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Commodity -1 MANGO

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) belonging to Family Anacardiaceae is the
most important commercially grown fruit crop of the country. It is called the
king of fruits. India has the richest collection of mango cultivars.

3.1 Origin
ultivation of mango is believed to have originated in !.". Asia. Mango is
being cultivated in southern Asia for nearly si# thousand years.
3.2 Area & Production

India ranks first among world$s mango producing countries accounting for
about %&' of the world$s mango production. (ther ma)or mango producing
countries include hina* +hailand* Me#ico* ,akistan* ,hilippines* Indonesia*
-ra.il* /igeria and "gypt. India$s share is around %0' of world production.

An increasing trend has been observed in world mango production averaging
00 million metric tonnes per year. 1orldwide production is mostly
concentrated in Asia* accounting for 2%' followed by !outh and /orthern
America with about 3&' share.
,roduction mangoes in India during 0&&450&&2 were shown in below table.
,roducing !tates are Andhra ,radesh* -ihar* 6u)arat* 7arnataka*
Maharashtra* (rissa* +amil /adu* 8ttar ,radesh and 1est -engal. (ther
!tates where mangoes are grown include Madhya ,radesh* 7erala* 9aryana*
,un)ab etc. (Ref. Table-1)
+he state5wise area and production of mangoes are given in Tabe 1 below:
3.3 !cono"ic I"#ortance

+he fruit is very popular with the masses due to its wide range of
adaptability* high nutritive value* richness in variety* delicious taste and
e#cellent flavour. It is a rich source of vitamin A and . +he fruit is
consumed raw or ripe. 6ood mango varieties contain 0&' of total soluble
sugars. +he acid content of ripe desert fruit varies from &.0 to &.% ' and
protein content is about 3 '.
;aw fruits of local varieties of mango trees are used for preparing various
traditional products like raw slices in brine* amchur* pickle* murabba*
chutney* panhe (sharabat) etc. ,resently* the raw fruit of local varieties of
mango are used for preparing pickle and raw slices in brine on commercial
scale while fruits of Alphonso variety are used for s<uash in coastal western
+he wood is used as timber* and dried twigs are used for religious purposes.
+he mango kernel also contains about =53&' good <uality fat which can be
used for saponification. Its starch is used in confectionery industry.
Mango also has medicinal uses. +he ripe fruit has fattening* diuretic and
la#ative properties. It helps to increase digestive capacity.
Among internationally traded tropical fruits* mango ranks only second to
pineapple in <uantity and value. Ma)or markets for fresh and dried mangoes
were: Malaysia* >apan* !ingapore* 9ong 7ong and the /etherlands* while
for canned mango were: /etherlands* Australia* 8nited 7ingdom* 6ermany*
France and 8!A.
!outheast Asian buyers consume mangoes all year round. +heir supplies
come mainly from India* ,akistan* Indonesia* +hailand* Malaysia*
,hilippines* Australia and most recently !outh Africa.
"ach e#porting country has its own varieties* which differ in shape* colour
and flavour. ,rices are very low for Indonesian and +hailand fruit and are on
the higher side for Indian fruit. In the 8nited !tates of America* the prices
vary with the season* higher prices found during February and March* when
mango availability is lowest.
Most international trade in fresh mangoes takes place within short distances.
Me#ico* 9aiti and -ra.il account for the ma)ority of /orth America$s
imports. India and Pa$i%tan are t&e #redo"inant %u##ier% to t&e 'e%t
A%ian "ar$et. !outheast Asian countries get most of their supplies from
the ,hilippines and +hailand. "uropean 8nion buyers source mangoes from
!outh America and Asia. Although Asia accounts for 2% percent of world
production* its dominance does not translate into international trade.
(.1.2 Internationa )ar$et% *or Indian )ango
Asian producers find it easier to e#pand sales to the "uropean 8nion.
"urope$s acceptance of different varieties is greater* because of a large
demand from Asian immigrant groups. ,hytosanitary restrictions are less
stringent. +ransportation costs are not as big a factor in e#porting mangoes
to the "uropean 8nion as in e#porting to the 8nited !tates market: for
e#ample* India and ,akistan are able to compete with non5Asian suppliers to
the "uropean 8nion* whereas pro#imity gives Me#ico and 9aiti a clear
advantage in supplying to the 8nited !tates market.
Fifty5four percent of "uropean 8nion imports enter during the periods May
to >uly and /ovember to ?ecember* with peak imports in >une. French
imports reach peak in April and May* whereas 8nited 7ingdom imports are
concentrated during the May to >uly. 6erman imports are spread more
evenly throughout the year. (f the top suppliers* -ra.il provided chiefly
during the period /ovember to ?ecember* the 8nited !tates during >une to
(ctober* !outh Africa during >anuary to April and @ene.uela during April to
>uly. ,akistan supplies the ma)ority of its e#ports to the "uropean 8nion
during >une and >ulyA
Indian e+#ort% ta$e #ace "ain, during t&e "ont& o* )a,.
Although a lion$s share of Indian mango goes to the 6ulf countries* efforts
are being made to e#ploit "uropean* American and Asian markets. About
3B*&&& M+ of Alphonso variety is e#ported to Middle "ast* 87 and
/etherlands every year.
+he different products of mango which are e#ported include mango chutney*
pickles* )am* s<uash* pulp* )uice* nectar and slices. +hese are being e#ported
to 8.7.* 8.!.A.* 7uwait and ;ussia. -esides these* the fresh mangoes are
being e#ported to -angladesh* -ahrain* France* 7uwait* Malaysia* /epal*
!ingapore and 8.7.
+he varieties in demand at the international market include 7ent* +omy
Atkin* Alphonso and 7esar. @arieties such as Alphonso* ?ashehari* 7esar*
-anganapalli and several other varieties that are currently in demand in the
international markets are produced and e#ported from India.
CMahamango$* a co5operative society was established in 3DD3 with the
support of Maharashtra !tate Agricultural E Marketing -oard (,une). +his
was mainly formed to boost the e#port of Alphonso mangoes as well as for
domestic marketing. Facilities like pre5cooling* cold storages* pack house*
grading packing line etc. have been made available at the facility centre of
Mahamango for which the financial assistance was given by A,"?A* /ew
?elhi and Maharashtra !tate Agricultural E Marketing -oard (,une).
A similar type of association named CMA/6;(1$ has been formed for the
e#port of 7esar mangoes from Aurangabad district of Maharashtra.
(.2 I"#ort-!+#ort trend%

