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A

Project report
on
Power Factor improvement in
SPRS(Slip Power Recovery
systems)
by
Name - Shaik Adil Islam
IDNO -2012A3PS194
Discipline-B.E(Hons) Electrical and Electronics
AT
Ramco cements limited, Jayanthipuram.
A Practice school- I station of
BIRLA INSTITUE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE ,PILANI
JUNE, 2014

A
Project report
on
Power Factor improvement in
SPRS(Slip Power Recovery Systems)
by
Shaik Adil Islam -2012A3PS194P

Prepared in partial fulfillment of the practice school-I
Course No.
BITS C221/BITS C231/BITS C241/BITS GC221/BITS GC231
AT
Ramco cements limited, Jayanthipuram.
A Practice school- I station of
BIRLA INSTITUE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE ,PILANI
JUNE, 2014

This wonderful opportunity is provided by







Station: RAMCO CEMENTS LTD., Centre:Jayanthipuram, AP
Duration: 22
ND
May 17thJuly 2014
Date of submission: 17
th
July 2013
PROJECT TITLE: POWER FACTOR CORRECTION IN SPRS systems
Keywords: Power factor,SPRS,IGBT,PWM
Project Area: Electrical & Insrumentation Departments of Ramco Cements
PS 1 Instructor: Dr.K Venkata Ratnam (Asst.Professor)
Project Guides: Mr.Keshav Perumal.Mr.Babu(Insrumentation
Dept),Mr.Sridhar(Junior Manager ,Electrical Deptt),




INDEX
CHAPTER NO. TITLE
1. INTRODUCTION
Company Profile
2. Introduction to Project
3. POWER FACTOR
4. MAIN
5. STABILITY OF SPRS
6. PROGRESSIVEMETHODOLOGY OF
SPRS
7. Analysis of lines in RAMCO cements
8. IGBT based Power recovery system
9. Major components of a PWM-SPR system
10. Operation of a PWM SPR system
11.FEATURES OF I GBT SPRS
12.Summary of I GBT based power recovery scheme
13.Conclusions
14.Bibliography







ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I owe a great many thanks to a great many people who
helped and supported me during the writing of this report.
My deepest thanks to Mr. Sridhar & Mr.Babu Sir for
guiding and correcting my misconceptions in the electrical concepts with
attention and care. He has taken pain to explain various operations
adopted by the Ramco Cement Plant and showing them personally when
needed.
I express my thanks to Mr. Keshava Perumalu Sir and Mr. Subba
Rao Sir for extending their support.
My sincere thanks to Respected Gopala Krishna Sir [Ramco Cements,
Jaggiahpet] support and guidance. Thanks and appreciation to the
helpful people at RAMCO CEMENTS, Jaggiahpet, for their support.
I would also thank my institution BITS-PILANI GOA Campus and
my faculty member Mr. K. Venkata Ratnam Sir without whom this
project/report would have been a distant reality.


ABSTRACT

This Report cover the basic aspect of induction motor along
with SPRS.The discussion is primarily with reference to the
scheme attached here with,however special settings are also
discussed for other variations in the system we have clearly
explained the working of the SPRS and its effect on the devices
using or implementing it .we have clearly put into words the
basic theory related to the SPRS and its operation.We also
studied the theoretical aspects of IGBT based systems,MV
drives and their applications in recovery of slip power and have
arrived at some important recommendations.

Signature(s) of Student(s) Signature of PS Faculty






Date: Date:


1) INTRODUCTION
CEMENT MANUFACTURING OUTLOOK
BLOCK DIAGRAM PROCESS FLOW:




