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# Milling Machine Operations

03/05/2004
Lesson 1 Objectives........................................................................................................ .....3
Vertical Mill 4
Milling Machine Accessories....................................................... ............................23
Common Milling Cutters...................................................................... ...................24
Metal Saws 24
n! Mills 2"
#\$Slot Cutter 2"
%ovetail Cutter................................................................................................ .......2"
&oo!ru'' (e)seat Cutter........................................................... .............................2"
*l)cutters 2+
Cutting S,ee!s an! *ee!s....................................................................... ...............2+
Calculating S,ee!s an! *ee!s............................................................... .................2+
Milling Machine Sa'et)........................................................................................... .3-
Lesson 2 Objectives.................................................................................................... .......32
Milling Machine Set\$.,........................................................................... ................33
Alignment #echni/ues................................................................... .........................33
Common Milling Machine O,erations.................................................................. ....34
Mill O,erations...................................................................................... .................34
Alignment o' the 0ea!.............................................................. .............................34
Machining a *lat Sur'ace.................................................................. ......................3"
S/uaring &or1 on a Milling Machine................................................ .......................3"
Machining the n!s S/uare............................................................... .....................32
Machining an Angular Sur'ace................................................................ ................32
Cutting Slots an! (e)wa)s............................................................ .........................33
&oo!'u'' (e)s 4-
Milling Machine Operations
age 3 o! 3"
CO#\$SE TE\$M%NAL OB&ECT%'E
Given a job assignment requiring the use of a milling machine, the Maintenance
Mechanic will describe the components of the milling machine and the various
operations that can be performed. Mastery will be demonstrated by the completion
of a comprehensive written examination with a minimum score of 80 complete.
LESSON ONE TE\$M%NAL OB&ECT%'E
Given a job assignment requiring the use of a milling machine, the Maintenance
Mechanic will describe the components and accessories of a milling machine.
LESSON ONE ENABL%N( OB&ECT%'ES
!"#\$ %escribe the components of a vertical milling machine
!"&\$ 'dentify and state the purpose of the common milling machine accessories.
!"(\$ 'dentify and state the purpose of the common milling cutters.
!")\$ *tate the methods for determining the proper cutting speeds, feeds, and depth
of cut for various materials and cutters.
!"+\$ *tate the safety precautions when wor,ing on a milling machine.
Milling Machine Operations
age 4 o! 3"
-he
standard
vertical
milling
machine has the cutter spindle mounted in a vertical position. -he head on most vertical milling
machines may be swiveled, which readily permits the machining of angular surfaces. -he cutters
used are of the end mill or shell end mill types. -his type of machine is particularly suited to the use
of the rotary table, permitting the machining of circular grooves and positioning of holes that have
been laid out with angular measurements.
A\$TS OF T)E \$AM*T+E
'E\$T%CAL M%LL
-he base is made of ribbed cast iron. 't
may contain a coolant reservoir.
-he column is often cast integrally with
the base. -he machined face of the column
provides the ways for vertical movement of
the ,nee. -he upper part of the column is
machined to receive a turret on which the
overarm is mounted.
-he overarm is round, or of the ram type.
't may be adjusted toward or away from the
column to increase the capacity of the
machine.
-he head is attached to the end of the
in one plane. "n universal\$type machines,
the head may be swiveled in two planes.
Mounted on top of the head is the motor
which provides the drive to the spindle.
-he spindle may be fed by means of a hand
lever, a handwheel, or automatic power
feed. Most machines are equipped with a
micrometer quill stop for precision drilling
or boring to depth.
-he knee moves up and down on the face
of the column and supports the saddle and the table. /ertical milling machines are normally equipped
with plain tables only.
EO0,* -ESC\$%BE T)E COMONENTS OF A 'E\$T%CAL
M%LL%N( MAC)%NE
Milling Machine Operations
age 5 o! 3"
-he turret pivots the entire upper assembly for special setups or to use the slotting attachment
0accessory1.
-he following pages describe, in detail, the head controls for the 2ridgeport Mills.
