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# 670 A Textbook of Engineering Mechanics

Transmission of
Power by Belts
and Ropes
670
33
C H A P T E R C H A P T E R C H A P T E R C H A P T E R C H A P T E R
Contents
1. Introduction.
2. Types of Belts.
3. Velocity Ratio of a Belt Drive.
4. Velocity Ratio of a Simple Belt
Drive.
5. Velocity Ratio of a Compound
Belt Drive.
6. Slip of the Belt.
7. Types of Belt Drives.
8. Open Belt Drive.
9. Cross Belt Drive.
10. Length of the Belt.
11. Length of an Open Belt Drive.
12. Length of a Cross-Belt Drive.
13. Power Transmitted by a Belt.
14. Ratio of Tensions.
15. Centrifugal Tension.
16. Maximum Tension in the Belt.
17. Condition for Transmission of
Maximum Power.
18. Belt Speed for Maximum
Power.
19. Initial Tension in the Belt.
20. Rope Drive.
22. Ratio of Tensions in Rope Drive.
33.1. INTRODUCTION
In factories, the power or rotary motion, from
one shaft to another at a considerable distance is, usu-
ally, transmitted by means of flat belts, vee belts or
ropes, running over the pulleys.
Fig. 33.1. Transmission of power from A to B.
Contents
Chapter 33 : Transmission of Power by Belts and Ropes 671
In Fig. 33.1 is shown an open belt drive consisting of pulleys A and B. The pulley A is keyed to
a rotating shaft, and is known as driver (since it drives the other pulley). The pulley B is keyed to a
shaft, intended to be rotated, and is known as follower or driven (since it is driven by pulley A).
When the driver rotates, it carries the belt due to grip between its surface and the belt. The belt,
in turn, carries the driven pulley which starts rotating. The grip between the pulley and the belt is
obtained by friction, which arises from the pressure between the belt and the pulleys. The friction
grip, if required, is increased by tightening the belt.
33.2. TYPES OF BELTS
( ) Flat belt. a ( ) V-belt b ( ) Circular belt. b
Fig. 33.2.
Though there are many types of belts used these days, yet the following are important from the
subject point of view :
1. Flat belt. The flat belt is mostly used in the factories and workshops, where a moderate
amount of power is to be transmitted, from one pulley to another, when the two pulleys are
not more than 10 m apart.
2. V-belt. The V-belt is mostly used in the factories and workshops where a great amount of
power is to be transmitted, from One pulley to another, when the two pulleys are very near
to each other.
3. Circular belt or rope. The circular belt or rope is mostly used in the factories and work-
shops, where a great amount of power is to be transmitted, from one pulley to another,
when the two pulleys are more than 5 m apart.
If a huge amount of power is to be transmitted, then a single belt may not be sufficient. In such
a case, wide pulleys (for V-belts or circular belts) with a number of grooves are used. Then one belt
in each groove is provided to transmit the required amount of power from one pulley to another.
33.3. VELOCITY RATIO OF A BELT DRIVE
The velocity ratio of a belt drive may be broadly defined as the ratio of the velocities of the
driver and the follower or driven. Now we shall discuss the velocity ratios of :
1. Simple belt drive and 2. Compound belt drive.
33.4. VELOCITY RATIO OF A SIMPLE BELT DRIVE
Consider a simple belt drive (i.e. one driver and one follower) as shown in Fig. 33.1.
Let d
1
= Diameter of the driver,
N
1
= Speed of the driver in r.p.m., and
d
2
, N
2
= Corresponding values for the follower.
Length of the belt, that passes over the driver, in one minute = d
1
N
1
...(i)
Similarly, length of the belt that passes over the follower, in one minute = d
2
N
2
...(ii)
Contents
672 A Textbook of Engineering Mechanics
Since the length of belt, that passes over the driver in one minute, is equal to the length of belt
that passes over the follower in one minute, therefore
d
1
N
1
= d
2
N
2
or
2 1
1 2
N d
N d
=
Note: The term N
2
/N
1
is popularly knwon as velocity ratio.
Example 33.1. It is required to drive a shaft at 620 revolutions per minute, by means of a
belt from a parallel shaft, having a pulley A 300 mm diameter on it and running at 240 revolutions
per minute. What sized pulley is required on the shaft B ?
Solution. Given: Speed of the driver (N
2
) = 620 r.p.m.; Diameter of pulley A (d
1
) = 300
mm and speed of the pulley A (N
1
) = 240 r.p.m.
Let d
2
= Diameter of the follower
We know that diameter of the pulley required,
1
2 1
2
240
300
620
N
d d
N
= =
...
2 1
1 2
N d
N d

=

Q
= 1161 mm Ans.
33.5. VELOCITY RATIO OF A COMPOUND BELT DRIVE
Compound belt drive
Sometimes, the power is transmitted, from one shaft to another, through a number of pulleys
as shown in Fig. 333. Such an arrangement is known as compound belt drive.
In the figure is shown pulley 1, which drives the pulley 2. Since the pulleys 2 and 3 are keyed
to the same shaft, therefore the pulley 1 also drives the pulley 3 which, in turn, drives the pulley 4.
Contents
Chapter 33 : Transmission of Power by Belts and Ropes 673
Fig. 33.3. Compound belt drive.
Let d
1
= Diameter of pulley 1,
N
1
= Speed of the pulley 1 in r.p.m. and
d
2
, d
3
, d
4
, N
2
, N
3
, N
4
= Corresponding values for pulleys 2, 3 and 4.
We know that the velocity ratio of the pulleys 1 and 2,
2 1
1 2
N d
N d
=
...(i)
Similarly, velocity ratio of the pulleys 3 and 4
3 4
2 4
d N
N d
=
...(ii)
Multiplying equation (i) by equation (ii),
3 2 4 1
1 3 2 4
d N N d
N N d d
=
or
1 3 4
1 2 4
d d N
N d d

...(Q N
2
= N
3
, being keyed to the same shaft)
A little consideration will show, that if there are six pulleys, then the velocity ratio,
6 1 3 5
1 2 4 6
N d d d
N d d d

