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RESUME
Cette thse concerne le comportement des murs en bton arms sous sollicitation sismique.
Son objectif est de proposer une modlisation fiable qui puisse aborder la rponse non linaire
dune grande varit de murs sous sollicitation sismique et didentifier les apports possibles
dune telle modlisation la conception.
Dans un premier temps, les caractristiques du comportement des voiles sous sisme, certains
principes de dimensionnement ainsi que les divers choix de modlisation sont discuts. Les
lacunes identifies justifient la typologie structurelle choisie et lapproche de modlisation
adopte. Trois familles de structures sont choisies: 1) Les murs lancs faiblement arms, 2)
Les murs section en U et 3) Les murs fortement arms faiblement lancs. Une
approche locale est propose, et les modles des matriaux sont dcrits en dtail.
Dans un deuxime temps, le comportement des maquettes CAMUS I et II faiblement
armes, conues daprs les rgles PS92 et testes la table vibrante dans le cadre du
programme CAMUS est simul laide dune approche 2-D. Pour la comparaison, le cas de la
maquette CAMUS III, conue selon lEC 8 est galement considr.
Nous abordons ensuite le cas des murs en U. Les rsultats des simulations bases sur une
modlisation 3-D coques sont confronts ceux issus des essais dynamiques et cycliques
effectus dans le cadre du programme ICONS.
La dernire partie sattache tester le modle numrique dans le cas des murs fortement
arms faiblement lancs, semblables ceux utiliss dans le domaine de la construction
nuclaire, soumis des efforts de cisaillement. Ltude 2-D porte sur la simulation de trois
essais pseudodynamiques effectus lors du programme SAFE.
Les rsultats numriques et exprimentaux sont compars et discuts et les facteurs essentiels
influenant le comportement des voiles sont mis en relief. Diffrents apports possibles la
conception sont prsents.
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ABSTRACT
This thesis deals with aspects of seismic behaviour of reinforced concrete shear walls
(RCSW).
Its objective is to introduce a useful modelling approach for addressing the non-linear
response of a large variety of RCSW and to identify several aspects in which this numerical
approach could be implemented into design applications.
Firstly, the characteristics of the behaviour of RCSW under seismic loading, some design
principles and different modelling approaches are discussed. As an important lack of
knowledge in several fields was identified, it was considered that three types of shear walls
deserve more attention: 1) Slightly reinforced slender walls, 2) U- shaped walls and 3)
Heavily reinforced squat shear walls. A local modelling approach is adopted and the
material constitutive models are described in details.
Secondly, the behaviour of the two mock-ups, CAMUS I and II, tested on the shaking-table
during the CAMUS programme, which are slightly reinforced and designed according to the
French code PS92 is simulated using a 2-D finite element model (FEM). For comparison
purposes, the case of the CAMUS III mock-up, designed according to EC8, is considered.
We are then dealing with the case of U-shaped walls under dynamic and cyclic loading. The
results obtained from numerical simulations, based on a 3-D shell FEM, are compared with
those obtained from tests carried out in the frame of the ICONS programme.
Finally, the numerical model is applied to the case of heavily reinforced squat shear walls
(similar to those used in the nuclear power plant buildings) subjected to shear loading. A 2-D
FEM is considered in order to simulate the behaviour of three different walls, which were
tested pseudodynamically during the SAFE programme.
The results from both experimental and numerical studies are compared and discussed. The
most important factors affecting the behaviour of RCSW are highlighted. Different examples
of possible contributions to design are presented.
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