractshallcontinuetopertainexclusivelytoeach,onlytheusufructpassingtothepartnership.
(1675)

Art.1781.Articlesofuniversalpartnership,enteredintowithoutspecificationofitsnature,only
constituteauniversalpartnershipofprofits.(1676)

Art.1782.Personswhoareprohibitedfromgivingeachotheranydonationoradvantagecannotenter
intouniversalpartnership.(1677)

Art.1783.Aparticularpartnershiphasforitsobjectdeterminatethings,theiruseorfruits,orspecific
undertaking,ortheexerciseofaprofessionorvocation.(1678)

CHAPTER2
OBLIGATIONSOFTHEPARTNERS

SECTION1.ObligationsofthePartnersAmongThemselves

Art.1784.Apartnershipbeginsfromthemomentoftheexecutionofthecontract,unlessitisotherwise
stipulated.(1679)
Art.1785.Whenapartnershipforafixedtermorparticularundertakingiscontinuedafterthe
terminationofsuchtermorparticularundertakingwithoutanyexpressagreement,therightsandduties
ofthepartnersremainthesameastheywereatsuchtermination,sofarasisconsistentwitha
partnershipatwill.

Acontinuationofthebusinessbythepartnersorsuchofthemashabituallyactedthereinduringthe
term,withoutanysettlementorliquidationofthepartnershipaffairs,isprimafacieevidenceofa
continuationofthepartnership.(n)

Art.1786.Everypartnerisadebtorofthepartnershipforwhateverhemayhavepromisedtocontribute
thereto.

Heshallalsobeboundforwarrantyincaseofevictionwithregardtospecificanddeterminatethings
whichhemayhavecontributedtothepartnership,inthesamecasesandinthesamemannerasthe
vendorisboundwithrespecttothevendee.Heshallalsobeliableforthefruitsthereoffromthetime
theyshouldhavebeendelivered,withouttheneedofanydemand.(1681a)

Art.1787.Whenthecapitalorapartthereofwhichapartnerisboundtocontributeconsistsofgoods,
theirappraisalmustbemadeinthemannerprescribedinthecontractofpartnership,andinthe
absenceofstipulation,itshallbemadebyexpertschosenbythepartners,andaccordingtocurrent
prices,thesubsequentchangesthereofbeingforaccountofthepartnership.(n)

Art.1788.Apartnerwhohasundertakentocontributeasumofmoneyandfailstodosobecomesa
debtorfortheinterestanddamagesfromthetimeheshouldhavecompliedwithhisobligation.

Thesameruleappliestoanyamounthemayhavetakenfromthepartnershipcoffers,andhisliability
shallbeginfromthetimeheconvertedtheamounttohisownuse.(1682)

Art.1789.Anindustrialpartnercannotengageinbusinessforhimself,unlessthepartnershipexpressly
permitshimtodoso;andifheshoulddoso,thecapitalistpartnersmayeitherexcludehimfromthe
firmoravailthemselvesofthebenefitswhichhemayhaveobtainedinviolationofthisprovision,witha
righttodamagesineithercase.(n)

Art.1790.Unlessthereisastipulationtothecontrary,thepartnersshallcontributeequalsharestothe
capitalofthepartnership.(n)

Art.1791.Ifthereisnoagreementtothecontrary,incaseofanimminentlossofthebusinessofthe
partnership,anypartnerwhorefusestocontributeanadditionalsharetothecapital,exceptan
industrialpartner,tosavetheventure,shallheobligedtosellhisinteresttotheotherpartners.(n)

Art.1792.Ifapartnerauthorizedtomanagecollectsademandablesumwhichwasowedtohiminhis
ownname,fromapersonwhoowedthepartnershipanothersumalsodemandable,thesumthus
collectedshallbeappliedtothetwocreditsinproportiontotheiramounts,eventhoughhemayhave
givenareceiptforhisowncreditonly;butshouldhehavegivenitfortheaccountofthepartnership
credit,theamountshallbefullyappliedtothelatter.

Theprovisionsofthisarticleareunderstoodtobewithoutprejudicetotherightgrantedtotheother
debtorbyArticle1252,butonlyifthepersonalcreditofthepartnershouldbemoreoneroustohim.
(1684)

Art.1793.Apartnerwhohasreceived,inwholeorinpart,hisshareofapartnershipcredit,whenthe
otherpartnershavenotcollectedtheirs,shallbeobliged,ifthedebtorshouldthereafterbecome
insolvent,tobringtothepartnershipcapitalwhathereceivedeventhoughhemayhavegivenreceipt
forhisshareonly.(1685a)

Art.1794.Everypartnerisresponsibletothepartnershipfordamagessufferedbyitthroughhisfault,
andhecannotcompensatethemwiththeprofitsandbenefitswhichhemayhaveearnedforthe
partnershipbyhisindustry.However,thecourtsmayequitablylessenthisresponsibilityifthroughthe
partner'sextraordinaryeffortsinotheractivitiesofthepartnership,unusualprofitshavebeenrealized.
(1686a)

Art.1795.Theriskofspecificanddeterminatethings,whicharenotfungible,contributedtothe
partnershipsothatonlytheiruseandfruitsmaybeforthecommonbenefit,shallbebornebythe
partnerwhoownsthem.

Ifthethingscontributearefungible,orcannotbekeptwithoutdeteriorating,oriftheywere
contributedtobesold,theriskshallbebornebythepartnership.Intheabsenceofstipulation,therisk
ofthethingsbroughtandappraisedintheinventory,shallalsobebornebythepartnership,andinsuch
casetheclaimshallbelimitedtothevalueatwhichtheywereappraised.(1687)

Art.1796.Thepartnershipshallberesponsibletoeverypartnerfortheamountshemayhavedisbursed
onbehalfofthepartnershipandforthecorrespondinginterest,fromthetimetheexpensearemade;it
shallalsoanswertoeachpartnerfortheobligationshemayhavecontractedingoodfaithintheinterest
ofthepartnershipbusiness,andforrisksinconsequenceofitsmanagement.(1688a)

Art.1797.Thelossesandprofitsshallbedistributedinconformitywiththeagreement.Ifonlytheshare
ofeachpartnerintheprofitshasbeenagreedupon,theshareofeachinthelossesshallbeinthesame
proportion.

Intheabsenceofstipulation,theshareofeachpartnerintheprofitsandlossesshallbeinproportionto
whathemayhavecontributed,buttheindustrialpartnershallnotbeliableforthelosses.Asforthe
profits,theindustrialpartnershallreceivesuchshareasmaybejustandequitableunderthe
circumstances.Ifbesideshisserviceshehascontributedcapital,heshallalsoreceiveashareinthe
profitsinproportiontohiscapital.(1689a)

Art.1798.Ifthepartnershaveagreedtointrusttoathirdpersonthedesignationoftheshareofeach
oneintheprofitsandlosses,suchdesignationmaybeimpugnedonlywhenitismanifestlyinequitable.
Innocasemayapartnerwhohasbeguntoexecutethedecisionofthethirdperson,orwhohasnot
impugnedthesamewithinaperiodofthreemonthsfromthetimehehadknowledgethereof,complain
ofsuchdecision.

Thedesignationoflossesandprofitscannotbeintrustedtooneofthepartners.(1690)

Art.1799.Astipulationwhichexcludesoneormorepartnersfromanyshareintheprofitsorlossesis
void.(1691)

Art.1800.Thepartnerwhohasbeenappointedmanagerinthearticlesofpartnershipmayexecuteall
actsofadministrationdespitetheoppositionofhispartners,unlessheshouldactinbadfaith;andhis
powerisirrevocablewithoutjustorlawfulcause.Thevoteofthepartnersrepresentingthecontrolling
interestshallbenecessaryforsuchrevocationofpower.

Apowergrantedafterthepartnershiphasbeenconstitutedmayberevokedatanytime.(1692a)

Art.1801.Iftwoormorepartnershavebeenintrustedwiththemanagementofthepartnershipwithout
specificationoftheirrespectiveduties,orwithoutastipulationthatoneofthemshallnotactwithout
theconsentofalltheothers,eachonemayseparatelyexecuteallactsofadministration,butifanyof
themshouldopposetheactsoftheothers,thedecisionofthemajorityshallprevail.Incaseofatie,the
mattershallbedecidedbythepartnersowningthecontrollinginterest.(1693a)

Art.1802.Incaseitshouldhavebeenstipulatedthatnoneofthemanagingpartnersshallactwithout
theconsentoftheothers,theconcurrenceofallshallbenecessaryforthevalidityoftheacts,andthe
absenceordisabilityofanyoneofthemcannotbealleged,unlessthereisimminentdangerofgraveor
irreparableinjurytothepartnership.(1694)

Art.1803.Whenthemannerofmanagementhasnotbeenagreedupon,thefollowingrulesshallbe
observed:

(1)Allthepartnersshallbeconsideredagentsandwhateveranyoneofthemmaydoaloneshallbind
thepartnership,withoutprejudicetotheprovisionsofArticle1801.
(2)Noneofthepartnersmay,withouttheconsentoftheothers,makeanyimportantalterationinthe
immovablepropertyofthepartnership,evenifitmaybeusefultothepartnership.Butiftherefusalof
consentbytheotherpartnersismanifestlyprejudicialtotheinterestofthepartnership,thecourt's
interventionmaybesought.(1695a)

Art.1804.Everypartnermayassociateanotherpersonwithhiminhisshare,buttheassociateshallnot
beadmittedintothepartnershipwithouttheconsentofalltheotherpartners,evenifthepartner
havinganassociateshouldbeamanager.(1696)
Art.1805.Thepartnershipbooksshallbekept,subjecttoanyagreementbetweenthepartners,atthe
principalplaceofbusinessofthepartnership,andeverypartnershallatanyreasonablehourhave
accesstoandmayinspectandcopyanyofthem.(n)

Art.1806.Partnersshallrenderondemandtrueandfullinformationofallthingsaffectingthe
partnershiptoanypartnerorthelegalrepresentativeofanydeceasedpartnerorofanypartnerunder
legaldisability.(n)

Art.1807.Everypartnermustaccounttothepartnershipforanybenefit,andholdastrusteeforitany
profitsderivedbyhimwithouttheconsentoftheotherpartnersfromanytransactionconnectedwith
theformation,conduct,orliquidationofthepartnershiporfromanyusebyhimofitsproperty.(n)

Art.1808.Thecapitalistpartnerscannotengagefortheirownaccountinanyoperationwhichisofthe
kindofbusinessinwhichthepartnershipisengaged,unlessthereisastipulationtothecontrary.

Anycapitalistpartnerviolatingthisprohibitionshallbringtothecommonfundsanyprofitsaccruingto
himfromhistransactions,andshallpersonallybearallthelosses.(n)

Art.1809.Anypartnershallhavetherighttoaformalaccountastopartnershipaffairs:

(1)Ifheiswrongfullyexcludedfromthepartnershipbusinessorpossessionofitspropertybyhisco
partners;
(2)Iftherightexistsunderthetermsofanyagreement;

(3)Asprovidedbyarticle1807;

(4)Wheneverothercircumstancesrenderitjustandreasonable.(n)

SECTION2.PropertyRightsofaPartner

Art.1810.Thepropertyrightsofapartnerare:
(1)Hisrightsinspecificpartnershipproperty;
(2)Hisinterestinthepartnership;and

(3)Hisrighttoparticipateinthemanagement.(n)

Art.1811.Apartneriscoownerwithhispartnersofspecificpartnershipproperty.
Theincidentsofthiscoownershiparesuchthat:

(1)Apartner,subjecttotheprovisionsofthisTitleandtoanyagreementbetweenthepartners,hasan
equalrightwithhispartnerstopossessspecificpartnershippropertyforpartnershippurposes;buthe
hasnorighttopossesssuchpropertyforanyotherpurposewithouttheconsentofhispartners;
(2)Apartner'srightinspecificpartnershippropertyisnotassignableexceptinconnectionwiththe
assignmentofrightsofallthepartnersinthesameproperty;

(3)Apartner'srightinspecificpartnershippropertyisnotsubjecttoattachmentorexecution,excepton
aclaimagainstthepartnership.Whenpartnershippropertyisattachedforapartnershipdebtthe
partners,oranyofthem,ortherepresentativesofadeceasedpartner,cannotclaimanyrightunderthe
homesteadorexemptionlaws;

(4)Apartner'srightinspecificpartnershippropertyisnotsubjecttolegalsupportunderArticle291.(n)

Art.1812.Apartner'sinterestinthepartnershipishisshareoftheprofitsandsurplus.(n)
Art.1813.Aconveyancebyapartnerofhiswholeinterestinthepartnershipdoesnotofitselfdissolve
thepartnership,or,asagainsttheotherpartnersintheabsenceofagreement,entitletheassignee,
duringthecontinuanceofthepartnership,tointerfereinthemanagementoradministrationofthe
partnershipbusinessoraffairs,ortorequireanyinformationoraccountofpartnershiptransactions,or
toinspectthepartnershipbooks;butitmerelyentitlestheassigneetoreceiveinaccordancewithhis
contracttheprofitstowhichtheassigningpartnerwouldotherwisebeentitled.However,incaseof
fraudinthemanagementofthepartnership,theassigneemayavailhimselfoftheusualremedies.

Incaseofadissolutionofthepartnership,theassigneeisentitledtoreceivehisassignor'sinterestand
mayrequireanaccountfromthedateonlyofthelastaccountagreedtobyallthepartners.(n)

Art.1814.WithoutprejudicetothepreferredrightsofpartnershipcreditorsunderArticle1827,ondue
applicationtoacompetentcourtbyanyjudgmentcreditorofapartner,thecourtwhichenteredthe
judgment,oranyothercourt,maychargetheinterestofthedebtorpartnerwithpaymentofthe
unsatisfiedamountofsuchjudgmentdebtwithinterestthereon;andmaythenorlaterappointa
receiverofhisshareoftheprofits,andofanyothermoneydueortofallduetohiminrespectofthe
partnership,andmakeallotherorders,directions,accountsandinquirieswhichthedebtorpartner
mighthavemade,orwhichthecircumstancesofthecasemayrequire.

Theinterestchargedmayberedeemedatanytimebeforeforeclosure,orincaseofasalebeing
directedbythecourt,maybepurchasedwithouttherebycausingadissolution:

(1)Withseparateproperty,byanyoneormoreofthepartners;or
(2)Withpartnershipproperty,byanyoneormoreofthepartnerswiththeconsentofallthepartners
whoseinterestsarenotsochargedorsold.

NothinginthisTitleshallbeheldtodepriveapartnerofhisright,ifany,undertheexemptionlaws,as
regardshisinterestinthepartnership.(n)

SECTION3.ObligationsofthePartners
WithRegardtoThirdPersons

Art.1815.Everypartnershipshalloperateunderafirmname,whichmayormaynotincludethename
ofoneormoreofthepartners.
Thosewho,notbeingmembersofthepartnership,includetheirnamesinthefirmname,shallbe
subjecttotheliabilityofapartner.(n)

Art.1816.Allpartners,includingindustrialones,shallbeliableproratawithalltheirpropertyandafter
allthepartnershipassetshavebeenexhausted,forthecontractswhichmaybeenteredintointhe
nameandfortheaccountofthepartnership,underitssignatureandbyapersonauthorizedtoactfor
thepartnership.However,anypartnermayenterintoaseparateobligationtoperformapartnership
contract.(n)

Art.1817.Anystipulationagainsttheliabilitylaiddownintheprecedingarticleshallbevoid,exceptas
amongthepartners.(n)

Art.1818.Everypartnerisanagentofthepartnershipforthepurposeofitsbusiness,andtheactof
everypartner,includingtheexecutioninthepartnershipnameofanyinstrument,forapparently
carryingonintheusualwaythebusinessofthepartnershipofwhichheisamemberbindsthe
partnership,unlessthepartnersoactinghasinfactnoauthoritytoactforthepartnershipinthe
particularmatter,andthepersonwithwhomheisdealinghasknowledgeofthefactthathehasnosuch
authority.

Anactofapartnerwhichisnotapparentlyforthecarryingonofbusinessofthepartnershipintheusual
waydoesnotbindthepartnershipunlessauthorizedbytheotherpartners.

Exceptwhenauthorizedbytheotherpartnersorunlesstheyhaveabandonedthebusiness,oneormore
butlessthanallthepartnershavenoauthorityto:

(1)Assignthepartnershippropertyintrustforcreditorsorontheassignee'spromisetopaythedebtsof
thepartnership;
(2)Disposeofthegoodwillofthebusiness;

(3)Doanyotheractwhichwouldmakeitimpossibletocarryontheordinarybusinessofapartnership;

(4)Confessajudgment;

(5)Enterintoacompromiseconcerningapartnershipclaimorliability;

(6)Submitapartnershipclaimorliabilitytoarbitration;

(7)Renounceaclaimofthepartnership.

Noactofapartnerincontraventionofarestrictiononauthorityshallbindthepartnershiptopersons
havingknowledgeoftherestriction.(n)
Art.1819.Wheretitletorealpropertyisinthepartnershipname,anypartnermayconveytitletosuch
propertybyaconveyanceexecutedinthepartnershipname;butthepartnershipmayrecoversuch
propertyunlessthepartner'sactbindsthepartnershipundertheprovisionsofthefirstparagraphof
article1818,orunlesssuchpropertyhasbeenconveyedbythegranteeorapersonclaimingthrough
suchgranteetoaholderforvaluewithoutknowledgethatthepartner,inmakingtheconveyance,has
exceededhisauthority.

Wheretitletorealpropertyisinthenameofthepartnership,aconveyanceexecutedbyapartner,in
hisownname,passestheequitableinterestofthepartnership,providedtheactisonewithinthe
authorityofthepartnerundertheprovisionsofthefirstparagraphofArticle1818.

Wheretitletorealpropertyisinthenameofoneormorebutnotallthepartners,andtherecorddoes
notdisclosetherightofthepartnership,thepartnersinwhosenamethetitlestandsmayconveytitleto
suchproperty,butthepartnershipmayrecoversuchpropertyifthepartners'actdoesnotbindthe
partnershipundertheprovisionsofthefirstparagraphofArticle1818,unlessthepurchaserorhis
assignee,isaholderforvalue,withoutknowledge.

Wherethetitletorealpropertyisinthenameofoneormoreorallthepartners,orinathirdpersonin
trustforthepartnership,aconveyanceexecutedbyapartnerinthepartnershipname,orinhisown
name,passestheequitableinterestofthepartnership,providedtheactisonewithintheauthorityof
thepartnerundertheprovisionsofthefirstparagraphofArticle1818.

Wherethetitletorealpropertyisinthenameofallthepartnersaconveyanceexecutedbyallthe
partnerspassesalltheirrightsinsuchproperty.(n)

Art.1820.Anadmissionorrepresentationmadebyanypartnerconcerningpartnershipaffairswithin
thescopeofhisauthorityinaccordancewiththisTitleisevidenceagainstthepartnership.(n)

Art.1821.Noticetoanypartnerofanymatterrelatingtopartnershipaffairs,andtheknowledgeofthe
partneractingintheparticularmatter,acquiredwhileapartnerorthenpresenttohismind,andthe
knowledgeofanyotherpartnerwhoreasonablycouldandshouldhavecommunicatedittotheacting
partner,operateasnoticetoorknowledgeofthepartnership,exceptinthecaseoffraudonthe
partnership,committedbyorwiththeconsentofthatpartner.(n)

Art.1822.Where,byanywrongfulactoromissionofanypartneractingintheordinarycourseofthe
businessofthepartnershiporwiththeauthorityofcopartners,lossorinjuryiscausedtoanyperson,
notbeingapartnerinthepartnership,oranypenaltyisincurred,thepartnershipisliabletherefortothe
sameextentasthepartnersoactingoromittingtoact.(n)

Art.1823.Thepartnershipisboundtomakegoodtheloss:

(1)Whereonepartneractingwithinthescopeofhisapparentauthorityreceivesmoneyorpropertyofa
thirdpersonandmisappliesit;and
(2)Wherethepartnershipinthecourseofitsbusinessreceivesmoneyorpropertyofathirdpersonand
themoneyorpropertysoreceivedismisappliedbyanypartnerwhileitisinthecustodyofthe
partnership.(n)

Art.1824.Allpartnersareliablesolidarilywiththepartnershipforeverythingchargeabletothe
partnershipunderArticles1822and1823.(n)
Art.1825.Whenaperson,bywordsspokenorwrittenorbyconduct,representshimself,orconsentsto
anotherrepresentinghimtoanyone,asapartnerinanexistingpartnershiporwithoneormorepersons
notactualpartners,heisliabletoanysuchpersonstowhomsuchrepresentationhasbeenmade,who
has,onthefaithofsuchrepresentation,givencredittotheactualorapparentpartnership,andifhehas
madesuchrepresentationorconsentedtoitsbeingmadeinapublicmannerheisliabletosuchperson,
whethertherepresentationhasorhasnotbeenmadeorcommunicatedtosuchpersonsogivingcredit
byorwiththeknowledgeoftheapparentpartnermakingtherepresentationorconsentingtoitsbeing
made:

(1)Whenapartnershipliabilityresults,heisliableasthoughhewereanactualmemberofthe
partnership;
(2)Whennopartnershipliabilityresults,heisliableproratawiththeotherpersons,ifany,so
consentingtothecontractorrepresentationastoincurliability,otherwiseseparately.