=

Product of diameters of drivers
Product of diameters of followers
=
Example 33.2. In a workshop, an engine drives a shaft by a belt. The diameters of the
engine pulley and the shaft pulley are 500 mm and 250 mm respectively. Another pulley of 700 mm
diameter on the same shaft drives a pulley 280 mm in diameter of the follower. If the engine runs at
180 revolutions per minute, find the speed of the follower.
Solution. Given: Diameter of the engine pulley (d
1
) = 500 mm; Diameter of the shaft pulley
(d
2
) = 250 mm; Diameter of pulley 2 (d
3
) = 700 mm, Diameter of the follower (d
4
) = 280 mm and
speed of the engine (N
1
) = 180 r.p.m.
We know that speed of the shaft,
1 3
4 1
2 4
500 700
180
250 280
d d
N N
d d

= =

= 900 r.p.m. Ans.
33.6. SLIP OF THE BELT
In the previous articles, we have discussed the motion of belts and shafts assuming a firm
frictional grip between the belts and the shafts. But sometimes the frictional grip becomes somewhat
loose. This may cause some forward motion of the driver without carrying the belt with it. This may
Contents
674 A Textbook of Engineering Mechanics
also cause some forward motion of the belt without carrying the driven pulley with it. This is called
slip of the belt, and is generally expressed as a percentage.
The result of the belt slipping is to reduce the velocity ratio of the system. As the slipping of
the belt is a common phenomenon, thus the belt should never be used where a definite velocity ratio
is of importance (as in the case of hour, minute and second arms in a watch).
Let s
1
% = Slip between the driver and the belt,
s
2
% = Slip between the belt and the follower,
Now velocity of the belt, passing over the driver per minute,
v =
1
1 1 1 1

100
s
d N d N
=
1
1 1
1
100
s
d N

...(i)
Similarly, d
2
N
2
=
2 2
1
100 100
s s
v v v

=

Substituting the value of v from equation (i),
d
2
N
2
=
1 2
1 1
1 1
100 100
s s
d N

or
2 1 1 2
1 2
1
100 100
N d s s
N d

=

1 2
... Neglecting
100 100
s s +

1 1 2
2
1
100
d s s
d
+
=

1
2
1
100
d
s
d

=

...(where s = s
1
+ s
2
i.e., total percentage of slip)
Note: If thickness of the belt is considered, then
2 1
1 2
1
100
N d t
s
N d t
+

= =

+
...(where t is thickness of the belt)
Example 33.3. An engine shaft running at 120 r.p.m. is required to drive a machine shaft by
means of a belt. The pulley on the engine shaft is of 2 meters diameter and that of the machine shaft
is of 1 meter diameter. If the belt thickness is 5 mm, find the speed of the machine shaft when (i) there
is no slip, and (ii) there is a slip of 3%.
Solution. Given: Speed of the engine shaft (N
1
) = 120 r.p.m; Diameter of the pulley on the
engine shaft (d
1
) = 2m; Diameter of the machine shaft (d
2
) = 1m; Thickness of the belt (t) = 5 mm
= 0005 m and slip (s) = 3%.
(i) Speed of the machine shaft when there is no slip
We know that speed of the machine shaft,
N
2
=
1
1
2
2 0005
120
1 0005
d t
N
d t
+
+
=
+ +
=2394 r.p.m. Ans.
(ii) Speed of the machine shaft when there is a slip of 3%
We know that speed of the machine shaft,
N
2
=
1
1
2
1
100
d t
s
N
d t
+

+
=
2 0005 3
120 1
1 0005 100
+

+
232 r.p.m. = Ans.
Contents
Chapter 33 : Transmission of Power by Belts and Ropes 675
33.7. TYPES OF BELT DRIVES
The power, from one pulley to another, may be transmitted by any one of the following two
types of belt drives :
1. Open belt drive 2. Cross belt drive.
33.8. OPEN BELT DRIVE
In an open belt drive, the two wheels move in the same direction as shown in Fig. 334.
Fig. 33.4. Open belt drive.
The driver A pulls the belt from one side (RQ in this case) and delivers it to the other side (LM
in this case). Thus the tension in the lower side belt will be more than that in the upper side. The lower
side belt (because of more tension) is known as tight side; whereas the upper side belt (because of less
tension) is known as slack side.
33.9. CROSS BELT DRIVE
Fig. 33.5. Cross belt drive.
In a cross belt drive, the wheels move in the opposite directions as shown in Fig. 335.
The driver A pulls the belt from one side (RQ in this case) and delivers it to the other (LM in
this case). Thus the tension in the belt RQ will be more than that in the belt LM. The belt RQ (because
of more tension) is known as tight side; whereas the belt LM (because of less tension) is known as
slack side.
Contents
676 A Textbook of Engineering Mechanics
33.10. LENGTH OF THE BELT
It means the total length of the belt, required to connect a driver and a follower. Here we shall
discuss the lengths of the following two types of belt drives :
1. Open belt drive. 2. Cross belt drive.
33.11. LENGTH OF AN OPEN BELT DRIVE
Fig. 33.6. Length of an open belt drive.
In this case, both the pulleys rotate in the same direction as shown in Fig. 336.
Let O
1
and O
2
= Centres of the two pulleys,
r
1
and r
2
= Radii of the larger and smaller pulleys,
l = Distance between O
1
and O
2
.
Let the belt leave the larger pulley at E and G and the smaller pulley at F and H as shown in
Fig. 336. Through O
2
draw O
2
M parallel to EF. From the geometry of the figure, we find that O
2
M
will be perpendicular to O
1
E.
sin =
1 2
r r
l
... (where is the angle MO
2
O
1
Since the angle is very small, therefore
sin =
1 2
r r
l
=
...(i)
Length of the arc JE =
1
2
r

+

...(ii)
Similarly length of the arc FK =
2

2
r

...(iii)
and EF =MO
2
=
2 2
1 2
( ) l r r =
2
1 2

1
r r
l
l

Expanding this equation by Binomial theorem :
EF =
2
1 2

1
1 .....
2
r r
l
l

+

=
2
1 2
( )

2
r r
l
l
...(iv)
Contents
Chapter 33 : Transmission of Power by Belts and Ropes 677
We know that the length of the belt,
L =Length of arc GJE + EF + Length of arc FKH + HG
=2 (Length of arc JE + EF + Length of arc FK)
Substituting the values of length of arc JE from equation (ii), length of arc FK from equation
(iii) and EF from equation (iv) in this equation,
L =
2
1 2
1 2
( )
2
2 2 2
r r
r l r
l

