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The following portfolio is a collection of my writing done through the summer semester
of 2014. It is the product of the English 2010 course taken at Salt Lake Community College
where I learned a variety of strategies to form a stronger writing voice while adapting my style to
fit the rhetorical situation.
The class required three papers of contrasting style to be written. The focus was to adapt
our writing to fit a unique purpose and audience. We were asked to consider why our topic of
choice was relevant, what message we were trying to convey, and to whom we were speaking to.
This reflection helped me define my writing purpose more clearly than I was previously able to.
Once I had established a clear purpose, I was able write much more effectively
Throughout the course I was able to use feedback from my professor as well as other
students to reflect on my first drafts. These responses to my writing turned out to be an
invaluable resource by allowing me to gage how well my point was received. After being
presented with various perspectives on my drafts, I was able to better adapt my writing to the
audience. In all three cases I was able to better define my purpose after considering the feedback,
leading to more purposeful and clear writing.
The most important skill I will take away from this learning experience is the value of
rhetoric. It became clear to me how all forms of writing are adapted to best fit their intended
audience. From technical writing, to reviews, to novels, to advertising and everything in
between, writing style is dictated by audience and purpose. How, when, and where the message
is delivered is every bit as important as the message itself.
The writing samples below will hopefully illustrate my recently developed skills.

Cody Farnsworth
Brittany Stephenson
English 2010
July 2, 2014
Falling Back and Springing Forward
Its early spring, the second Sunday in March had been a needed day of rest for Jim. He
takes a moment before his Monday officially begins, to hark back to a simpler time when
farming and agriculture ushered progress and shaped America like it had since her early days.
The sun is starting to peak over the horizon signaling the region wide call to duty, at least for
farmers like Jim. Its time. Time to milk the cows, feed the pigs, plant the fields and tend to the
sheep. This farmer knows, just as every other in his profession, that there isnt a moment to
spare. He springs from his bed giving a quick glance at the clock on his way out the door. It
reads 5:00 a.m.
The day before at this exact point in the Earths rotation, Jims clock would have read
4:00 a.m., an hour earlier. Jim in his profession, appreciates the time shift. It allows his day to fit
in just a little bit better with the rest of the town. He knows that this new five oclock replaces
the dreadful four a.m. that used to call him to duty. He realizes the absurdity of it all and knows
that in principle the time is the same, but thanks to this daylight saving he is now able to catch
his daughters soccer game. The prior week had every last minute squeezed from its short days in
order to complete the required work before dark. A smile of anticipation formed across his face.
On the other side of town, Hank laid in bed as the dream wrecking buzzing filled every
last crevice in the room. It seemed to radiate off of the tightly pulled drapes that were making a
last ditch effort to hide the now rising sun. Hank grudgingly relinquishes the pillow he was using
to shield his ear drums from the wailing alarm clock. 8:16, he had over slept, as usual. He
planned it this way. It took him less than ten minutes to shower, pour the cream in his coffee and
start his twenty minute drive in to work. No big rush.
Hank sits up, stretches, yawns, and gets to his feet just in time to hear the phone ring.
Yeah? Hank answers, holding back another yawn. A short pause, then shit! it hits him I
forgot to set the clock forward. Ill be right there! He hangs up, the thud of the phone hitting the
thick padded carpet is barely audible as Hank skips past the shower and throws on his stone grey
Dockers. He pulls a white collared shirt from the closet along with the first tie to touch his frantic
fingers and rushes out the door. Theres no time for coffee today.
Traffic is horrendous. Its worse than horrendous, its disastrous. Who opened up the
damned gate! Hank demands from the empty passenger seat. He becomes increasingly agitated
as he speculates as to what the rest of the week is going to be like. His internal clock is even
more difficult to adjust than the one on his dash. The unusual amount of traffic is escalating the
situation along with Hanks blood pressure rather quickly. He was recently promoted and
walking in over an hour late is not the impression he wants to make. He worries what his boss
will say. No doubt his coworkers will put forth the slew of biannual daylight saving jokes. Hank
cringed as he laid on the horn. Finally an opening! The speedometer jolts rapidly from 0 to
7mph then back again as Hank makes a desperate attempt to flee the tortuous highway lane that
had been holding him and his patience captive. Oh thats just perfect! Just perfect! he bellows
as the sound of bending metal rings and regret seeps in. The driver of the car Hank careened into
is another victim of the effects of daylight saving time.