IndiaFs mango e#ports were ./0121.33 )T worth ;s 1(01/3.// a$& in
+he trend in e#port of mangoes during (@alue in ;s. Lakh* Guantity in M+)
(.3 Ana,%i% and 4uture 5trateg,
Mango has an established e#port market and poses bright opportunities for
e#port in the international market whether in fresh or processed forms.
!imilarly* the mango industry has provided livelihood opportunities to its
growers and those involved in its marketing channel.
Creation o* e%%entia in*ra6%tructure for preservation* cold storage*
refrigerated transportation* rapid transit* grading* processing* packaging and
<uality control are the important aspects which needs more attention.
+here is need for developing processing industries in the southern region of
the country where post harvest losses in handling and marketing are higher.
+here is scope to establish mango preservation factories in cooperative
sector. Mango growers cooperatives on the lines of Mahamango need to
encouraged to come up in ma)or mango producing !tates. +his will add to
their income through processing and create additional employment
opportunities for the rural people.
onsiderable amount of waste material* e.g* mango stones* peels remain
unutili.ed which can be used properly by the processors to earn more profit.
+his will also help to improve sanitary conditions around factory premises.
;.1 Agro6ci"atic re<uire"ent%
Mango is well adapted to tropical and sub5tropical climates. It thrives well in
almost all the regions of the country but cannot be grown commercially in
areas above 4&& m. It cannot stand severe frost* especially when the tree is
young. 9igh temperature by itself is not so in)urious to mango* but in
combination with low humidity and high winds* it affects the tree adversely.
Mango varieties usually thrive well in places with rainfall in the range of 2%5
B2% cm. Hannum and dry season. +he distribution of rainfall is more
important than its amount. ?ry weather before blossoming is conducive to
profuse flowering. ;ain during flowering is detrimental to the crop as it
interferes with pollination. 9owever* rain during fruit development is good
but heavy rains cause damage to ripening fruits. !trong winds and cyclones
during fruiting season can play havoc as they cause e#cessive fruit drop.
Loamy* alluvial* well drained* aerated and deep soils rich in organic matter
with a p9 range of %.% to 2.% are ideal for mango cultivation.
;.2 Gro=ing and Potentia Bet%
Mango is cultivated in almost all the states of India. +he state5wise growing
belts are given in the following :
State Growing belts
Andhra Pradesh Krishna, East and West Godavari, Vishakhapatnam, Srikakulam,
Chittoor, Adilabad, Khamman, Vijaynagar
Chhattisgarh abalpur, !aipur, "astar
Gujarat "havnagar, Surat, Valsad, unagarh, #ehsana, Khera
$aryana Karnal, Kurushetra
ammu % Kashmir ammu, Kath&a, 'dhampur
harkhand !an(hi, Sindega, Gumla, $a)aribagh, *umka, Sahibganj, Godda+
Karnataka Kolar, "angalore, ,umkur, Kagu
Kerala Kannur, Palakkad, ,rissur, #alappuram
#adhya Pradesh !e&a, Satna, *urg, "ilaspur, "astar, !amnandgaon, !ajgari,
abalpur, Katni, "alagha
#aharashtra !atnagiri, Sindhudurg, !aigarh
-rissa Sonepur, "olangir, Gajapati, Koraput, !ayagada, Gunpur,
#alkanpuri, *henkanal, Ganjam, Puri