Whenapersonhasbeenthusrepresentedtobeapartnerinanexistingpartnership,orwithoneor
morepersonsnotactualpartners,heisanagentofthepersonsconsentingtosuchrepresentationto
bindthemtothesameextentandinthesamemannerasthoughhewereapartnerinfact,withrespect
topersonswhorelyupontherepresentation.Whenallthemembersoftheexistingpartnershipconsent
totherepresentation,apartnershipactorobligationresults;butinallothercasesitisthejointactor
obligationofthepersonactingandthepersonsconsentingtotherepresentation.(n)
Art.1826.Apersonadmittedasapartnerintoanexistingpartnershipisliableforalltheobligationsof
thepartnershiparisingbeforehisadmissionasthoughhehadbeenapartnerwhensuchobligations
wereincurred,exceptthatthisliabilityshallbesatisfiedonlyoutofpartnershipproperty,unlessthereis
astipulationtothecontrary.(n)

Art.1827.Thecreditorsofthepartnershipshallbepreferredtothoseofeachpartnerasregardsthe
partnershipproperty.Withoutprejudicetothisright,theprivatecreditorsofeachpartnermayaskthe
attachmentandpublicsaleoftheshareofthelatterinthepartnershipassets.(n)

CHAPTER3
DISSOLUTIONANDWINDINGUP

Art.1828.Thedissolutionofapartnershipisthechangeintherelationofthepartnerscausedbyany
partnerceasingtobeassociatedinthecarryingonasdistinguishedfromthewindingupofthebusiness.
(n)
Art.1829.Ondissolutionthepartnershipisnotterminated,butcontinuesuntilthewindingupof
partnershipaffairsiscompleted.(n)

Art.1830.Dissolutioniscaused:

(1)Withoutviolationoftheagreementbetweenthepartners:
(a)Bytheterminationofthedefinitetermorparticularundertakingspecifiedintheagreement;
(b)Bytheexpresswillofanypartner,whomustactingoodfaith,whennodefinitetermorparticularis
specified;

(c)Bytheexpresswillofallthepartnerswhohavenotassignedtheirinterestsorsufferedthemtobe
chargedfortheirseparatedebts,eitherbeforeoraftertheterminationofanyspecifiedtermor
particularundertaking;

(d)Bytheexpulsionofanypartnerfromthebusinessbonafideinaccordancewithsuchapower
conferredbytheagreementbetweenthepartners;

(2)Incontraventionoftheagreementbetweenthepartners,wherethecircumstancesdonotpermita
dissolutionunderanyotherprovisionofthisarticle,bytheexpresswillofanypartneratanytime;
(3)Byanyeventwhichmakesitunlawfulforthebusinessofthepartnershiptobecarriedonorforthe
memberstocarryitoninpartnership;

(4)Whenaspecificthingwhichapartnerhadpromisedtocontributetothepartnership,perishesbefore
thedelivery;inanycasebythelossofthething,whenthepartnerwhocontributedithavingreserved
theownershipthereof,hasonlytransferredtothepartnershiptheuseorenjoymentofthesame;but
thepartnershipshallnotbedissolvedbythelossofthethingwhenitoccursafterthepartnershiphas
acquiredtheownershipthereof;

(5)Bythedeathofanypartner;

(6)Bytheinsolvencyofanypartnerorofthepartnership;

(7)Bythecivilinterdictionofanypartner;

(8)Bydecreeofcourtunderthefollowingarticle.(1700aand1701a)

Art.1831.Onapplicationbyorforapartnerthecourtshalldecreeadissolutionwhenever:
(1)Apartnerhasbeendeclaredinsaneinanyjudicialproceedingorisshowntobeofunsoundmind;
(2)Apartnerbecomesinanyotherwayincapableofperforminghispartofthepartnershipcontract;

(3)Apartnerhasbeenguiltyofsuchconductastendstoaffectprejudiciallythecarryingonofthe
business;

(4)Apartnerwilfullyorpersistentlycommitsabreachofthepartnershipagreement,orotherwiseso
conductshimselfinmattersrelatingtothepartnershipbusinessthatitisnotreasonablypracticableto
carryonthebusinessinpartnershipwithhim;

(5)Thebusinessofthepartnershipcanonlybecarriedonataloss;

(6)Othercircumstancesrenderadissolutionequitable.

Ontheapplicationofthepurchaserofapartner'sinterestunderArticle1813or1814:
(1)Aftertheterminationofthespecifiedtermorparticularundertaking;
(2)Atanytimeifthepartnershipwasapartnershipatwillwhentheinterestwasassignedorwhenthe
chargingorderwasissued.(n)

Art.1832.Exceptsofarasmaybenecessarytowinduppartnershipaffairsortocompletetransactions
begunbutnotthenfinished,dissolutionterminatesallauthorityofanypartnertoactforthe
partnership:
(1)Withrespecttothepartners:
(a)Whenthedissolutionisnotbytheact,insolvencyordeathofapartner;or
(b)Whenthedissolutionisbysuchact,insolvencyordeathofapartner,incaseswherearticle1833so
requires;

(2)Withrespecttopersonsnotpartners,asdeclaredinarticle1834.(n)
Art.1833.Wherethedissolutioniscausedbytheact,deathorinsolvencyofapartner,eachpartneris
liabletohiscopartnersforhisshareofanyliabilitycreatedbyanypartneractingforthepartnershipas
ifthepartnershiphadnotbeendissolvedunless:
(1)Thedissolutionbeingbyactofanypartner,thepartneractingforthepartnershiphadknowledgeof
thedissolution;or
(2)Thedissolutionbeingbythedeathorinsolvencyofapartner,thepartneractingforthepartnership
hadknowledgeornoticeofthedeathorinsolvency.

Art.1834.Afterdissolution,apartnercanbindthepartnership,exceptasprovidedinthethird
paragraphofthisarticle:
(1)Byanyactappropriateforwindinguppartnershipaffairsorcompletingtransactionsunfinishedat
dissolution;
(2)Byanytransactionwhichwouldbindthepartnershipifdissolutionhadnottakenplace,providedthe
otherpartytothetransaction:

(a)Hadextendedcredittothepartnershippriortodissolutionandhadnoknowledgeornoticeofthe
dissolution;or
(b)Thoughhehadnotsoextendedcredit,hadneverthelessknownofthepartnershippriorto
dissolution,and,havingnoknowledgeornoticeofdissolution,thefactofdissolutionhadnotbeen
advertisedinanewspaperofgeneralcirculationintheplace(orineachplaceifmorethanone)atwhich
thepartnershipbusinesswasregularlycarriedon.

Theliabilityofapartnerunderthefirstparagraph,No.2,shallbesatisfiedoutofpartnershipassets
alonewhensuchpartnerhadbeenpriortodissolution:
(1)Unknownasapartnertothepersonwithwhomthecontractismade;and
(2)Sofarunknownandinactiveinpartnershipaffairsthatthebusinessreputationofthepartnership
couldnotbesaidtohavebeeninanydegreeduetohisconnectionwithit.

Thepartnershipisinnocaseboundbyanyactofapartnerafterdissolution:
(1)Wherethepartnershipisdissolvedbecauseitisunlawfultocarryonthebusiness,unlesstheactis
appropriateforwindinguppartnershipaffairs;or
(2)Wherethepartnerhasbecomeinsolvent;or

(3)Wherethepartnerhasnoauthoritytowinduppartnershipaffairs;exceptbyatransactionwithone
who:

(a)Hadextendedcredittothepartnershippriortodissolutionandhadnoknowledgeornoticeofhis
wantofauthority;or
(b)Hadnotextendedcredittothepartnershippriortodissolution,and,havingnoknowledgeornotice
ofhiswantofauthority,thefactofhiswantofauthorityhasnotbeenadvertisedinthemanner
providedforadvertisingthefactofdissolutioninthefirstparagraph,No.2(b).

NothinginthisarticleshallaffecttheliabilityunderArticle1825ofanypersonwho,afterdissolution,
representshimselforconsentstoanotherrepresentinghimasapartnerinapartnershipengagedin
carryingbusiness.(n)
Art.1835.Thedissolutionofthepartnershipdoesnotofitselfdischargetheexistingliabilityofany
partner.

Apartnerisdischargedfromanyexistingliabilityupondissolutionofthepartnershipbyanagreementto
thateffectbetweenhimself,thepartnershipcreditorandthepersonorpartnershipcontinuingthe
business;andsuchagreementmaybeinferredfromthecourseofdealingbetweenthecreditorhaving
knowledgeofthedissolutionandthepersonorpartnershipcontinuingthebusiness.

Theindividualpropertyofadeceasedpartnershallbeliableforallobligationsofthepartnership
incurredwhilehewasapartner,butsubjecttothepriorpaymentofhisseparatedebts.(n)

Art.1836.Unlessotherwiseagreed,thepartnerswhohavenotwrongfullydissolvedthepartnershipor
thelegalrepresentativeofthelastsurvivingpartner,notinsolvent,hastherighttowindupthe
partnershipaffairs,provided,however,thatanypartner,hislegalrepresentativeorhisassignee,upon
causeshown,mayobtainwindingupbythecourt.(n)

Art.1837.Whendissolutioniscausedinanyway,exceptincontraventionofthepartnershipagreement,
eachpartner,asagainsthiscopartnersandallpersonsclaimingthroughtheminrespectoftheir
interestsinthepartnership,unlessotherwiseagreed,mayhavethepartnershippropertyappliedto
dischargeitsliabilities,andthesurplusappliedtopayincashthenetamountowingtotherespective
partners.Butifdissolutioniscausedbyexpulsionofapartner,bonafideunderthepartnership
agreementandiftheexpelledpartnerisdischargedfromallpartnershipliabilities,eitherbypaymentor
agreementunderthesecondparagraphofArticle1835,heshallreceiveincashonlythenetamountdue
himfromthepartnership.

Whendissolutioniscausedincontraventionofthepartnershipagreementtherightsofthepartners
shallbeasfollows:

(1)Eachpartnerwhohasnotcauseddissolutionwrongfullyshallhave:

(a)Alltherightsspecifiedinthefirstparagraphofthisarticle,and
(b)Theright,asagainsteachpartnerwhohascausedthedissolutionwrongfully,todamagesbreachof
theagreement.

(2)Thepartnerswhohavenotcausedthedissolutionwrongfully,iftheyalldesiretocontinuethe
businessinthesamenameeitherbythemselvesorjointlywithothers,maydoso,duringtheagreed
termforthepartnershipandforthatpurposemaypossessthepartnershipproperty,providedthey
securethepaymentbybondapprovedbythecourt,orpayanypartnerwhohascausedthedissolution
wrongfully,thevalueofhisinterestinthepartnershipatthedissolution,lessanydamagesrecoverable
underthesecondparagraph,No.1(b)ofthisarticle,andinlikemannerindemnifyhimagainstall
presentorfuturepartnershipliabilities.
(3)Apartnerwhohascausedthedissolutionwrongfullyshallhave:

(a)Ifthebusinessisnotcontinuedundertheprovisionsofthesecondparagraph,No.2,alltherightsof
apartnerunderthefirstparagraph,subjecttoliabilityfordamagesinthesecondparagraph,No.1(b),
ofthisarticle.
(b)Ifthebusinessiscontinuedunderthesecondparagraph,No.2,ofthisarticle,therightasagainsthis
copartnersandallclaimingthroughtheminrespectoftheirinterestsinthepartnership,tohavethe
valueofhisinterestinthepartnership,lessanydamagecausedtohiscopartnersbythedissolution,
ascertainedandpaidtohimincash,orthepaymentsecuredbyabondapprovedbythecourt,andtobe
releasedfromallexistingliabilitiesofthepartnership;butinascertainingthevalueofthepartner's
interestthevalueofthegoodwillofthebusinessshallnotbeconsidered.(n)

Art.1838.Whereapartnershipcontractisrescindedonthegroundofthefraudormisrepresentationof
oneofthepartiesthereto,thepartyentitledtorescindis,withoutprejudicetoanyotherright,entitled:
(1)Toalienon,orrightofretentionof,thesurplusofthepartnershippropertyaftersatisfyingthe
partnershipliabilitiestothirdpersonsforanysumofmoneypaidbyhimforthepurchaseofaninterest
inthepartnershipandforanycapitaloradvancescontributedbyhim;
(2)Tostand,afterallliabilitiestothirdpersonshavebeensatisfied,intheplaceofthecreditorsofthe
partnershipforanypaymentsmadebyhiminrespectofthepartnershipliabilities;and

(3)Tobeindemnifiedbythepersonguiltyofthefraudormakingtherepresentationagainstalldebts
andliabilitiesofthepartnership.(n)

Art.1839.Insettlingaccountsbetweenthepartnersafterdissolution,thefollowingrulesshallbe
observed,subjecttoanyagreementtothecontrary:
(1)Theassetsofthepartnershipare:

(a)Thepartnershipproperty,
(b)ThecontributionsofthepartnersnecessaryforthepaymentofalltheliabilitiesspecifiedinNo.2.

(2)Theliabilitiesofthepartnershipshallrankinorderofpayment,asfollows:

(a)Thoseowingtocreditorsotherthanpartners,
(b)Thoseowingtopartnersotherthanforcapitalandprofits,

(c)Thoseowingtopartnersinrespectofcapital,

(d)Thoseowingtopartnersinrespectofprofits.

(3)TheassetsshallbeappliedintheorderoftheirdeclarationinNo.1ofthisarticletothesatisfaction
oftheliabilities.
(4)Thepartnersshallcontribute,asprovidedbyarticle1797,theamountnecessarytosatisfythe
liabilities.

(5)Anassigneeforthebenefitofcreditorsoranypersonappointedbythecourtshallhavetherightto
enforcethecontributionsspecifiedintheprecedingnumber.

(6)Anypartnerorhislegalrepresentativeshallhavetherighttoenforcethecontributionsspecifiedin
No.4,totheextentoftheamountwhichhehaspaidinexcessofhisshareoftheliability.

(7)TheindividualpropertyofadeceasedpartnershallbeliableforthecontributionsspecifiedinNo.4.

(8)Whenpartnershippropertyandtheindividualpropertiesofthepartnersareinpossessionofacourt
fordistribution,partnershipcreditorsshallhavepriorityonpartnershippropertyandseparatecreditors
onindividualproperty,savingtherightsoflienorsecuredcreditors.

(9)Whereapartnerhasbecomeinsolventorhisestateisinsolvent,theclaimsagainsthisseparate
propertyshallrankinthefollowingorder:

(a)Thoseowingtoseparatecreditors;
(b)Thoseowingtopartnershipcreditors;

(c)Thoseowingtopartnersbywayofcontribution.(n)

Art.1840.Inthefollowingcasescreditorsofthedissolvedpartnershiparealsocreditorsofthepersonor
partnershipcontinuingthebusiness:
(1)Whenanynewpartnerisadmittedintoanexistingpartnership,orwhenanypartnerretiresand
assigns(ortherepresentativeofthedeceasedpartnerassigns)hisrightsinpartnershippropertytotwo
ormoreofthepartners,ortooneormoreofthepartnersandoneormorethirdpersons,ifthe
businessiscontinuedwithoutliquidationofthepartnershipaffairs;
(2)Whenallbutonepartnerretireandassign(ortherepresentativeofadeceasedpartnerassigns)their
rightsinpartnershippropertytotheremainingpartner,whocontinuesthebusinesswithoutliquidation
ofpartnershipaffairs,eitheraloneorwithothers;

(3)Whenanypartnerretiresordiesandthebusinessofthedissolvedpartnershipiscontinuedasset
forthinNos.1and2ofthisarticle,withtheconsentoftheretiredpartnersortherepresentativeofthe
deceasedpartner,butwithoutanyassignmentofhisrightinpartnershipproperty;

(4)Whenallthepartnersortheirrepresentativesassigntheirrightsinpartnershippropertytooneor
morethirdpersonswhopromisetopaythedebtsandwhocontinuethebusinessofthedissolved
partnership;

(5)Whenanypartnerwrongfullycausesadissolutionandtheremainingpartnerscontinuethebusiness
undertheprovisionsofarticle1837,secondparagraph,No.2,eitheraloneorwithothers,andwithout
liquidationofthepartnershipaffairs;

(6)Whenapartnerisexpelledandtheremainingpartnerscontinuethebusinesseitheraloneorwith
otherswithoutliquidationofthepartnershipaffairs.

Theliabilityofathirdpersonbecomingapartnerinthepartnershipcontinuingthebusiness,underthis
article,tothecreditorsofthedissolvedpartnershipshallbesatisfiedoutofthepartnershipproperty
only,unlessthereisastipulationtothecontrary.
Whenthebusinessofapartnershipafterdissolutioniscontinuedunderanyconditionssetforthinthis
articlethecreditorsofthedissolvedpartnership,asagainsttheseparatecreditorsoftheretiringor
deceasedpartnerortherepresentativeofthedeceasedpartner,haveapriorrighttoanyclaimofthe
retiredpartnerortherepresentativeofthedeceasedpartneragainstthepersonorpartnership
continuingthebusiness,onaccountoftheretiredordeceasedpartner'sinterestinthedissolved
partnershiporonaccountofanyconsiderationpromisedforsuchinterestorforhisrightinpartnership
property.

Nothinginthisarticleshallbeheldtomodifyanyrightofcreditorstosetasideanyassignmentonthe
groundoffraud.

Theusebythepersonorpartnershipcontinuingthebusinessofthepartnershipname,orthenameofa
deceasedpartneraspartthereof,shallnotofitselfmaketheindividualpropertyofthedeceased
partnerliableforanydebtscontractedbysuchpersonorpartnership.(n)

Art.1841.Whenanypartnerretiresordies,andthebusinessiscontinuedunderanyoftheconditions
setforthintheprecedingarticle,orinArticle1837,secondparagraph,No.2,withoutanysettlementof
accountsasbetweenhimorhisestateandthepersonorpartnershipcontinuingthebusiness,unless
otherwiseagreed,heorhislegalrepresentativeasagainstsuchpersonorpartnershipmayhavethe
valueofhisinterestatthedateofdissolutionascertained,andshallreceiveasanordinarycreditoran
amountequaltothevalueofhisinterestinthedissolvedpartnershipwithinterest,or,athisoptionor
attheoptionofhislegalrepresentative,inlieuofinterest,theprofitsattributabletotheuseofhisright
inthepropertyofthedissolvedpartnership;providedthatthecreditorsofthedissolvedpartnershipas
againsttheseparatecreditors,ortherepresentativeoftheretiredordeceasedpartner,shallhave
priorityonanyclaimarisingunderthisarticle,asprovidedArticle1840,thirdparagraph.(n)

Art.1842.Therighttoanaccountofhisinterestshallaccruetoanypartner,orhislegalrepresentative
asagainstthewindinguppartnersorthesurvivingpartnersorthepersonorpartnershipcontinuingthe
business,atthedateofdissolution,intheabsenceofanyagreementtothecontrary.(n)

CHAPTER4
LIMITEDPARTNERSHIP(n)

Art.1843.Alimitedpartnershipisoneformedbytwoormorepersonsundertheprovisionsofthe
followingarticle,havingasmembersoneormoregeneralpartnersandoneormorelimitedpartners.
Thelimitedpartnersassuchshallnotbeboundbytheobligationsofthepartnership.
Art.1844.Twoormorepersonsdesiringtoformalimitedpartnershipshall:

(1)Signandsweartoacertificate,whichshallstate

(a)Thenameofthepartnership,addingtheretotheword"Limited";
(b)Thecharacterofthebusiness;

(c)Thelocationoftheprincipalplaceofbusiness;

(d)Thenameandplaceofresidenceofeachmember,generalandlimitedpartnersbeingrespectively
designated;

(e)Thetermforwhichthepartnershipistoexist;

(f)Theamountofcashandadescriptionofandtheagreedvalueoftheotherpropertycontributedby
eachlimitedpartner;

(g)Theadditionalcontributions,ifany,tobemadebyeachlimitedpartnerandthetimesatwhichor
eventsonthehappeningofwhichtheyshallbemade;

(h)Thetime,ifagreedupon,whenthecontributionofeachlimitedpartneristobereturned;

(i)Theshareoftheprofitsortheothercompensationbywayofincomewhicheachlimitedpartnershall
receivebyreasonofhiscontribution;

(j)Theright,ifgiven,ofalimitedpartnertosubstituteanassigneeascontributorinhisplace,andthe
termsandconditionsofthesubstitution;

(k)Theright,ifgiven,ofthepartnerstoadmitadditionallimitedpartners;

(l)Theright,ifgiven,ofoneormoreofthelimitedpartnerstopriorityoverotherlimitedpartners,asto
contributionsorastocompensationbywayofincome,andthenatureofsuchpriority;

(m)Theright,ifgiven,oftheremaininggeneralpartnerorpartnerstocontinuethebusinessonthe
death,retirement,civilinterdiction,insanityorinsolvencyofageneralpartner;and

(n)Theright,ifgiven,ofalimitedpartnertodemandandreceivepropertyotherthancashinreturnfor
hiscontribution.

(2)FileforrecordthecertificateintheOfficeoftheSecuritiesandExchangeCommission.
Alimitedpartnershipisformediftherehasbeensubstantialcomplianceingoodfaithwiththeforegoing
requirements.
Art.1845.Thecontributionsofalimitedpartnermaybecashorproperty,butnotservices.

Art.1846.Thesurnameofalimitedpartnershallnotappearinthepartnershipnameunless:

(1)Itisalsothesurnameofageneralpartner,or
(2)Priortothetimewhenthelimitedpartnerbecamesuch,thebusinesshasbeencarriedonundera
nameinwhichhissurnameappeared.

Alimitedpartnerwhosesurnameappearsinapartnershipnamecontrarytotheprovisionsofthefirst
paragraphisliableasageneralpartnertopartnershipcreditorswhoextendcredittothepartnership
withoutactualknowledgethatheisnotageneralpartner.
Art.1847.Ifthecertificatecontainsafalsestatement,onewhosufferslossbyrelianceonsuch
statementmayholdliableanypartytothecertificatewhoknewthestatementtobefalse:

(1)Atthetimehesignedthecertificate,or
(2)Subsequently,butwithinasufficienttimebeforethestatementwasreliedupontoenablehimto
canceloramendthecertificate,ortofileapetitionforitscancellationoramendmentasprovidedin
Article1865.

Art.1848.Alimitedpartnershallnotbecomeliableasageneralpartnerunless,inadditiontothe
exerciseofhisrightsandpowersasalimitedpartner,hetakespartinthecontrolofthebusiness.
Art.1849.Aftertheformationofaliftedpartnership,additionallimitedpartnersmaybeadmittedupon
filinganamendmenttotheoriginalcertificateinaccordancewiththerequirementsofArticle1865.

Art.1850.Ageneralpartnershallhavealltherightsandpowersandbesubjecttoalltherestrictionsand
liabilitiesofapartnerinapartnershipwithoutlimitedpartners.However,withoutthewrittenconsent
orratificationofthespecificactbyallthelimitedpartners,ageneralpartnerorallofthegeneral
partnershavenoauthorityto:

(1)Doanyactincontraventionofthecertificate;
(2)Doanyactwhichwouldmakeitimpossibletocarryontheordinarybusinessofthepartnership;

(3)Confessajudgmentagainstthepartnership;

(4)Possesspartnershipproperty,orassigntheirrightsinspecificpartnershipproperty,forotherthana
partnershippurpose;

(5)Admitapersonasageneralpartner;

(6)Admitapersonasalimitedpartner,unlesstherightsotodoisgiveninthecertificate;

(7)Continuethebusinesswithpartnershippropertyonthedeath,retirement,insanity,civilinterdiction
orinsolvencyofageneralpartner,unlesstherightsotodoisgiveninthecertificate.

Art.1851.Alimitedpartnershallhavethesamerightsasageneralpartnerto:
(1)Havethepartnershipbookskeptattheprincipalplaceofbusinessofthepartnership,andata
reasonablehourtoinspectandcopyanyofthem;
(2)Haveondemandtrueandfullinformationofallthingsaffectingthepartnership,andaformal
accountofpartnershipaffairswhenevercircumstancesrenderitjustandreasonable;and

(3)Havedissolutionandwindingupbydecreeofcourt.

Alimitedpartnershallhavetherighttoreceiveashareoftheprofitsorothercompensationbywayof
income,andtothereturnofhiscontributionasprovidedinArticles1856and1857.
Art.1852.WithoutprejudicetotheprovisionsofArticle1848,apersonwhohascontributedtothe
capitalofabusinessconductedbyapersonorpartnershiperroneouslybelievingthathehasbecomea
limitedpartnerinalimitedpartnership,isnot,byreasonofhisexerciseoftherightsofalimitedpartner,
ageneralpartnerwiththepersonorinthepartnershipcarryingonthebusiness,orboundbythe
obligationsofsuchpersonorpartnership,providedthatonascertainingthemistakehepromptly
renounceshisinterestintheprofitsofthebusiness,orothercompensationbywayofincome.

Art.1853.Apersonmaybeageneralpartnerandalimitedpartnerinthesamepartnershipatthesame
time,providedthatthisfactshallbestatedinthecertificateprovidedforinArticle1844.

Apersonwhoisageneral,andalsoatthesametimealimitedpartner,shallhavealltherightsand
powersandbesubjecttoalltherestrictionsofageneralpartner;exceptthat,inrespecttohis
contribution,heshallhavetherightsagainsttheothermemberswhichhewouldhavehadifhewere
notalsoageneralpartner.