Daylight saving time was first implemented in the United States in 1918 as an energy
conservation effort for World War I. Since that time, unique economic conditions have led to
DST being repealed and reenacted over and over again. The current schedule, in practice since
2007, shifts clocks an hour ahead starting at 2:00 a.m. on the second Sunday of March, then back
an hour at 2:00 a.m. on the first Sunday of November.
The merit of changing time twice a year is definitely one of question. DST supporters
will point to the energy savings associated with the practice since its origin. They may explain
how the extended hours of daylight in the summer have a direct link to increased patronage for
businesses and they may certainly mention the benefit of added recreation time. But those in
favor of doing away with the current practice believe these arguments to be false or simply
unable to outweigh the cons brought on by DST. Indeed, recent studies have shown the energy
savings to be negligible or nonexistent. Other research points to the danger of throwing off sleep
cycles and the loss of productivity associated with losing just one hour of sleep. These arguments
show a need to reevaluate DST and thoroughly weigh its benefits against any problems it may
In Utah, debate has recently been opened to obtain feedback from the general public
concerning the possible reform of daylight saving time. Utahns are encouraged to share their
opinion on the matter with respect to how the time change positively or negatively impacts their
lives. The goal is to see if change is needed. The hope is that law makers will be able to compose
the best piece of legislature to serve the entire community. Those interested in having their
opinion heard can take part in the online survey posted on the Utah Governors Office of
Economic Development website at http://business.utah.gov/time.