Punjab Gurdaspur, $oshiarpur, !opar
,amil .adu *harmapuri, Vellore, ,iruvallur, ,heni, #adurai
'ttaran(hal Almora, .ainital, *ehradun, "agesh&ar, 'dhamSingh .agar,
'ttar Pradesh Saharanpur, "ulandshahar, /u(kno&, 0ai)abad, Varanasi
West "engal #alda, #urshidabad, .adia
;.3 >arietie% Cuti?ated
In India* about 3*%&& varieties of mango are grown including 3*&&&
commercial varieties. "ach of the main varieties of mango has an uni<ue
taste and flavour.
-ased on time of ripening * varieties may be classified as under :
"arly 5 -ombai* -ombay 6reen * 9imsagar* 7esar*
Mid5season 5 Alphonso* Mankurad* -angalora* @anra)*
-anganapalli* ?ashehari* Langra* 7ishen -hog*
Iardalu* Mankurad
Late 5 Fa.li* Fernandin* Mulgoa* /eelum* hausa
Amrapalli (?ashehari # /eelum)* Mallika (/eelum # ?ashehari)* Arka
Aruna (-anganapalli # Alphonso)* Arka ,uneet (Alphonso # >anardhan
,asand)* Arka /eelkiran (Alpohonso # /eelum)* ;atna (/eelum #
Alphonso)* !indhu (;atna # Alphonso)* Au ;umani (;umani # Mulgoa)*
Man)eera (;umani # /eelum)* ,7M 3 (hinnasuvernarekha # /eelum)*
Alfa.li* !under Langra* !abri* >awahar* /eelphonso* /eeleshan*
/eeleshwari* ,7M 0 (very few of these hybrid varieties are grown
commercially in the country).
+he important mango varieties cultivated in different states of India are
given below :
State Varieties grown
Andhra Pradesh 1 Allumpur "aneshan, "anganapalli, "angalora, Cherukurasam,
$imayuddin, Suvernarekha, .eelum, ,otapuri
"ihar 1 "athua, "ombai, $imsagar, Kishen "hog, Sukul, Gulab Khas, 2ardalu,
/angra, Chausa, *ashehari, 0a)li
Goa 1 0ernandin, #ankurad
Gujarat 1 Alphonso, Kesar, !ajapuri, Vanraj, amadar, ,otapuri, .eelum,
*ashehari, /angra
$aryana 1 *ashehari, /angra, Sarauli, Chausa, 0a)li
$ima(hal Pradesh 1 Chausa, *ashehari, /angra
harkhand 1 ardalu, Amrapalli, #allika, "ombai, /angra, $imsagar, Chausa,
Karnataka 1 Alphonso, "angalora, #ulgoa, .eelum, Pairi, "aganapalli, ,otapuri
Kerala 1 #undappa, -lour, Pairi
#adhya Pradesh 1 Alphonso, "ombay Green, /angra, Sunderja, *ashehari, 0a)li,
.eelum, Amrapalli, #allika
#aharashtra 1 Alphonso, #ankurad, #ulgoa, Pairi, !ajapuri, Kesar, Gulabi, Vanraj
-rissa 1 "aneshan, /angra, .eelum, Suvarnarekha, Amrapalli, #allika
Punjab 1 *ashehari, /angra, Chausa, #alda
!ajasthan 1 "ombay Green, Chausa, *ashehari, /angra
,amil .adu 1 "anganapalli, "angalora, .eelum, !umani, #ulgoa, Alphonso,
'ttar Pradesh 1 "ombay Green, *ashehari, /angra, Sa3eda /u(kno&, Chausa, 0a)li
West "engal 1 "ombai, $imsagar, Kishen "hog, /angra, 0a)li, Gulabkhas, Amrapalli,
;.( Panting
;.(.1 Panting )ateria
Mango can be propagated from seed or propagated vegetatively. ,lants are
generally propagated vegetatively by using several techni<ues like veneer
grafting* inarching and epicotyl grafting etc.
;.(.2 Panting 5ea%on
,lanting is usually done in the month of >uly5August in rainfed areas and
during February5March in irrigated areas. In case of heavy rainfall .ones*
planting is taken up at the end of rainy season.
;.(.3 5#acing
+he planting distance is 3&m. # 3&m. and 30m. # 30m. in dry and moist
.ones respectively. In the model scheme* a spacing of =m. # =m. with a
population of 4B plants per acre has been considered which was observed to
be common in areas covered during a field study.