+ + +

=
2
1 2
1 1 2 2
( )
2
2 2 2
r r
r r l r r
l

+ + +

=
2
1 2
1 2 1 2
( )
2 ( ) ( )
2 2
r r
r r r r l
l

+ + +

=
2
1 2
1 2 1 2
( )
( ) 2 ( ) 2
r r
r r r r l
l
+ + +
Substituting the value of

1 2
( ) r r
l
=

from equation (i),
L =
2
1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2
( ) ( )
( ) 2 ( ) 2
r r r r
r r r r l
l l
+ + +
=
2 2
1 2 1 2
1 2
2( ) ( )
( ) 2
r r r r
r r l
l l
+ + +
=
2
1 2
1 2
( )
( ) 2
r r
r r l
l
+ + +
33.12. LENGTH OF A CROSS-BELT DRIVE
Fig. 33.7. Length of a cross belt drive.
In this case, both the pulleys rotate in the opposite directions as shown in Fig. 337.
Let O
1
and O
2
= Centre of the two pulleys,
r
1
and r
2
= Radii of the larger and smaller pulleys,
l = Distance between O
1
and O
2
.
Contents
678 A Textbook of Engineering Mechanics
Let the belt leave the larger pulley at E and G and the smaller pulley at F and H as shown in
Fig. 33.7. Through O
2
draw O
2
M parallel to FE. From the geometry of the figure, we find that O
2
M
will be perpendicular to O
1
E.
and sin =
1 2
r r
l
+
...(where is the angle MO
2
O
1
Since the angle is very small, therefore
sin =
1 2
r r
l
+
=
...(i)
Length of arc JE =
1
2
r

+

...(ii)
Similarly, length of arc FK =
2
2
r

+

...(iii)
and EF =
2 2
2 1 2
( ) MO l r r = +
2
1 2
1
r r
l
l
+
=

Expanding this equation by binomial theorem,
EF =
2
1 2
1
1 .....
2
r r
l
l

+

+

=
2
1 2
( )

2
r r
l
l
+
...(iv)
We know that the length of the belt,
L = Length of arc GJE + EF + Length of arc FKH + HG
= 2 (Length of arc JE + EF + Length of arc FK) ...(v)
Substituting the values of length of arc JE from equation (ii), length of arc FK from equation
(iii) and EF from equation (iv) in this equation,
L =
2
1 2
1 2
( )
2
2 2 2
r r
r l r
l

+

+ + + +

=
2
1 2
1 1 2 2
( )
2
2 2 2
r r
r r l r r x
l

+

+ + + +

=
2
1 2
1 2 1 2
( )
2 ( ) ( )
2 2
r r
r r r r l
l

+

+ + + +

=
2
1 2
1 2 1 2
( )
( ) 2 ( ) 2
r r
r r r r l
l
+
+ + + +
Substituting the values of
1 2
r r
l
+
=
from equation (i),
L =
2
1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2
2( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 2
r r r r
r r r r l
l l
+ +
+ + + +
=
2 2
1 2 1 2
1 2
2( ) ( )
( ) 2
r r r r
r r l
l l
+ +
+ + +
=
2
1 2
1 2
( )
( ) 2
r r
r r l
l
+
+ + +
Contents
Chapter 33 : Transmission of Power by Belts and Ropes 679
Note: 1. We see that the above expression is a function of (r
1
+ r
2
). It is thus obvious, that if sum of
the radii of the two pulleys be constant, length of the belt required will also remain
constant ; provided the distance between the centres of the pulleys remain unchanged.
2. If width of the belt is given then the effective corresponding diameters (and then radii) will
be given by the sum of actual diameter of the pulleys and width of the belt.
Example 33.4. Find the length of belt necessary to drive a pulley of 500 mm diameter
running parallel at a distance of 12 meters from the driving pulley of diameter 1600 mm.
Solution. Given: Diameter of the driven pulley (d
2
) = 500 mm = 05 m or radius (r
2
) = 025 m;
Distance between the centres of the two pulleys (l) = 12 m and diameter of the driving pulley
(d
1
) = 1600 mm = 16 m or radius (r
1
) = 08 m.
In this example, no mention has been made whether the belt is open or crossed. Therefore we
shall find out the value of length of the belt in both the cases.
Length of the belt if it is open
We know that the length of the belt if it is open,
L =
2
1 2
1 2
( )
( ) 2
r r
r r l
l
+ + +
=
2
(08 025)
(08 025) (2 12)
12
+ + + m
= 2732 m Ans.
Length of the belt if it is crossed
We know that length of the belt if it is crossed,
L =
2
1 2
1 2
( )
( ) 2
r r
r r l
l
+
+ + +
=
2
(08 025)
(08 025) (2 12)
12
+
+ + +
= 2739 m Ans.
Example 33.5. Find the length of the belt required for driving two pulleys in a cross belt
drive of 600 mm and 300 mm diameter when 35 m apart. Take thickness of the belt as 5 mm.
Solution. Given: Diameter of driving pulley (d
1
) = 600 + 5 = 605 mm = 0605 m or radius
(r
1
) = 03025m; Diameter of driven pulley (d
2
) = 300 + 5 = 305 mm = 0305 m or radius (r
2
) = 01525
m and distance between the centres of the pulleys (l) = 35 m
We know that length of the cross belt drive
L =
2
1 2
1 2
( )
( ) 2
r r
r r l
l
+
+ + +
=
2
(03025 01525)
(03025 01525) (2 35) m
35
+
+ + +
= 8.488 m Ans.
EXERCISE 33.1
1. A diesel engine shaft having a speed of 180 r.p.m. is required to drive a machine shaft with the
help of a belt. Find the speed of the machine shaft, if the diameters of the engine shaft and
machine shaft are 300 mm and 200 mm respectively. [Ans. 270 r.p.m.]
2. In a workshop, a machine shaft is driven by an electric motor with the help of belts across a
main shaft and a counter-shaft. The diameters of the driving pulleys are 500 mm, 400 mm and
300 mm respectively whereas the diameters of the driven pulleys are 250 mm, 200 mm and 150
mm respectively. Find the speed of the machine shaft when the electric motor runs at 150 r.p.m.
[Ans. 1200 r.p.m.]
Contents
680 A Textbook of Engineering Mechanics
3. An engine, running at 150 r.p.m. drives a line shaft by means of a belt. The engine pulley is 750
mm diameter and the pulley on the line shaft being 450 mm diameter. The 900 mm pulley on
the line shaft drives a 150 mm diameter pulley keyed to a dynamo shaft. Find the speed of the
dynamo shaft, when (i) there is no slip; and (ii) there is a slip of 2% at each drive.
[Ans. 1500 r.p.m.; 1380 r.p.m.]
4. Two parallel shafts 6 m apart are provided with 900 mm and 300 mm diameter pulleys and are
connected by means of a cross belt. The direction of rotation of the follower pulley is to be
reversed by changing over to an open belt drive. How much length of the belt has to be reduced?
[Ans. 40 mm]
33.13. POWER TRANSMITTED BY A BELT
Fig. 33.8. Power transmitted by a belt.
In Fig. 338, is shown the driving pulley (i.e. driver) A and the follower B. We know that the
driving pulley pulls the belt from one side, and delivers the same to the other. It is thus obvious, that
the tension in the former side (i.e., tight side) will be more than that in the latter side (i.e., slack side)
as shown in Fig. 338.
Let T
1
= Tension in the tight side
T
2
= Tension in the slack side and
v = Velocity of the belt
We know that the effective turning (i.e. driving) force at the circumference of the follower is
the difference between the two tensions (i.e., T
1
T
2
).
Work done = Force Distance = (T
1
T
2
) v
Power = (T
1
T
2
)v J/s = (T
1
T
2
)v
Notes:1. The torque exerted on the driving pulley (T
1
T
2
) r
1
2. Similarly, the torque exerted on the follower = (T
1
T
2
) r
2
where r
1
and r
2
are in metres.
Example 336. The tensions in the two sides of the belt are 1000 and 800 newtons respec-
tively. If the speed of the belt is 75 metres per second, find the power transmitted by the belt.
Solution. Given: Tension in the tight side (T
1
) = 1000 N; Tension in the slack side (T
2
) = 800
N and speed of the belt () = 75 m/s
We know that power transmitted by the belt,
P = (T
1
T
2
) v = (1000 800) 75 = 15 000 N-m/s
= 15 000 W = 15 kW Ans.
Contents
Chapter 33 : Transmission of Power by Belts and Ropes 681
Example 33.7. Find the necessary difference in tensions in N in the two sides of a belt drive,
when transmitting 120 W. at 30 m/sec.
Solution. Given: Transmitting power (p) = 120 W and speed of the belt () = 30 m/s
Let (T
1
T
2
) = Necessary difference in tensions in the two sides of the belt.
We know that power transmitted by the belt (P)
1 2 1 2
1 2
( ) ( ) 30
120 30( )
4N 30
T T v T T
T T = = =