Art.1854.Alimitedpartneralsomayloanmoneytoandtransactotherbusinesswiththepartnership,
and,unlessheisalsoageneralpartner,receiveonaccountofresultingclaimsagainstthepartnership,
withgeneralcreditors,aproratashareoftheassets.Nolimitedpartnershallinrespecttoanysuch
claim:

(1)Receiveorholdascollateralsecurityandpartnershipproperty,or
(2)Receivefromageneralpartnerorthepartnershipanypayment,conveyance,orreleasefromliability
ifatthetimetheassetsofthepartnershiparenotsufficienttodischargepartnershipliabilitiesto
personsnotclaimingasgeneralorlimitedpartners.

Thereceivingofcollateralsecurity,orpayment,conveyance,orreleaseinviolationoftheforegoing
provisionsisafraudonthecreditorsofthepartnership.
Art.1855.Wherethereareseverallimitedpartnersthemembersmayagreethatoneormoreofthe
limitedpartnersshallhaveapriorityoverotherlimitedpartnersastothereturnoftheircontributions,
astotheircompensationbywayofincome,orastoanyothermatter.Ifsuchanagreementismadeit
shallbestatedinthecertificate,andintheabsenceofsuchastatementallthelimitedpartnersshall
standuponequalfooting.

Art.1856.Alimitedpartnermayreceivefromthepartnershiptheshareoftheprofitsorthe
compensationbywayofincomestipulatedforinthecertificate;providedthataftersuchpaymentis
made,whetherfrompropertyofthepartnershiporthatofageneralpartner,thepartnershipassetsare
inexcessofallliabilitiesofthepartnershipexceptliabilitiestolimitedpartnersonaccountoftheir
contributionsandtogeneralpartners.

Art.1857.Alimitedpartnershallnotreceivefromageneralpartneroroutofpartnershippropertyany
partofhiscontributionsuntil:

(1)Allliabilitiesofthepartnership,exceptliabilitiestogeneralpartnersandtolimitedpartnerson
accountoftheircontributions,havebeenpaidorthereremainspropertyofthepartnershipsufficientto
paythem;
(2)Theconsentofallmembersishad,unlessthereturnofthecontributionmayberightfullydemanded
undertheprovisionsofthesecondparagraph;and

(3)Thecertificateiscancelledorsoamendedastosetforththewithdrawalorreduction.

Subjecttotheprovisionsofthefirstparagraph,alimitedpartnermayrightfullydemandthereturnofhis
contribution:
(1)Onthedissolutionofapartnership;or
(2)Whenthedatespecifiedinthecertificateforitsreturnhasarrived,or

(3)Afterhehassixmonths'noticeinwritingtoallothermembers,ifnotimeisspecifiedinthe
certificate,eitherforthereturnofthecontributionorforthedissolutionofthepartnership.

Intheabsenceofanystatementinthecertificatetothecontraryortheconsentofallmembers,a
limitedpartner,irrespectiveofthenatureofhiscontribution,hasonlytherighttodemandandreceive
cashinreturnforhiscontribution.
Alimitedpartnermayhavethepartnershipdissolvedanditsaffairswoundupwhen:

(1)Herightfullybutunsuccessfullydemandsthereturnofhiscontribution,or
(2)Theotherliabilitiesofthepartnershiphavenotbeenpaid,orthepartnershippropertyisinsufficient
fortheirpaymentasrequiredbythefirstparagraph,No.1,andthelimitedpartnerwouldotherwisebe
entitledtothereturnofhiscontribution.

Art.1858.Alimitedpartnerisliabletothepartnership:
(1)Forthedifferencebetweenhiscontributionasactuallymadeandthatstatedinthecertificateas
havingbeenmade;and
(2)Foranyunpaidcontributionwhichheagreedinthecertificatetomakeinthefutureatthetimeand
ontheconditionsstatedinthecertificate.

Alimitedpartnerholdsastrusteeforthepartnership:
(1)Specificpropertystatedinthecertificateascontributedbyhim,butwhichwasnotcontributedor
whichhasbeenwrongfullyreturned,and
(2)Moneyorotherpropertywrongfullypaidorconveyedtohimonaccountofhiscontribution.

Theliabilitiesofalimitedpartnerassetforthinthisarticlecanbewaivedorcompromisedonlybythe
consentofallmembers;butawaiverorcompromiseshallnotaffecttherightofacreditorofa
partnershipwhoextendedcreditorwhoseclaimaroseafterthefilingandbeforeacancellationor
amendmentofthecertificate,toenforcesuchliabilities.
Whenacontributorhasrightfullyreceivedthereturninwholeorinpartofthecapitalofhis
contribution,heisneverthelessliabletothepartnershipforanysum,notinexcessofsuchreturnwith
interest,necessarytodischargeitsliabilitiestoallcreditorswhoextendedcreditorwhoseclaimsarose
beforesuchreturn.

Art.1859.Alimitedpartner'sinterestisassignable.

Asubstitutedlimitedpartnerisapersonadmittedtoalltherightsofalimitedpartnerwhohasdiedor
hasassignedhisinterestinapartnership.

Anassignee,whodoesnotbecomeasubstitutedlimitedpartner,hasnorighttorequireany
informationoraccountofthepartnershiptransactionsortoinspectthepartnershipbooks;heisonly
entitledtoreceivetheshareoftheprofitsorothercompensationbywayofincome,orthereturnofhis
contribution,towhichhisassignorwouldotherwisebeentitled.

Anassigneeshallhavetherighttobecomeasubstitutedlimitedpartnerifallthemembersconsent
theretooriftheassignor,beingthereuntoempoweredbythecertificate,givestheassigneethatright.

Anassigneebecomesasubstitutedlimitedpartnerwhenthecertificateisappropriatelyamendedin
accordancewithArticle1865.

Thesubstitutedlimitedpartnerhasalltherightsandpowers,andissubjecttoalltherestrictionsand
liabilitiesofhisassignor,exceptthoseliabilitiesofwhichhewasignorantatthetimehebecamea
limitedpartnerandwhichcouldnotbeascertainedfromthecertificate.

Thesubstitutionoftheassigneeasalimitedpartnerdoesnotreleasetheassignorfromliabilitytothe
partnershipunderArticles1847and1848.

Art.1860.Theretirement,death,insolvency,insanityorcivilinterdictionofageneralpartnerdissolves
thepartnership,unlessthebusinessiscontinuedbytheremaininggeneralpartners:

(1)Underarightsotodostatedinthecertificate,or
(2)Withtheconsentofallmembers.

Art.1861.Onthedeathofalimitedpartnerhisexecutororadministratorshallhavealltherightsofa
limitedpartnerforthepurposeofsettinghisestate,andsuchpowerasthedeceasedhadtoconstitute
hisassigneeasubstitutedlimitedpartner.
Theestateofadeceasedlimitedpartnershallbeliableforallhisliabilitiesasalimitedpartner.

Art.1862.Ondueapplicationtoacourtofcompetentjurisdictionbyanycreditorofalimitedpartner,
thecourtmaychargetheinterestoftheindebtedlimitedpartnerwithpaymentoftheunsatisfied
amountofsuchclaim,andmayappointareceiver,andmakeallotherorders,directionsandinquiries
whichthecircumstancesofthecasemayrequire.

Theinterestmayberedeemedwiththeseparatepropertyofanygeneralpartner,butmaynotbe
redeemedwithpartnershipproperty.

Theremediesconferredbythefirstparagraphshallnotbedeemedexclusiveofotherswhichmayexist.

NothinginthisChaptershallbeheldtodeprivealimitedpartnerofhisstatutoryexemption.

Art.1863.Insettingaccountsafterdissolutiontheliabilitiesofthepartnershipshallbeentitledto
paymentinthefollowingorder:

(1)Thosetocreditors,intheorderofpriorityasprovidedbylaw,exceptthosetolimitedpartnerson
accountoftheircontributions,andtogeneralpartners;
(2)Thosetolimitedpartnersinrespecttotheirshareoftheprofitsandothercompensationbywayof
incomeontheircontributions;

(3)Thosetolimitedpartnersinrespecttothecapitaloftheircontributions;

(4)Thosetogeneralpartnersotherthanforcapitalandprofits;

(5)Thosetogeneralpartnersinrespecttoprofits;

(6)Thosetogeneralpartnersinrespecttocapital.

Subjecttoanystatementinthecertificateortosubsequentagreement,limitedpartnersshareinthe
partnershipassetsinrespecttotheirclaimsforcapital,andinrespecttotheirclaimsforprofitsorfor
compensationbywayofincomeontheircontributionrespectively,inproportiontotherespective
amountsofsuchclaims.
Art.1864.Thecertificateshallbecancelledwhenthepartnershipisdissolvedoralllimitedpartners
ceasetobesuch.

Acertificateshallbeamendedwhen:

(1)Thereisachangeinthenameofthepartnershiporintheamountorcharacterofthecontributionof
anylimitedpartner;
(2)Apersonissubstitutedasalimitedpartner;

(3)Anadditionallimitedpartnerisadmitted;

(4)Apersonisadmittedasageneralpartner;

(5)Ageneralpartnerretires,dies,becomesinsolventorinsane,orissentencedtocivilinterdictionand
thebusinessiscontinuedunderArticle1860;

(6)Thereisachangeinthecharacterofthebusinessofthepartnership;

(7)Thereisafalseorerroneousstatementinthecertificate;

(8)Thereisachangeinthetimeasstatedinthecertificateforthedissolutionofthepartnershiporfor
thereturnofacontribution;

(9)Atimeisfixedforthedissolutionofthepartnership,orthereturnofacontribution,notimehaving
beenspecifiedinthecertificate,or

(10)Themembersdesiretomakeachangeinanyotherstatementinthecertificateinorderthatitshall
accuratelyrepresenttheagreementamongthem.

Art.1865.Thewritingtoamendacertificateshall:
(1)ConformtotherequirementsofArticle1844asfarasnecessarytosetforthclearlythechangeinthe
certificatewhichitisdesiredtomake;and
(2)Besignedandsworntobyallmembers,andanamendmentsubstitutingalimitedpartneroradding
alimitedorgeneralpartnershallbesignedalsobythemembertobesubstitutedoradded,andwhena
limitedpartneristobesubstituted,theamendmentshallalsobesignedbytheassigninglimited
partner.

Thewritingtocancelacertificateshallbesignedbyallmembers.
Apersondesiringthecancellationoramendmentofacertificate,ifanypersondesignatedinthefirst
andsecondparagraphsasapersonwhomustexecutethewritingrefusestodoso,maypetitionthe
courttoorderacancellationoramendmentthereof.

Ifthecourtfindsthatthepetitionerhasarighttohavethewritingexecutedbyapersonwhorefusesto
doso,itshallordertheOfficeoftheSecuritiesandExchangeCommissionwherethecertificateis
recorded,torecordthecancellationoramendmentofthecertificate;andwhenthecertificateistobe
amended,thecourtshallalsocausetobefiledforrecordinsaidofficeacertifiedcopyofitsdecree
settingforththeamendment.

AcertificateisamendedorcancelledwhenthereisfiledforrecordintheOfficeoftheSecuritiesand
ExchangeCommission,wherethecertificateisrecorded:

(1)Awritinginaccordancewiththeprovisionsofthefirstorsecondparagraph,or
(2)Acertifiedcopyoftheorderofthecourtinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofthefourthparagraph;

(3)Afterthecertificateisdulyamendedinaccordancewiththisarticle,theamendedcertifiedshall
thereafterbeforallpurposesthecertificateprovidedforinthisChapter.

Art.1866.Acontributor,unlessheisageneralpartner,isnotaproperpartytoproceedingsbyor
againstapartnership,exceptwheretheobjectistoenforcealimitedpartner'srightagainstorliabilityto
thepartnership.
Art.1867.AlimitedpartnershipformedunderthelawpriortotheeffectivityofthisCode,maybecome
alimitedpartnershipunderthisChapterbycomplyingwiththeprovisionsofArticle1844,providedthe
certificatesetsforth:

(1)Theamountoftheoriginalcontributionofeachlimitedpartner,andthetimewhenthecontribution
wasmade;and
(2)Thatthepropertyofthepartnershipexceedstheamountsufficienttodischargeitsliabilitiesto
personsnotclaimingasgeneralorlimitedpartnersbyanamountgreaterthanthesumofthe
contributionsofitslimitedpartners.

AlimitedpartnershipformedunderthelawpriortotheeffectivityofthisCode,untilorunlessit
becomesalimitedpartnershipunderthisChapter,shallcontinuetobegovernedbytheprovisionsof
theoldlaw.

TitleX.AGENCY

CHAPTER1
NATURE,FORMANDKINDSOFAGENCY

Art.1868.Bythecontractofagencyapersonbindshimselftorendersomeserviceortodosomethingin
representationoronbehalfofanother,withtheconsentorauthorityofthelatter.(1709a)
Art.1869.Agencymaybeexpress,orimpliedfromtheactsoftheprincipal,fromhissilenceorlackof
action,orhisfailuretorepudiatetheagency,knowingthatanotherpersonisactingonhisbehalf
withoutauthority.

Agencymaybeoral,unlessthelawrequiresaspecificform.(1710a)

Art.1870.Acceptancebytheagentmayalsobeexpress,orimpliedfromhisactswhichcarryoutthe
agency,orfromhissilenceorinactionaccordingtothecircumstances.(n)

Art.1871.Betweenpersonswhoarepresent,theacceptanceoftheagencymayalsobeimpliedifthe
principaldelivershispowerofattorneytotheagentandthelatterreceivesitwithoutanyobjection.(n)

Art.1872.Betweenpersonswhoareabsent,theacceptanceoftheagencycannotbeimpliedfromthe
silenceoftheagent,except:

(1)Whentheprincipaltransmitshispowerofattorneytotheagent,whoreceivesitwithoutany
objection;
(2)Whentheprincipalentruststohimbyletterortelegramapowerofattorneywithrespecttothe
businessinwhichheishabituallyengagedasanagent,andhedidnotreplytotheletterortelegram.(n)

Art.1873.Ifapersonspeciallyinformsanotherorstatesbypublicadvertisementthathehasgivena
powerofattorneytoathirdperson,thelattertherebybecomesadulyauthorizedagent,intheformer
casewithrespecttothepersonwhoreceivedthespecialinformation,andinthelattercasewithregard
toanyperson.
Thepowershallcontinuetobeinfullforceuntilthenoticeisrescindedinthesamemannerinwhichit
wasgiven.(n)

Art.1874.Whenasaleofapieceoflandoranyinterestthereinisthroughanagent,theauthorityofthe
lattershallbeinwriting;otherwise,thesaleshallbevoid.(n)

Art.1875.Agencyispresumedtobeforacompensation,unlessthereisprooftothecontrary.(n)

Art.1876.Anagencyiseithergeneralorspecial.

Theformercomprisesallthebusinessoftheprincipal.Thelatter,oneormorespecifictransactions.
(1712)

Art.1877.Anagencycouchedingeneraltermscomprisesonlyactsofadministration,evenifthe
principalshouldstatethathewithholdsnopowerorthattheagentmayexecutesuchactsashemay
considerappropriate,oreventhoughtheagencyshouldauthorizeageneralandunlimited
management.(n)

Art.1878.Specialpowersofattorneyarenecessaryinthefollowingcases:

(1)Tomakesuchpaymentsasarenotusuallyconsideredasactsofadministration;
(2)Toeffectnovationswhichputanendtoobligationsalreadyinexistenceatthetimetheagencywas
constituted;

(3)Tocompromise,tosubmitquestionstoarbitration,torenouncetherighttoappealfromajudgment,
towaiveobjectionstothevenueofanactionortoabandonaprescriptionalreadyacquired;

(4)Towaiveanyobligationgratuitously;

(5)Toenterintoanycontractbywhichtheownershipofanimmovableistransmittedoracquiredeither
gratuitouslyorforavaluableconsideration;

(6)Tomakegifts,exceptcustomaryonesforcharityorthosemadetoemployeesinthebusiness
managedbytheagent;

(7)Toloanorborrowmoney,unlessthelatteractbeurgentandindispensableforthepreservationof
thethingswhichareunderadministration;

(8)Toleaseanyrealpropertytoanotherpersonformorethanoneyear;

(9)Tobindtheprincipaltorendersomeservicewithoutcompensation;

(10)Tobindtheprincipalinacontractofpartnership;

(11)Toobligatetheprincipalasaguarantororsurety;

(12)Tocreateorconveyrealrightsoverimmovableproperty;

(13)Toacceptorrepudiateaninheritance;

(14)Toratifyorrecognizeobligationscontractedbeforetheagency;

(15)Anyotheractofstrictdominion.(n)

Art.1879.Aspecialpowertosellexcludesthepowertomortgage;andaspecialpowertomortgage
doesnotincludethepowertosell.(n)
Art.1880.Aspecialpowertocompromisedoesnotauthorizesubmissiontoarbitration.(1713a)

Art.1881.Theagentmustactwithinthescopeofhisauthority.Hemaydosuchactsasmaybe
conducivetotheaccomplishmentofthepurposeoftheagency.(1714a)

Art.1882.Thelimitsoftheagent'sauthorityshallnotbeconsideredexceededshouldithavebeen
performedinamannermoreadvantageoustotheprincipalthanthatspecifiedbyhim.(1715)

Art.1883.Ifanagentactsinhisownname,theprincipalhasnorightofactionagainstthepersonswith
whomtheagenthascontracted;neitherhavesuchpersonsagainsttheprincipal.

Insuchcasetheagentistheonedirectlyboundinfavorofthepersonwithwhomhehascontracted,as
ifthetransactionwerehisown,exceptwhenthecontractinvolvesthingsbelongingtotheprincipal.

Theprovisionsofthisarticleshallbeunderstoodtobewithoutprejudicetotheactionsbetweenthe
principalandagent.(1717)

CHAPTER2
OBLIGATIONSOFTHEAGENT

Art.1884.Theagentisboundbyhisacceptancetocarryouttheagency,andisliableforthedamages
which,throughhisnonperformance,theprincipalmaysuffer.
Hemustalsofinishthebusinessalreadybegunonthedeathoftheprincipal,shoulddelayentailany
danger.(1718)

Art.1885.Incaseapersondeclinesanagency,heisboundtoobservethediligenceofagoodfatherofa
familyinthecustodyandpreservationofthegoodsforwardedtohimbytheowneruntilthelatter
shouldappointanagentortakechargeofthegoods.(n)

Art.1886.Shouldtherebeastipulationthattheagentshalladvancethenecessaryfunds,heshallbe
boundtodosoexceptwhentheprincipalisinsolvent.(n)

Art.1887.Intheexecutionoftheagency,theagentshallactinaccordancewiththeinstructionsofthe
principal.

Indefaultthereof,heshalldoallthatagoodfatherofafamilywoulddo,asrequiredbythenatureof
thebusiness.(1719)

Art.1888.Anagentshallnotcarryoutanagencyifitsexecutionwouldmanifestlyresultinlossor
damagetotheprincipal.(n)

Art.1889.Theagentshallbeliablefordamagesif,therebeingaconflictbetweenhisinterestsandthose
oftheprincipal,heshouldpreferhisown.(n)

Art.1890.Iftheagenthasbeenempoweredtoborrowmoney,hemayhimselfbethelenderatthe
currentrateofinterest.Ifhehasbeenauthorizedtolendmoneyatinterest,hecannotborrowit
withouttheconsentoftheprincipal.(n)

Art.1891.Everyagentisboundtorenderanaccountofhistransactionsandtodelivertotheprincipal
whateverhemayhavereceivedbyvirtueoftheagency,eventhoughitmaynotbeowingtothe
principal.

Everystipulationexemptingtheagentfromtheobligationtorenderanaccountshallbevoid.(1720a)

Art.1892.Theagentmayappointasubstituteiftheprincipalhasnotprohibitedhimfromdoingso;but
heshallberesponsiblefortheactsofthesubstitute:

(1)Whenhewasnotgiventhepowertoappointone;
(2)Whenhewasgivensuchpower,butwithoutdesignatingtheperson,andthepersonappointedwas
notoriouslyincompetentorinsolvent.

Allactsofthesubstituteappointedagainsttheprohibitionoftheprincipalshallbevoid.(1721)
Art.1893.InthecasesmentionedinNos.1and2oftheprecedingarticle,theprincipalmayfurthermore
bringanactionagainstthesubstitutewithrespecttotheobligationswhichthelatterhascontracted
underthesubstitution.(1722a)

Art.1894.Theresponsibilityoftwoormoreagents,eventhoughtheyhavebeenappointed
simultaneously,isnotsolidary,ifsolidarityhasnotbeenexpresslystipulated.(1723)

Art.1895.Ifsolidarityhasbeenagreedupon,eachoftheagentsisresponsibleforthenonfulfillmentof
agency,andforthefaultornegligenceofhisfellowsagents,exceptinthelattercasewhenthefellow
agentsactedbeyondthescopeoftheirauthority.(n)

Art.1896.Theagentowesinterestonthesumshehasappliedtohisownusefromthedayonwhichhe
didso,andonthosewhichhestillowesaftertheextinguishmentoftheagency.(1724a)

Art.1897.Theagentwhoactsassuchisnotpersonallyliabletothepartywithwhomhecontracts,
unlessheexpresslybindshimselforexceedsthelimitsofhisauthoritywithoutgivingsuchparty
sufficientnoticeofhispowers.(1725)

Art.1898.Iftheagentcontractsinthenameoftheprincipal,exceedingthescopeofhisauthority,and
theprincipaldoesnotratifythecontract,itshallbevoidifthepartywithwhomtheagentcontractedis
awareofthelimitsofthepowersgrantedbytheprincipal.Inthiscase,however,theagentisliableifhe
undertooktosecuretheprincipal'sratification.(n)

Art.1899.Ifadulyauthorizedagentactsinaccordancewiththeordersoftheprincipal,thelattercannot
setuptheignoranceoftheagentastocircumstanceswhereofhehimselfwas,oroughttohavebeen,
aware.(n)

Art.1900.Sofarasthirdpersonsareconcerned,anactisdeemedtohavebeenperformedwithinthe
scopeoftheagent'sauthority,ifsuchactiswithinthetermsofthepowerofattorney,aswritten,even
iftheagenthasinfactexceededthelimitsofhisauthorityaccordingtoanunderstandingbetweenthe
principalandtheagent.(n)

Art.1901.Athirdpersoncannotsetupthefactthattheagenthasexceededhispowers,iftheprincipal
hasratified,orhassignifiedhiswillingnesstoratifytheagent'sacts.(n)

Art.1902.Athirdpersonwithwhomtheagentwishestocontractonbehalfoftheprincipalmayrequire
thepresentationofthepowerofattorney,ortheinstructionsasregardstheagency.Privateorsecret
ordersandinstructionsoftheprincipaldonotprejudicethirdpersonswhohaverelieduponthepower
ofattorneyorinstructionsshownthem.(n)

Art.1903.Thecommissionagentshallberesponsibleforthegoodsreceivedbyhiminthetermsand
conditionsandasdescribedintheconsignment,unlessuponreceivingthemheshouldmakeawritten
statementofthedamageanddeteriorationsufferedbythesame.(n)

Art.1904.Thecommissionagentwhohandlesgoodsofthesamekindandmark,whichbelongto
differentowners,shalldistinguishthembycountermarks,anddesignatethemerchandiserespectively
belongingtoeachprincipal.(n)

Art.1905.Thecommissionagentcannot,withouttheexpressorimpliedconsentoftheprincipal,sellon
credit.Shouldhedoso,theprincipalmaydemandfromhimpaymentincash,butthecommissionagent
shallbeentitledtoanyinterestorbenefit,whichmayresultfromsuchsale.(n)

Art.1906.Shouldthecommissionagent,withauthorityoftheprincipal,selloncredit,heshallsoinform
theprincipal,withastatementofthenamesofthebuyers.Shouldhefailtodoso,thesaleshallbe
deemedtohavebeenmadeforcashinsofarastheprincipalisconcerned.(n)

Art.1907.Shouldthecommissionagentreceiveonasale,inadditiontotheordinarycommission,
anothercalledaguaranteecommission,heshallbeartheriskofcollectionandshallpaytheprincipal
theproceedsofthesaleonthesametermsagreeduponwiththepurchaser.(n)

Art.1908.Thecommissionagentwhodoesnotcollectthecreditsofhisprincipalatthetimewhenthey
becomedueanddemandableshallbeliablefordamages,unlessheprovesthatheexerciseddue
diligenceforthatpurpose.(n)

Art.1909.Theagentisresponsiblenotonlyforfraud,butalsofornegligence,whichshallbejudgedwith
moreorlessrigorbythecourts,accordingtowhethertheagencywasorwasnotforacompensation.
(1726)

CHAPTER3
OBLIGATIONSOFTHEPRINCIPAL

Art.1910.Theprincipalmustcomplywithalltheobligationswhichtheagentmayhavecontracted
withinthescopeofhisauthority.
Asforanyobligationwhereintheagenthasexceededhispower,theprincipalisnotboundexceptwhen
heratifiesitexpresslyortacitly.(1727)

Art.1911.Evenwhentheagenthasexceededhisauthority,theprincipalissolidarilyliablewiththe
agentiftheformerallowedthelattertoactasthoughhehadfullpowers.(n)

Art.1912.Theprincipalmustadvancetotheagent,shouldthelattersorequest,thesumsnecessaryfor
theexecutionoftheagency.