Milling Machine Operations
age . o! 3"
Milling Machine Operations
age " o! 3"
Milling Machine Operations
age / o! 3"
Milling Machine Operations
age 0 o! 3"
Milling Machine Operations
age ,0 o! 3"
Milling Machine Operations
age ,, o! 3"
Milling Machine Operations
age ,2 o! 3"
Milling Machine Operations
age ,3 o! 3"
Milling Machine Operations
age ,4 o! 3"
Milling Machine Operations
age ,5 o! 3"
Milling Machine Operations
age ,. o! 3"
Milling Machine Operations
age ," o! 3"
Milling Machine Operations
age ,/ o! 3"
Milling Machine Operations
age ,0 o! 3"
Milling Machine Operations
age 20 o! 3"
Milling Machine Operations
age 2, o! 3"
Milling Machine Operations
age 22 o! 3"
Milling Machine Operations
age 23 o! 3"
M%LL%N( MAC)%NE ACCESSO\$%ES
3 wide variety of accessories, which greatly increase its versatility and productivity, are
available for the milling machine. -hese accessories may be classified as fixtures or attachments.
Fi1t2res3 3 fixture is a wor, holding device fastened to the table of a machine or to a
machine accessory, such as a rotary table. 't is designed to hold wor,pieces that cannot readily be
held in a vise or in production wor, when large quantities are to be machined. -he fixture is
generally custom designed so that the identical parts will be positioned exactly and held securely.
Attach4ents3 Milling machine attachments may be divided into three classes4
#. -hose designed to hold special attachments5 these are attached to the spindle and
column of the machine.
&. Arbors, collets and adapters which are designed to hold standard cutters. -hese are
mounted in the spindle.
(. -hose designed to hold the wor,piece, such as a vise, rotary table, and indexing or
Milling machine vises are the most widely used wor,\$holding devices for milling5
they are available in
three styles4
-he plain vise
may be bolted to the
table so that its jaws are
parallel or at right angles
to the 678 axis. -he
vise is positioned
quic,ly and accurately
by ,eys on the bottom
which fit into -\$slots on
the table.
EO2- IDENTIFY AND STATE THE PURPOSE OF THE COMMON
MILLING MACHINE ACCESSORIES.
Milling Machine Operations
age 24 o! 3"
-he swivel base vise is similar to the
plain vise, except that it has a swivel base that
enables the vise to be swiveled through (90
"
in a
hori:ontal plane.
-he universal vise may be swiveled
through (90
"
in a hori:ontal plane and may be
tilted from 0 to ;0
"
in a vertical plane. 't is used
primarily by toolma,ers, moldma,ers, and
diema,ers,
since it permits the setting of compound angles for milling.
/ises are a piece of precision equipment. %on<t abuse them.
-hey are not anvils or to be used for bending metal.
METAL SA5S
Metal-slitting saws are basically thin plain milling cutters with sides relieved or =dished= to
prevent rubbing or binding. *litting saws are made in width from #>(& \$ (>#9 in. 2ecause of their thin
cross section, they should be operated
at approximately one\$quarter to one\$
eighth of the feed per tooth used for
other cutters. -he arbor nut should be
pulled up as tightly as possible by hand
only. %o not use any cheaters, use the
wrench onl6.
EO3- IDENTIFY AND STATE THE PURPOSE OF
THE COMMON MILLING CUTTERS
Milling Machine Operations
age 25 o! 3"
EN- M%LLS
!nd mills have cutting teeth on the end as well as on the periphery and are fitted to the spindle
by a suitable adapter. -hey are of two types, the solid end mill in which the shan, and cutter are one
piece, and the shell end mill, which uses a separate shan,.
*olid end mills, generally smaller than shell end mills, may have either straight or helical
flutes. -hey are available with straight and tapered shan,s and with two or more flutes. ?hen a slot
is cut with a two\$flute end mill, the depth of cut should not exceed one\$half the diameter of the cutter.