1 2
120
( ) 4 N
30
T T = = Ans.
33.14. RATIO OF TENSIONS
Consider a follower (i.e. driven) pulley rotating in the clockwise direction as shown in
Fig 339.
Fig. 33.9. Ratio of tensions.
Let T
1
= Tension in the belt on the tight side,
T
2
= Tension in the belt on the slack side, and
= Angle of contact in radians i.e., angle subtended by the arc
AB, along which the belt touches the pulley, at the centre.
Now consider a small portion of the belt PQ, subtending an angle at the centre of the pulley
as shown in Fig. 339. The belt PQ is in equilibrium under the following forces :
1. Tension T in the belt at P,
2. Tension T + T in the belt at Q,
3. Normal reaction R, and
4. Frictional force F = R.
where is coefficient of friction between belt and pulley.
Resolving all the forces horizontally and equating the same,
( ) sin sin
2 2
R T T T

= + +

...(i)
Since is very small, therefore substituting sin
2 2

=

in equation (i),
R = ( )
2 2
T T T

+ +
Contents
682 A Textbook of Engineering Mechanics
R =
2 2 2
T T T
+ + = T ...(ii)
... Neglecting
2
T

Now resolving the forces vertically,
R =
( ) cos cos
2 2
T T T

+

...(iii)
Since the angle is very small, therefore substituting cos 1
2

=

in equation (iii),
R = T + T T = T
R =
T

...(iv)
Equating the values of R from equations (ii) and (iv),
T =
T

or
T
T

=
Integrating both sides from A to B,
i.e.,
1
2
T
T
T
T

=
0

or
1
2
log
e
T
T

= ...(v)

1
2
T
T

= e

The equation (v) may also be expressed in terms of corresponding logarithm to the base 10 i.e.
1
2
23 log
T
T

=
The above expression gives the relation between the tight side and slack side tensions, in
terms of coefficient of friction and the angle of contact.
Notes: 1. In the above expression () is the angle of contact at the smaller pulley.
2. In an open belt drive, the angle of contact,
= (180 2)
3. In a cross-belt drive, the angle of contact,
= (180 + 2)
Example 33.8. Find the power transmitted by a belt running over a pulley of 600 mm
diameter at 200 r.p.m. The coefficient of friction between the belt and pulley is 025, angle of lap
160 and maximum tension in the belt is 25 kN.
Solution. Given: Diameter of pulley (d) = 600 mm = 06 m ; Speed of the pulley (N) = 200
r.p.m.; Coefficient of friction () = 025; Angle of lap () = 160 160 279 rad
180

= =

and
maximum tension (T
1
) = 25 kN.
Contents
Chapter 33 : Transmission of Power by Belts and Ropes 683
Let T
2
= Tension in the belt in slack side
We know that speed of the belt,
06 200
60 60
dN
v

= = =
and
1
2
23 log 025 279 06975
T
T

= = =

1
2
06975
log 03033
23
T
T

= =

or
2
25
201
T
= ...(Taking antilog of 03033)

2
25
124 kN
201
T = =
We know that power transmitted by the belt,
P = (T
1
T
2
) v = (25 124) 2 = 792 kW Ans.
Example 33.9. Two pulleys, one 450 mm diameter and the other 200 mm diameter are on
parallel shafts 195 m apart and are connected by a crossed belt. Find the length of the belt required
and the angle of contact between the belt and each pulley.
What power can be transmitted by the belt, when the larger pulley rotates at 200 rev/min, if
the maximum permissible tension in the belt is 1 kN, and the coefficient of friction between the belt
and pulley is 025 ?
Solution. Given: Diameter of larger pulley (d
1
) = 450 mm = 045 m or radius (r
1
) = 0225 m;
Diameter of smaller pulley (d
2
) = 200 mm = 02 m or radius (r
2
) = 01 m; Distance between the
centres of the pulleys (l) = 195 m; Speed of the larger pulley (N) = 200 r.p.m; Maximum tension
in the belt (T
1
) = 1 kN = 1000 N and coefficient of friction () = 025.
Let T
2
= Tension in the belt in slack side
Length of belt
We know that length of the belt,
L =
2
1 2
1 2
( )
( ) 2
r r
r r l
l
+
+ + +
=
2
(0225 01)
(0225 01) 2 195
195
+
+ + +
m
= 4975 m Ans.
Angle of contact between the belt and each pulley
Fig. 33.10.
Let = Angle of contact between the belt and each pulley.
Contents
684 A Textbook of Engineering Mechanics
From the geometry of Fig. 3310, we find that
HO
2
K = JO
1
E
2