Shouldtheagenthaveadvancedthem,theprincipalmustreimbursehimtherefor,evenifthebusiness
orundertakingwasnotsuccessful,providedtheagentisfreefromallfault.

Thereimbursementshallincludeinterestonthesumsadvanced,fromthedayonwhichtheadvance
wasmade.(1728)

Art.1913.Theprincipalmustalsoindemnifytheagentforallthedamageswhichtheexecutionofthe
agencymayhavecausedthelatter,withoutfaultornegligenceonhispart.(1729)

Art.1914.Theagentmayretaininpledgethethingswhicharetheobjectoftheagencyuntilthe
principaleffectsthereimbursementandpaystheindemnitysetforthinthetwoprecedingarticles.
(1730)

Art.1915.Iftwoormorepersonshaveappointedanagentforacommontransactionorundertaking,
theyshallbesolidarilyliabletotheagentforalltheconsequencesoftheagency.(1731)

Art.1916.Whentwopersonscontractwithregardtothesamething,oneofthemwiththeagentand
theotherwiththeprincipal,andthetwocontractsareincompatiblewitheachother,thatofpriordate
shallbepreferred,withoutprejudicetotheprovisionsofArticle1544.(n)

Art.1917.Inthecasereferredtointheprecedingarticle,iftheagenthasactedingoodfaith,the
principalshallbeliableindamagestothethirdpersonwhosecontractmustberejected.Iftheagent
actedinbadfaith,healoneshallberesponsible.(n)

Art.1918.Theprincipalisnotliablefortheexpensesincurredbytheagentinthefollowingcases:

(1)Iftheagentactedincontraventionoftheprincipal'sinstructions,unlessthelattershouldwishto
availhimselfofthebenefitsderivedfromthecontract;
(2)Whentheexpenseswereduetothefaultoftheagent;

(3)Whentheagentincurredthemwithknowledgethatanunfavorableresultwouldensue,ifthe
principalwasnotawarethereof;

(4)Whenitwasstipulatedthattheexpenseswouldbebornebytheagent,orthatthelatterwouldbe
allowedonlyacertainsum.(n)

CHAPTER4
MODESOFEXTINGUISHMENTOFAGENCY

Art.1919.Agencyisextinguished:
(1)Byitsrevocation;
(2)Bythewithdrawaloftheagent;

(3)Bythedeath,civilinterdiction,insanityorinsolvencyoftheprincipaloroftheagent;

(4)Bythedissolutionofthefirmorcorporationwhichentrustedoracceptedtheagency;

(5)Bytheaccomplishmentoftheobjectorpurposeoftheagency;

(6)Bytheexpirationoftheperiodforwhichtheagencywasconstituted.(1732a)

Art.1920.Theprincipalmayrevoketheagencyatwill,andcompeltheagenttoreturnthedocument
evidencingtheagency.Suchrevocationmaybeexpressorimplied.(1733a)
Art.1921.Iftheagencyhasbeenentrustedforthepurposeofcontractingwithspecifiedpersons,its
revocationshallnotprejudicethelatteriftheywerenotgivennoticethereof.(1734)

Art.1922.Iftheagenthadgeneralpowers,revocationoftheagencydoesnotprejudicethirdpersons
whoactedingoodfaithandwithoutknowledgeoftherevocation.Noticeoftherevocationina
newspaperofgeneralcirculationisasufficientwarningtothirdpersons.(n)

Art.1923.Theappointmentofanewagentforthesamebusinessortransactionrevokestheprevious
agencyfromthedayonwhichnoticethereofwasgiventotheformeragent,withoutprejudicetothe
provisionsofthetwoprecedingarticles.(1735a)

Art.1924.Theagencyisrevokediftheprincipaldirectlymanagesthebusinessentrustedtotheagent,
dealingdirectlywiththirdpersons.(n)

Art.1925.Whentwoormoreprincipalshavegrantedapowerofattorneyforacommontransaction,
anyoneofthemmayrevokethesamewithouttheconsentoftheothers.(n)

Art.1926.Ageneralpowerofattorneyisrevokedbyaspecialonegrantedtoanotheragent,asregards
thespecialmatterinvolvedinthelatter.(n)

Art.1927.Anagencycannotberevokedifabilateralcontractdependsuponit,orifitisthemeansof
fulfillinganobligationalreadycontracted,orifapartnerisappointedmanagerofapartnershipinthe
contractofpartnershipandhisremovalfromthemanagementisunjustifiable.(n)

Art.1928.Theagentmaywithdrawfromtheagencybygivingduenoticetotheprincipal.Ifthelatter
shouldsufferanydamagebyreasonofthewithdrawal,theagentmustindemnifyhimtherefor,unless
theagentshouldbasehiswithdrawalupontheimpossibilityofcontinuingtheperformanceofthe
agencywithoutgravedetrimenttohimself.(1736a)

Art.1929.Theagent,evenifheshouldwithdrawfromtheagencyforavalidreason,mustcontinueto
actuntiltheprincipalhashadreasonableopportunitytotakethenecessarystepstomeetthesituation.
(1737a)

Art.1930.Theagencyshallremaininfullforceandeffectevenafterthedeathoftheprincipal,ifithas
beenconstitutedinthecommoninterestofthelatterandoftheagent,orintheinterestofathird
personwhohasacceptedthestipulationinhisfavor.(n)

Art.1931.Anythingdonebytheagent,withoutknowledgeofthedeathoftheprincipalorofanyother
causewhichextinguishestheagency,isvalidandshallbefullyeffectivewithrespecttothirdpersons
whomayhavecontractedwithhimingoodfaith.(1738)

Art.1932.Iftheagentdies,hisheirsmustnotifytheprincipalthereof,andinthemeantimeadoptsuch
measuresasthecircumstancesmaydemandintheinterestofthelatter.(1739)

TitleXI.LOAN

GENERALPROVISIONS

Art.1933.Bythecontractofloan,oneofthepartiesdeliverstoanother,eithersomethingnot
consumablesothatthelattermayusethesameforacertaintimeandreturnit,inwhichcasethe
contractiscalledacommodatum;ormoneyorotherconsumablething,upontheconditionthatthe
sameamountofthesamekindandqualityshallbepaid,inwhichcasethecontractissimplycalleda
loanormutuum.
Commodatumisessentiallygratuitous.

Simpleloanmaybegratuitousorwithastipulationtopayinterest.

Incommodatumthebailorretainstheownershipofthethingloaned,whileinsimpleloan,ownership
passestotheborrower.(1740a)

Art.1934.Anacceptedpromisetodeliversomethingbywayofcommodatumorsimpleloanisbinding
uponparties,butthecommodatumorsimpleloanitselfshallnotbeperfecteduntilthedeliveryofthe
objectofthecontract.(n)

CHAPTER1
COMMODATUM

SECTION1NatureofCommodatum

Art.1935.Thebaileeincommodatumacquirestheusedofthethingloanedbutnotitsfruits;ifany
compensationistobepaidbyhimwhoacquirestheuse,thecontractceasestobeacommodatum.
(1941a)
Art.1936.Consumablegoodsmaybethesubjectofcommodatumifthepurposeofthecontractisnot
theconsumptionoftheobject,aswhenitismerelyforexhibition.(n)

Art.1937.Movableorimmovablepropertymaybetheobjectofcommodatum.(n)

Art.1938.Thebailorincommodatumneednotbetheownerofthethingloaned.(n)

Art.1939.Commodatumispurelypersonalincharacter.Consequently:

(1)Thedeathofeitherthebailororthebaileeextinguishesthecontract;
(2)Thebaileecanneitherlendnorleasetheobjectofthecontracttoathirdperson.However,the
membersofthebailee'shouseholdmaymakeuseofthethingloaned,unlessthereisastipulationto
thecontrary,orunlessthenatureofthethingforbidssuchuse.(n)

Art.1940.Astipulationthatthebaileemaymakeuseofthefruitsofthethingloanedisvalid.(n)

SECTION2.ObligationsoftheBailee

Art.1941.Thebaileeisobligedtopayfortheordinaryexpensesfortheuseandpreservationofthe
thingloaned.(1743a)
Art.1942.Thebaileeisliableforthelossofthething,evenifitshouldbethroughafortuitousevent:

(1)Ifhedevotesthethingtoanypurposedifferentfromthatforwhichithasbeenloaned;
(2)Ifhekeepsitlongerthantheperiodstipulated,oraftertheaccomplishmentoftheuseforwhichthe
commodatumhasbeenconstituted;

(3)Ifthethingloanedhasbeendeliveredwithappraisalofitsvalue,unlessthereisastipulation
exemptionthebaileefromresponsibilityincaseofafortuitousevent;

(4)Ifhelendsorleasesthethingtoathirdperson,whoisnotamemberofhishousehold;

(5)If,beingabletosaveeitherthethingborrowedorhisownthing,hechosetosavethelatter.(1744a
and1745)

Art.1943.Thebaileedoesnotanswerforthedeteriorationofthethingloaneddueonlytotheuse
thereofandwithouthisfault.(1746)
Art.1944.Thebaileecannotretainthethingloanedonthegroundthatthebailoroweshimsomething,
eventhoughitmaybebyreasonofexpenses.However,thebaileehasarightofretentionfordamages
mentionedinArticle1951.(1747a)

Art.1945.Whentherearetwoormorebaileestowhomathingisloanedinthesamecontract,theyare
liablesolidarily.(1748a)

SECTION3.ObligationsoftheBailor

Art.1946.Thebailorcannotdemandthereturnofthethingloanedtillaftertheexpirationoftheperiod
stipulated,oraftertheaccomplishmentoftheuseforwhichthecommodatumhasbeenconstituted.
However,ifinthemeantime,heshouldhaveurgentneedofthething,hemaydemanditsreturnor
temporaryuse.
Incaseoftemporaryusebythebailor,thecontractofcommodatumissuspendedwhilethethingisin
thepossessionofthebailor.(1749a)

Art.1947.Thebailormaydemandthethingatwill,andthecontractualrelationiscalledaprecarium,in
thefollowingcases:

(1)Ifneitherthedurationofthecontractnortheusetowhichthethingloanedshouldbedevoted,has
beenstipulated;or
(2)Iftheuseofthethingismerelytoleratedbytheowner.(1750a)

Art.1948.Thebailormaydemandtheimmediatereturnofthethingifthebaileecommitsanyactof
ingratitudespecifiedinArticle765.(n)
Art.1949.Thebailorshallrefundtheextraordinaryexpensesduringthecontractforthepreservationof
thethingloaned,providedthebaileebringsthesametotheknowledgeofthebailorbeforeincurring
them,exceptwhentheyaresourgentthatthereplytothenotificationcannotbeawaitedwithout
danger.

Iftheextraordinaryexpensesariseontheoccasionoftheactualuseofthethingbythebailee,even
thoughheactedwithoutfault,theyshallbeborneequallybyboththebailorandthebailee,unless
thereisastipulationtothecontrary.(1751a)

Art.1950.If,forthepurposeofmakinguseofthething,thebaileeincursexpensesotherthanthose
referredtoinArticles1941and1949,heisnotentitledtoreimbursement.(n)

Art.1951.Thebailorwho,knowingtheflawsofthethingloaned,doesnotadvisethebaileeofthesame,
shallbeliabletothelatterforthedamageswhichhemaysufferbyreasonthereof.(1752)

Art.1952.Thebailorcannotexempthimselffromthepaymentofexpensesordamagesbyabandoning
thethingtothebailee.(n)

CHAPTER2
SIMPLELOANORMUTUUM

Art.1953.Apersonwhoreceivesaloanofmoneyoranyotherfungiblethingacquirestheownership
thereof,andisboundtopaytothecreditoranequalamountofthesamekindandquality.(1753a)
Art.1954.Acontractwherebyonepersontransferstheownershipofnonfungiblethingstoanother
withtheobligationonthepartofthelattertogivethingsofthesamekind,quantity,andqualityshallbe
consideredabarter.(n)

Art.1955.TheobligationofapersonwhoborrowsmoneyshallbegovernedbytheprovisionsofArticles
1249and1250ofthisCode.

Ifwhatwasloanedisafungiblethingotherthanmoney,thedebtorowesanotherthingofthesame
kind,quantityandquality,evenifitshouldchangeinvalue.Incaseitisimpossibletodeliverthesame
kind,itsvalueatthetimeoftheperfectionoftheloanshallbepaid.(1754a)

Art.1956.Nointerestshallbedueunlessithasbeenexpresslystipulatedinwriting.(1755a)

Art.1957.Contractsandstipulations,underanycloakordevicewhatever,intendedtocircumventthe
lawsagainstusuryshallbevoid.Theborrowermayrecoverinaccordancewiththelawsonusury.(n)

Art.1958.Inthedeterminationoftheinterest,ifitispayableinkind,itsvalueshallbeappraisedatthe
currentpriceoftheproductsorgoodsatthetimeandplaceofpayment.(n)

Art.1959.WithoutprejudicetotheprovisionsofArticle2212,interestdueandunpaidshallnotearn
interest.However,thecontractingpartiesmaybystipulationcapitalizetheinterestdueandunpaid,
whichasaddedprincipal,shallearnnewinterest.(n)

Art.1960.Iftheborrowerpaysinterestwhentherehasbeennostipulationtherefor,theprovisionsof
thisCodeconcerningsolutioindebiti,ornaturalobligations,shallbeapplied,asthecasemaybe.(n)

Art.1961.UsuriouscontractsshallbegovernedbytheUsuryLawandotherspeciallaws,sofarasthey
arenotinconsistentwiththisCode.(n)

TitleXII.DEPOSIT

CHAPTER1
DEPOSITINGENERALANDITSDIFFERENTKINDS

Art.1962.Adepositisconstitutedfromthemomentapersonreceivesathingbelongingtoanother,
withtheobligationofsafelykeepingitandofreturningthesame.Ifthesafekeepingofthething
deliveredisnottheprincipalpurposeofthecontract,thereisnodepositbutsomeothercontract.
(1758a)
Art.1963.Anagreementtoconstituteadepositisbinding,butthedeposititselfisnotperfecteduntil
thedeliveryofthething.(n)

Art.1964.Adepositmaybeconstitutedjudiciallyorextrajudicially.(1759)

Art.1965.Adepositisagratuitouscontract,exceptwhenthereisanagreementtothecontrary,or
unlessthedepositaryisengagedinthebusinessofstoringgoods.(1760a)

Art.1966.Onlymovablethingsmaybetheobjectofadeposit.(1761)

Art.1967.Anextrajudicialdepositiseithervoluntaryornecessary.(1762)

CHAPTER2
VOLUNTARYDEPOSIT

SECTION1.GeneralProvisions

Art.1968.Avoluntarydepositisthatwhereinthedeliveryismadebythewillofthedepositor.Adeposit
mayalsobemadebytwoormorepersonseachofwhombelieveshimselfentitledtothething
depositedwithathirdperson,whoshalldeliveritinapropercasetotheonetowhomitbelongs.(1763)
Art.1969.Acontractofdepositmaybeenteredintoorallyorinwriting.(n)

Art.1970.Ifapersonhavingcapacitytocontractacceptsadepositmadebyonewhoisincapacitated,
theformershallbesubjecttoalltheobligationsofadepositary,andmaybecompelledtoreturnthe
thingbytheguardian,oradministrator,ofthepersonwhomadethedeposit,orbythelatterhimselfif
heshouldacquirecapacity.(1764)

Art.1971.Ifthedeposithasbeenmadebyacapacitatedpersonwithanotherwhoisnot,thedepositor
shallonlyhaveanactiontorecoverthethingdepositedwhileitisstillinthepossessionofthe
depositary,ortocompelthelattertopayhimtheamountbywhichhemayhaveenrichedorbenefited
himselfwiththethingoritsprice.However,ifathirdpersonwhoacquiredthethingactedinbadfaith,
thedepositormaybringanactionagainsthimforitsrecovery.(1765a)

SECTION2.ObligationsoftheDepositary

Art.1972.Thedepositaryisobligedtokeepthethingsafelyandtoreturnit,whenrequired,tothe
depositor,ortohisheirsandsuccessors,ortothepersonwhomayhavebeendesignatedinthe
contract.Hisresponsibility,withregardtothesafekeepingandthelossofthething,shallbegoverned
bytheprovisionsofTitleIofthisBook.
Ifthedepositisgratuitous,thisfactshallbetakenintoaccountindeterminingthedegreeofcarethat
thedepositarymustobserve.(1766a)

Art.1973.Unlessthereisastipulationtothecontrary,thedepositarycannotdepositthethingwitha
thirdperson.Ifdepositwithathirdpersonisallowed,thedepositaryisliableforthelossifhedeposited
thethingwithapersonwhoismanifestlycarelessorunfit.Thedepositaryisresponsibleforthe
negligenceofhisemployees.(n)

Art.1974.Thedepositarymaychangethewayofthedepositifunderthecircumstanceshemay
reasonablypresumethatthedepositorwouldconsenttothechangeifheknewofthefactsofthe
situation.However,beforethedepositarymaymakesuchchange,heshallnotifythedepositorthereof
andwaitforhisdecision,unlessdelaywouldcausedanger.(n)

Art.1975.Thedepositaryholdingcertificates,bonds,securitiesorinstrumentswhichearninterestshall
beboundtocollectthelatterwhenitbecomesdue,andtotakesuchstepsasmaybenecessaryinorder
thatthesecuritiesmaypreservetheirvalueandtherightscorrespondingtothemaccordingtolaw.

Theaboveprovisionshallnotapplytocontractsfortherentofsafetydepositboxes.(n)

Art.1976.Unlessthereisastipulationtothecontrary,thedepositarymaycomminglegrainorother
articlesofthesamekindandquality,inwhichcasethevariousdepositorsshallownorhavea
proportionateinterestinthemass.(n)

Art.1977.Thedepositarycannotmakeuseofthethingdepositedwithouttheexpresspermissionofthe
depositor.

Otherwise,heshallbeliablefordamages.

However,whenthepreservationofthethingdepositedrequiresitsuse,itmustbeusedbutonlyfor
thatpurpose.(1767a)

Art.1978.Whenthedepositaryhaspermissiontousethethingdeposited,thecontractlosesthe
conceptofadepositandbecomesaloanorcommodatum,exceptwheresafekeepingisstillthe
principalpurposeofthecontract.

Thepermissionshallnotbepresumed,anditsexistencemustbeproved.(1768a)

Art.1979.Thedepositaryisliableforthelossofthethingthroughafortuitousevent:

(1)Ifitissostipulated;
(2)Ifheusesthethingwithoutthedepositor'spermission;

(3)Ifhedelaysitsreturn;

(4)Ifheallowsotherstouseit,eventhoughhehimselfmayhavebeenauthorizedtousethesame.(n)

Art.1980.Fixed,savings,andcurrentdepositsofmoneyinbanksandsimilarinstitutionsshallbe
governedbytheprovisionsconcerningsimpleloan.(n)
Art.1981.Whenthethingdepositedisdeliveredclosedandsealed,thedepositarymustreturnitinthe
samecondition,andheshallbeliablefordamagesshouldthesealorlockbebrokenthroughhisfault.

Faultonthepartofthedepositaryispresumed,unlessthereisprooftothecontrary.

Asregardsthevalueofthethingdeposited,thestatementofthedepositorshallbeaccepted,whenthe
forcibleopeningisimputabletothedepositary,shouldtherebenoprooftothecontrary.However,the
courtsmaypassuponthecredibilityofthedepositorwithrespecttothevalueclaimedbyhim.

Whenthesealorlockisbroken,withorwithoutthedepositary'sfault,heshallkeepthesecretofthe
deposit.(1769a)

Art.1982.Whenitbecomesnecessarytoopenalockedboxorreceptacle,thedepositaryispresumed
authorizedtodoso,ifthekeyhasbeendeliveredtohim;orwhentheinstructionsofthedepositoras
regardsthedepositcannotbeexecutedwithoutopeningtheboxorreceptacle.(n)

Art.1983.Thethingdepositedshallbereturnedwithallitsproducts,accessoriesandaccessions.

Shouldthedepositconsistofmoney,theprovisionsrelativetoagentsinarticle1896shallbeappliedto
thedepositary.(1770)

Art.1984.Thedepositarycannotdemandthatthedepositorprovehisownershipofthethingdeposited.

Nevertheless,shouldhediscoverthatthethinghasbeenstolenandwhoitstrueowneris,hemust
advisethelatterofthedeposit.

Iftheowner,inspiteofsuchinformation,doesnotclaimitwithintheperiodofonemonth,the
depositaryshallberelievedofallresponsibilitybyreturningthethingdepositedtothedepositor.

Ifthedepositaryhasreasonablegroundstobelievethatthethinghasnotbeenlawfullyacquiredbythe
depositor,theformermayreturnthesame.(1771a)

Art.1985.Whentherearetwoormoredepositors,iftheyarenotsolidary,andthethingadmitsof
division,eachonecannotdemandmorethanhisshare.

Whenthereissolidarityorthethingdoesnotadmitofdivision,theprovisionsofArticles1212and1214
shallgovern.However,ifthereisastipulationthatthethingshouldbereturnedtooneofthe
depositors,thedepositaryshallreturnitonlytothepersondesignated.(1772a)

Art.1986.Ifthedepositorshouldlosehiscapacitytocontractafterhavingmadethedeposit,thething
cannotbereturnedexcepttothepersonswhomayhavetheadministrationofhispropertyandrights.
(1773)

Art.1987.Ifatthetimethedepositwasmadeaplacewasdesignatedforthereturnofthething,the
depositarymusttakethethingdepositedtosuchplace;buttheexpensesfortransportationshallbe
bornebythedepositor.