?hen the four\$flute end mill is used for slot cutting, it is started at the edge of the metal.
T*SLOT C#TTE\$
-he -\$slot cutter 0@ig. #A\$31 is
used to cut the wide hori:ontal groove at
the bottom of a -\$slot after the narrow
vertical groove has been machined with
an end mill. 't consists of a small side
milling cutter with teeth on both sides and a shan, for mounting.
-O'ETA%L C#TTE\$
-he dovetail cutter 0@ig. #A\$21 is similar to a single\$
angle milling cutter with an integral shan,. %ovetail cutters
are available with an internal thread to be mounted on a
special shan,. -hey are used to form the sides of a dovetail
after the tongue or groove has been machined with a side
milling cutter. %ovetail cutters are available with )+, +0, ++,
or 90
"
angles.
5OO-\$#FF 7E+SEAT C#TTE\$
-he ?oodruff ,eyseat cutter is similar to
a plain and side milling cutter. *maller si:es are
made with a solid shan, and straight teeth5 larger
si:es are mounted on an arbor and have
staggered teeth. -hey are used for milling semi\$
cylindrical ,eyseat in shafts.
Milling Machine Operations
age 2. o! 3"
FL+C#TTE\$S
-he flycutter is a single\$pointed cutting
tool with the cutting end ground to the
desired shape. 't is mounted in a special
adapter or arbor. *ince all the cutting is
done with one tool, a fine feed must be
used. -hey are used in experimental wor,
where the high cost of a special cutter
would not be warranted.
CALC#LAT%N( C#TT%N( SEE-S AN- M%LL%N( FEE-S Spee83 "ne of the most
important factors affecting the efficiency of a milling operation is cutter speed. -he cutting speed of
a metal may be defined as the speed, in surface feet per minute 0sfm1 at which the metal may be
machined efficiently. ?e will refer to surface feet per minute as cutting speed. ?hen wor, is
machined on a lathe, it must be turned at a specific number of revolutions per minute 0rpm1,
depending on its diameter, to achieve the proper cutting speed. ?hen wor, is machined in a milling
machine, the cutter must be revolved at a specified rpm, depending on its diameter, to achieve the
proper cutting speed.
*ince different types of metals vary in hardness, structure, and machinability, different cutting
speeds must be used for each type of metal and for various cutter materials. *everal factors must be
considered when determining the proper rpm at which to machine a metal4
 -he type of wor, material
 -he cutter material
 -he diameter of the cutter
 -he surface finish required
 -he depth of cut being ta,en
 -he rigidity of the machine and wor, setup
EO4* STATE T)E MET)O-S FO\$ -ETE\$M%N%N( T)E
\$OE\$ C#TT%N( SEE-S9 FEE-S9 AN- -ET) OF
C#T FO\$ 'A\$%O#S MATE\$%ALS AN- C#TTE\$S
Milling Machine Operations
age 2" o! 3"
-o get optimum use for a cutter, the proper speed at which the cutter should be revolved must
be determined. ?hen machining mild steel, a high speed cutter would have to achieve a surface
speed of about ;0 ft>min. *ince the diameter of the cutter affects this speed, it is necessary to
consider the diameter in the calculation. -he following example illustrates how the formula is
developed.
E:AMLE
Balculate the speed required to revolve a (\$inch diameter high\$speed steel milling
cutter when cutting machine steel.
#. @irst, determine the circumference of the cutter. Bircumference of Butter C ( inches x (.#)#9
&. -o determine the proper cutter speed or D.M, it is necessary only to divide the cutting speed
0B*1 by the circumference of the cutter4
B* 0ft1
D.M C circumference 0in.1
C ;0
( x (.#)#9
*ince the numerator is in feet and the denominator in inches, the numerator must be changed
to inches and the formula simplified4
) x B*
D.M C %
3lthough these formulas are helpful in calculating the cutter 0spindle1 speed, it should be
remembered that they are approximate only, and the speed may have to be altered because of
the metal and>or the machine condition. 2est results may be obtained if the following rules
are observed4
 @or longer cutter life, use the lower B* in the recommended range.