=
MO
1
O
2
180
2

=
and O
1
MO
2
=90
cos MO
1
O
2
1 1 1 2
1 2 1 2
O M O E EM r r
OO O O l
+ +
= = =
0225 01
01667
195
+
= =
MO
1
O
2
= 804
i.e. 180 804
2

=
or 180 804 996
2

= =
= 2 996 = 1992 Ans.
Power transmitted by the belt
We know that speed of the belt,
1
045 200
471 m/s
60 60
d N
v

= = =
and = 1992 = 1992
180

We know that
1
2
23 log
T
T

= = 025 3477 = 08693
1
2
log
T
T

=
08693
03780
23
=
or
2
1000
2388
T

=

...(Taking antilog of 03780)
T
2
=
1000
2388
= 4188 N
We know that power transmitted by the belt,
P = (T
1
T
2
)v = (1000 4188) 471 = 2740 W = 2.74 kW Ans.
33.15. CENTRIFUGAL TENSION
We have already discussed that the belt continuously runs over both the pulleys. It carries
some centrifugal force in the belt, at both the pulleys, whose effect is to increase the tension on both,
tight as well as the slack sides. The tension caused by the centrifugal force is called centrifugal
tension. At lower speeds, the centrifugal tension is very small and may be neglected. But at higher
speeds, its effect is considerable, and thus should be taken into account.
Consider a small portion AB of the belt as shown in Fig. 3311.
Contents
Chapter 33 : Transmission of Power by Belts and Ropes 685
Let m = Mass of the belt per unit length,
v = Linear velocity of the belt,
r = Radius of the pulley over which the belt runs,
T
C
= Centrifugal tension acting tangentially at P and Q and
d = Angle subtended by the belt AB at the centre of the pulley.
Length of belt AB = r d
and total mass of the belt M = mr d
We know that centrifugal force of the belt AB,
P
C
=
2 2
2
( ) Mv mr d v
m d v
r r

= =
Now resolving the forces (i.e., centrifugal force and centrifugal
tension) horizontally and equating the same,

2
2 sin
2
C
d
T m d v

=

Since d is very small, therefore substituting sin
2 2
d d
=

in the above equation,

2
2
2
C
d
T m d v

=

or T
C
= mv
2
Notes: 1. When the centrifugal tension is taken into account, the total tension in the tight side
= T
1
+ T
C
and total tension in the slack side
= T
2
+ T
C
2. The centrifugal tension on the belt has no effect on the power transmitted by it. The
reason for the same is that while calculating the power transmitted, we have to use
the values :
= Total tension in tight side Total tension in the slack side
= (T
1
+ T
C
) (T
2
+ T
C
) = (T
1
T
2
).
33.16. MAXIMUM TENSION IN THE BELT
Consider a belt transmitting power from the driver to the follower.
Let = Maximum safe stress in the belt,
b = Width of the belt in mm, and
t = Thickness of the belt in mm.
We know that maximum tension in the belt,
T = Maximum stress Cross-sectional area of belt
= bt
When centrifugal tension is neglected, then maximum tension,
T = T
1
and when centrifugal tension is considered, then maximum tension,
T = T
1
+ T
C
Example 33.10. A laminated belt 8 mm thick and 150 mm wide drives a pulley of 12 m
diameter at 180 r.p.m. The angle of lap is 190 and mass of the belt material is 1000 kg/m
3
. If the
stress in the belt is not to exceed 15 N/mm
2
and the coefficient of friction between the belt and the
pulley is 03, determine the power transmitted when the centrifugal tension is (i) considered, and
(ii) neglected.
Fig. 33.11. Centrifugal tension.
Contents
686 A Textbook of Engineering Mechanics
Solution. Given: Thickness of belt (t) = 8 mm = 0008 m; Width of belt (b) = 150
mm = 015 m; Diameter of pulley (d) = 12 m; Speed of the pulley (N) = 180 r.p.m; Angle of lap
() =
180

## = ; Mass density of belt material () = 1000 kg/m

3
; Permissible
stress in the belt () = 15 N/mm
2
= 1.5 10
6
N/m
2
and coefficient of friction () = 03
(i) Power transmitted when the centrifugal tension is considered
Let T
1
= Tension in the tight side of the belt, and
T
2
= Tension in the slack side of the belt.
We know that speed of the belt,
v =
1.2 180
1131 m/s
60 60
d N
= =
Maximum tension in the belt,
T = bt = (15 10
6
) 0.15 0.008 = 1800 N
and mass of the belt per metre length,
m = Area Length Density
= (0008 015) 1 1000 = 12 kg
Centrifugal tension, T
C
= mv
2
= 12 (1131)
2
= 1535 N
and tension in the tight side T
1
= T T
C
= 1800 1535 = 16465 N
We also know that
1
2
23 log
T
T

= = 03 3316 = 09948
1
2
09948
log 04325
23
T
T

= =

2
16465
2707
T
=
...(Taking antilog of 04325)
or T
2
=
16465
6082 N
2707
=
and power transmitted, P = (T
1
T
2
)v = (16465 6082) 1131 N-m/s
= 11 740 W = 1174 kW Ans.
(ii) Power transmitted when the centrifugal tension is neglected
We know that tension in the tight side (without centrifugal tension),
T
1
= 1800 N
T
2
=
1800
665 N
2707
=
and power transmitted, P = (T
1
T
2
)v = (1800 665) 1131 N-m/s
= 12 840 W = 1284 kW Ans.
Example 33.11. A flat belt is required to transmit 35 kW from a pulley of 15 m effective
diameter running at 300 r.p.m. The angle of contact is spread over
11
24
of the circumference and
coefficient of friction between the belt and pulley surface is 03. Taking centrifugal tension into
account, determine the width of the belt. Take belt thickness as 95 mm, density as 11 Mg/m
3
and
permissible stress as 25 N/mm
2
.
Contents
Chapter 33 : Transmission of Power by Belts and Ropes 687
Solution. Given: Power to be transmitted (P) = 35 kW; Effective diameter of pulley
(d) = 15 m; Speed of pulley (N) = 300 r.p.m; Angle of contact
11
( ) 2 288
24
= =
rad ; Coefficient of friction () = 03; Thickness of belt (t) = 95 mm = 00095 m; Mass density of the
belt material () = 11 Mg/m
3
= 1100 kg/m
3
and permissible stress () = 25 N/mm
2
= 2.5 10
6
N/m
2
Let b = Width of the belt,
T
1
= Tension on the tight side of the belt, and
T
2
= Tension on the slack side of the belt.
We know that velocity of the belt,
v =
1.5 300
2356 m/s
60 60
dN
= =
and power transmitted (P), 35 = (T
1
T
2
)v = (T
1
T
2
) 2356
(T
1
T
2
) =
35
1486 kN = 1486 N
2356
= ...(i)
We also know that
1
2
23 log
T
T