Company profile

Ramco Cements limited set up its 2
nd
out of the 5 plants at KSR Nagar
Jayanthipuram in 1986. This plant has a production capacity of 3.65
MTPA. The total production of Ramco Cements all over India is 18
MMTPA. The total number of employees working in MCL is 10,000. The
MCL has three IS/ISO certifications namely
IS/ISO 9001:2008 i.e. Quality Management System (QMS)
IS/ISO 14001:2004 i.e. Environment Management System (EMS)
IS 18001:2007 i.e. Occupational Health and Safety Management
System (OHSMS)
The annual turnover of MCL is 3500 Crore. It is a leading cement
manufacturing brand and supplies mostly in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka
and Tamil Nadu. The RAMCO group has many other industries like
textile, Surgical Cotton, Wind energy, Software etc. The Jayanthipuram
plant has four mines that feed the plant with limestone and they are
Jayanthipuram North Band 2.00 MTPA
Jayanthipuram South Band 0.50 MTPA
Ravirala 1.20 MTPA
Budawada 1.10 MTPA
The MCL Jayanthipuram has been expanding in production since
established. The Various advancements have led to higher production
from 0.75 MTPA in 1986 to 3.65 MTPA in 2010.
The Power source of the company is from two thermal power plants
namely VTPP and KTPP. Two 18 MW thermal power plants are also
present. This is a briefing about the companys profile.
Core values and benefits:
The satisfaction and sensitivity of customers to their needs is our
strength and security.
We try to learn from others, be committed to quality and always
stay ahead in terms of technology.
We do not look at productivity as a game in numbers.

Awards and Achievements:
Corporate performance award by economic times.
National award for Energy conservation by confederation of
Indian industry.
4 Leaves award for Energy conservation.
Best energy efficient unit by National council for cement and
Building materials.
Visvesvariah Industrial award by All India Manufacturers
Organization.


ROLE OF ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT IN MCL


Planning and effective preventive maintenance schedules of
various machinery instruments to increase the machine up time
and equipment reliability.
Proactively identifying the areas of obstructions /breakdowns and
taking steps to rectify the equipments through application of
trouble shooting tools.
Maintaining history records of any electrical fault or electrical
failure and Breakdown analysis for the prevention of re-occurring
of that fault.
Standard operating procedure, section reports, required spares
list and safe Working procedures preparation.
Prepare and study technical drawings and specifications of
electrical systems to ensure that installation and operations
conform to standards.
Inspect completed installations and observe operations, to ensure
conformance to design and equipment specifications and
compliance with operational and safety standards.
Efficiently handling Commissioning of small to large capacity
auxiliaries with Control schemes.
Electrical scheme design check, rectification and modification as
per the requirement.
Anchoring commissioning of equipments and ensuring
completion of Project in minimum turnaround time effective
resources utilization to maximize the output.

POWER SUPPLY TO MCL
MCL is provided with a 132 KV supply from APSPDCL Chillakalu.
At 14700 KVA. Power Transformer 1 and 2 step down the supply
voltage to 6.6 KV. They are rated at 18MWA. Then the power is
supplied to all the various Power Control Centers (PCC).
From there it goes to the respective Motor Control Centers (MCC).
The total plant load is 33 MW. And the plant also has two generators to
carry forward the plant in case of blackouts.
The generators are rated at 18 MW each.

Introduction to Project
Induction Motors draw a huge amounts of starting
currents during starting, hence different starting methods
are employed.
Various methods employed
1. Direct-On-Line Starter
2. Reverse Direct-On-Line Starter
3. Start-Delta Starter
4. Auto Transformer Motor Starting
5. Liquid Resistance Starter
6. Grid Resistance Regulation
Less than 10Kw motors are started using Direct-On-line but
above that we use other methods like start-delta, LRS etc.
We only concentrate about LRS and GRR starters because
other starting methods are beyond the scope of this report.
All the above methods except GRR method are only used for
starting the motor but what about the speed regulation of
the motor?
If GRR method is employed there is a tremendous wastage
of non-usable power through the resistance and difference
in slip and hence Slip-Power recovery System are taken to
save the power wastage and also for Speed Regulation.
The slip power recovery (SPR) drive is an external system
connected to the rotor circuit in place of the external
resistors.The SPR provides speed and torque
control like the resistors but can also recover the power
taken off the rotor and feed it back into the power system
to avoid energy waste.