Ifnoplacehasbeendesignatedforthereturn,itshallbemadewherethethingdepositedmaybe,even
ifitshouldnotbethesameplacewherethedepositwasmade,providedthattherewasnomaliceon
thepartofthedepositary.(1774)

Art.1988.Thethingdepositedmustbereturnedtothedepositorupondemand,eventhougha
specifiedperiodortimeforsuchreturnmayhavebeenfixed.

Thisprovisionshallnotapplywhenthethingisjudiciallyattachedwhileinthedepositary'spossession,
orshouldhehavebeennotifiedoftheoppositionofathirdpersontothereturnortheremovalofthe
thingdeposited.Inthesecases,thedepositarymustimmediatelyinformthedepositorofthe
attachmentoropposition.(1775)

Art.1989.Unlessthedepositisforavaluableconsideration,thedepositarywhomayhavejustifiable
reasonsfornotkeepingthethingdepositedmay,evenbeforethetimedesignated,returnittothe
depositor;andifthelattershouldrefusetoreceiveit,thedepositarymaysecureitsconsignationfrom
thecourt.(1776a)

Art.1990.Ifthedepositarybyforcemajeureorgovernmentorderlosesthethingandreceivesmoneyor
anotherthinginitsplace,heshalldeliverthesumorotherthingtothedepositor.(1777a)

Art.1991.Thedepositor'sheirwhoingoodfaithmayhavesoldthethingwhichhedidnotknowwas
deposited,shallonlybeboundtoreturnthepricehemayhavereceivedortoassignhisrightofaction
againstthebuyerincasethepricehasnotbeenpaidhim.(1778)

SECTION3.ObligationsoftheDepositor

Art.1992.Ifthedepositisgratuitous,thedepositorisobligedtoreimbursethedepositaryforthe
expenseshemayhaveincurredforthepreservationofthethingdeposited.(1779a)
Art.1993.Thedepositorshallreimbursethedepositaryforanylossarisingfromthecharacterofthe
thingdeposited,unlessatthetimeoftheconstitutionofthedeposittheformerwasnotawareof,or
wasnotexpectedtoknowthedangerouscharacterofthething,orunlesshenotifiedthedepositaryof
thesame,orthelatterwasawareofitwithoutadvicefromthedepositor.(n)

Art.1994.Thedepositarymayretainthethinginpledgeuntilthefullpaymentofwhatmaybeduehim
byreasonofthedeposit.(1780)

Art.1995.Adeposititsextinguished:

(1)Uponthelossordestructionofthethingdeposited;
(2)Incaseofagratuitousdeposit,uponthedeathofeitherthedepositororthedepositary.(n)

CHAPTER3
NECESSARYDEPOSIT

Art.1996.Adepositisnecessary:
(1)Whenitismadeincompliancewithalegalobligation;
(2)Whenittakesplaceontheoccasionofanycalamity,suchasfire,storm,flood,pillage,shipwreck,or
othersimilarevents.(1781a)

Art.1997.ThedepositreferredtoinNo.1oftheprecedingarticleshallbegovernedbytheprovisionsof
thelawestablishingit,andincaseofitsdeficiency,bytherulesonvoluntarydeposit.
ThedepositmentionedinNo.2oftheprecedingarticleshallberegulatedbytheprovisionsconcerning
voluntarydepositandbyArticle2168.(1782)

Art.1998.Thedepositofeffectsmadebythetravellersinhotelsorinnsshallalsoberegardedas
necessary.Thekeepersofhotelsorinnsshallberesponsibleforthemasdepositaries,providedthat
noticewasgiventothem,ortotheiremployees,oftheeffectsbroughtbytheguestsandthat,onthe
partofthelatter,theytaketheprecautionswhichsaidhotelkeepersortheirsubstitutesadvised
relativetothecareandvigilanceoftheireffects.(1783)

Art.1999.Thehotelkeeperisliableforthevehicles,animalsandarticleswhichhavebeenintroducedor
placedintheannexesofthehotel.(n)

Art.2000.Theresponsibilityreferredtointhetwoprecedingarticlesshallincludethelossof,orinjury
tothepersonalpropertyoftheguestscausedbytheservantsoremployeesofthekeepersofhotelsor
innsaswellasstrangers;butnotthatwhichmayproceedfromanyforcemajeure.Thefactthat
travellersareconstrainedtorelyonthevigilanceofthekeeperofthehotelsorinnsshallbeconsidered
indeterminingthedegreeofcarerequiredofhim.(1784a)

Art.2001.Theactofathieforrobber,whohasenteredthehotelisnotdeemedforcemajeure,unlessit
isdonewiththeuseofarmsorthroughanirresistibleforce.(n)

Art.2002.Thehotelkeeperisnotliableforcompensationifthelossisduetotheactsoftheguest,his
family,servantsorvisitors,orifthelossarisesfromthecharacterofthethingsbroughtintothehotel.
(n)

Art.2003.Thehotelkeepercannotfreehimselffromresponsibilitybypostingnoticestotheeffectthat
heisnotliableforthearticlesbroughtbytheguest.Anystipulationbetweenthehotelkeeperandthe
guestwherebytheresponsibilityoftheformerassetforthinarticles1998to2001issuppressedor
diminishedshallbevoid.(n)

Art.2004.Thehotelkeeperhasarighttoretainthethingsbroughtintothehotelbytheguest,asa
securityforcreditsonaccountoflodging,andsuppliesusuallyfurnishedtohotelguests.(n)

CHAPTER4
SEQUESTRATIONORJUDICIALDEPOSIT

Art.2005.Ajudicialdepositorsequestrationtakesplacewhenanattachmentorseizureofpropertyin
litigationisordered.(1785)
Art.2006.Movableaswellasimmovablepropertymaybetheobjectofsequestration.(1786)

Art.2007.Thedepositaryofpropertyorobjectssequestratedcannotberelievedofhisresponsibility
untilthecontroversywhichgaverisetheretohascometoanend,unlessthecourtsoorders.(1787a)

Art.2008.Thedepositaryofpropertysequestratedisboundtocomply,withrespecttothesame,with
alltheobligationsofagoodfatherofafamily.(1788)

Art.2009.AstomattersnotprovidedforinthisCode,judicialsequestrationshallbegovernedbythe
RulesofCourt.(1789)

TitleXIII.ALEATORYCONTRACTS

GENERALPROVISIONS

Art.2010.Byanaleatorycontract,oneofthepartiesorbothreciprocallybindthemselvestogiveorto
dosomethinginconsiderationofwhattheothershallgiveordouponthehappeningofaneventwhich
isuncertain,orwhichistooccuratanindeterminatetime.(1790)

CHAPTER1
INSURANCE

Art.2011.Thecontractofinsuranceisgovernedbyspeciallaws.Mattersnotexpresslyprovidedforin
suchspeciallawsshallberegulatedbythisCode.(n)
Art.2012.AnypersonwhoisforbiddenfromreceivinganydonationunderArticle739cannotbenamed
beneficiaryofalifeinsurancepolicybythepersonwhocannotmakeanydonationtohim,accordingto
saidarticle.(n)

CHAPTER2
GAMBLING

Art.2013.Agameofchanceisthatwhichdependsmoreonchanceorhazardthanorskillorability.For
thepurposesofthefollowingarticles,incaseofdoubtagameisdeemedtobeoneofchance.(n)
Art.2014.Noactioncanbemaintainedbythewinnerforthecollectionofwhathehaswoninagameof
chance.Butanyloserinagameofchancemayrecoverhislossfromthewinner,withlegalinterestfrom
thetimehepaidtheamountlost,andsubsidiarilyfromtheoperatorormanagerofthegamblinghouse.
(1799a)

Art.2015.Ifcheatingordeceitiscommittedbythewinner,he,andsubsidiarilytheoperatorormanager
ofthegamblinghouse,shallpaybywayofexemplarydamages,notlessthantheequivalentofthesum
lost,inadditiontothelatteramount.Ifboththewinnerandtheloserhaveperpetratedfraud,noaction
forrecoverycanbebroughtbyeither.(n)

Art.2016.Iftheloserrefusesorneglectstobringanactiontorecoverwhathasbeenlost,hisorher
creditors,spouse,descendantsorotherpersonsentitledtobesupportedbythelosermayinstitutethe
action.Thesumtherebyobtainedshallbeappliedtothecreditors'claims,ortothesupportofthe
spouseorrelatives,asthecasemaybe.(n)

Art.2017.TheprovisionsofArticle2014and2016applywhentwoormorepersonsbetinagameof
chance,althoughtheytakenoactivepartinthegameitself.(1799a)

Art.2018.Ifacontractwhichpurportstobeforthedeliveryofgoods,securitiesorsharesofstockis
enteredintowiththeintentionthatthedifferencebetweenthepricestipulatedandtheexchangeor
marketpriceatthetimeofthepretendeddeliveryshallbepaidbythelosertothewinner,the
transactionisnullandvoid.Thelosermayrecoverwhathehaspaid.(n)

Art.2019.Bettingontheresultofsports,athleticcompetitions,orgamesofskillmaybeprohibitedby
localordinances.(n)

Art.2020.Theloserinanygamewhichisnotoneofchance,whenthereisnolocalordinancewhich
prohibitsbettingtherein,isunderobligationtopayhisloss,unlesstheamountthereofisexcessive
underthecircumstances.Inthelattercase,thecourtshallreducethelosstothepropersum.(1801a)

CHAPTER3
LIFEANNUITY

Art.2021.Thealeatorycontractoflifeannuitybindsthedebtortopayanannualpensionorincome
duringthelifeofoneormoredeterminatepersonsinconsiderationofacapitalconsistingofmoneyor
otherproperty,whoseownershipistransferredtohimatoncewiththeburdenoftheincome.(1802a)
Art.2022.Theannuitymaybeconstituteduponthelifeofthepersonwhogivesthecapital,uponthatof
athirdperson,oruponthelivesofvariouspersons,allofwhommustbelivingatthetimetheannuityis
established.

Itmayalsobeconstitutedinfavorofthepersonorpersonsuponwhoselifeorlivesthecontractis
enteredinto,orinfavorofanotherorotherpersons.(1803)

Art.2023.Lifeannuityshallbevoidifconstituteduponthelifeofapersonwhowasalreadydeadatthe
timethecontractwasenteredinto,orwhowasatthattimesufferingfromanillnesswhichcausedhis
deathwithintwentydaysfollowingsaiddate.(1804)

Art.2024.Thelackofpaymentoftheincomeduedoesnotauthorizetherecipientofthelifeannuityto
demandthereimbursementofthecapitalortoretakepossessionofthepropertyalienated,unless
thereisastipulationtothecontrary;heshallhaveonlyarightjudiciallytoclaimthepaymentofthe
incomeinarrearsandtorequireasecurityforthefutureincome,unlessthereisastipulationtothe
contrary.(1805a)

Art.2025.Theincomecorrespondingtotheyearinwhichthepersonenjoyingitdiesshallbepaidin
proportiontothedaysduringwhichhelived;iftheincomeshouldbepaidbyinstallmentsinadvance,
thewholeamountoftheinstallmentwhichbegantorunduringhislifeshallbepaid.(1806)

Art.2026.Hewhoconstitutesanannuitybygratuitoustitleuponhisproperty,mayprovideatthetime
theannuityisestablishedthatthesameshallnotbesubjecttoexecutionorattachmentonaccountof
theobligationsoftherecipientoftheannuity.Iftheannuitywasconstitutedinfraudofcreditors,the
lattermayaskfortheexecutionorattachmentoftheproperty.(1807a)

Art.2027.Noannuityshallbeclaimedwithoutfirstprovingtheexistenceofthepersonuponwhoselife
theannuityisconstituted.(1808)

TitleXIV.COMPROMISESANDARBITRATIONS

CHAPTER1
COMPROMISES

Art.2028.Acompromiseisacontractwherebytheparties,bymakingreciprocalconcessions,avoida
litigationorputanendtoonealreadycommenced.(1809a)
Art.2029.Thecourtshallendeavortopersuadethelitigantsinacivilcasetoagreeuponsomefair
compromise.(n)

Art.2030.Everycivilactionorproceedingshallbesuspended:

(1)Ifwillingnesstodiscussapossiblecompromiseisexpressedbyoneorbothparties;or
(2)Ifitappearsthatoneoftheparties,beforethecommencementoftheactionorproceeding,offered
todiscussapossiblecompromisebuttheotherpartyrefusedtheoffer.

Thedurationandtermsofthesuspensionofthecivilactionorproceedingandsimilarmattersshallbe
governedbysuchprovisionsoftherulesofcourtastheSupremeCourtshallpromulgate.Saidrulesof
courtshalllikewiseprovidefortheappointmentanddutiesofamicablecompounders.(n)
Art.2031.Thecourtsmaymitigatethedamagestobepaidbythelosingpartywhohasshownasincere
desireforacompromise.(n)

Art.2032.Thecourt'sapprovalisnecessaryincompromisesenteredintobyguardians,parents,
absentee'srepresentatives,andadministratorsorexecutorsofdecedent'sestates.(1810a)

Art.2033.Juridicalpersonsmaycompromiseonlyintheformandwiththerequisiteswhichmaybe
necessarytoalienatetheirproperty.(1812a)

Art.2034.Theremaybeacompromiseuponthecivilliabilityarisingfromanoffense;butsuch
compromiseshallnotextinguishthepublicactionfortheimpositionofthelegalpenalty.(1813)

Art.2035.Nocompromiseuponthefollowingquestionsshallbevalid:

(1)Thecivilstatusofpersons;
(2)Thevalidityofamarriageoralegalseparation;

(3)Anygroundforlegalseparation;

(4)Futuresupport;

(5)Thejurisdictionofcourts;

(6)Futurelegitime.(1814a)

Art.2036.Acompromisecomprisesonlythoseobjectswhicharedefinitelystatedtherein,orwhichby
necessaryimplicationfromitstermsshouldbedeemedtohavebeenincludedinthesame.
Ageneralrenunciationofrightsisunderstoodtoreferonlytothosethatareconnectedwiththedispute
whichwasthesubjectofthecompromise.(1815)

Art.2037.Acompromisehasuponthepartiestheeffectandauthorityofresjudicata;butthereshallbe
noexecutionexceptincompliancewithajudicialcompromise.(1816)

Art.2038.Acompromiseinwhichthereismistake,fraud,violence,intimidation,undueinfluence,or
falsityofdocuments,issubjecttotheprovisionsofArticle1330ofthisCode.

However,oneofpartiescannotsetupamistakeoffactasagainsttheotherifthelatter,byvirtueofthe
compromise,haswithdrawnfromalitigationalreadycommenced.(1817a)

Art.2039.Whenthepartiescompromisegenerallyonalldifferenceswhichtheymighthavewitheach
other,thediscoveryofdocumentsreferringtooneormorebutnottoallofthequestionssettledshall
notitselfbeacauseforannulmentorrescissionofthecompromise,unlesssaiddocumentshavebeen
concealedbyoneoftheparties.

Butthecompromisemaybeannulledorrescindedifitrefersonlytoonethingtowhichoneofthe
partieshasnoright,asshownbythenewlydiscovereddocuments.(n)

Art.2040.Ifafteralitigationhasbeendecidedbyafinaljudgment,acompromiseshouldbeagreed
upon,eitherorbothpartiesbeingunawareoftheexistenceofthefinaljudgment,thecompromisemay
berescinded.

Ignoranceofajudgmentwhichmayberevokedorsetasideisnotavalidgroundforattackinga
compromise.(1819a)

Art.2041.Ifoneofthepartiesfailsorrefusestoabidebythecompromise,theotherpartymayeither
enforcethecompromiseorregarditasrescindedandinsistuponhisoriginaldemand.(n)

CHAPTER2
ARBITRATIONS

Art.2042.Thesamepersonswhomayenterintoacompromisemaysubmittheircontroversiestoone
ormorearbitratorsfordecision.(1820a)
Art.2043.TheprovisionsoftheprecedingChapteruponcompromisesshallalsobeapplicableto
arbitrations.(1821a)

Art.2044.Anystipulationthatthearbitrators'awardordecisionshallbefinal,isvalid,withoutprejudice
toArticles2038,2039,and2040.(n)

Art.2045.Anyclausegivingoneofthepartiespowertochoosemorearbitratorsthantheotherisvoid
andofnoeffect.(n)

Art.2046.Theappointmentofarbitratorsandtheprocedureforarbitrationshallbegovernedbythe
provisionsofsuchrulesofcourtastheSupremeCourtshallpromulgate.(n)

TitleXV.GUARANTY

CHAPTER1
NATUREANDEXTENTOFGUARANTY

Art.2047.Byguarantyaperson,calledtheguarantor,bindshimselftothecreditortofulfillthe
obligationoftheprincipaldebtorincasethelattershouldfailtodoso.
Ifapersonbindshimselfsolidarilywiththeprincipaldebtor,theprovisionsofSection4,Chapter3,TitleI
ofthisBookshallbeobserved.Insuchcasethecontractiscalledasuretyship.(1822a)

Art.2048.Aguarantyisgratuitous,unlessthereisastipulationtothecontrary.(n)

Art.2049.Amarriedwomanmayguaranteeanobligationwithoutthehusband'sconsent,butshallnot
therebybindtheconjugalpartnership,exceptincasesprovidedbylaw.(n)

Art.2050.Ifaguarantyisenteredintowithouttheknowledgeorconsent,oragainstthewillofthe
principaldebtor,theprovisionsofArticles1236and1237shallapply.(n)

Art.2051.Aguarantymaybeconventional,legalorjudicial,gratuitous,orbyoneroustitle.

Itmayalsobeconstituted,notonlyinfavoroftheprincipaldebtor,butalsoinfavoroftheother
guarantor,withthelatter'sconsent,orwithouthisknowledge,orevenoverhisobjection.(1823)

Art.2052.Aguarantycannotexistwithoutavalidobligation.

Nevertheless,aguarantymaybeconstitutedtoguaranteetheperformanceofavoidableoran
unenforceablecontract.Itmayalsoguaranteeanaturalobligation.(1824a)

Art.2053.Aguarantymayalsobegivenassecurityforfuturedebts,theamountofwhichisnotyet
known;therecanbenoclaimagainsttheguarantoruntilthedebtisliquidated.Aconditionalobligation
mayalsobesecured.(1825a)

Art.2054.Aguarantormaybindhimselfforless,butnotformorethantheprincipaldebtor,bothas
regardstheamountandtheonerousnatureoftheconditions.

Shouldhehaveboundhimselfformore,hisobligationsshallbereducedtothelimitsofthatofthe
debtor.(1826)

Art.2055.Aguarantyisnotpresumed;itmustbeexpressandcannotextendtomorethanwhatis
stipulatedtherein.

Ifitbesimpleorindefinite,itshallcompromisenotonlytheprincipalobligation,butalsoallits
accessories,includingthejudicialcosts,providedwithrespecttothelatter,thattheguarantorshallonly
beliableforthosecostsincurredafterhehasbeenjudiciallyrequiredtopay.(1827a)

Art.2056.Onewhoisobligedtofurnishaguarantorshallpresentapersonwhopossessesintegrity,
capacitytobindhimself,andsufficientpropertytoanswerfortheobligationwhichheguarantees.The
guarantorshallbesubjecttothejurisdictionofthecourtoftheplacewherethisobligationistobe
compliedwith.(1828a)

Art.2057.Iftheguarantorshouldbeconvictedinfirstinstanceofacrimeinvolvingdishonestyorshould
becomeinsolvent,thecreditormaydemandanotherwhohasallthequalificationsrequiredinthe
precedingarticle.Thecaseisexceptedwherethecreditorhasrequiredandstipulatedthataspecified
personshouldbetheguarantor.(1829a)

CHAPTER2
EFFECTSOFGUARANTY

SECTION1.EffectsofGuaranty
BetweentheGuarantorandtheCreditor

Art.2058.Theguarantorcannotbecompelledtopaythecreditorunlessthelatterhasexhaustedallthe
propertyofthedebtor,andhasresortedtoallthelegalremediesagainstthedebtor.(1830a)
Art.2059.Theexcussionshallnottakeplace:

(1)Iftheguarantorhasexpresslyrenouncedit;
(2)Ifhehasboundhimselfsolidarilywiththedebtor;

(3)Incaseofinsolvencyofthedebtor;

(4)Whenhehasabsconded,orcannotbesuedwithinthePhilippinesunlesshehasleftamanageror
representative;

(5)Ifitmaybepresumedthatanexecutiononthepropertyoftheprincipaldebtorwouldnotresultin
thesatisfactionoftheobligation.(1831a)

Art.2060.Inorderthattheguarantormaymakeuseofthebenefitofexclusion,hemustsetitup
againstthecreditoruponthelatter'sdemandforpaymentfromhim,andpointouttothecreditor
availablepropertyofthedebtorwithinPhilippineterritory,sufficienttocovertheamountofthedebt.
(1832)
Art.2061.Theguarantorhavingfulfilledalltheconditionsrequiredintheprecedingarticle,thecreditor
whoisnegligentinexhaustingthepropertypointedoutshallsuffertheloss,totheextentofsaid
property,fortheinsolvencyofthedebtorresultingfromsuchnegligence.(1833a)

Art.2062.Ineveryactionbythecreditor,whichmustbeagainsttheprincipaldebtoralone,exceptin
thecasesmentionedinArticle2059,theformershallaskthecourttonotifytheguarantoroftheaction.
Theguarantormayappearsothathemay,ifhesodesire,setupsuchdefensesasaregrantedhimby
law.ThebenefitofexcussionmentionedinArticle2058shallalwaysbeunimpaired,evenifjudgment
shouldberenderedagainsttheprincipaldebtorandtheguarantorincaseofappearancebythelatter.
(1834a)

Art.2063.Acompromisebetweenthecreditorandtheprincipaldebtorbenefitstheguarantorbutdoes
notprejudicehim.Thatwhichisenteredintobetweentheguarantorandthecreditorbenefitsbutdoes
notprejudicetheprincipaldebtor.(1835a)

Art.2064.Theguarantorofaguarantorshallenjoythebenefitofexcussion,bothwithrespecttothe
guarantorandtotheprincipaldebtor.(1836)

Art.2065.Shouldtherebeseveralguarantorsofonlyonedebtorandforthesamedebt,theobligation
toanswerforthesameisdividedamongall.Thecreditorcannotclaimfromtheguarantorsexceptthe
shareswhichtheyarerespectivelyboundtopay,unlesssolidarityhasbeenexpresslystipulated.