= = 03 288 = 0864
1
2
log
T
T

=
0864
03757
23
=

1
2
T
T
= 2375 ...(Taking antilog of 03757)
or T
1
= 2375 T
2
Substituting the value of T
1
in equation (i),
2375 T
2
T
2
= 1486
T
2
=
1486
1081 N
1375
=
and T
1
= 2375 1081 = 2567 N
We know that maximum tension in the belt,
T = bt = (25 10
6
) b 0.0095 = 23750 b N
and mass of the belt per metre length,
m = Area Length Density
= (b 00095) 1 1100 = 10.45 b kg
Centrifugal tension, T
C
= mv
2
= 10.45 b (2356)
2
= 5800 b N
and tension on the tight side of the belt (T
1
)
2567 = T T
C
= 23750 b 5800 b = 17950 b
b =
2567
17950
= 0.143 m = 143 mm say 150 mm Ans.
Contents
688 A Textbook of Engineering Mechanics
33.17. CONDITION FOR TRANSMISSION OF MAXIMUM POWER
We have already discussed in Art. 3313 that the power transmitted by a belt,
P = (T
1
T
2
) v ...(i)
where T
1
= Tension on the tight side,
T
2
= Tension on the slack side, and
v = Velocity of the belt.
We have also discussed in Art. 3314 the ratio of tensions,
1
2
T
T
= e

or
1
2
T
T
e

=
...(ii)
Substituting the value of T
2
in equation (i),
P =
1
1 1
1
1
T
T v T v
e e

=

= T
1
v C ...(iii)
where C =
1
1
e

We know that tension in the tight side,
T
1
= T T
C
where T = Maximum tension in the belt in newtons, and
T
C
= Centrifugal tension in newtons.
Substituting the value of T
1
in equation (iii),
P = (T T
C
) v C = (T mv
2
) v C = (Tv mv
2
) C
We know that for maximum power, differentiating the above equation and equating the same
to zero,
T 3 mv
2
= 0 ...(iv)
T 3T
C
= 0 ...(Substituting mv
2
= T
C
)
or T = 3T
C
It shows that when the power transmitted is maximum
1
rd
3
of the maximum tension is
absorbed as centrifugal tension.
33.18. BELT SPEED FOR MAXIMUM POWER
We have already discussed in Art. 3317 that for maximum power transmission
T 3 mv
2
= 0
or 3 mv
2
= T
v =
3
T
m
where v = Speed of the belt for maximum transmission of power,
T = *Maximum tension in the belt, and
m = Mass of the belt for unit length.
Note: The power transmitted when 1/3 of the maximum tension is absorbed as centrifugal
tension (condition of last article) at belt speed for maximum power (condition of the above article) is
known as absolute maximum power or in other words, maximum power which can be transmitted
under any conditions.
* Maximum tension in the belt is equal to sum of tensions in tight side (T
1
) and centrifugal tension (T
C
).
Contents
Chapter 33 : Transmission of Power by Belts and Ropes 689
Example 33.12. A belt 100 mm 10 mm thick is transmitting power at 1200 m/min. The net
driving tension is 18 times the tension on the slack side. If the safe stress on the belt section is 18 N/
mm
2
, calculate the power that can be transmitted at this speed. Assume mass density of the leather as
1 t/m
3
.
Also calculate the absolute maximum power that can be transmitted by this belt and the
speed at which this can be transmitted.
Solution. Given: Width of belt (b) = 100 mm ; = 0.1 m ; Thickness of belt (t) = 10 mm;
= 0.01 m ; Velocity of belt (v) = 1200 m/min = 20 m/s; Net driving tension (T
1
T
2
) = 18 T
2
(where
T
2
is tension in slack side); Safe stress () = 18 N/mm
2
= 1.8 10
6
N/m
2
and mass density of
leather () = 1 t/m
3
= 1000 kg/m
3
Power transmitted by the belt
We know that maximum tension in the belt,
T = bt = (18 10
6
) 0.1 0.01 = 1800 N
and mass of the belt per metre length,
m = Area Length Density
= (01 001) 1 1000 = 1 kg
Centrifugal tension, T
C
= mv
2
= 1 20
2
= 400 N
and tension in the tight side, T
1
= T T
C
= 1800 400 = 1400 N
Now 1400 T
2
= 18 T
2
...(Given T
1
T
2
= 18 T
2
)
T
2
=
1
1400
500 N
28 28
T
= =
and power transmitted by the belt,
P = (T
1
T
2
) v = (1400 500) 20 N-m/s
= 18 000 W = 18 kW Ans.
Speed at which absolute maximum power can be transmitted
We know that speed of the belt, at which maximum power can be transmitted,
v =
1800
245 m/s
3 3 1
T
m
= =