Hmm but here comes the catch , SPRS systems save power
and feed it back into the supply but due to the non-linear
elements the circuit power factor is reduced/altered. If the
power factor is altered in this huge company, the useful
power that the plant can consume comes down which brings
about heavy expenditure like not getting the moneys
worth.
Hence our report here is based upon what kind of SPRS
system is employed in the plant and mention the usefulness
of it, do a market research on SPRS systems and suggest
which one is good and conventional or to mention the pros
and cons of different SPRS systems and suggest a method
for improving the power factor of SPRS systems for
maximum benefit of the company also keeping expenditure
in mind.





2 POWER FACTOR

What is power factor?
Power factor is generally defined as ratio of Actual Power and
Apparent Power.

What is Active Power?
It is the power drawn by the electrical resistance for doing useful
work.

What is Apparent Power?
Apparent power is obtained by multiplying the Voltage with the
current.

What is Reactive Power?
Reactive Power is power stored in and discharged by inductive
motors, transformers and solenoids.

What is power factor?
Power factor is generally defined as ratio of Actual Power and
Apparent Power.


AC power flow has the three components: real power (also known as
active power) (P), measured in watts (W); apparent power (S),
measured in volt-amperes (VA); and reactive power (Q), measured in
reactive volt-amperes (var).

The power factor is defined as:
Power factor = P/S
In the case of a perfectly sinusoidal waveform, P, Q and S can be
expressed as vectors that form a vector triangle such that:

S^2 = P^2 + Q^2
If is the phase angle between the current and voltage, then the
power factor is equal to the cosine of the angle, cos(), and:

|P| = |S| * cos




POWER FACTOR = Active Power/ Apparent power


What Causes Low Power Factor?
Since power factor is defined as the ratio of Active Power to Apparent power, we
see that low power factor results when Active Power is small in relation to
Apparent power this would occur when Reactive Power is large.

What causes a large KVAR in a system?

The answer isinductive loads.


How we can Improve Power Factor?




We have seen that sources of Reactive Power (inductive loads) decrease power
factor:
Transformers
Induction motors
Induction generators (wind mill generators)
High intensity discharge (HID) lighting


Similarly, consumers of Reactive Power increase power factor:
Capacitors




MAIN :
With industrial perspective, various variable speed drive schemes
are put into practice involving pulse width modulated VSI and CSI.PWM
inverter drives are available for the applications where the speed
control accuracy is not critical. The voltage source inverter drive
displays its regeneration capability only along with back to back
converter. The current source inverter drive suffers from cogging below
10% of its rated speed. Unlike PWM inverter drives, the slip energy
recovery drive transfers power that is normally wasted in the rotor of an
induction machine back to the AC mains to improve overall drive
efficiency. The slip power becomes easily available from the slip-ring in
wound rotor induction motor (WRIM), which can be either mechanically
or electronically controlled for motor speed adjustments. Generally the
controlling of the motor is obtained with the help of variation in applied
voltage or introduction of external resistors either in stator or rotor
windings. But with the transition in industrial requirements, the need of
high efficient slip energy drive arises. Slip power recovery drive have
been used in applications such as variable speed wind energy systems,
shipboard, variable s1peed systems and utility system flywheel energy
storage systems. By reducing the inverter firing angle, the power factor
can be reduced which results in extracting less real power to the mains.
Thus, slip power recovery system provides lower operating costs by
slashing energy bills, enhanced life of mechanical equipment by
reducing vibrations and efficient process control with speed holding
accuracy.