;.; Training o* Pant%
+raining of plants in the initial stages of growth is very important to give
them a proper shape specially in cases where the graft has branched too low.

;.2 Nutrition
Fertili.ers may be applied in two split doses * one half immediately after the
harvesting of fruits in >uneH>uly and the other half in (ctober* in both young
and old orchards followed by irrigation if there are no rains. Foliar
application of B ' urea in sandy soils is recommended before flowering.
+he following table gives the details of fertili.er applied (depending upon
the age of the plants) :
Age of the plant
(in years)
Fertilizer applied
45 466g+ ., 76g+ P8-7, 466g+ K8-
46 4kg+ ., 766g+ P8-7, 4kg+ K8-
44 1do1
5The doses applied in the subsequent years should be increased every year upto
10 years in the multiple of the first years dose.
1ell decomposed farm5yard manure may be applied every year. For trench
application of fertili.ers* J&&g. each of / and 7
( and 0&&g. of ,
plant should be provided. Micro5nutrients may be applied as per the
re<uirement in the form of foliar sprays.
;.. Irrigation
+he fre<uency and amount of irrigation to be provided depends on the type
of soil* prevailing climatic conditions* rainfall and its distribution and lastly
the age of the trees. /o irrigation is re<uired during the monsoon months
unless there are long spells of drought.
Age of the plant (in
years)/Growth stage
Irrigation schedule
4 9rrigated at an interval o3 81: days during dry season+
817 9rrigation interval1 ;17 days +
71<= 3ruit set to maturity 9rrigated a3ter every 46147 days
0ull bearing stage 81: irrigations a3ter 3ruit set+
Fre<uent irrigation during 05B months prior to the flowering season is not
advisable as it is likely to promote vegetative growth at the e#pense of
flowering. Irrigation should be given at %&' field capacity. 6enerally inter5
crops are grown during the early years of plantation and hence fre<uency
and method of irrigation has to be ad)usted accordingly. +he method usually
followed for irrigating mango plants is basin irrigation. 9owever* use of
?rip Irrigation will not only reduce the water re<uirements but will also help
in fertigation in root .ones of the plants.
;.3 Intercutura O#eration%
+he fre<uency and the time of inter5culture operations vary with age of the
orchards and e#istence of inter5crops. +he weed problem may not e#ist
immediately after planting the mango crop but it is advisable to break the
crust with hand hoe each time after 3&53% irrigations are applied. In case of
mono5cropping* the area between the basins should be ploughed at least
three times in a year i.e. during the pre5monsoon* post5monsoon period and
in the last week of /ovember.
;./ Inter6cro##ing
Intercropping can be taken up till the mango trees attain suitable height and
develop canopy (at %54 years of age).Leguminous crops like green gram*
black gram* gram etc.* cereals like wheat* oilseeds like mustard* sesame and
groundnut* vegetable crops such as cabbage* cauliflower* tomato* potato*
brin)al* cucumber* pumpkin* bitter gourd* tinda* lady$s finger etc. and spices
like chillies can be grown as intercrops. +he partial shade loving crops like
pineapple* ginger* turmeric etc. can be cultivated in fully grown orchards. In
addition to field crops* some short duration * less e#haustive and dwarf type
inter5 fillers like papaya* guava* peach* plum etc. can be grown till these do
not interfere with the main mango crop .It is advisable to take vegetable
crops as inter crops for better returns.
+he average cost of inter cropping would be ;s.3&*&&& H Acre and it would
yield on an average of 4 tonnes H Acres.
;.11 Cro# )anage"ent
;.11.1 Reguation o* Bearing