Ans.
Absolute maximum power that can be transmitted by the belt
We know that for maximum power, the centrifugal tension,
T
C
=
1800
600 N
3 3
T
= =
Tension on the tight side, of the belt,
T
1
= T T
C
= 1800 600 = 1200 N
and tension on the slack side of the belt,
T
2
=
1
1200
4286 N
28 28
T
= =
Power transmitted by the belt,
P = (T
1
T
2
) v = (1200 4286) 245 N-m/s
= 18 900 W = 189 kW Ans.
Contents
690 A Textbook of Engineering Mechanics
33.19. INITIAL TENSION IN THE BELT
When a belt is wound round the two pulleys (i.e., driver and follower), its two ends are jointed
together; so that the belt may continuously move over the pulleys. Since the motion of the belt (from the
driver) and the follower (from the belt) is governed by a firm grip due to friction between the belt and the
pulleys, therefore the belt is tightened up, in order to keep a proper grip of the belt over the pulleys.
Initially, even when the pulleys are stationary the belt is subject to some tension, called initial tension.
Let T
0
= Initial tension in the belt,
T
1
= Tension in the tight side of the belt,
T
2
= Tension in the slack side of the belt, and
= Coefficient of increase of the belt length per unit force.
A little consideration will show, that increase of tension in the tight side
= T
1
T
0
and increase in the length of the belt on the tight side
= (T
1
T
0
) ...(i)
Similarly, decrease in tension in the slack side
= T
0
T
2
and decrease in the length of the belt on the slack side
= (T
0
T
2
) ...(ii)
Assuming the length of the belt to be constant, when it is at rest or in motion, therefore increase
in length on the tight side is equal to decrease in the length on the slack side. Therefore, equating
(i) and (ii),
(T
1
T
0
) = (T
0
T
2
) or T
1
T
0
= T
0
T
2
T
0
=
1 2
2
T T +
Note: If centrifugal tension is taken into consideration, then
T
0
=
1 2 1 2
2
2 2
C
C
T T T T T
T
+ + +
= +
Example 33.13. Two parallel shafts whose centre lines are 48 m apart are connected by an
open belt drive. The diameter of the larger pulley is 15 m and that of the smaller pulley is 1m. The
initial tension in the belt, when stationary, is 30 kN. The mass of the material is 15 kg/m length and
the coefficient of friction between the belt and the pulley is 03. Calculate the power transmitted,
when the smaller pulley rotates at 400 r.p.m.
Solution. Given: Distance between the centres of shafts (l) = 48 m; Diameter of the
larger pulley (d
1
) = 15 m or radius (r
1
) = 075 m; Diameter of the smaller pulley (d
2
) = 1 m
2
) = 05 m; Initial tension in the belt (T
0
) = 3 kN; Mass of the material (m) = 15 kg/m;
Coefficient of friction () = 03 and speed of the smaller pulley (N
2
) = 400 r.p.m.
Fig. 33.12.
Contents
Chapter 33 : Transmission of Power by Belts and Ropes 691
Let T
1
= Tension in the tight side of the belt, and
T
2
= Tension in the slack side of the belt.
We know that velocity of the belt,
v =
2
1 400
2094 m/s
60 60
d N
= =
and initial tension in the belt when stationary (T
0
)
3 =
1 2
2
T T +
or T
1
+ T
2
= 6 kN ...(i)
Now for an open belt drive,
sin =
1 2
075 05
0052
48
r r
l
= =
or = 3
Angle of lap for the smaller pulley,
= 180 2 = 180 (2 3) = 174
=
174
180
=
We also know that
1
2
23 log
T
T

= 03 304 0912 = =

1
2
log
T
T

=
0912
03965
23
=
or
1
2
T
T
= 249 or T
1
= 249 T
2
...(Taking antilog of 03965)
Substituting the value of T
1
in equation (i),
249 T
2
+ T
2
= 6
T
2
=
6
172 kN
349
=
and T
1
= 249 T
2
= 249 172 = 428 kN
Power transmitted by the belt,
P = (T
1
T
2
) v = (428 172) 2094 kN-m/s = 536 kW Ans.
EXERCISE 33.2
1. Two pulleys of diameters 500 mm and 300 mm connected by a belt have tensions of 3 kN and
2.5 kN in the two sides of the belt connecting them. If the power transmitted is 25 kW, find the
speed of the belt. [Ans. 50 m/s]
2. A pulley is driven by a flat belt running at a speed of 600 m/min. The coefficient of friction
between the pulley and the belt is 03 and the angle of lap is 160. If the maximum tension in the
belt is 700 N, find the power transmitted by the belt. [Ans. 397 kW]
3. An open belt drive connects two pulleys of 12 m and 05 diameter on parallel shafts 36 m
apart. The belt has a mass of 09 kg/m length and the maximum tension in it is not to exceed 2
kN. The larger pulley runs at 200 rev/min. Calculate the torque on each of the two shafts and
the power transmitted = 03. [Ans. 6544 N-m ; 2727 N-m; 1374 kW]
Contents
692 A Textbook of Engineering Mechanics
4. A belt connects two pulleys A and B 4 m apart. The pulley A is 1 m diameter, whereas the pulley
B is 50 cm diameter. If the coefficient of friction between the belt and the pulleys is 032, find
the ratio of the tensions, when the drive is (i) an open belt drive ; and (ii) cross belt drive.
[Ans. 2623 ; 3084]
5. The initial tension in a flat belt drive is 1800 N. The angle of lap on the smaller diameter is
170. The coefficient of friction between the belt and pulley surface is 025. The pulley has a
diameter of 09 m and it runs at 540 r.p.m.
Determine the power that can be transmitted at the above speed. Neglect the centrifugal ten-
sion. [Ans. 325 kW]
6. A flat belt 75 mm thick and 100 mm wide transmits power between two pulleys, running at
1600 r.p.m. The mass of the belt is 09 kg/m length. The angle of lap on the smaller pulley is
165 and the coefficient of friction between the belt and pulleys is 03. If the maximum permis-
sible stress in the belt is 2 MN/m
2
, find (i) maximum power transmitted ; and (ii) initial tensions
in the belt. [Ans. 1544 kW ; 7105 N]
33.20. ROPE DRIVE
Sometimes, the power, from one shaft to another, is transmitted by
rope drive, instead of belt drive. This method is specially used when the
shafts are a long distance apart or a considerable power is to be transmitted.
The only difference between the belt drive and rope drive is that in the case
of belt drive, the belt runs over the pulleys, whereas in the case of rope
drive, the rim of the pulley is grooved, in which the rope runs.
The effect of the groove is to increase the frictional grip of the rope
on the pulley, and thus to reduce the tendency of slipping. To have a good
grip on the pulleys, the rope is in contact with side faces of the groove and
not at the bottom approximately V-shaped as shown in Fig. 3313.
Following are the advantages of a rope drive over belt drive:
1. The rope drive is particularly suitable, when the distance between the shafts is large.
2. The frictional grip in case of rope drive is more than that in the belt drive.
3. The net driving tension (i.e., difference between the two tensions) in the case of rope drive is
more than the belt drive (because the ratio of tensions in the case of rope drive is
cosec times more than that in the belt drive.)
33.22. RATIO OF TENSIONS IN ROPE DRIVE
We have already discussed in Art. 3314 the ratio of tensions
in a belt drive. The same principle may be used for the determination
of ratio of tensions in case of a rope drive. Now consider a rope
running in a groove as shown in Fig. 3314.
Let R
1
= Normal reactions between rope and
sides of the groove.
R = Total reaction in the plane of the
groove.
2 = Angle of the groove.
= Coefficient of friction between rope
and sides of the groove.
Fig. 33.13. Rope drive.
Fig. 33.14. Ratio of tensions
in rope drive.
Contents
Chapter 33 : Transmission of Power by Belts and Ropes 693
Resolving the reactions vertically to the groove.
R = R
1
sin + R
1
sin = 2R
1
sin
or R
1
=
2 sin
R