This method recovers and delivers the slip power from WRIM to the
source. At changeover speed, SPRS is connected to rotor and rotor
resistance is disconnected. Diode rectifier converts the rotor voltage to
DC voltage. This rectified voltage is counter balanced by a line
commutated inverter. By controlling the counter balancing inverter
voltage, the rotor current, hence rotor speed is regulated. The slip
power collected at the slip rings is fed back to the supply through the
inverter. Basic block diagram of SPRS is shown in the figure 1. Slip
power recovery drives come across few challenges like maintaining of
system stability during recovery process. The problem of poor power
factor and highly variable reactive power consumption need to be
addressed. Harmonic analysis of the system shows that these drives
generate sub-harmonics of the supply frequency which could possibly
cause flicker in weak electrical systems. The effect of instantaneous
power supply failure on the slip energy recovery drive is a challenge
and has been discussed.
2. SLIP POWER RECOVERY SCHEMES
Previously, the scheme was implemented employing rotory converters
and was categorized into the Kramers drive and the Scherbius drive.
With the evolution in power electronics, the rotary converters of
classical slip power recovery systems have now been replaced by power
converters and two category of the scheme viz. static Kramers drive
and the static Scherbius drive came into existence.
2.1 Static Kramers Drive
Slip power controlled drive that permits only a sub-synchronous range
of speed control through a converter cascade is known as a static
Kramers drive . In static Kramers drive, the rotor power from the
wound rotor induction motor is fed back to the AC supply by a 3-phase
diode bridge rectifier and a line commutated fully controlled inverter as
shown in figure 2. The machine air gap flux is established by the stator
supply and it practically remains constant if the stator voltage drops and
supply voltage fluctuations are neglected. Investigation of the scheme
configuration during steady-state operation reveals that the rotor phase
voltage and rotor current are in same phase. Further this operation
implies that rectified slip voltage and inverter DC voltage are balanced.
The drive system has the characteristics similar to a separately excited
DC motor as the air gap flux is nearly constant and the torque is directly
proportional to DC link current. This drive system finds its




application in larger power pump and fan type drives. This type of drive
shows drawbacks like poor power factor and highly variable reactive
power requirements. Torque and DC link current is directly
proportional to speed and at higher speed inverter firing angle needs to
be 90so as to give the worst possible condition for reactive power
consumption. A solution often adopted is the design for a limited range
of speed control only, but this means that extra costly provision must be
made for starting the motor and running it up to the minimum
controllable speed. For these reasons, there has been continuing interest
in recovery inverter systems which might improve the performance of
both full- and limited range drives. The four advanced recovery inverter
system are described by B.A.T. Al Zawhai and B.L. Jones as follows: (i)
3N- Three-phase fully controlled bridge, depicted in figure 3 (a), and
also used as the standard for comparison of different topologies of
recovery system. (ii) 12P -Twelve pulse inverter containing two three-
phase bridge connected in series and in parallel as shown in figure 3 (b)
for higher speed operation. This scheme is normally used in water
pumping stations. (iii) 3BB - A buck-boost series arrangement of two
three-phase bridges shown in figure 3 (c) with asymmetric firing
sequences. This technique commonly used to minimize reactive power
variation. (iv) 3SF- A series arrangement of three single- phase bridges,
with fly-wheeling diode applied to each bridge separately which
constitutes this system as in figure 3 (d). Use of fly-wheeling diodes
reduces the RMS current and power losses in recovery transformer.
Kramers drive has the limitation of one quadrant speed control and it
cannot have regenerative braking capability, hence, speed reversal is
not possible




2.2 Static Scherbius Drive
Static Scherbius drive is capable to provide the speed control below
and above the synchronous speed. The converter system, which is
bidirectional, can provide both motoring as well as regeneration
operation as depicted in figure 4. For driving the rotor above the
synchronous speed, the phase sequence of the rotor currents is reversed
from that for the stator supply. Thus, slip speed becomes negative
forcing the rotor speed to run above the synchronous speed. The flow of
slip power can be controlled in both directions through two modes,
namely,
(i) Sub-synchronous mode
(ii) Super-synchronous mode.
All the different operational modes of static Scherbius drive are broadly
explained in figure 5. Working of figure 5 (a) is similar to the
functioning of static Kramers drive. Figure 5(b) explains the
regenerative braking in sub- synchronous mode. In this mode, shaft is
driven by the load and the mechanical energy is converted into electrical
energy and extracted out of the stator. Normally synchronous speed is
equal to the sum of slip speed and rotor speed, but due to phase reversal
of stator supply, slip becomes negative and motor runs above
synchronous speed which is termed as super-synchronous speed. In
super- synchronous motoring mode, the shaft speed increases beyond
the synchronous speed and the slip power is absorbed by the rotor as
depicted in figure 5(c) & 5(d) depicts the super- synchronous
regeneration. In this mode, the stator output power remains constant but
the additional mechanical power input is reflected as slip power output.
The various modes of operation are summarized in Table 1.