Cody Farnsworth
Brittany Stephenson
English 2010
24 July 2014
Daylight Saving: A Time to Choose
Daylight saving time has been in practice in the United States off and on since 1918 and
in its current form since 2007. The biannual occurrence has been practiced for so long that it
likely goes unquestioned and relatively unnoticed for the majority of each year. But have we
stopped to ask ourselves what is the purpose behind DST? Once we answer that question we
should then ask if DST is succeeding in that purpose and how it is serving todays society.
Utahans are currently being asked just that. The Utah legislature has opened a public forum
offering residents an opportunity to voice their opinions. The debate serves to help law makers
evaluate the need for change.
This report aims to inform Utahans of the ongoing public debate which calls into question
the practice of DST. It presents a couple recent studies that highlight the pros and cons of
daylight saving time. This is done in an effort to inform readers and encourage their participation
in the current debate. Their knowledge and involvement will increase the chances of the best
decision being made for Utah.
A good question is why there is a debate at all. This is a reasonable considering that
seventy-six nations and all but two states in the U.S. are currently practicing daylight saving
time. Can so many people be wrong? Regardless, we cannot ignore the importance of evaluating
a timeworn practice when it affects 1.6 billion people worldwide (Kotchen) and 2.8 million here
in Utah. We are all influenced by the time change in one way or another. With that in mind,
consider the possible the possible pros and cons of daylight saving time.
Energy savings. Benjamin Franklin is attributed with the idea as a means of conserving
fuel used for light. Though it may have been his idea, DST was not practiced until the First
World War when Germany implemented it in an effort to conserve recourses. Many Other
nations soon followed suit, including the U.S. who saw DST come and go in parallel to the world
wars. Thereafter it was made a standard and routine practice in 1967. Without a doubt societys
needs and conventions have changed since 1967, but DST remains. Is it because the energy
savings is still relevant, or is it simply a failure to change methods with changing times?
Answers to that question are not perfectly clear, but one study conducted in Indiana
shows the aforementioned energy savings associated DST is self-negated. It states the effect of
DST, under the pre-2007 dates of practice, is an increase in consumption for the average
residence of 61.01 kWh per year (Kotchen). The findings estimate that DST actually costs
residential households $3.29 more a year. A number based off current rates for electricity at the
time of the study. Although $3.29 seems insignificant by itself, the study generalizes the statistic
to the entire population of Indiana resulting in a cost of nearly nine-million dollars. This number
would increase significantly when considering the entire U.S. The 1% increase in energy
consumption is attributed to increased cooling needs brought on by DST. A prime example of
this is the increase of the average U.S. households use of energy to air condition their home.
Studies show that between 1978 and 2005, electricity use for residential homes increased nearly
250% (Kotchen). The simple logic behind this is that the increase of daylight hours in the
summer lead to increased use of air conditioning which means that daylight saving time is failing
to serve its original purpose.
Along with the longer summer days using more energy, the increase of energy
consumption due to extended recreational hours factors into the equation. More light in the
summer evenings means more time to enjoy the day. This argument obviously has two sides as
more recreation time is certainly looked upon as benefit of DST, but the fact remains that more
energy is being consumed which goes against DSTs original purpose.
This is clearly not the final word on the issue regarding energy conservation and its
relationship to DST. As the Indiana study admits, more research is required in order to weigh the
total effect on energy consumption. Factors such as other sources of energy i.e. oil and natural
gas are important to consider. Even then, there may be too many variables to reach a definitive
With the energy conservation theory in question, lets consider the mental toll of gaining
or losing an hour twice a year. If were be honest, changing the clocks is an inconvenience at
worst, but the deeper issue lies in the loss of sleep that follows. Circadian rhythms, which allow
us to coordinate our behavior with the day-night cycle, are not as easily adjusted as the clock
above the oven. A report published in BMC Public Health states that the time change twice a
year could be causing deficit of attention, memory, and in turn lead to higher accident rates. The
report explained that springing forward by an hour is likely the cause of an increase in traffic
accidents the Monday after DST takes effect.
With this in mind, lets take a look at daylight savings effect on traffic accidents. It
stands to reason that the abrupt change in time, which causes the above mentioned shift in
circadian rhythms, results in difficulty paying attention and slower reaction times. These factors
could potentially have negative effect on an already hectic rush hour commute. The time shift
also changes the hours of transportation. A study published in the American Journal of Public
Health argues that due to more commuting being done in the dark after falling back from
daylight saving time, accidents are more likely to occur (Ferguson). The decrease in daylight
hours forces more evening commutes in the dark, which the study correlates to increased traffic
accidents. The study goes on to suggest that if daylight saving time had been retained year-
round, an estimated 901 fewer fatal crashes would have occurred during a recent five year
period. These findings show the need for change, and in this particular case the benefit of staying
on DST year round.
With the given information, there is a need to at least consider changing the current
practice of DST. That is just what the Utah legislature is doing. According to Annie Knox of the
associated press, nearly 100 members of the community showed up to the first public forum
debating the matter. The forum was held at the Clark Planetarium on July 10th where a pair of
Utah lawmakers were on hand to listen to the publics opinion. Knox describes a wide range of
opinions brought up at the forum, but implies that the overall consensus leaned towards a
Energy conservation, traffic, and public health are certainly the big issues surrounding
daylight saving time, but there are many others to consider as well. Utahans need to reflect on
what works and what doesnt work for them in regards to DST. There may not be one absolute
perfect solution, but the need for change should be evaluated and whats determined best for the
community should be implemented.