## We know that the frictional force

= 1
2 2
2sin sin
R R
R

= =

= R cosec
Now consider a small portion of the belt as in Art. 3314 subtending an angle at the centre.
The tension on one side will be T and on the other side T + T. Now proceeding as in Art. 3314, we
get the frictional resistance equal to (R cosec ) against R. Thus the relation between T
1
and T
2
for
the rope drive will be:

1
2
23 log
T
T

= cosec .
Example. 3314. Find the power transmitted by a rope drive, from the following data:
Angle of contact = 180
Pulley groove angle = 60
Coefficient of friction = 02
Mass of rope = 04 kg/metre length
Permissible tension = 15 kN
Velocity of rope = 15 m/s
Solution. Given: Angle of contact () = 180 = 3142 rad; Pulley groove angle (2) = 60
or = 30; Coefficient of friction () = 02; Mass of rope (m) = 04 kg/m; Permissible tension (T)
= 15 kN and velocity of rope = 15 m/s.
We know that the centrifugal tension,
T
C
= mv
2
= 04(15)
2
= 90 N
T
1
= T T
C
= 1500 90 = 1410 N
and
1
2
23 log
T
T

= cosec =02 3142 cosec 30
= 02 3142 20 = 1257

1
2
log
T
T

=
1257
05465
23
=
or
2
1410
T
= 352 ...(Taking antilog of 05465)
T
2
=
1410
400 N
352
=
We know that power transmitted by the rope drive,
P = (T
1
T
2
) v = (1410 400) 15 N-m/s
= 15 150 W = 1515 kW Ans.
Example 33.15. A rope drive is required to transmit 1 MW from a pulley of 1 meter diameter
running at 450 r.p.m. The safe pull in each rope is 225 kN and the rope has mass of 1 kg per meter.
The angle of lap and the groove angle is 150 and 45 respectively.
Find the number of ropes required for the drive, if the coefficient of friction between the rope
and the pulley is 03.
Contents
694 A Textbook of Engineering Mechanics
Soluton. Given: Power to be transmit (P) = 1 MW = 1000 kW; Diameter of the pulley
(d) = 1 m; Speed of the pulley (N) = 450 r.p.m; Safe pull (T) = 225 kN = 2250 N; Mass of the rope
(m) = 1 kg/m; Angle of lap () = 150 150 262 rad
180

## = = ; Groove angle (2) = 45 or = 225

and coefficient
of friction () = 03
We know that velocity of the ropes,
v =
1 450
60 60
d N
= = 2356 m/s
Centrifugal tension,
T
C
= mv
2
= 1(2356)
2
= 555 N
We know that T
1
= T T
C
= 2250 555 = 1695 N
and
1
2
23 log
T
T

= cosec = 03 262 cosec 225
= 03 262 2613 = 2054
1
2
log
T
T

=
2054
08930
23
=
2
1695
T
= 7816 ...(Taking antilog of 08930)
T
2
=
1695
217 N
7816
=
and power transmitted by one rope
= (T
1
T
2
) v = (1695 217) 2356 N-m/s
= 34820 kW = 3482 kW
No. of ropes =
Total power to be transmitted 1000
Power transmitted by one rope 3482
=
= 287 say 30 Ans.
EXERCISE 33.3
1. A rope drive consists of two V-belts in parallel on grooved pulleys of the same size. The angle
of the groove is 30. The cross-sectional area of each belt is 750 mm
2
and = 012. The density
of the belt material is 12 Mg/m
3
and the maximum safe stress in the materials is 7 MN/m
2
.
Calculate the power that can be transmitted between the pulleys 300 mm diameter rotating at
1500 rev/min. Find also the shaft speed in rev/min at which the power transmitted would be a
maximum. [Ans. 172 kW; 2807 r.p.m.]
QUESTIONS
1. Discuss briefly the various types of belts used for the transmission of power.
2. How does the velocity ratio of a belt drive effect, when some slip is taking place between
the belt and the two pulleys?
3. Distinguish clearly the difference between an open belt drive and cross belt drive.
4. Obtain an equation for the length of a belt in :
(i) an open belt drive. (ii) a cross belt drive.
Contents
Chapter 33 : Transmission of Power by Belts and Ropes 695
5. Deduce the relation between the tensions on the tight side and slack side of a belt connect-
ing two pulleys and transmitting power. Neglect the centrifugal effect of the belt mass.
6. When a flat belt is about to slip over a pulley, show that the ratio of tension in the tight and
slack side depends upon friction coefficient and angle of contact.
7. Define the term initial tension in a belt. How would you find out the initial tensions in a
belt?
8. What are the advantages of a rope drive ?
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
1. The length of belt used in a cross belt drive is ..... than that used in open belt drive,
provided distance between the two pulleys and their diameters remains the same.
(a) less than (b) equal to (c) more than
2. The power transmitted by a belt depends upon
(a) sum of the tensions in the tight side and slack side
(b) difference of tension in the tight side and slack side
(c) none of them
3. The relation between the tension in tight side (T
1
) and slack side (T
2
) of a belt drive is
(a)
2
1
T
e
T

=
(b)
2
1
23 log
T
T

=

(c) both of them (d) none of them
where = Coefficient of friction, and
= Angle of lap.
4. Which of the following statement is correct?
(a) The effect of centrifugal tension developed in a belt drive has no effect on the power
transmitted by it.
(b) The power developed is maximum when 1/3 of the maximum tension is absorbed as
centrifugal tension.
(c) The maximum tension in a belt drive is equal to the sum of tension in the tight side
and centrifugal tension.
(d) Both (b) and (c)
(e) All (a), (b) and (c)
5. In a rope drive, the relation between the tension in the tight side and slack side is
1
2
23log sec
T
T

=

where 2 = Angle of groove.
(a) True (b) False