Milling Machine Operations
age 2/ o! 3"
 Enow the hardness of the material to be machined.
 ?hen starting a new job, use the lower range of the B* and gradually increase to the
higher range if conditions permit.
 'f a fine finish is required, reduce the feed rather than increase the cutter speed.
 -he use of coolant, properly applied will generally produce a better finish and
lengthen the life of the cutter because it absorbs heat, acts as a lubricant, and washes
chips away.
Fee83 Milling machine feed may be defined as the distance in inches per minute that the
wor, moves into the cutter. "n most milling machines, the feed is regulated in inches per minute
0'.M1 and is independent of the spindle speed. -his arrangement permits faster feeds for larger,
slowly rotating cutters. -he milling feed is determined by multiplying the chip si:e 0chip per tooth1
desired, the number of teeth in the cutter and the rpm of the cutter. Bhip per tooth 0B.-1 is the
amount of material which should be removed by each tooth of the cutter as it revolves and advances
into the wor,piece.
-he feed rate used on a milling machine depends on a variety of factors4
 -he depth and width of cut
 -he design or type of cutter
 -he sharpness of the cutter
 -he wor,piece material
 -he strength and uniformity of the wor,piece
 -he type of finish and accuracy required
 -he power and rigidity of the machine
3s the wor, advances into the cutter, each successive tooth advances into the wor, an equal
amount, producing chips of equal thic,ness. 't is this thic,ness of the chips or the feed per tooth,
along with the number of teeth in the cutter, which form the basis for determining the rate of feed.
-he ideal feed rate may be determined as follows4
@eed C number of teeth x feed>tooth x cutter rpm
-he formula used to find the wor, feed in inches per minute is4
'.M C F x B.- x D.M
F C number of teeth in the cutter
B.- C chips per tooth for a particular cutter and metal
D.M C revolutions per minute of the spindle
Milling Machine Operations
age 20 o! 3"
E:AMLE
@ind the feed in inches per minute using a (.+\$inch diameter #&\$tooth helical cutter to
cut machine steel 0B* 801. 't would first be necessary to calculate the proper rpm for
the cutter4
) x B* ) x 80
D.M C % C (.+ C ;#
@eed 0'.M1 C F x B.- x D.M
C #& x 0.0#0 x ;#
C #0.; or ##
-he calculated feeds would be possible only under ideal conditions, it is suggested that the
milling machine feed be set to approximately one\$third or one\$half the amount calculated. -he feed
can then be gradually increased to the capacity of the machine and the finish desired.
-epth o! c2t3 ?here smooth accurate finish is desired, it is considered good milling practice
to ta,e a rough and finishing cut.
 Doughing cuts should be deep, with a feed as heavy as the wor, and the machine will allow.
Geavier cuts may be ta,en with helical cutters having fewer teeth since they are stronger and
have a greater chip clearance than cutters with more teeth.
 @inishing cuts should be light, with a finer feed than is used for roughing cuts. -he depth of
the cut should be at least #>9) inch. Highter cuts and extremely fine feeds are not advisable
since the chip ta,en by each tooth will be thin and the cutter will rub on the surface of the
wor,, rather than bite into it, dulling the cutter. ?hen a fine finish is required, the feed should
be reduced rather than speeding the cutter up. More cutters are dulled by high speeds than by
high feeds.
 -o prevent damage to the finished surface, never stop the feed when the cutter is revolving
over the wor,piece. @or the same reason, move the cutter before returning the wor, to the
starting position upon completion of the cut.
Milling Machine Operations
age 30 o! 3"
M%LL%N( MAC)%NE SAFET+
-he milling machine, li,e any other machine, demands the total attention of the operator and a
thorough understanding of the ha:ards associated with its operation. -he following points should be
observed when operating the milling machine4
 2e sure that the wor, and cutter are mounted securely before ta,ing a cut.
 3lways wear safety glasses.