Thebenefitofdivisionagainstthecoguarantorsceasesinthesamecasesandforthesamereasonsas
thebenefitofexcussionagainsttheprincipaldebtor.(1837)

SECTION2.EffectsofGuaranty
BetweentheDebtorandtheGuarantor

Art.2066.Theguarantorwhopaysforadebtormustbeindemnifiedbythelatter.
Theindemnitycomprises:

(1)Thetotalamountofthedebt;
(2)Thelegalintereststhereonfromthetimethepaymentwasmadeknowntothedebtor,eventhough
itdidnotearninterestforthecreditor;

(3)Theexpensesincurredbytheguarantorafterhavingnotifiedthedebtorthatpaymenthadbeen
demandedofhim;

(4)Damages,iftheyaredue.(1838a)

Art.2067.Theguarantorwhopaysissubrogatedbyvirtuethereoftoalltherightswhichthecreditor
hadagainstthedebtor.
Iftheguarantorhascompromisedwiththecreditor,hecannotdemandofthedebtormorethanwhat
hehasreallypaid.(1839)

Art.2068.Iftheguarantorshouldpaywithoutnotifyingthedebtor,thelattermayenforceagainsthim
allthedefenseswhichhecouldhavesetupagainstthecreditoratthetimethepaymentwasmade.
(1840)

Art.2069.Ifthedebtwasforaperiodandtheguarantorpaiditbeforeitbecamedue,hecannot
demandreimbursementofthedebtoruntiltheexpirationoftheperiodunlessthepaymenthasbeen
ratifiedbythedebtor.(1841a)

Art.2070.Iftheguarantorhaspaidwithoutnotifyingthedebtor,andthelatternotbeingawareofthe
payment,repeatsthepayment,theformerhasnoremedywhateveragainstthedebtor,butonlyagainst
thecreditor.Nevertheless,incaseofagratuitousguaranty,iftheguarantorwaspreventedbya
fortuitouseventfromadvisingthedebtorofthepayment,andthecreditorbecomesinsolvent,the
debtorshallreimbursetheguarantorfortheamountpaid.(1842a)

Art.2071.Theguarantor,evenbeforehavingpaid,mayproceedagainsttheprincipaldebtor:

(1)Whenheissuedforthepayment;
(2)Incaseofinsolvencyoftheprincipaldebtor;

(3)Whenthedebtorhasboundhimselftorelievehimfromtheguarantywithinaspecifiedperiod,and
thisperiodhasexpired;

(4)Whenthedebthasbecomedemandable,byreasonoftheexpirationoftheperiodforpayment;

(5)Afterthelapseoftenyears,whentheprincipalobligationhasnofixedperiodforitsmaturity,unless
itbeofsuchnaturethatitcannotbeextinguishedexceptwithinaperiodlongerthantenyears;

(6)Iftherearereasonablegroundstofearthattheprincipaldebtorintendstoabscond;

(7)Iftheprincipaldebtorisinimminentdangerofbecominginsolvent.

Inallthesecases,theactionoftheguarantoristoobtainreleasefromtheguaranty,ortodemanda
securitythatshallprotecthimfromanyproceedingsbythecreditorandfromthedangerofinsolvency
ofthedebtor.(1834a)
Art.2072.Ifone,attherequestofanother,becomesaguarantorforthedebtofathirdpersonwhois
notpresent,theguarantorwhosatisfiesthedebtmaysueeitherthepersonsorequestingorthedebtor
forreimbursement.(n)

SECTION3.EffectsofGuarantyasBetweenCoGuarantors

Art.2073.Whentherearetwoormoreguarantorsofthesamedebtorandforthesamedebt,theone
amongthemwhohaspaidmaydemandofeachoftheothersthesharewhichisproportionallyowing
fromhim.
Ifanyoftheguarantorsshouldbeinsolvent,hisshareshallbebornebytheothers,includingthepayer,
inthesameproportion.

Theprovisionsofthisarticleshallnotbeapplicable,unlessthepaymenthasbeenmadebyvirtueofa
judicialdemandorunlesstheprincipaldebtorisinsolvent.(1844a)

Art.2074.Inthecaseoftheprecedingarticle,thecoguarantorsmaysetupagainsttheonewhopaid,
thesamedefenseswhichwouldhavepertainedtotheprincipaldebtoragainstthecreditor,andwhich
arenotpurelypersonaltothedebtor.(1845)

Art.2075.Asubguarantor,incaseoftheinsolvencyoftheguarantorforwhomheboundhimself,is
responsibletothecoguarantorsinthesametermsastheguarantor.(1846)

CHAPTER3
EXTINGUISHMENTOFGUARANTY

Art.2076.Theobligationoftheguarantorisextinguishedatthesametimeasthatofthedebtor,andfor
thesamecausesasallotherobligations.(1847)
Art.2077.Ifthecreditorvoluntarilyacceptsimmovableorotherpropertyinpaymentofthedebt,even
ifheshouldafterwardslosethesamethrougheviction,theguarantorisreleased.(1849)

Art.2078.Areleasemadebythecreditorinfavorofoneoftheguarantors,withouttheconsentofthe
others,benefitsalltotheextentoftheshareoftheguarantortowhomithasbeengranted.(1850)

Art.2079.Anextensiongrantedtothedebtorbythecreditorwithouttheconsentoftheguarantor
extinguishestheguaranty.Themerefailureonthepartofthecreditortodemandpaymentafterthe
debthasbecomeduedoesnotofitselfconstituteanyextentionoftimereferredtoherein.(1851a)

Art.2080.Theguarantors,eventhoughtheybesolidary,arereleasedfromtheirobligationwheneverby
someactofthecreditortheycannotbesubrogatedtotherights,mortgages,andpreferenceofthe
latter.(1852)

Art.2081.Theguarantormaysetupagainstthecreditorallthedefenseswhichpertaintotheprincipal
debtorandareinherentinthedebt;butnotthosethatarepersonaltothedebtor.(1853)

CHAPTER4
LEGALANDJUDICIALBONDS

Art.2082.Thebondsmanwhoistobeofferedinvirtueofaprovisionoflaworofajudicialordershall
havethequalificationsprescribedinArticle2056andinspeciallaws.(1854a)
Art.2083.Ifthepersonboundtogiveabondinthecasesoftheprecedingarticle,shouldnotbeableto
doso,apledgeormortgageconsideredsufficienttocoverhisobligationshallbeadmittedinlieu
thereof.(1855)

Art.2084.Ajudicialbondsmancannotdemandtheexhaustionofthepropertyoftheprincipaldebtor.

Asubsuretyinthesamecase,cannotdemandtheexhaustionofthepropertyofthedebtorofthe
surety.

TitleXVI.PLEDGE,MORTGAGEANDANTICHRESIS

CHAPTER1
PROVISIONSCOMMONTOPLEDGEANDMORTGAGE

Art.2085.Thefollowingrequisitesareessentialtothecontractsofpledgeandmortgage:
(1)Thattheybeconstitutedtosecurethefulfillmentofaprincipalobligation;
(2)Thatthepledgorormortgagorbetheabsoluteownerofthethingpledgedormortgaged;

(3)Thatthepersonsconstitutingthepledgeormortgagehavethefreedisposaloftheirproperty,andin
theabsencethereof,thattheybelegallyauthorizedforthepurpose.

Thirdpersonswhoarenotpartiestotheprincipalobligationmaysecurethelatterbypledgingor
mortgagingtheirownproperty.(1857)
Art.2086.TheprovisionsofArticle2052areapplicabletoapledgeormortgage.(n)

Art.2087.Itisalsooftheessenceofthesecontractsthatwhentheprincipalobligationbecomesdue,
thethingsinwhichthepledgeormortgageconsistsmaybealienatedforthepaymenttothecreditor.
(1858)

Art.2088.Thecreditorcannotappropriatethethingsgivenbywayofpledgeormortgage,ordisposeof
them.Anystipulationtothecontraryisnullandvoid.(1859a)

Art.2089.Apledgeormortgageisindivisible,eventhoughthedebtmaybedividedamongthe
successorsininterestofthedebtororofthecreditor.

Therefore,thedebtor'sheirwhohaspaidapartofthedebtcannotaskfortheproportionate
extinguishmentofthepledgeormortgageaslongasthedebtisnotcompletelysatisfied.

Neithercanthecreditor'sheirwhoreceivedhisshareofthedebtreturnthepledgeorcancelthe
mortgage,totheprejudiceoftheotherheirswhohavenotbeenpaid.

Fromtheseprovisionsisexpectedthecaseinwhich,therebeingseveralthingsgiveninmortgageor
pledge,eachoneofthemguaranteesonlyadeterminateportionofthecredit.

Thedebtor,inthiscase,shallhavearighttotheextinguishmentofthepledgeormortgageasthe
portionofthedebtforwhicheachthingisspeciallyanswerableissatisfied.(1860)

Art.2090.Theindivisibilityofapledgeormortgageisnotaffectedbythefactthatthedebtorsarenot
solidarilyliable.(n)

Art.2091.Thecontractofpledgeormortgagemaysecureallkindsofobligations,betheypureor
subjecttoasuspensiveorresolutorycondition.(1861)

Art.2092.Apromisetoconstituteapledgeormortgagegivesriseonlytoapersonalactionbetweenthe
contractingparties,withoutprejudicetothecriminalresponsibilityincurredbyhimwhodefrauds
another,byofferinginpledgeormortgageasunencumbered,thingswhichheknewweresubjectto
someburden,orbymisrepresentinghimselftobetheownerofthesame.(1862)

CHAPTER2
PLEDGE

Art.2093.InadditiontotherequisitesprescribedinArticle2085,itisnecessary,inordertoconstitute
thecontractofpledge,thatthethingpledgedbeplacedinthepossessionofthecreditor,orofathird
personbycommonagreement.(1863)
Art.2094.Allmovableswhicharewithincommercemaybepledged,providedtheyaresusceptibleof
possession.(1864)

Art.2095.Incorporealrights,evidencedbynegotiableinstruments,billsoflading,sharesofstock,
bonds,warehousereceiptsandsimilardocumentsmayalsobepledged.Theinstrumentprovingthe
rightpledgedshallbedeliveredtothecreditor,andifnegotiable,mustbeindorsed.(n)

Art.2096.Apledgeshallnottakeeffectagainstthirdpersonsifadescriptionofthethingpledgedand
thedateofthepledgedonotappearinapublicinstrument.(1865a)

Art.2097.Withtheconsentofthepledgee,thethingpledgedmaybealienatedbythepledgoror
owner,subjecttothepledge.Theownershipofthethingpledgedistransmittedtothevendeeor
transfereeassoonasthepledgeeconsentstothealienation,butthelattershallcontinueinpossession.
(n)

Art.2098.Thecontractofpledgegivesarighttothecreditortoretainthethinginhispossessionorin
thatofathirdpersontowhomithasbeendelivered,untilthedebtispaid.(1866a)

Art.2099.Thecreditorshalltakecareofthethingpledgedwiththediligenceofagoodfatherofa
family;hehasarighttothereimbursementoftheexpensesmadeforitspreservation,andisliablefor
itslossordeterioration,inconformitywiththeprovisionsofthisCode.(1867)

Art.2100.Thepledgeecannotdepositthethingpledgedwithathirdperson,unlessthereisastipulation
authorizinghimtodoso.

Thepledgeeisresponsiblefortheactsofhisagentsoremployeeswithrespecttothethingpledged.(n)

Art.2101.ThepledgorhasthesameresponsibilityasabailorincommodatuminthecaseunderArticle
1951.(n)

Art.2102.Ifthepledgeearnsorproducesfruits,income,dividends,orinterests,thecreditorshall
compensatewhathereceiveswiththosewhichareowinghim;butifnoneareowinghim,orinsofaras
theamountmayexceedthatwhichisdue,heshallapplyittotheprincipal.Unlessthereisastipulation
tothecontrary,thepledgeshallextendtotheinterestandearningsoftherightpledged.

Incaseofapledgeofanimals,theiroffspringshallpertaintothepledgororownerofanimalspledged,
butshallbesubjecttothepledge,ifthereisnostipulationtothecontrary.(1868a)

Art.2103.Unlessthethingpledgedisexpropriated,thedebtorcontinuestobetheownerthereof.

Nevertheless,thecreditormaybringtheactionswhichpertaintotheownerofthethingpledgedin
ordertorecoveritfrom,ordefenditagainstathirdperson.(1869)

Art.2104.Thecreditorcannotusethethingpledged,withouttheauthorityoftheowner,andifhe
shoulddoso,orshouldmisusethethinginanyotherway,theownermayaskthatitbejudiciallyor
extrajudiciallydeposited.Whenthepreservationofthethingpledgedrequiresitsuse,itmustbeused
bythecreditorbutonlyforthatpurpose.(1870a)

Art.2105.Thedebtorcannotaskforthereturnofthethingpledgedagainstthewillofthecreditor,
unlessanduntilhehaspaidthedebtanditsinterest,withexpensesinapropercase.(1871)

Art.2106.Ifthroughthenegligenceorwilfulactofthepledgee,thethingpledgedisindangerofbeing
lostorimpaired,thepledgormayrequirethatitbedepositedwithathirdperson.(n)

Art.2107.Iftherearereasonablegroundstofearthedestructionorimpairmentofthethingpledged,
withoutthefaultofthepledgee,thepledgormaydemandthereturnofthething,uponofferinganother
thinginpledge,providedthelatterisofthesamekindastheformerandnotofinferiorquality,and
withoutprejudicetotherightofthepledgeeundertheprovisionsofthefollowingarticle.

Thepledgeeisboundtoadvisethepledgor,withoutdelay,ofanydangertothethingpledged.(n)

Art.2108.If,withoutthefaultofthepledgee,thereisdangerofdestruction,impairment,ordiminution
invalueofthethingpledged,hemaycausethesametobesoldatapublicsale.Theproceedsofthe
auctionshallbeasecurityfortheprincipalobligationinthesamemannerasthethingoriginally
pledged.(n)

Art.2109.Ifthecreditorisdeceivedonthesubstanceorqualityofthethingpledged,hemayeither
claimanotherthinginitsstead,ordemandimmediatepaymentoftheprincipalobligation.(n)

Art.2110.Ifthethingpledgedisreturnedbythepledgeetothepledgororowner,thepledgeis
extinguished.Anystipulationtothecontraryshallbevoid.

Ifsubsequenttotheperfectionofthepledge,thethingisinthepossessionofthepledgororowner,
thereisaprimafaciepresumptionthatthesamehasbeenreturnedbythepledgee.Thissame
presumptionexistsifthethingpledgedisinthepossessionofathirdpersonwhohasreceiveditfrom
thepledgororowneraftertheconstitutionofthepledge.(n)

Art.2111.Astatementinwritingbythepledgeethatherenouncesorabandonsthepledgeissufficient
toextinguishthepledge.Forthispurpose,neithertheacceptancebythepledgororowner,northe
returnofthethingpledgedisnecessary,thepledgeebecomingadepositary.(n)

Art.2112.Thecreditortowhomthecredithasnotbeensatisfiedinduetime,mayproceedbeforea
NotaryPublictothesaleofthethingpledged.Thissaleshallbemadeatapublicauction,andwith
notificationtothedebtorandtheownerofthethingpledgedinapropercase,statingtheamountfor
whichthepublicsaleistobeheld.Ifatthefirstauctionthethingisnotsold,asecondonewiththe
sameformalitiesshallbeheld;andifatthesecondauctionthereisnosaleeither,thecreditormay
appropriatethethingpledged.Inthiscaseheshallbeobligedtogiveanacquittanceforhisentireclaim.
(1872a)

Art.2113.Atthepublicauction,thepledgororownermaybid.Heshall,moreover,haveabetterrightif
heshouldofferthesametermsasthehighestbidder.

Thepledgeemayalsobid,buthisoffershallnotbevalidifheistheonlybidder.(n)

Art.2114.Allbidsatthepublicauctionshalloffertopaythepurchasepriceatonce.Ifanyotherbidis
accepted,thepledgeeisdeemedtohavebeenreceivedthepurchaseprice,asfarasthepledgoror
ownerisconcerned.(n)

Art.2115.Thesaleofthethingpledgedshallextinguishtheprincipalobligation,whetherornotthe
proceedsofthesaleareequaltotheamountoftheprincipalobligation,interestandexpensesina
propercase.Ifthepriceofthesaleismorethansaidamount,thedebtorshallnotbeentitledtothe
excess,unlessitisotherwiseagreed.Ifthepriceofthesaleisless,neithershallthecreditorbeentitled
torecoverthedeficiency,notwithstandinganystipulationtothecontrary.(n)

Art.2116.Afterthepublicauction,thepledgeeshallpromptlyadvisethepledgororowneroftheresult
thereof.(n)

Art.2117.Anythirdpersonwhohasanyrightinortothethingpledgedmaysatisfytheprincipal
obligationassoonasthelatterbecomesdueanddemandable.(n)

Art.2118.Ifacreditwhichhasbeenpledgedbecomesduebeforeitisredeemed,thepledgeemay
collectandreceivetheamountdue.Heshallapplythesametothepaymentofhisclaim,anddeliverthe
surplus,shouldtherebeany,tothepledgor.(n)

Art.2119.Iftwoormorethingsarepledged,thepledgeemaychoosewhichhewillcausetobesold,
unlessthereisastipulationtothecontrary.Hemaydemandthesaleofonlyasmanyofthethingsas
arenecessaryforthepaymentofthedebt.(n)

Art.2120.Ifathirdpartysecuresanobligationbypledginghisownmovablepropertyunderthe
provisionsofArticle2085heshallhavethesamerightsasaguarantorunderArticles2066to2070,and
Articles2077to2081.Heisnotprejudicedbyanywaiverofdefensebytheprincipalobligor.(n)

Art.2121.Pledgescreatedbyoperationoflaw,suchasthosereferredtoinArticles546,1731,and1994,
aregovernedbytheforegoingarticlesonthepossession,careandsaleofthethingaswellasonthe
terminationofthepledge.However,afterpaymentofthedebtandexpenses,theremainderofthe
priceofthesaleshallbedeliveredtotheobligor.(n)

Art.2122.Athingunderapledgebyoperationoflawmaybesoldonlyafterdemandoftheamountfor
whichthethingisretained.Thepublicauctionshalltakeplacewithinonemonthaftersuchdemand.If,
withoutjustgrounds,thecreditordoesnotcausethepublicsaletobeheldwithinsuchperiod,the
debtormayrequirethereturnofthething.(n)

Art.2123.Withregardtopawnshopsandotherestablishments,whichareengagedinmakingloans
securedbypledges,thespeciallawsandregulationsconcerningthemshallbeobserved,and
subsidiarily,theprovisionsofthisTitle.(1873a)

CHAPTER3
MORTGAGE

Art.2124.Onlythefollowingpropertymaybetheobjectofacontractofmortgage:
(1)Immovables;
(2)Alienablerealrightsinaccordancewiththelaws,imposeduponimmovables.

Nevertheless,movablesmaybetheobjectofachattelmortgage.(1874a)
Art.2125.InadditiontotherequisitesstatedinArticle2085,itisindispensable,inorderthatamortgage
maybevalidlyconstituted,thatthedocumentinwhichitappearsberecordedintheRegistryof
Property.Iftheinstrumentisnotrecorded,themortgageisneverthelessbindingbetweentheparties.

Thepersonsinwhosefavorthelawestablishesamortgagehavenootherrightthantodemandthe
executionandtherecordingofthedocumentinwhichthemortgageisformalized.(1875a)

Art.2126.Themortgagedirectlyandimmediatelysubjectsthepropertyuponwhichitisimposed,
whoeverthepossessormaybe,tothefulfillmentoftheobligationforwhosesecurityitwasconstituted.
(1876)

Art.2127.Themortgageextendstothenaturalaccessions,totheimprovements,growingfruits,andthe
rentsorincomenotyetreceivedwhentheobligationbecomesdue,andtotheamountoftheindemnity
grantedorowingtotheproprietorfromtheinsurersofthepropertymortgaged,orinvirtueof
expropriationforpublicuse,withthedeclarations,amplificationsandlimitationsestablishedbylaw,
whethertheestateremainsinthepossessionofthemortgagor,oritpassesintothehandsofathird
person.(1877)

Art.2128.Themortgagecreditmaybealienatedorassignedtoathirdperson,inwholeorinpart,with
theformalitiesrequiredbylaw.(1878)

Art.2129.Thecreditormayclaimfromathirdpersoninpossessionofthemortgagedproperty,the
paymentofthepartofthecreditsecuredbythepropertywhichsaidthirdpersonpossesses,inthe
termsandwiththeformalitieswhichthelawestablishes.(1879)

Art.2130.Astipulationforbiddingtheownerfromalienatingtheimmovablemortgagedshallbevoid.
(n)

Art.2131.Theform,extentandconsequencesofamortgage,bothastoitsconstitution,modification
andextinguishment,andastoothermattersnotincludedinthisChapter,shallbegovernedbythe
provisionsoftheMortgageLawandoftheLandRegistrationLaw.(1880a)

CHAPTER4
ANTICHRESIS

Art.2132.Bythecontractofantichresisthecreditoracquirestherighttoreceivethefruitsofan
immovableofhisdebtor,withtheobligationtoapplythemtothepaymentoftheinterest,ifowing,and
thereaftertotheprincipalofhiscredit.(1881)
Art.2133.Theactualmarketvalueofthefruitsatthetimeoftheapplicationthereoftotheinterestand
principalshallbethemeasureofsuchapplication.(n)

Art.2134.Theamountoftheprincipalandoftheinterestshallbespecifiedinwriting;otherwise,the
contractofantichresisshallbevoid.(n)

Art.2135.Thecreditor,unlessthereisastipulationtothecontrary,isobligedtopaythetaxesand
chargesupontheestate.

Heisalsoboundtobeartheexpensesnecessaryforitspreservationandrepair.

Thesumsspentforthepurposesstatedinthisarticleshallbedeductedfromthefruits.(1882)

Art.2136.Thedebtorcannotreacquiretheenjoymentoftheimmovablewithoutfirsthavingtotallypaid
whatheowesthecreditor.

Butthelatter,inordertoexempthimselffromtheobligationsimposeduponhimbythepreceding
article,mayalwayscompelthedebtortoenteragainupontheenjoymentoftheproperty,exceptwhen
thereisastipulationtothecontrary.(1883)

Art.2137.Thecreditordoesnotacquiretheownershipoftherealestatefornonpaymentofthedebt
withintheperiodagreedupon.

Everystipulationtothecontraryshallbevoid.Butthecreditormaypetitionthecourtforthepayment
ofthedebtorthesaleoftherealproperty.Inthiscase,theRulesofCourtontheforeclosureof
mortgagesshallapply.(1884a)

Art.2138.Thecontractingpartiesmaystipulatethattheinterestuponthedebtbecompensatedwith
thefruitsofthepropertywhichistheobjectoftheantichresis,providedthatifthevalueofthefruits
shouldexceedtheamountofinterestallowedbythelawsagainstusury,theexcessshallbeappliedto
theprincipal.(1885a)

Art.2139.ThelastparagraphofArticle2085,andArticles2089to2091areapplicabletothiscontract.
(1886a)

CHAPTER5
CHATTELMORTGAGE

Art.2140.Byachattelmortgage,personalpropertyisrecordedintheChattelMortgageRegisterasa
securityfortheperformanceofanobligation.Ifthemovable,insteadofbeingrecorded,isdeliveredto
thecreditororathirdperson,thecontractisapledgeandnotachattelmortgage.(n)
Art.2141.TheprovisionsofthisCodeonpledge,insofarastheyarenotinconflictwiththeChattel
MortgageLawshallbeapplicabletochattelmortgages.(n)

TitleXVII.EXTRACONTRACTUALOBLIGATIONS

CHAPTER1
QUASICONTRACTS

Art.2142.Certainlawful,voluntaryandunilateralactsgiverisetothejuridicalrelationofquasicontract
totheendthatnooneshallbeunjustlyenrichedorbenefitedattheexpenseofanother.(n)
Art.2143.TheprovisionsforquasicontractsinthisChapterdonotexcludeotherquasicontractswhich
maycomewithinthepurviewoftheprecedingarticle.(n)

SECTION1.NegotiorumGestio

Art.2144.Whoevervoluntarilytakeschargeoftheagencyormanagementofthebusinessorproperty
ofanother,withoutanypowerfromthelatter,isobligedtocontinuethesameuntiltheterminationof
theaffairanditsincidents,ortorequirethepersonconcernedtosubstitutehim,iftheownerisina
positiontodoso.Thisjuridicalrelationdoesnotariseineitheroftheseinstances:
(1)Whenthepropertyorbusinessisnotneglectedorabandoned;
(2)Ifinfactthemanagerhasbeentacitlyauthorizedbytheowner.