,roper cultural practices like addition of fertili.ers and control of diseases
and insect pests may be adopted to regulate growth and bearing. ;egular
bearing varieties vi.. ?ashehari and Amrapalli may be grown. ?eblossoming
of the panicles with /AA K 0&& ppm. (0& g.H3&& l. water) during Con$ year
may help to regulate the bearing.
;.11.2 Reguation o* 4ruit Dro#
"mbryo abortion* climatic factors * disturbed water relation* lack of
nutrition* attack of disease and pest* hormonal imbalances are the ma)or
factors that lead to fruit drop. A spray of Alar (-5/ine) K 3&& ppm. or 0&
ppm. 0*J5? (0g. in 3&& l. water) in the last week of April or in the last week
of May will control to some e#tent the summer fruit drop in Langra E
;.11 Pant Protection )ea%ure%
;.11.1 In%ect Pe%t%
Insect pests mostly observed are mealy bug* hopper* inflorescence midge*
fruit fly and scale insects. For controlling these insects* spraying with
carbaryl* monocrotophos* phosphamidon E methyl parathion are
;.11.2 Di%ea%e% and Di%order%
+he crop is suspect to diseases like powdery mildew* anthracnose* die back*
blight* red rust* sooty mould* etc. In order to control these diseases spraying
of appropriate chemicalsHfungicides have to be undertaken preferably on
preventive basis.
?isorders can also affect the crop if proper case and control measures are not
taken. +he ma)or among these are malformation* biennial bearing* fruit
drop* black tip* clustering etc. +he grower needs to seek advice and
professional assistance to preventHcontrol diseases and disorders in the crop.

;.12 7ar?e%ting and 9ied

+he orchard starts bearing from si#th year onwards and the economic life of
a mango tree e#ceeds B% years.
Lield of fruits varies considerably according to the variety* climatic
conditions* plant population etc. (n an average* the yield ranges from % to D
tHacre. 6rafted plants start bearing early.

;. PO5T 7AR>!5T )ANAG!)!NT
2.1 Grading

6rading is mainly based on the si.e* colour and maturity of the fruits. 1hile
grading* smaller fruits are separated from the larger ones in order to achieve
uniform ripening. Immature* overripe* damaged and diseased fruits are
discarded in the process of grading.
+he fruits are generally harvested early in the season at a pre5mature stage to
capture early market. !uch fruits are ripened by uniformly dipping in 2%&
ppm. ethrel (3.=ml.Hl.) in hot water at %0M0
for % minutes. within J5= days
under ambient conditions. Mature fruits are ripened with lower doses of
ethrel for uniform colour development.
2.2 5torage
+he mature green fruits can be stored at room temperature for about J53&
days depending upon the variety. +he harvested fruits are pre5cooled to 3&5
and then stored at an appropriate temperature. +he fruits of ?ashehari*
Mallika and Amrapalli should be stored at 30
* Langra at 3J
hausa at =
with =%5D& ' relative humidity.
2.3 Pac$ing
1ooden or cardboard bo#es* rectangular in shape and bamboo baskets
having capacity to accommodate % to =kg. of fruit is used for packaging and
transportation of mango fruits. +he most commonly used containers are
ventilated card board bo#es of corrugated fibre board (F-) cartons. !i.e of
the bo# varies to accommodate % to 3& kg. of fruit.
2.( Tran%#ortation