 ?hen mounting or removing milling cutters, always hold them with a cloth to avoid the sharp
edges.
 ?hen setting up wor,, move the table as far as possible from the cutter to avoid any injury.
 2e sure that the cutter and machine parts will clear the wor, before ma,ing any cut.
 Fever attempt to mount, measure, or adjust wor, until the cutter is completely stopped. %o
not attempt to stop the cutter with your hand.
 Eeep hands, brushes, and rags away from a revolving milling cutter at all times.
 ?hen using milling cutters, do not use an excessively heavy cut or feed. -his can cause the
cutter to brea, and the resulting flying pieces may cause injury.
 3lways use a brush, never a rag, to remove the cuttings after the cutter has stopped revolving.
 Fever reach over or near or around a revolving cutter5 ,eep hands at least #& inches from the
revolving cutter.
EO5- STATE THE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS WHEN
WORKING ON A MILLING MACHINE
Milling Machine Operations
age 3, o! 3"
 Eeep the floor around the machine free of chips, oil, and cutting fluid.
Milling Machine Operations
age 32 o! 3"
LESSON T5O TE\$M%NAL OB&ECT%'E
Given a job assignment that requires the performance of milling machine operations,
the Maintenance Mechanic will describe the proper set\$up and performance of the
various milling machine operations.
ENABL%N( OB&ECT%'ES
!"#\$ %escribe the proper set\$up of a milling machine for various milling machine
operations.
!"&\$ %escribe the more common milling operations performed on a vertical milling
machine.
Milling Machine Operations
age 33 o! 3"
AL%(NMENT TEC)N%;#ES
?hen a wor,piece is mounted in a
milling machine vise, the vise must be
properly aligned. Generally, the stationary
jaw of the vise must be either at right
angles to the face of the machine column,
or it must be parallel with the face of the
column. Dight angle squareness of the
vise with the column can be chec,ed by
placing the blade of a precision steel
square against the stationary jaw of the
vise while placing the beam of the square
against the machined surface of the
column.
3nother method to chec, alignment is to place
parallel bars between the machine column and the
angle plate. Fo light should show between the
parallel and the column.
-his is done for rough alignment. @inal
3lignment is to be done with dial indicator.
.arallelism of the stationary jaw can be
chec,ed with a dial indicator 0within .00#-'D1.
Blamp the indicator to the spindle with the
plunger touching the stationary vise jaw.
Borrect any misalignment.
EO,* -ESC\$%BE T)E \$OE\$ SET*# OF A
M%LL%N( MAC)%NE FO\$ 'A\$%O#S M%LL%N(
OE\$AT%ONS
Milling Machine Operations
age 34 o! 3"
'E\$T%CAL M%LL%N( MAC)%NE OE\$AT%ONS
-he vertical milling machine offers a great deal of versatility. -he vertical milling machine
can be used for machining flat surfaces, angular surfaces, drilling, boring, and machining ,eyways
and circular grooves.
AL%(NMENT OF T)E 'E\$T%CAL )EA-
.roper alignment of the head is important when machining holes, poc,ets or when face
milling. 'f the head is not at an angle of ;0
"
to the table, the holes will not be square with the wor,
surface when the cutting tool is fed. ?hen face milling, the machined surface will be stepped if the
head is not square with the table. 3lthough all heads are graduated in degrees and some have vernier
devices for setting the head, it is a good idea to chec, the spindle alignment.
#. Mount a dial indicator on the spindle at ;0
"
,
on a suitable rod.
&. .osition the indicator over the top of the
table.
(. Barefully lower the spindle until the indicator
button touches the table and the dial indicator
registers about a half of a revolution. *et the
indicator to :ero and loc, the spindle in place.
). Barefully rotate the vertical mill spindle #80
"
by hand until the button bears on the opposite
side of the table. Bompare the two readings.
0*hould be less than .00#-'D1
+. 'f there is any discrepancy in the readings,
loosen the loc,ing nuts on the swivel mounting
one\$half the difference between the two
if necessary.