This drive has applications in those areas where speed control required
is in a limited range application. This drive is widely used in medium
and high power (up to around 10MW) fan and pump drives, because of
high efficiency and low cost.


3. STABILITY OF SLIP POWERRECOVERY SYSTEM
The most distinct feature for variable speed drive system is its stability.
The stability of SPRS is governed by its control scheme. Control
strategies are categorized such as shown in figure 6. The open loop
control is further classified as open loop rotor voltage control and open
loop rotor current control. Open loop controllers were designed only for
a limited range of speed variation.


Open loop operation of SPRS may not be satisfactory, as the torque-
speed characteristic indicates that if the firing angle of the inverter is
kept constant and the load torque is changed then firing angle has to be
changed. The change in firing angle is required to maintain rotor speed
constant. It can be achieved with the help of closed-loop control. Basic
block-diagram of closed-loop control scheme is shown in figure 7. The
actual rotor speed is measured with a tacho-generator in which output
voltage is proportional to the rotor speed. This voltage is compared with
the reference value of the speed by means of a speed PI controller.
Output obtained at this stage is served as the reference current input of
the current PI controller. The output of the current PI controller
provides the reference value of the firing angle. The actual value of DC
link current is detected by using three 1- formers
connected to the output of recovery inverter.



Closed-loop control schemes like field orientation control and
decoupled control have the disadvantages of requiring excessive
numbers of sensors and observers. Also, their performance is usually
subjected to parameter variations and disturbances. An advanced
technique, fuzzy logic control of the SPRS would provide a simple way of
controlling the complex doubly-excited machine and converter system.
By adding some capacity of adaptation to the fuzzy logic controller, the
performance of the system would be even less dependent on changing
operating environments and machine parameters
4. PROGRESSIVE METHODOLOGIES IN SLIP POWER RECOVERY
SCHEME
The various challenges faced by a SPRS lead to further investigation for
its improvement in efficiency and stability. The presence of the diode
bridge rectifier at the rotor terminals of the SPRS result in harmonic
distortion in the rotor flux and hence, in the stator current and flux.
These harmonics may not only effect the operation of other sharing
loads on the feeder, but also may be injected to the nearest generating
stations. The current harmonics increases the copper losses in the stator
windings while the flux harmonics increase the core loss in motor body.
Marques et al. suggested advanced circuit configuration to compensate
both flux and current harmonics. As shown in figure 8, additional
inductor is introduced to increase overlap angle and also connecting
VSI to compensate stator current harmonics. Another approach for
compensation of harmonics involves discrete wavelet transforms (DWT)
and symmetrical component analysis.




SPRS using cascade converters operates at poor power factor. The
reason for poor power factor of the drive is reactive power absorption
by the motor, inverter and the rectifier. An alternative approach for
improvement of power factor is through capacitor commutated
converter (CCC) technology in the SPRS. Another advanced approach is
the implementation of an adaptive fuzzy technique. This technique based
on a three level control structure which manipulates the system
variables. The conventional proportional-integral- derivative regulators
are utilized in the design of both inner current loop and outer speed loop
control. Control systems adopt these regulators and when it is subjected
to the external load changes or power grid fluctuation; these do not
show satisfactory dynamic performance. The improvement in dynamic
performance is obtained through closed-loop control system based on
auto-disturbance-rejection-controller . The autodisturbancerejection
controller is chosen to control the speed for estimating and
compensating the uncertainties in the motor system.

.Analysis of Lines in Ramco cements
LINE 1

As we can see, the Raw material handling MCC (Raw mill hopper MCC),
Raw mill MCC, Coal Feed MCC, Coal Mill MCC work at a power factor
less than 0.7, which is not desirable.