Inthefirstcase,theprovisionsofArticles1317,1403,No.1,and1404regardingunauthorizedcontracts
shallgovern.
Inthesecondcase,therulesonagencyinTitleXofthisBookshallbeapplicable.(1888a)

Art.2145.Theofficiousmanagershallperformhisdutieswithallthediligenceofagoodfatherofa
family,andpaythedamageswhichthroughhisfaultornegligencemaybesufferedbytheownerofthe
propertyorbusinessundermanagement.

Thecourtsmay,however,increaseormoderatetheindemnityaccordingtothecircumstancesofeach
case.(1889a)

Art.2146.Iftheofficiousmanagerdelegatestoanotherpersonallorsomeofhisduties,heshallbe
liablefortheactsofthedelegate,withoutprejudicetothedirectobligationofthelattertowardthe
ownerofthebusiness.

Theresponsibilityoftwoormoreofficiousmanagersshallbesolidary,unlessthemanagementwas
assumedtosavethethingorbusinessfromimminentdanger.(1890a)

Art.2147.Theofficiousmanagershallbeliableforanyfortuitousevent:

(1)Ifheundertakesriskyoperationswhichtheownerwasnotaccustomedtoembarkupon;
(2)Ifhehaspreferredhisowninteresttothatoftheowner;

(3)Ifhefailstoreturnthepropertyorbusinessafterdemandbytheowner;

(4)Ifheassumedthemanagementinbadfaith.(1891a)

Art.2148.Exceptwhenthemanagementwasassumedtosavepropertyorbusinessfromimminent
danger,theofficiousmanagershallbeliableforfortuitousevents:
(1)Ifheismanifestlyunfittocarryonthemanagement;
(2)Ifbyhisinterventionhepreventedamorecompetentpersonfromtakingupthemanagement.(n)

Art.2149.Theratificationofthemanagementbytheownerofthebusinessproducestheeffectsofan
expressagency,evenifthebusinessmaynothavebeensuccessful.(1892a)
Art.2150.Althoughtheofficiousmanagementmaynothavebeenexpresslyratified,theownerofthe
propertyorbusinesswhoenjoystheadvantagesofthesameshallbeliableforobligationsincurredin
hisinterest,andshallreimbursetheofficiousmanagerforthenecessaryandusefulexpensesandforthe
damageswhichthelattermayhavesufferedintheperformanceofhisduties.

Thesameobligationshallbeincumbentuponhimwhenthemanagementhadforitspurposethe
preventionofanimminentandmanifestloss,althoughnobenefitmayhavebeenderived.(1893)

Art.2151.Eventhoughtheownerdidnotderiveanybenefitandtherehasbeennoimminentand
manifestdangertothepropertyorbusiness,theownerisliableasunderthefirstparagraphofthe
precedingarticle,provided:

(1)Theofficiousmanagerhasactedingoodfaith,and
(2)Thepropertyorbusinessisintact,readytobereturnedtotheowner.(n)

Art.2152.Theofficiousmanagerispersonallyliableforcontractswhichhehasenteredintowiththird
persons,eventhoughheactedinthenameoftheowner,andthereshallbenorightofactionbetween
theownerandthirdpersons.Theseprovisionsshallnotapply:
(1)Iftheownerhasexpresslyortacitlyratifiedthemanagement,or
(2)Whenthecontractreferstothingspertainingtotheownerofthebusiness.(n)

Art.2153.Themanagementisextinguished:
(1)Whentheownerrepudiatesitorputsanendthereto;
(2)Whentheofficiousmanagerwithdrawsfromthemanagement,subjecttotheprovisionsofArticle
2144;

(3)Bythedeath,civilinterdiction,insanityorinsolvencyoftheownerortheofficiousmanager.(n)

SECTION2.SolutioIndebiti

Art.2154.Ifsomethingisreceivedwhenthereisnorighttodemandit,anditwasundulydelivered
throughmistake,theobligationtoreturnitarises.(1895)
Art.2155.Paymentbyreasonofamistakeintheconstructionorapplicationofadoubtfulordifficult
questionoflawmaycomewithinthescopeoftheprecedingarticle.(n)

Art.2156.Ifthepayerwasindoubtwhetherthedebtwasdue,hemayrecoverifheprovesthatitwas
notdue.(n)

Art.2157.Theresponsibilityoftwoormorepayees,whentherehasbeenpaymentofwhatisnotdue,is
solidary.(n)

Art.2158.Whenthepropertydeliveredormoneypaidbelongstoathirdperson,thepayeeshallcomply
withtheprovisionsofarticle1984.(n)

Art.2159.Whoeverinbadfaithacceptsanunduepayment,shallpaylegalinterestifasumofmoneyis
involved,orshallbeliableforfruitsreceivedorwhichshouldhavebeenreceivedifthethingproduces
fruits.

Heshallfurthermorebeanswerableforanylossorimpairmentofthethingfromanycause,andfor
damagestothepersonwhodeliveredthething,untilitisrecovered.(1896a)

Art.2160.Hewhoingoodfaithacceptsanunduepaymentofathingcertainanddeterminateshallonly
beresponsiblefortheimpairmentorlossofthesameoritsaccessoriesandaccessionsinsofarashehas
therebybeenbenefited.Ifhehasalienatedit,heshallreturnthepriceorassigntheactiontocollectthe
sum.(1897)

Art.2161.Asregardsthereimbursementforimprovementsandexpensesincurredbyhimwhounduly
receivedthething,theprovisionsofTitleVofBookIIshallgovern.(1898)

Art.2162.Heshallbeexemptfromtheobligationtorestorewho,believingingoodfaiththatthe
paymentwasbeingmadeofalegitimateandsubsistingclaim,destroyedthedocument,orallowedthe
actiontoprescribe,orgaveupthepledges,orcancelledtheguarantiesforhisright.Hewhopaidunduly
mayproceedonlyagainstthetruedebtorortheguarantorswithregardtowhomtheactionisstill
effective.(1899)

Art.2163.Itispresumedthattherewasamistakeinthepaymentifsomethingwhichhadneverbeen
dueorhadalreadybeenpaidwasdelivered;buthefromwhomthereturnisclaimedmayprovethatthe
deliverywasmadeoutofliberalityorforanyotherjustcause.(1901)

SECTION3.OtherQuasiContracts

Art.2164.When,withouttheknowledgeofthepersonobligedtogivesupport,itisgivenbyastranger,
thelattershallhavearighttoclaimthesamefromtheformer,unlessitappearsthathegaveitoutof
pietyandwithoutintentionofbeingrepaid.(1894a)
Art.2165.Whenfuneralexpensesarebornebyathirdperson,withouttheknowledgeofthoserelatives
whowereobligedtogivesupporttothedeceased,saidrelativesshallreimbursethethirdperson,
shouldthelatterclaimreimbursement.(1894a)

Art.2166.Whenthepersonobligedtosupportanorphan,oraninsaneorotherindigentpersonunjustly
refusestogivesupporttothelatter,anythirdpersonmayfurnishsupporttotheneedyindividual,with
rightofreimbursementfromthepersonobligedtogivesupport.Theprovisionsofthisarticleapply
whenthefatherormotherofachildundereighteenyearsofageunjustlyrefusestosupporthim.

Art.2167.Whenthroughanaccidentorothercauseapersonisinjuredorbecomesseriouslyill,andhe
istreatedorhelpedwhileheisnotinaconditiontogiveconsenttoacontract,heshallbeliabletopay
fortheservicesofthephysicianorotherpersonaidinghim,unlesstheservicehasbeenrenderedoutof
puregenerosity.

Art.2168.Whenduringafire,flood,storm,orothercalamity,propertyissavedfromdestructionby
anotherpersonwithouttheknowledgeoftheowner,thelatterisboundtopaytheformerjust
compensation.

Art.2169.Whenthegovernment,uponthefailureofanypersontocomplywithhealthorsafety
regulationsconcerningproperty,undertakestodothenecessarywork,evenoverhisobjection,heshall
beliabletopaytheexpenses.

Art.2170.Whenbyaccidentorotherfortuitousevent,movablesseparatelypertainingtotwoormore
personsarecommingledorconfused,therulesoncoownershipshallbeapplicable.

Art.2171.TherightsandobligationsofthefinderoflostpersonalpropertyshallbegovernedbyArticles
719and720.

Art.2172.Therightofeverypossessoringoodfaithtoreimbursementfornecessaryanduseful
expensesisgovernedbyArticle546.

Art.2173.Whenathirdperson,withouttheknowledgeofthedebtor,paysthedebt,therightsofthe
formeraregovernedbyArticles1236and1237.

Art.2174.Wheninasmallcommunityanationalityoftheinhabitantsofagedecideuponameasurefor
protectionagainstlawlessness,fire,flood,stormorothercalamity,anyonewhoobjectstotheplanand
refusestocontributetotheexpensesbutisbenefitedbytheprojectasexecutedshallbeliabletopay
hisshareofsaidexpenses.

Art.2175.Anypersonwhoisconstrainedtopaythetaxesofanothershallbeentitledtoreimbursement
fromthelatter.

CHAPTER2
QUASIDELICTS

Art.2176.Whoeverbyactoromissioncausesdamagetoanother,therebeingfaultornegligence,is
obligedtopayforthedamagedone.Suchfaultornegligence,ifthereisnopreexistingcontractual
relationbetweentheparties,iscalledaquasidelictandisgovernedbytheprovisionsofthisChapter.
(1902a)
Art.2177.Responsibilityforfaultornegligenceundertheprecedingarticleisentirelyseparateand
distinctfromthecivilliabilityarisingfromnegligenceunderthePenalCode.Buttheplaintiffcannot
recoverdamagestwiceforthesameactoromissionofthedefendant.(n)

Art.2178.TheprovisionsofArticles1172to1174arealsoapplicabletoaquasidelict.(n)

Art.2179.Whentheplaintiff'sownnegligencewastheimmediateandproximatecauseofhisinjury,he
cannotrecoverdamages.Butifhisnegligencewasonlycontributory,theimmediateandproximate
causeoftheinjurybeingthedefendant'slackofduecare,theplaintiffmayrecoverdamages,butthe
courtsshallmitigatethedamagestobeawarded.(n)

Art.2180.TheobligationimposedbyArticle2176isdemandablenotonlyforone'sownactsor
omissions,butalsoforthoseofpersonsforwhomoneisresponsible.

Thefatherand,incaseofhisdeathorincapacity,themother,areresponsibleforthedamagescaused
bytheminorchildrenwholiveintheircompany.

Guardiansareliablefordamagescausedbytheminorsorincapacitatedpersonswhoareundertheir
authorityandliveintheircompany.

Theownersandmanagersofanestablishmentorenterprisearelikewiseresponsiblefordamages
causedbytheiremployeesintheserviceofthebranchesinwhichthelatterareemployedoronthe
occasionoftheirfunctions.

Employersshallbeliableforthedamagescausedbytheiremployeesandhouseholdhelpersacting
withinthescopeoftheirassignedtasks,eventhoughtheformerarenotengagedinanybusinessor
industry.

TheStateisresponsibleinlikemannerwhenitactsthroughaspecialagent;butnotwhenthedamage
hasbeencausedbytheofficialtowhomthetaskdoneproperlypertains,inwhichcasewhatisprovided
inArticle2176shallbeapplicable.

Lastly,teachersorheadsofestablishmentsofartsandtradesshallbeliablefordamagescausedbytheir
pupilsandstudentsorapprentices,solongastheyremainintheircustody.

Theresponsibilitytreatedofinthisarticleshallceasewhenthepersonshereinmentionedprovethat
theyobservedallthediligenceofagoodfatherofafamilytopreventdamage.(1903a)

Art.2181.Whoeverpaysforthedamagecausedbyhisdependentsoremployeesmayrecoverfromthe
latterwhathehaspaidordeliveredinsatisfactionoftheclaim.(1904)

Art.2182.Iftheminororinsanepersoncausingdamagehasnoparentsorguardian,theminororinsane
personshallbeanswerablewithhisownpropertyinanactionagainsthimwhereaguardianadlitem
shallbeappointed.(n)

Art.2183.Thepossessorofananimalorwhoevermaymakeuseofthesameisresponsibleforthe
damagewhichitmaycause,althoughitmayescapeorbelost.Thisresponsibilityshallceaseonlyincase
thedamageshouldcomefromforcemajeureorfromthefaultofthepersonwhohassuffereddamage.
(1905)

Art.2184.Inmotorvehiclemishaps,theownerissolidarilyliablewithhisdriver,iftheformer,whowas
inthevehicle,couldhave,bytheuseoftheduediligence,preventedthemisfortune.Itisdisputably
presumedthatadriverwasnegligent,ifhehadbeenfoundguiltyorrecklessdrivingorviolatingtraffic
regulationsatleasttwicewithinthenextprecedingtwomonths.

Iftheownerwasnotinthemotorvehicle,theprovisionsofArticle2180areapplicable.(n)

Art.2185.Unlessthereisprooftothecontrary,itispresumedthatapersondrivingamotorvehiclehas
beennegligentifatthetimeofthemishap,hewasviolatinganytrafficregulation.(n)

Art.2186.Everyownerofamotorvehicleshallfilewiththepropergovernmentofficeabondexecuted
byagovernmentcontrolledcorporationoroffice,toanswerfordamagestothirdpersons.Theamount
ofthebondandothertermsshallbefixedbythecompetentpublicofficial.(n)

Art.2187.Manufacturersandprocessorsoffoodstuffs,drinks,toiletarticlesandsimilargoodsshallbe
liablefordeathorinjuriescausedbyanynoxiousorharmfulsubstancesused,althoughnocontractual
relationexistsbetweenthemandtheconsumers.(n)

Art.2188.Thereisprimafaciepresumptionofnegligenceonthepartofthedefendantifthedeathor
injuryresultsfromhispossessionofdangerousweaponsorsubstances,suchasfirearmsandpoison,
exceptwhenthepossessionorusethereofisindispensableinhisoccupationorbusiness.(n)

Art.2189.Provinces,citiesandmunicipalitiesshallbeliablefordamagesforthedeathof,orinjuries
sufferedby,anypersonbyreasonofthedefectiveconditionofroads,streets,bridges,publicbuildings,
andotherpublicworksundertheircontrolorsupervision.(n)

Art.2190.Theproprietorofabuildingorstructureisresponsibleforthedamagesresultingfromitstotal
orpartialcollapse,ifitshouldbeduetothelackofnecessaryrepairs.(1907)

Art.2191.Proprietorsshallalsoberesponsiblefordamagescaused:

(1)Bytheexplosionofmachinerywhichhasnotbeentakencareofwithduediligence,andthe
inflammationofexplosivesubstanceswhichhavenotbeenkeptinasafeandadequateplace;
(2)Byexcessivesmoke,whichmaybeharmfultopersonsorproperty;

(3)Bythefallingoftreessituatedatornearhighwaysorlanes,ifnotcausedbyforcemajeure;

(4)Byemanationsfromtubes,canals,sewersordepositsofinfectiousmatter,constructedwithout
precautionssuitabletotheplace.(1908)

Art.2192.Ifdamagereferredtointhetwoprecedingarticlesshouldbetheresultofanydefectinthe
constructionmentionedinArticle1723,thethirdpersonsufferingdamagesmayproceedonlyagainst
theengineerorarchitectorcontractorinaccordancewithsaidarticle,withintheperiodthereinfixed.
(1909)
Art.2193.Theheadofafamilythatlivesinabuildingorapartthereof,isresponsiblefordamages
causedbythingsthrownorfallingfromthesame.(1910)

Art.2194.Theresponsibilityoftwoormorepersonswhoareliableforquasidelictissolidary.(n)

TitleXVIII.DAMAGES

CHAPTER1
GENERALPROVISIONS

Art.2195.TheprovisionsofthisTitleshallberespectivelyapplicabletoallobligationsmentionedin
Article1157.
Art.2196.TherulesunderthisTitlearewithoutprejudicetospecialprovisionsondamagesformulated
elsewhereinthisCode.Compensationforworkmenandotheremployeesincaseofdeath,injuryor
illnessisregulatedbyspeciallaws.Rulesgoverningdamageslaiddowninotherlawsshallbeobserved
insofarastheyarenotinconflictwiththisCode.

Art.2197.Damagesmaybe:

(1)Actualorcompensatory;
(2)Moral;

(3)Nominal;

(4)Temperateormoderate;

(5)Liquidated;or

(6)Exemplaryorcorrective.

Art.2198.Theprinciplesofthegenerallawondamagesareherebyadoptedinsofarastheyarenot
inconsistentwiththisCode.

CHAPTER2
ACTUALORCOMPENSATORYDAMAGES

Art.2199.Exceptasprovidedbylaworbystipulation,oneisentitledtoanadequatecompensationonly
forsuchpecuniarylosssufferedbyhimashehasdulyproved.Suchcompensationisreferredtoas
actualorcompensatorydamages.
Art.2200.Indemnificationfordamagesshallcomprehendnotonlythevalueofthelosssuffered,but
alsothatoftheprofitswhichtheobligeefailedtoobtain.(1106)

Art.2201.Incontractsandquasicontracts,thedamagesforwhichtheobligorwhoactedingoodfaithis
liableshallbethosethatarethenaturalandprobableconsequencesofthebreachoftheobligation,and
whichthepartieshaveforeseenorcouldhavereasonablyforeseenatthetimetheobligationwas
constituted.

Incaseoffraud,badfaith,maliceorwantonattitude,theobligorshallberesponsibleforalldamages
whichmaybereasonablyattributedtothenonperformanceoftheobligation.(1107a)

Art.2202.Incrimesandquasidelicts,thedefendantshallbeliableforalldamageswhicharethenatural
andprobableconsequencesoftheactoromissioncomplainedof.Itisnotnecessarythatsuchdamages
havebeenforeseenorcouldhavereasonablybeenforeseenbythedefendant.

Art.2203.Thepartysufferinglossorinjurymustexercisethediligenceofagoodfatherofafamilyto
minimizethedamagesresultingfromtheactoromissioninquestion.

Art.2204.Incrimes,thedamagestobeadjudicatedmayberespectivelyincreasedorlessenedaccording
totheaggravatingormitigatingcircumstances.

Art.2205.Damagesmayberecovered:

(1)Forlossorimpairmentofearningcapacityincasesoftemporaryorpermanentpersonalinjury;
(2)Forinjurytotheplaintiff'sbusinessstandingorcommercialcredit.

Art.2206.Theamountofdamagesfordeathcausedbyacrimeorquasidelictshallbeatleastthree
thousandpesos,eventhoughtheremayhavebeenmitigatingcircumstances.Inaddition:
(1)Thedefendantshallbeliableforthelossoftheearningcapacityofthedeceased,andtheindemnity
shallbepaidtotheheirsofthelatter;suchindemnityshallineverycasebeassessedandawardedby
thecourt,unlessthedeceasedonaccountofpermanentphysicaldisabilitynotcausedbythedefendant,
hadnoearningcapacityatthetimeofhisdeath;
(2)IfthedeceasedwasobligedtogivesupportaccordingtotheprovisionsofArticle291,therecipient
whoisnotanheircalledtothedecedent'sinheritancebythelawoftestateorintestatesuccession,may
demandsupportfromthepersoncausingthedeath,foraperiodnotexceedingfiveyears,theexact
durationtobefixedbythecourt;

(3)Thespouse,legitimateandillegitimatedescendantsandascendantsofthedeceasedmaydemand
moraldamagesformentalanguishbyreasonofthedeathofthedeceased.

Art.2207.Iftheplaintiff'spropertyhasbeeninsured,andhehasreceivedindemnityfromtheinsurance
companyfortheinjuryorlossarisingoutofthewrongorbreachofcontractcomplainedof,the
insurancecompanyshallbesubrogatedtotherightsoftheinsuredagainstthewrongdoerortheperson
whohasviolatedthecontract.Iftheamountpaidbytheinsurancecompanydoesnotfullycoverthe
injuryorloss,theaggrievedpartyshallbeentitledtorecoverthedeficiencyfromthepersoncausingthe
lossorinjury.
Art.2208.Intheabsenceofstipulation,attorney'sfeesandexpensesoflitigation,otherthanjudicial
costs,cannotberecovered,except:

(1)Whenexemplarydamagesareawarded;
(2)Whenthedefendant'sactoromissionhascompelledtheplaintifftolitigatewiththirdpersonsorto
incurexpensestoprotecthisinterest;

(3)Incriminalcasesofmaliciousprosecutionagainsttheplaintiff;

(4)Incaseofaclearlyunfoundedcivilactionorproceedingagainsttheplaintiff;

(5)Wherethedefendantactedingrossandevidentbadfaithinrefusingtosatisfytheplaintiff'splainly
valid,justanddemandableclaim;

(6)Inactionsforlegalsupport;

(7)Inactionsfortherecoveryofwagesofhouseholdhelpers,laborersandskilledworkers;

(8)Inactionsforindemnityunderworkmen'scompensationandemployer'sliabilitylaws;

(9)Inaseparatecivilactiontorecovercivilliabilityarisingfromacrime;

(10)Whenatleastdoublejudicialcostsareawarded;

(11)Inanyothercasewherethecourtdeemsitjustandequitablethatattorney'sfeesandexpensesof
litigationshouldberecovered.

Inallcases,theattorney'sfeesandexpensesoflitigationmustbereasonable.
Art.2209.Iftheobligationconsistsinthepaymentofasumofmoney,andthedebtorincursindelay,
theindemnityfordamages,therebeingnostipulationtothecontrary,shallbethepaymentofthe
interestagreedupon,andintheabsenceofstipulation,thelegalinterest,whichissixpercentper
annum.(1108)

Art.2210.Interestmay,inthediscretionofthecourt,beallowedupondamagesawardedforbreachof
contract.

Art.2211.Incrimesandquasidelicts,interestasapartofthedamagesmay,inapropercase,be
adjudicatedinthediscretionofthecourt.

Art.2212.Interestdueshallearnlegalinterestfromthetimeitisjudiciallydemanded,althoughthe
obligationmaybesilentuponthispoint.(1109a)

Art.2213.Interestcannotberecovereduponunliquidatedclaimsordamages,exceptwhenthedemand
canbeestablishedwithreasonablycertainty.

Art.2214.Inquasidelicts,thecontributorynegligenceoftheplaintiffshallreducethedamagesthathe
mayrecover.