2013 DST is used. DST is no longer used. DST has never been used.

Fig. 1

Fig. 2

Works Cited

Ferguson, Susan A., et al. "Daylight Saving Time And Motor Vehicle Crashes: The Reduction In
Pedestrian And Vehicle Occupant Fatalities." American Journal Of Public Health 85.1 (1995):
92-95. Business Source Premier. Web. 10 July 2014
Knox, Annie., Associated, Press. "Utah Considers Rejecting Daylight Saving Time." AP
Regional State Report - Utah (2014): Newswires. Web. 24 July 2014
Kotchen, Matthew J., and Laura E. Grant. "Does Daylight Saving Time Save Energy? Evidence
From A Natural Experiment In Indiana." Review Of Economics & Statistics 93.4 (2011): 1172-
1185. Business Source Premier. Web. 10 July 2014.
Lahti, Tuuli A., et al. "Daylight Saving Time Transitions And Hospital Treatments Due To
Accidents Or Manic Episodes." BMC Public Health 8.(2008): 74-77. Academic Search Premier.
Web. 10 July 2014.

Cody Farnsworth
Brittany Stephenson
English 2010
July 30, 2014
Daylight Savings Failure to Save Anything
Youve heard the phrase consistency is key. Ive found this to be a largely accurate
statement. Consistency results in credibility, efficiency, and accurate measurement. This theory
holds true for many areas of life such as study habits, work ethic, and relationships. The human
mind wants, needs, and expects consistency. So why do we willingly force ourselves out of the
most elemental practice of consistency? Im referring to time and the monkey we call daylight
saving time. Twice a year we literally turn our clocks and accept an hour as lost or gained. We
force our minds and bodies out of their coveted routines. Its inconvenient at best, and
dangerous at its worst. For the sake of our sanities we need to make a change to stay the same.
Utahns are in luck. House bill 197 was signed earlier this year permitting the Governors
Office of Economic Development (GOED) to conduct a study which specifically weighs the
publics opinion on whether or not Utah should continue to observe daylight saving time (DST).
Public forums and an online poll are being used to gage the communitys opinion. The online
poll can be found on GOEDs website at http://business.utah.gov/time where three options have
been laid out. The chart below was created using information from the GOED webpage to show
these options and their defining traits.

As well as voting for one of the three options listed in the table, Utahns are encouraged
to leave a comment on the website. The overwhelming majority so far have stated their desire to
simply do away with the change. They are tired of the jet lag feeling that comes with losing or
gaining an hour twice a year. Rep. Rhonda Menlove, who sponsored the bill, states Its the
switching that people hate, and 70 percent are saying just dont make the switch. The 70
percent she is referring to could be considered a low estimate, as the most recent poll results,
shown below, confirm that only 15 percent of voters wish to retain the current practice of
switching between mountain standard, and daylight saving time.

Option Basis Significance July 4
December 25
#1 Retain Continue to spring
forward and fall back.
6:01 A.M.
9:02 P.M.
7:50 A.M.
5:05 P.M.
#2 Align Follow Arizona on MST
(Do not spring forward)
5:01 A.M.
8:02 P.M.
7:50 A.M.
5:05 P.M.
#3 Create Permanently stay on
DST (Do not fall back)
6:01 A.M.
9:02 P.M.
8:50 A.M.
6:05 P.M.

