Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 3

FLOCCULATION

Aim
To determine the effect of change in pH and concentration of a given flocculant
on filtration rates in a protein solution by performing a simple batch pretreatment test
Principle
The filterability of fermentation broths and other biological solutions can be
enhanced by pretreatment methods such as flocculation Flocculation is the attachment of
suspended particles to one another !hen "ander !alls interactions #attractive forces
bet!een non$polar particles% are not counter acted by electrostatic repulsion #colloid
stability% After cells have been lysed and bioparticles have been dispersed& it is often
useful to hasten the subse'uent filtration or sedimentation step by flocculation that is& by
reversibly increasing the si(e of particles to be separated Flocculation occurs as a result
of adding a suitable chemical called a flocculent or by selection of naturally flocculating
cells for fermentation as in the case of larger yeast Acids and bases are useful agents of
flocculation as they change the pH and hence the charge on the particles& thereby
promoting their aggregation and subse'uent removal by physical separation Flocculent
can be acting by forming inter particle molecular )bridges* bet!een particles in !hich
case the flocculants are usually polymers or oligomers They can also act by reducing the
repulsive forces bet!een cells& usually by reducing the strength of electrostatic field
+ractically all bioparticles suspended in a'ueous solutions are negatively charges A
suspension of particle that does not aggregate is called a stable colloid suspension The
transition to an unstable suspension re'uires the reduction of the surface charge of the
particles
As t!o particles approach each other they interact !ith repulsive and attractive forces In
the case of particle aggregation or flocculation the typical ob,ective is to reduce the
electrical repulsive forces as much as possible to allo! particle go approach close enough
to one another to allo! the attractive "ander !alls forces to e-ceed the repulsive
electrostatic force This is accomplished in the paradigm of .L"O theory& named after
t!o research groups to study the problem
Materials Required
/ Conical flas0s
1 Filtering funnels
2 3easuring cylinders
4 5top cloc0
6 +rotein solution #/7 mg8ml%
9 :lacial acetic acid
Procedure
/ +rotein solution of re'uired concentration is prepared
1 A series of test tubes id filled !ith ali'uots of protein solution #17 ml each%
2 Increasing volume of glacial acetic acid is added to the respective bea0ers and
centrifuged at 6777 rpm for /7 min at 4
7
C
4 At the end of centrifugation& the supernatant is filtered using a filtering funnel and
the filtration rate is determined
6 the filtration rate is plotted against flocculant concentration and the optimum
flocculant dosage is determined
Result
+erformed the batch test of pretreatment by flocculation
Optimum flocculation dosage; <<<< at filtration rate <<<<
11
Tabulation of Results of Flocculation Experiment
5ample .escription = >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
Name and Concentration of flocculent = >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
5ystem No / 1 2 4 6 9
"ol of
protein soln
#ml%
17 17 17 17 17 17
"ol of
Flocculent
#ml%
7 6 /7 17 47 ?7
Fraction of
flocculant
"ol of
filtrate #ml%
Time ta0en
#s%
Flocculation
rate #ml8s%
Flocculant
dosage#v8v@%
Fraction of flocculant ; "ol of protein solution
"ol of flocculant added
Flocculant dosage ; #"ol of flocculant added% A/77
#"ol of protein solutionB"ol of flocculant added%