LINE 2



They are connected to SPRS based power recovery
system which has caused the power factor to be too low
when compared to other equipments where power
factor is maintained at 0.8-0.98.
Most electric utility companies charge for maximum metered demand
based on either the highest registered demand in kilowatts (KW meter),
or a percentage of the highest registered demand in KVA (KVA meter),
whichever is greater. If the power factor is low, the percentage of the
measured KVA will be significantly greater than the KW demand.
Improving the power factor through power factor correction will
therefore lower the demand charge, helping to reduce your electricity
bill.
Hence our project aims to improve the power factor in SPRS systems by
different methods like switching over to newer technologies.
Some of the methods include:
1)Adding Capacitors to stator circuit in parallel to decrease the power
factor.But when the SPRS system is not being used ,power factor
increases to more than one which has a disastrous effect on the
machines.
2)Switching over to newer technologies like IGBT based power recovery
systems,MV (Medium Voltage) Drives in Induction motors to achieve a
power factor closer to one.


IGBT BASED SPRS


NEW TECHNOLOGY IN PULSE WIDTH MODULATED
SLIP POWER RECOVERY WOUND ROTOR
INDUCTION MOTOR CONTROL

Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) adjustable speed drives
(ASD) are presently widely available for both low voltage
and medium voltage squirrel cage induction motors. These
ASDs power the motor through the stator for adjustable
speed and torque control. However, low voltage PWM
drives are suitable for use as a Slip Power Recovery.

These drives are called Pulse Width Modulated - Slip
Power Recovery (PWM-SPR ) drives because they have
the ability to recover or regenerate the lost energy in the
rotor (when run below rated speed) and feed it back to the
power system. The inherent characteristics of the PWM
converters can overcome the disadvantages of the
previous SPR drives.


9) Major components of a PWM-SPR system
A PWM based system for slip power recovery consists of
a wound rotor induction motor, a simple starting circuit,
inverter, converter and a power transformer. . Both the
power converters use switching devices like Insulated
Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT). One converter has its AC
input terminals connected to the motor rotor, while the
other converter has its AC terminals connected to the
feedback transformer. In most applications, a starting
circuit will be necessary to accelerate the motor to the
PWM-SPR minimum operating speed.

10) Operation of a PWM SPR system
To operate the motor, it must first be started from
standstill and accelerated to a speed at which the PWM-
SPR drive can take over operation. Most loads require
operation over a limited speed range, e.g. 50 100%. The
starting circuit, either resistors and contactors or a liquid
rheostat, are sized for the required starting torque and
duty.

The control system sequences the contactors to
accelerate the motor in a controlled manner up to the
operating speed of the WRIM. The starting circuit is then
taken out of operation and the PWM-SPR drive is enabled.
Once the motor is operating on the PWM-SPR drive; all
the rotor current passes through the drive and the
feedback transformer to transmit power back to the utility
system.

In practice, the converter connected to the rotor is like an
inverter that is connected to the motor stator in a standard
motor-drive installation. The converter connected to the
feedback transformer is a PWM source converter that is
used in any regenerative drive application.


The power conversion hardware used for the PWM-SPR is
the very similar to the drives that supply power to a
squirrel cage induction motor (SCIM). However, the
direction of power flow is reversed. In the PWM-SPR,
when the motor speed is reduced below rated speed,
power is taken off the rotor and passed back to the power
system. Therefore, the inverter connected to the rotor is
actually taking AC power off the rotor and passing it to the
direct current (DC) link. At the other side of the DC link,
the regenerative source converter takes the power
off the DC link and makes it into constant frequency ac
power at the utility frequency. So, the PWM-SPR drive
operates in regeneration mode anytime the motor is
operating below rated speed.

This regeneration mode is a standard operation mode for
certain high performance conventional ASD that feed the
stator of an induction motor. When a squirrel cage motor
must be stopped quickly due to an overhauling load,
power must be taken from the motor and passed back to
the power system or dissipated in resistors. When an
application repeatedly requires such braking, a
regenerative converter is used that can pass
the power back and forth from the power system. The
application of regenerative type of ASD is also very
commonly found in steel mills, conveyors, mine hoists and
other applications that require them.