Art.2215.Incontracts,quasicontracts,andquasidelicts,thecourtmayequitablymitigatethedamages
undercircumstancesotherthanthecasereferredtointheprecedingarticle,asinthefollowing
instances:

(1)Thattheplaintiffhimselfhascontravenedthetermsofthecontract;
(2)Thattheplaintiffhasderivedsomebenefitasaresultofthecontract;

(3)Incaseswhereexemplarydamagesaretobeawarded,thatthedefendantactedupontheadviceof
counsel;

(4)Thatthelosswouldhaveresultedinanyevent;

(5)Thatsincethefilingoftheaction,thedefendanthasdonehisbesttolessentheplaintiff'slossor
injury.

CHAPTER3
OTHERKINDSOFDAMAGES

Art.2216.Noproofofpecuniarylossisnecessaryinorderthatmoral,nominal,temperate,liquidatedor
exemplarydamages,maybeadjudicated.Theassessmentofsuchdamages,exceptliquidatedones,is
lefttothediscretionofthecourt,accordingtothecircumstancesofeachcase.

SECTION1.MoralDamages

Art.2217.Moraldamagesincludephysicalsuffering,mentalanguish,fright,seriousanxiety,besmirched
reputation,woundedfeelings,moralshock,socialhumiliation,andsimilarinjury.Thoughincapableof
pecuniarycomputation,moraldamagesmayberecoverediftheyaretheproximateresultofthe
defendant'swrongfulactforomission.
Art.2218.Intheadjudicationofmoraldamages,thesentimentalvalueofproperty,realorpersonal,
maybeconsidered.

Art.2219.Moraldamagesmayberecoveredinthefollowingandanalogouscases:

(1)Acriminaloffenseresultinginphysicalinjuries;
(2)Quasidelictscausingphysicalinjuries;

(3)Seduction,abduction,rape,orotherlasciviousacts;

(4)Adulteryorconcubinage;

(5)Illegalorarbitrarydetentionorarrest;

(6)Illegalsearch;

(7)Libel,slanderoranyotherformofdefamation;

(8)Maliciousprosecution;

(9)ActsmentionedinArticle309;

(10)ActsandactionsreferredtoinArticles21,26,27,28,29,30,32,34,and35.

Theparentsofthefemaleseduced,abducted,raped,orabused,referredtoinNo.3ofthisarticle,may
alsorecovermoraldamages.
Thespouse,descendants,ascendants,andbrothersandsistersmaybringtheactionmentionedinNo.9
ofthisarticle,intheordernamed.

Art.2220.Willfulinjurytopropertymaybealegalgroundforawardingmoraldamagesifthecourt
shouldfindthat,underthecircumstances,suchdamagesarejustlydue.Thesameruleappliesto
breachesofcontractwherethedefendantactedfraudulentlyorinbadfaith.

SECTION2.NominalDamages

Art.2221.Nominaldamagesareadjudicatedinorderthatarightoftheplaintiff,whichhasbeen
violatedorinvadedbythedefendant,maybevindicatedorrecognized,andnotforthepurposeof
indemnifyingtheplaintiffforanylosssufferedbyhim.
Art.2222.Thecourtmayawardnominaldamagesineveryobligationarisingfromanysource
enumeratedinArticle1157,orineverycasewhereanypropertyrighthasbeeninvaded.

Art.2223.Theadjudicationofnominaldamagesshallprecludefurthercontestupontherightinvolved
andallaccessoryquestions,asbetweenthepartiestothesuit,ortheirrespectiveheirsandassigns.

SECTION3.TemperateorModerateDamages

Art.2224.Temperateormoderatedamages,whicharemorethannominalbutlessthancompensatory
damages,mayberecoveredwhenthecourtfindsthatsomepecuniarylosshasbeensufferedbutits
amountcannot,fromthenatureofthecase,beprovidedwithcertainty.
Art.2225.Temperatedamagesmustbereasonableunderthecircumstances.

SECTION4.LiquidatedDamages

Art.2226.Liquidateddamagesarethoseagreeduponbythepartiestoacontract,tobepaidincaseof
breachthereof.
Art.2227.Liquidateddamages,whetherintendedasanindemnityorapenalty,shallbeequitably
reducediftheyareiniquitousorunconscionable.

Art.2228.Whenthebreachofthecontractcommittedbythedefendantisnottheonecontemplatedby
thepartiesinagreeingupontheliquidateddamages,thelawshalldeterminethemeasureofdamages,
andnotthestipulation.

SECTION5.ExemplaryorCorrectiveDamages

Art.2229.Exemplaryorcorrectivedamagesareimposed,bywayofexampleorcorrectionforthepublic
good,inadditiontothemoral,temperate,liquidatedorcompensatorydamages.
Art.2230.Incriminaloffenses,exemplarydamagesasapartofthecivilliabilitymaybeimposedwhen
thecrimewascommittedwithoneormoreaggravatingcircumstances.Suchdamagesareseparateand
distinctfromfinesandshallbepaidtotheoffendedparty.

Art.2231.Inquasidelicts,exemplarydamagesmaybegrantedifthedefendantactedwithgross
negligence.

Art.2232.Incontractsandquasicontracts,thecourtmayawardexemplarydamagesifthedefendant
actedinawanton,fraudulent,reckless,oppressive,ormalevolentmanner.

Art.2233.Exemplarydamagescannotberecoveredasamatterofright;thecourtwilldecidewhether
ornottheyshouldbeadjudicated.

Art.2234.Whiletheamountoftheexemplarydamagesneednotbeproved,theplaintiffmustshow
thatheisentitledtomoral,temperateorcompensatorydamagesbeforethecourtmayconsiderthe
questionofwhetherornotexemplarydamagesshouldbeawarded.Incaseliquidateddamageshave
beenagreedupon,althoughnoproofoflossisnecessaryinorderthatsuchliquidateddamagesmaybe
recovered,nevertheless,beforethecourtmayconsiderthequestionofgrantingexemplaryinaddition
totheliquidateddamages,theplaintiffmustshowthathewouldbeentitledtomoral,temperateor
compensatorydamageswereitnotforthestipulationforliquidateddamages.

Art.2235.Astipulationwherebyexemplarydamagesarerenouncedinadvanceshallbenullandvoid.

TitleXIX.CONCURRENCEANDPREFERENCE
OFCREDITS

CHAPTER1
GENERALPROVISIONS

Art.2236.Thedebtorisliablewithallhisproperty,presentandfuture,forthefulfillmentofhis
obligations,subjecttotheexemptionsprovidedbylaw.(1911a)
Art.2237.Insolvencyshallbegovernedbyspeciallawsinsofarastheyarenotinconsistentwiththis
Code.(n)

Art.2238.Solongastheconjugalpartnershiporabsolutecommunitysubsists,itspropertyshallnotbe
amongtheassetstobetakenpossessionofbytheassigneeforthepaymentoftheinsolventdebtor's
obligations,exceptinsofarasthelatterhaveredoundedtothebenefitofthefamily.Ifitisthehusband
whoisinsolvent,theadministrationoftheconjugalpartnershipofabsolutecommunitymay,byorderof
thecourt,betransferredtothewifeortoathirdpersonotherthantheassignee.(n)

Art.2239.Ifthereisproperty,otherthanthatmentionedintheprecedingarticle,ownedbytwoor
morepersons,oneofwhomistheinsolventdebtor,hisundividedshareorinterestthereinshallbe
amongtheassetstobetakenpossessionofbytheassigneeforthepaymentoftheinsolventdebtor's
obligations.(n)

Art.2240.Propertyheldbytheinsolventdebtorasatrusteeofanexpressorimpliedtrust,shallbe
excludedfromtheinsolvencyproceedings.(n)

CHAPTER2
CLASSIFICATIONOFCREDITS

Art.2241.Withreferencetospecificmovablepropertyofthedebtor,thefollowingclaimsorliensshall
bepreferred:
(1)Duties,taxesandfeesduethereontotheStateoranysubdivisionthereof;
(2)Claimsarisingfrommisappropriation,breachoftrust,ormalfeasancebypublicofficialscommittedin
theperformanceoftheirduties,onthemovables,moneyorsecuritiesobtainedbythem;

(3)Claimsfortheunpaidpriceofmovablessold,onsaidmovables,solongastheyareinthepossession
ofthedebtor,uptothevalueofthesame;andifthemovablehasbeenresoldbythedebtorandthe
priceisstillunpaid,thelienmaybeenforcedontheprice;thisrightisnotlostbytheimmobilizationof
thethingbydestination,providedithasnotlostitsform,substanceandidentity;neitheristherightlost
bythesaleofthethingtogetherwithotherpropertyforalumpsum,whenthepricethereofcanbe
determinedproportionally;

(4)Creditsguaranteedwithapledgesolongasthethingspledgedareinthehandsofthecreditor,or
thoseguaranteedbyachattelmortgage,uponthethingspledgedormortgaged,uptothevalue
thereof;

(5)Creditsforthemaking,repair,safekeepingorpreservationofpersonalproperty,onthemovable
thusmade,repaired,keptorpossessed;

(6)Claimsforlaborers'wages,onthegoodsmanufacturedortheworkdone;

(7)Forexpensesofsalvage,uponthegoodssalvaged;

(8)Creditsbetweenthelandlordandthetenant,arisingfromthecontractoftenancyonshares,onthe
shareofeachinthefruitsorharvest;

(9)Creditsfortransportation,uponthegoodscarried,forthepriceofthecontractandincidental
expenses,untiltheirdeliveryandforthirtydaysthereafter;

(10)Creditsforlodgingandsuppliesusuallyfurnishedtotravellersbyhotelkeepers,onthemovables
belongingtotheguestaslongassuchmovablesareinthehotel,butnotformoneyloanedtothe
guests;

(11)Creditsforseedsandexpensesforcultivationandharvestadvancedtothedebtor,uponthefruits
harvested;

(12)Creditsforrentforoneyear,uponthepersonalpropertyofthelesseeexistingontheimmovable
leasedandonthefruitsofthesame,butnotonmoneyorinstrumentsofcredit;

(13)Claimsinfavorofthedepositorifthedepositaryhaswrongfullysoldthethingdeposited,uponthe
priceofthesale.

Intheforegoingcases,ifthemovablestowhichthelienorpreferenceattacheshavebeenwrongfully
taken,thecreditormaydemandthemfromanypossessor,withinthirtydaysfromtheunlawfulseizure.
(1922a)

Art.2242.Withreferencetospecificimmovablepropertyandrealrightsofthedebtor,thefollowing
claims,mortgagesandliensshallbepreferred,andshallconstituteanencumbranceontheimmovable
orrealright:
(1)Taxesdueuponthelandorbuilding;
(2)Fortheunpaidpriceofrealpropertysold,upontheimmovablesold;

(3)Claimsoflaborers,masons,mechanicsandotherworkmen,aswellasofarchitects,engineersand
contractors,engagedintheconstruction,reconstructionorrepairofbuildings,canalsorotherworks,
uponsaidbuildings,canalsorotherworks;

(4)Claimsoffurnishersofmaterialsusedintheconstruction,reconstruction,orrepairofbuildings,
canalsorotherworks,uponsaidbuildings,canalsorotherworks;

(5)MortgagecreditsrecordedintheRegistryofProperty,upontherealestatemortgaged;

(6)Expensesforthepreservationorimprovementofrealpropertywhenthelawauthorizes
reimbursement,upontheimmovablepreservedorimproved;

(7)CreditsannotatedintheRegistryofProperty,invirtueofajudicialorder,byattachmentsor
executions,uponthepropertyaffected,andonlyastolatercredits;

(8)Claimsofcoheirsforwarrantyinthepartitionofanimmovableamongthem,upontherealproperty
thusdivided;

(9)Claimsofdonorsorrealpropertyforpecuniarychargesorotherconditionsimposeduponthedonee,
upontheimmovabledonated;

(10)Creditsofinsurers,uponthepropertyinsured,fortheinsurancepremiumfortwoyears.(1923a)

Art.2243.Theclaimsorcreditsenumeratedinthetwoprecedingarticlesshallbeconsideredas
mortgagesorpledgesofrealorpersonalproperty,orlienswithinthepurviewoflegalprovisions
governinginsolvency.TaxesmentionedinNo.1,Article2241,andNo.1,Article2242,shallfirstbe
satisfied.(n)
Art.2244.Withreferencetootherproperty,realandpersonal,ofthedebtor,thefollowingclaimsor
creditsshallbepreferredintheordernamed:

(1)Properfuneralexpensesforthedebtor,orchildrenunderhisorherparentalauthoritywhohaveno
propertyoftheirown,whenapprovedbythecourt;
(2)Creditsforservicesrenderedtheinsolventbyemployees,laborers,orhouseholdhelpersforoneyear
precedingthecommencementoftheproceedingsininsolvency;

(3)Expensesduringthelastillnessofthedebtororofhisorherspouseandchildrenunderhisorher
parentalauthority,iftheyhavenopropertyoftheirown;

(4)Compensationduethelaborersortheirdependentsunderlawsprovidingforindemnityfordamages
incasesoflaboraccident,orillnessresultingfromthenatureoftheemployment;

(5)Creditsandadvancementsmadetothedebtorforsupportofhimselforherself,andfamily,during
thelastyearprecedingtheinsolvency;

(6)Supportduringtheinsolvencyproceedings,andforthreemonthsthereafter;

(7)Finesandcivilindemnificationarisingfromacriminaloffense;

(8)Legalexpenses,andexpensesincurredintheadministrationoftheinsolvent'sestateforthe
commoninterestofthecreditors,whenproperlyauthorizedandapprovedbythecourt;

(9)Taxesandassessmentsduethenationalgovernment,otherthanthosementionedinArticles2241,
No.1,and2242,No.1;

(10)Taxesandassessmentsdueanyprovince,otherthanthosereferredtoinArticles2241,No.1,and
2242,No.1;

(11)Taxesandassessmentsdueanycityormunicipality,otherthanthoseindicatedinArticles2241,No.
1,and2242,No.1;

(12)Damagesfordeathorpersonalinjuriescausedbyaquasidelict;

(13)Giftsduetopublicandprivateinstitutionsofcharityorbeneficence;

(14)Creditswhich,withoutspecialprivilege,appearin(a)apublicinstrument;or(b)inafinaljudgment,
iftheyhavebeenthesubjectoflitigation.Thesecreditsshallhavepreferenceamongthemselvesinthe
orderofpriorityofthedatesoftheinstrumentsandofthejudgments,respectively.(1924a)

Art.2245.Creditsofanyotherkindorclass,orbyanyotherrightortitlenotcomprisedinthefour
precedingarticles,shallenjoynopreference.(1925)

CHAPTER3
ORDEROFPREFERENCEOFCREDITS

Art.2246.Thosecreditswhichenjoypreferencewithrespecttospecificmovables,excludeallothersto
theextentofthevalueofthepersonalpropertytowhichthepreferencerefers.
Art.2247.Iftherearetwoormorecreditswithrespecttothesamespecificmovableproperty,theyshall
besatisfiedprorata,afterthepaymentofduties,taxesandfeesduetheStateoranysubdivision
thereof.(1926a)

Art.2248.Thosecreditswhichenjoypreferenceinrelationtospecificrealpropertyorrealrights,
excludeallotherstotheextentofthevalueoftheimmovableorrealrighttowhichthepreference
refers.

Art.2249.Iftherearetwoormorecreditswithrespecttothesamespecificrealpropertyorrealrights,
theyshallbesatisfiedprorata,afterthepaymentofthetaxesandassessmentsupontheimmovable
propertyorrealright.(1927a)

Art.2250.Theexcess,ifany,afterthepaymentofthecreditswhichenjoypreferencewithrespectto
specificproperty,realorpersonal,shallbeaddedtothefreepropertywhichthedebtormayhave,for
thepaymentoftheothercredits.(1928a)

Art.2251.Thosecreditswhichdonotenjoyanypreferencewithrespecttospecificproperty,andthose
whichenjoypreference,astotheamountnotpaid,shallbesatisfiedaccordingtothefollowingrules:

(1)IntheorderestablishedinArticle2244;

(2)CommoncreditsreferredtoinArticle2245shallbepaidprorataregardlessofdates.(1929a)

TRANSITIONALPROVISIONS

Art.2252.ChangesmadeandnewprovisionsandruleslaiddownbythisCodewhichmayprejudiceor
impairvestedoracquiredrightsinaccordancewiththeoldlegislationshallhavenoretroactiveeffect.
ForthedeterminationoftheapplicablelawincaseswhicharenotspecifiedelsewhereinthisCode,the
followingarticlesshallbeobserved:(Pars.1and2,TransitionalProvisions).

Art.2253.TheCivilCodeof1889andotherpreviouslawsshallgovernrightsoriginating,undersaid
laws,fromactsdoneoreventswhichtookplaceundertheirregime,eventhoughthisCodemay
regulatetheminadifferentmanner,ormaynotrecognizethem.Butifarightshouldbedeclaredforthe
firsttimeinthisCode,itshallbeeffectiveatonce,eventhoughtheactoreventwhichgivesrisethereto
mayhavebeendoneormayhaveoccurredunderpriorlegislation,providedsaidnewrightdoesnot
prejudiceorimpairanyvestedoracquiredright,ofthesameorigin.(Rule1)

Art.2254.Novestedoracquiredrightcanarisefromactsoromissionswhichareagainstthelawor
whichinfringeupontherightsofothers.(n)

Art.2255.Theformerlawsshallregulateactsandcontractswithaconditionorperiod,whichwere
executedorenteredintobeforetheeffectivityofthisCode,eventhoughtheconditionorperiodmay
stillbependingatthetimethisbodyoflawsgoesintoeffect.(n)

Art.2256.Actsandcontractsundertheregimeoftheoldlaws,iftheyarevalidinaccordancetherewith,
shallcontinuetobefullyoperativeasprovidedinthesame,withthelimitationsestablishedinthese
rules.Buttherevocationormodificationoftheseactsandcontractsafterthebeginningofthe
effectivityofthisCode,shallbesubjecttotheprovisionsofthisnewbodyoflaws.(Rule2a)

Art.2257.ProvisionsofthisCodewhichattachacivilsanctionorpenaltyoradeprivationofrightsto
actsoromissionswhichwerenotpenalizedbytheformerlaws,arenotapplicabletothosewho,when
saidlawswereinforce,mayhaveexecutedtheactorincurredintheomissionforbiddenorcondemned
bythisCode.

Ifthefaultisalsopunishedbythepreviouslegislation,thelessseveresanctionshallbeapplied.

Ifacontinuousorrepeatedactoromissionwascommencedbeforethebeginningoftheeffectivityof
thisCode,andthesamesubsistsorismaintainedorrepeatedafterthisbodyoflawshasbecome
operative,thesanctionorpenaltyprescribedinthisCodeshallbeapplied,eventhoughtheprevious
lawsmaynothaveprovidedanysanctionorpenaltytherefor.(Rule3a)

Art.2258.Actionsandrightswhichcameintobeingbutwerenotexercisedbeforetheeffectivityofthis
Code,shallremaininfullforceinconformitywiththeoldlegislation;buttheirexercise,durationandthe
proceduretoenforcethemshallberegulatedbythisCodeandbytheRulesofCourt.Iftheexerciseof
therightoroftheactionwascommencedundertheoldlaws,butispendingonthedatethisCodetakes
effect,andtheprocedurewasdifferentfromthatestablishedinthisnewbodyoflaws,theparties
concernedmaychoosewhichmethodorcoursetopursue.(Rule4)

Art.2259.ThecapacityofamarriedwomantoexecuteactsandcontractsisgovernedbythisCode,
evenifhermarriagewascelebratedundertheformerlaws.(n)

Art.2260.ThevoluntaryrecognitionofanaturalchildshalltakeplaceaccordingtothisCode,evenifthe
childwasbornbeforetheeffectivityofthisbodyoflaws.(n)

Art.2261.TheexemptionprescribedinArticle302shallalsobeapplicabletoanysupport,pensionor
gratuityalreadyexistingorgrantedbeforethisCodebecomeseffective.(n)

Art.2262.Guardiansofthepropertyofminors,appointedbythecourtsbeforethisCodegoesinto
effect,shallcontinuetoactassuch,notwithstandingtheprovisionsofArticle320.(n)

Art.2263.Rightstotheinheritanceofapersonwhodied,withorwithoutawill,beforetheeffectivityof
thisCode,shallbegovernedbytheCivilCodeof1889,byotherpreviouslaws,andbytheRulesofCourt.
Theinheritanceofthosewho,withorwithoutawill,dieafterthebeginningoftheeffectivityofthis
Code,shallbeadjudicatedanddistributedinaccordancewiththisnewbodyoflawsandbytheRulesof
Court;butthetestamentaryprovisionsshallbecarriedoutinsofarastheymaybepermittedbythis
Code.Therefore,legitimes,betterments,legaciesandbequestsshallberespected;however,their
amountshallbereducedifinnoothermannercaneverycompulsoryheirbegivenhisfullshare
accordingtothisCode.(Rule12a)

Art.2264.Thestatusandrightsofnaturalchildrenbylegalfictionreferredtoinarticle89and
illegitimatechildrenmentionedinArticle287,shallalsobeacquiredbychildrenbornbeforethe
effectivityofthisCode.(n)

Art.2265.TherightofretentionofrealorpersonalpropertyarisingafterthisCodebecomeseffective,
includesthosethingswhichcameintothecreditor'spossessionbeforesaiddate.(n)

Art.2266.Thefollowingshallhavenotonlyprospectivebutalsoretroactiveeffect:

(1)Article315,wherebyadescendantcannotbecompelled,inacriminalcase,totestifyagainsthis
parentsandascendants;
(2)Articles101and88,providingagainstcollusionincasesoflegalseparationandannulmentof
marriage;

(3)Articles283,284,and289,concerningtheproofofillegitimatefiliation;

(4)Article838,authorizingtheprobateofawillonpetitionofthetestatorhimself;

(5)Articles1359to1369,relativetothereformationofinstruments;

(6)Articles476to481,regulatingactionstoquiettitle;

(7)Articles2029to2031,whicharedesignedtopromotecompromise.(n)

Art.2267.Thefollowingprovisionsshallapplynotonlytofuturecasesbutalsotothosependingonthe
datethisCodebecomeseffective:
(1)Article29,Relativetocriminalprosecutionswhereintheaccusedisacquittedonthegroundthathis
guilthasnotbeenprovedbeyondreasonabledoubt;
(2)Article33,concerningcasesofdefamation,fraud,andphysicalinjuries.(n)

Art.2268.SuitsbetweenmembersofthesamefamilywhicharependingatthetimethisCodegoesinto
effectshallbesuspended,undersuchtermsasthecourtmaydetermine,inorderthatcompromisemay
beearnestlysought,or,incaseoflegalseparationproceedings,forthepurposeofeffecting,ifpossible,
areconciliation.(n)
Art.2269.Theprinciplesuponwhichtheprecedingtransitionalprovisionsarebasedshall,byanalogy,
beappliedtocasesnotspecificallyregulatedbythem.(Rule13a)

REPEALINGCLAUSE

Art.2270.Thefollowinglawsandregulationsareherebyrepealed:
(1)ThosepartsandprovisionsoftheCivilCodeof1889whichareinforceonthedatewhenthisnew
CivilCodebecomeseffective:
(2)TheprovisionsoftheCodeofCommercegoverningsales,partnership,agency,loan,depositand
guaranty;

(3)TheprovisionsoftheCodeofCivilProcedureonprescriptionasfarasinconsistentwiththisCode;
and

(4)Alllaws,Acts,partsofActs,rulesofcourt,executiveorders,andadministrativeregulationswhichare
inconsistentwiththisCode.(n)

Approved,June18,1949.