;oad transport by trucks is the most popular mode of transport due to easy
approach from orchards to the market.
2.; )ar$eting
Marketing of the produce is mainly controlled by intermediaries like
wholesalers and commission agents.
2. T!C7NO8OG9 5OURC!5
+he ma)or sources for technology* as well as <uality planting material are:
entral Institute for !ub5tropical 9orticulture* ,.(. 7akori*
Lucknow5004&&0* 8ttar ,radesh* +el (&%00)50=J3&00H3&0B.
Indian Institute of 9orticultural ;esearch* 9essarghatta*
-angalore5%4&&=D* 7arnataka* +el (&=&)50=J44J23H4B%B.
Indian Agricultural ;esearch Institute* /ew ?elhi533&&30.
/arendra ?eva 8niversity of Agriculture E +echnology*
7umargan)* Fai.abad500J00D* 8ttar ,radesh* +el (&%02&)5
Acharya /6 ;anga Agricultural 8niversity* ;a)endra /agar*
9yderabad5%&&&B&* Andhra ,radesh* +el (&J&)50J&3%&2=.
8niversity of Agricultural !ciences* ?harwad5%=&&&%*
7arnataka* +el (&=B4)50JJ22=B.
Mahatma ,hule 7rishi @idyapeeth* ;ahuri5J3B200*
Maharashtra* +el (&0J04) 00JB0&=.
?r. -alasaheb !awant 7onkan 7rishi @idyapeeth* ?apoli
?istrict* ;atnagiri5J3%230* Maharashtra* +el (&0B%=)5
?irectorate of 9orticulture* !hiva)inagar* ,une*
?irectorate of 9orticulture* Lalbagh* -angalore* 7arnataka.
?irectorate of 9orticulture* 9yderabad* Andhra ,radesh.
?irectorate of 9orticulture* Lucknow* 8ttar ,radesh
.. !CONO)IC5 O4 A ON! ACR! )OD!8
3.1 9igh <uality commercial cultivation of crop by using improved
planting material and drip irrigation leads to multiple benefits vi..
!ynchroni.ed growth* flowering and harvestingA
;eduction in variation of off5type and non5fruit plantsA
Improved fruit <ualityA
"arly maturityA
Increase in average productivityA
9igh efficiency in water application and water use efficiencyA
9igh fertili.er use efficiencyA
Minimum incidence of pests and diseases.
Co%t% & Return%:
3.2 A one acre plantation of the crop is a highly viable proposition.
+he cost components of such a model along with the basis for costing
are e#hibited in Annexures I & II. A summary is given in the figure
below. +he pro)ect cost works out to around ;s.3.%& lakhs per acre.
CS! F "#$%C!