With an overwhelming majority asking for change, what reason can there be to carry on
with this outdated tradition? Certainly it had its merits upon creation. Specifically energy
conservation. The extra hour of daylight allowed for a decrease in energy consumption brought
on by lighting needs. But that was in another time, and it is now a defunct argument. As Rep.
Menlove puts it, We have new energy sources and were much more efficient about how we use
our energy. Furthermore, the energy argument is put to rest by a study conducted in Indiana,
where daylight saving time was implemented statewide in 2006. The study found that the time
change actually increased residential electricity consumption by one percent throughout the year,
with monthly spikes as high as four percent in the summer and fall (Kotchen). Currently the
energy savings of DST is virtually nonexistent due to extra heating and cooling trends brought
on by the change in time. With this mind, there is decisively more reason to consider a change.
While on the subject of cost, lets consider what effect an hour of lost sleep has on our
productivity. Theres no denying the perceptible negative effects of throwing off ones sleep
cycle. It indeed has the potential to leave us feeling tired and groggy all day. This type of mental
state is often associated with a lack of focus and overall lowered productivity. A recent
laboratory study shows evidence of a significant increase in cyberloafing, a term used to
describe non work related internet use while at work, on the Mondays following the spring
forward change. Furthermore, the study claims that for every hour of interrupted sleep,
participants in their lab cyberloafed for twenty percent of their assigned task (Barnes). The cost
of these fruitless hours can really add up when extrapolated to a full days work accounting for
all Utah businesses. This is an unnecessary expenditure that leaves businesses a casualty of DST.
In addition, the time change creates and elevated level of risk. As mentioned above, the
loss of a single hour of sleep can have a detrimental effect on productivity, but more dire is the
significant effect it has on our safety. In a study focusing on workplace injuries in the mining
profession, there was a 6% surge in injuries on the Monday following the shift to daylight saving
time (Barnes). The study also measured the severity of the injuries by the number of work days
lost due to the accident and calculated those injuries to be 67% more severe than on any other
day. With this evidence we can see that the time change creates a danger in the work
environment. It would not be a stretch to assume the dangers carry over to other phases of our
daily routine. Traffic comes to mind.
Undeniably, there are other pro DST arguments unrelated to energy conservation.
Business owners and recreation enthusiast are among the groups who support the time shift for
their own unique reasons. While recreation enthusiasts cherish the extra hour of daylight that
allows their activities to be extended in the summertime, business rely on the extra hour of
patronage that comes with the daylight extension. Lagoons Executive Vice President of
Marketing Dick Andrew claims that the time shift Saves lots and lots of money and allows
families to have that time to be together. He warns that moving away from DST would be a
major blow to the entire tourism and entertainment industry. These are valid arguments, but they
do not require the biannual time change as suggested. Rather than maintaining the current
practice, I would argue that their purposes would be fulfilled, even more so, by staying on DST
for all twelve months. This option maximizes the evening daylight year round providing the two
groups with exactly what they need and want.
Overall, the numbers speak for themselves. People are tired of the time change. It is
unnecessary, expensive, and dangerous. We should free ourselves from it now. Of course
everyone is entitled to their opinion and without doubt there are valid points on both sides of this
argument. That is why this is such a great opportunity. The Utah legislature has opened up a lane
for voices to be heard. If we continue to voice our opinion we could ultimately be the ones
making the final decision in a ballot initiative. As Rep. Lee Perry stated in an interview with The
Salt Lake Tribune Lets let the voters make the decision.

A screenshot of the poll that can be found here http://business.utah.gov/time

Works Cited
Barnes, Christopher M., and David T. Wagner. "Lost Sleep and Cyberloafing: Evidence from the
Laboratory and a Daylight Saving Time Quasi-experiment." Journal of Applied
Psychology 94.5 (2009): 1305-317. PsycNET. Web. 19 July 2014.
Barnes, Christopher M., and David T. Wagner. "Changing to Daylight Saving Time Cuts into
Sleep and Increases Workplace Injuries." Journal of Applied Psychology 94.5 (2009):
1305-317. PsycNET. Web. 29 July 2014.
"Daylight Saving Time -." Daylight Saving Time -. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 July 2014.
Kotchen, Matthew J., and Laura E. Grant. "Does Daylight Saving Time Save Energy? Evidence
From A Natural Experiment In Indiana." Review Of Economics & Statistics 93.4 (2011):
1172-1185. Business Source Premier. Web. 10 July 2014.
Menlove, Ronda M., and Michael Sullivan. "Should Utah Ditch Daylight Saving Time?"
Interview by Jennifer Napier-Pearce and Lee Perry. Sltrib.com. The Salt Lake Tribune,
10 July 2014. Web. 30 July 2014. <http://www.sltrib.com/sltrib/blogstribtalk/58166194-
Utah Daylight Saving Time Public Comment Survey. Digital image. Utah Governors Office of
Economic Development. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 July 2014. <http://business.utah.gov/time>.