The PWM-SPR drive hardware has been in use for many
years on low voltage (<690Vac) induction motor drives.
The power circuits are similar, but the control in the rotor
converter is special for this application . One method for
visualizing the operation of the PWM-SPR drive is to
understand that power is taken into the stator of the
motor and passed to the rotor. The PWM-SPR drive
makes it possible to control the power that is returned to
the power system from the rotor and thereby reduce the
torque the motor can deliver to the driven equipment.
When the output torque is reduced on a variable torque
load, the motor speed decreases.


11)FEATURES OF IGBT SPRS
Standard Low voltage AC drives specially
configured for use in SPRS application.

Reliable Hardware and Available Spare Parts

No modification to production hardware is required.
Size of the feedback transformer is Less as
maximum Power seen by F/B transformer is Max Slip
Power at Unity PF.



Clean Power Feedback
Pure Sinusoidal Current and Voltage Feedback.





Feedback at Unity Power Factor
Less VAR loading on main Incomer.







Very Low Harmonic injection at Source
ITHD ~ 4% , VTHD ~ 1%






Very Low Harmonic current in Rotor circuit
Sine Filter between Rotor power converter and Rotor
provides pure sine wave enhancing Motor life and provide
low torque pulsations.





Fast acting Crowbar circuit for Over-voltage
protection.
PWM Source converter designed to withstand
severe voltage dip. (upto 40%)
Higher Speed holding accuracy as Speed of the
motor is controlled by PWM Inverter.



Redundancy in Over-voltage protection.
Crowbar, Source converter & Rotor Converter.
Over-current protection.
Earth Fault protection.
Over-temperature protection.
Input Phase detection.
Motor Phase detection.
Dynamic Braking circuit.


Synchronization




12)Summary of IGBT power recovery
scheme
The other alternative to the existing thyrister based SPRS is the
Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor based SPRS.

This SPRS is same as the old one with some changes in its
operation.The following are the sequence of operations that
take place in IGBT based SPRS
i)There are two power converters
1)Source converter: this converts the secondary voltage
from feedback transformer into DC and supply the rotor inverters
DC bus.
2)Rotor inverter:This converts the DC voltage into PWM.
ii)The second operation is synchronisation.
It is same like synchronising TG and EB in power
plant.The three conditions of voltage ,frequency and phase
sequence has to be matched.In SPRS ,the phase sequence has
to
be done manually during pre-commissioning.
iii)After synchronisation the next operation is changeover.
Before changeover , the SPRS will monitor the rotor
voltage and frequency and tune the rotor inverter to generate
same voltage at same frequency.Once both are matched ,there
will be SYNC OK signal released from specially designed
card.Then we take the changeover.

13)Conclusions
The application of proven,high production low voltage power
drive converter hardware in controlling the speed of WRIMs
has been shown to be superior to older technology diode-
thyristor (current source) SPR drives in several areas.The
significant application issues that arise with the old technology
can be solved by IGBT(new PWM) technology.The PWM SPR
drive technology provides an effective way to upgrade to solve
obsolescence problems.For WRIMs without slip power
recovery,a PWM drive can provide energy savings,effective
adjustable speed operation and reliability.

MV drives are more costly than IGBT based systems,take up a
lot more space and takes a lot of time to provide a changeover
when they stop resulting in loss of production.

Hence our final recommendation would be to replace the present
SPRS systems with IGBT based power recovery systems
disregarding the financial aspects.

14)Bibliography

http://www.ramcocements.in/
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/
http://www.ijireeice.com/
http://www.lntebg.com/lntebg/downloads/C&A/sprs.pdf
http://turbolab.tamu.edu/proc/pumpproc/P28/Pump_Lecture_3.p
df
https://www.tmeic.com/Repository/Brochures/TMEIC_SEPT_I
CR_low_1260284113.pdf