(A&ount in #s')
Co&ponent "roposed
*' Culti+ation %)penses
>i? Cost o3 planting material 8,666
>ii? #anures % 3ertili)ers 7,666
>iii? 9nse(ti(ides % pesti(ides 8,666
>iv? Cost o3 /abour <,;66
>v? -thers, i3 any, >Po&er? :,@66
Subtotal ,*-...
,' Irrigation
>i? ,ube1&ell=submersible pump ;7,666
>ii? Cost o3 Pipeline 1
>iii? -thers, i3 any, please spe(i3y 1
Subtotal /0-...
1' Cost of 2rip/Sprin3ler ,0-...
/' Infrastructure
>i? Store % pump house 47,666
>ii? /abour room 7,666
>iii? Agri(ulture EAuipments 7,;666
Subtotal ,0-/..
0' 4and 2e+elop&ent
>i? Soil /eveling ;,666
>ii? 0en(ing 8B,@66
Subtotal 11-5..
5' 4and- if newly purchased >Please indi(ate the year?5
Grand !otal *-0.-...
*Cost of newly purchased land will be limited to one-tenth of the total project cost
3.3 +he ma)or components of the model are:
Land ?evelopment: (;s.J.& thousand): +his is the labour cost of
shaping and dressing the land site and developing a layout.
Fencing (;s.0D.4& thousand): It is necessary to guard the orchard by
barbed wire fencing to safeguard the valuable produce from
Irrigation Infra5structure (;s.J% thousand): For effective working
with drip irrigation system* it is necessary to install a bore well
with dieselHelectric pumpset and motor. +his is part cost of
?rip Irrigation E Fertigation !ystem (;s.0%.& thousand): +his is
average cost of one acre drip system for mango inclusive of the
cost of fertigation e<uipment. +he actual cost will vary
depending on location* plant population and plot geometry.
"<uipmentHImplements (;s.%.J thousand): For investment on
improved manually operated essential implements a provision
of another ;s.3& thousand is included.
-uilding and !torage (;s.0&.& thousand): A one acre orchard would
re<uire minimally a labour shed and a store5cum pump house.
ultivation (;s.03.& thousand): +his is to cover costs of land
preparation and planting operations* planting material* inputs
and power.
3.( Labour cost has been put at an average of ;s.2& per man5day.
+he actual cost will vary from location to location depending upon
minimum wage levels or prevailing wage levels for skilled and
unskilled labour.
3.; Return% *ro" t&e Pro@ect: In the development stage returns
from inter5cropping are estimated at ;s.0%*&&& annually. +he yield
from the plantation is estimated at % tonnes in the first year of bearing
rising to 2 tonnes. +he produce has been valued at ;s. 3&*&&& per
tonne in this e#ercise.
Pro@ect 4inancing:
3.2 Baance 5&eet: +he pro)ected balance sheet of the model is
given at AnnexureIII. +here would be three sources of financing the
pro)ect as below:
5ource R%. T&ou%and
Farmr$s share
apital subsidy B&.&&
+erm loan J%.&&
Tota 1;1.11
3.. Pro*it & 8o%% Account: +he cash flow statement may be seen
in Annexure IV. Annexure V. pro)ects the profit and loss account of
the model. 6ross profit increases from ;s.0%.% thousand per annum
to ;s.JB.B thousand per annum in the first three years of bearing and
thereafter more or less stabili.e.
%S!I6A!%2 "#$%C! CS!
!s. in thousand"
"articulars Scale 7nit Cost
8ty Cost
4A(2 9 SI!% 2%V%4"6%(!
/A.* A(re 4
Cost of 2e+elop&ent
4and 2e+elop&ent
/evelling % *ressing A(re ;666 4 ;+66
0en(ing % Gates Per !3t+ :7 <;@ 8B+@6

Sub !otal
Store = Pump $ouse
SA 0t+
476 466 47+66
/abour Shed
SA 0t+
466 76 7+66

Sub !otal
"4A(! 9 6AC;I(%#<
Irrigation syste&
"ore&ell .os+ 87666 4 87+66
S9P sets % Ele(tri(al 9nstallation /S 86666 4 86+66
*rip 9rrigation in(+ 0ertigation
87666 4 87+66
0arm EAuipment #a(hinery /S 7;66 4 7+;6
Sub !otal =0'/.
CS! F C74!IVA!I(
/and Preparation = Planting ;+86
Planting #aterial 8+66
9nput Cost C+66
Po&er Cost :+@6
-ther 0arm -perations C+86
Sub !otal ,*'..

CS! F "#27C!I( 9 "#FI!A:I4I!<
!s. in thousand"
"articulars <ear>I <ear>II <ear>III <ear>IV <ear>V to ?V
Inco&e 0.'.. 5.'.. =.'.. =.'.. =.'..
Sales 0.'.. 5.'.. =.'.. =.'.. =.'..
Cost ,/'0. ,0'5. ,5'=. ,5'=. ,5'=.
Fi)ed ,/'0. ,0'5. ,5'=. ,5'=. ,5'=.
#anure=3ertili)ers=(hemi(als 46+66 46+66 46+66 46+66 46+66
*ire(t /abour (ost ;+86 ;+86 ;+86 ;+86 ;+86
-ther (ost :+@6 :+@6 :+@6 :+@6 :+@6
$arvesting % transportation (ost @+86 C+:6 <+;6 <+;6 <+;6
General eDpenses 6+76 6+76 6+76 6+76 6+76
Gross profit ,0'0. 1/'/. /1'1. /1'1. /1'1.
2epreciation @+<6 @+<6 @+<6 @+<6 @+<6
9nterest 1term loan 7+;6 7+;6 7+86 ;+86 :+86
Pre1operative EDp+ W=- 1 1 1 1 1
Pro3it be3ore taD *1'1. ,,',. 1*'1. 1,'1. 11'1.
,aDes 1 1 1 1 1
"rofit After !a)es *1'1. ,,',. 1*'1. 1,'1. 11'1.
#etained "rofit *1'1. ,,',. 1*'1. 1,'1. 11'1.
(et cash Accrual ,.'*. ,@'.. 1A'*. 1@'*. /.'*.
"#$%C!%2 :A4A(C% S;%%!
!s. in thousands"
"articulars <ear . <ear I <ear II <ear III <ear IV
0armerEs Share C7+66 C7+66 C7+66 C7+66 C7+66
Capital Subsidy :6+66 :6+66 :6+66 :6+66 :6+66
!eserves % Surpluses 1 4:+:6 :7+76 @@+<6 BB+46
,erm /oan ;7+66 ;7+66 :@+<6 8<+@6 86+76
!otal *0.'.. *51'1. *=='1. ,..'/. ,,/'0.
0iDed Assets 476+66 476+66 4;:+86 4:@+;6 48B+@6
/ess *epre(iation 1 @+<6 @+<6 @+<6 @+<6
.et "lo(k 476+66 4;:+86 4:@+;6 48B+@6 488+C6
Cash % "ank "alan(e 1 86+46 ;6+B6 C6+B6 464+<6
!otal *0.'.. *51'1. *=='1. ,..'/. ,,/'0.
CAS; F4B S!A!%6%(!
!s. in thousand"
"A#!IC74A#S <ear . <ear I <ear II <ear III <ear IV
S7#C%S F F7(2S
9n(rease in 0armerEs Share C7+66 1 1 1 1
.et Pro3it 1 4:+8< 88+4< :4+:8 :8+:4
9n(rease in Subsidy :6+66 1 1 1 1
*epre(iation 1 @+<8 @+<8 @+<8 @+<8
9n(rease in ,erm /oan ;7+66 1 1 1 1
!otal *0.'.. ,.'*. ,@'.. 1A'*0 1@'*1

9n(rease in 0iDed Assets 476+66 1 1 1 1
*e(rease in ,erm /oan 1 1 <+4< <+4< <+4<
!otal *0.'.. > A'*@ A'*@ A'*@
-pening "alan(e 1 1 86+46 ;6+B6 C6+<7
Surplus=*e3i(it 1 86+46 86+<4 8B+B7 :6+B;
Closing "alan(e > ,.'*. /.'@. =.'A0 *.*'=@
"#$%C!%2 "#FI! A(2 4SS ACC7(!
!s. in thousands"
"articulars <ear I <ear II <ear III <ear IV <ear V
Sales #ealisation 76+66 @6+66 C6+66 C6+66 C6+66
!otal Costs ,/'0. ,0'5. ,5'=. ,5'=. ,5'=.
Gross "rofit ,0'0. 1/'/. /1'1. /1'1. /1'1.
*epre(iation @+<6 @+<6 @+<6 @+<6 @+<6
Pre1-perative EDpenses W=- 1 1 1 1 1
9nterest on ,erm /oan 7+;6 7+;6 7+86 ;+86 :+86
Pro3it be3ore ,aD 4:+:6 88+86 :4+:6 :8+:6 ::+:6
,aDes 1 1 1 1 1
Pro3it a3ter ,aD 4:+:6 88+86 :4+:6 :8+:6 ::+:6
!etained Pro3it 4:+:6 88+86 :4+:6 :8+:6 ::+:6
.et Cash A((ruals 86+46 8B+66 :<+46 :B+46 ;6+46

"#FI! 9 4SS ACC7(!

-pening "alan(e 6+66 4:+:6 :7+76 @@+<6 BB+46
Closing "alan(e 4:+:6 :7+76 @@+<6 BB+46 4:8+;6