A. Dotate the vertical mill spindle ;0
"
, and set
the dial indicator again.
8. Dotate the spindle #80
"
and compare the two
;. -ighten the loc,ing nuts on the swivel head.
EO2* -ESC\$%BE T)E MO\$E COMMON M%LL%N(
MAC)%NE OE\$AT%ONS ON A 'E\$T%CAL
M%LL%N( MAC)%NE
Milling Machine Operations
age 35 o! 3"
NOTE< ?hen readings are ta,en, it is important that the indicator button does not catch in the -\$
slots on the table. -o prevent this, it is advisable to wor, from the high reading first and then rotate
to the low reading. -he longer the rod used on the dial indicator, the more accurate the setting will
be.
MAC)%N%N( A FLAT S#\$FACE
#. Blean the vise and mount the wor, securely in the vise, on parallels if necessary.
&. Bhec, that the vertical head is square with the table.
(. 'f possible, select a cutter, which will just overlap the edges of the wor,. 't will then require
only one cut to machine the surface. 'f the surface to be machined is narrow, an end mill
slightly larger in diameter that the width of the wor, should be used. 'f the surface is large
and requires several passes, a shell end mill or suitable fly cutter should be used.
). *et the proper spindle speed for the si:e and type of cutter and material being machined.
+. -ighten the quill clamps.
9. *tart the machine, and adjust the table until the end of the wor, is under the edge of the cutter.
A. Daise the table until the wor, surface just touches the cutter. Move the wor, clear of the
cutter.
8. Daise the table about #>(& inch and ta,e a trail cut for approximately #>) inch.
;. Move the wor, clear of the cutter, stop the cutter, and measure the wor,.
#0. Daise the table the desired amount, and loc, the ,nee clamp.
##. Mill the surface to si:e using the automatic feed 0or hand feed if desired1.
S;#A\$%N( 5O\$7 ON A M%LL%N( MAC)%NE
'n order to mill the four sides of a piece of wor, so that they are square and parallel, it is
important that each side be milled in a definite order. 't is very important that dirt and burrs be
removed from the wor, and vise since they can cause inaccurate wor,.
Milling Machine Operations
age 3. o! 3"
Machining Si8e ,
#. Blean the vise thoroughly and remove all burrs from the wor,piece.
&. *et the wor, in the vise with the first surface 0*ide #1 facing up.
(. 'nsert a soft metal rod between the wor, and the movable jaw if that portion of the wor, is
rough or not square.
). -ighten the vise securely.
+. ?ith a soft\$faced hammer, tap the wor,piece down in the vise until it sits securely.
9. Mount a suitable cutter in the milling machine spindle.
A. *et the machine for the proper speed for the si:e of cutter and the material to be machined.
8. *tart the machine and raise the table until the cutter just touches the right\$hand end of side #.
Milling Machine Operations
age 3" o! 3"
;. Move the wor, clear of the cutter.
#0. Daise the table about .0(0 in. and machine side # using a steady feed rate.
##. -a,e the wor, out of the vise and remove all burrs from the edges with a file.
Machining Si8e 2
#&. Blean the vise and wor, thoroughly.
#(. .lace the wor, on the vise with *ide # against the solid jaw of the vise and *ide & up.
#). .lace a round bar between *ide ) and the movable jaw, if necessary.
#+. *ecure the wor,piece in the vise by tapping with a soft\$faced hammer.
#9. Machine *ide &.
#A. Demove the wor,piece from the vise and file the burrs from the edges.
Machining Si8e 3
#8. Blean the vise and wor,.
#;. .lace *ide & facing down with *ide # remaining against the solid jaw of the vise.
&0. .lace the round bar between side ) and the movable jaw.
&#. -ighten the vise securely and tap the wor,piece down.
&&. *tart the machine and raise the table until the cutter just touches the right\$hand end of *ide (.
&(. Move the wor, clear of the cutter and raise the table about .0#0 in.
&). -a,e a trial cut, stop the machine, and measure the width of the wor,.
&+. Daise the table the required amount and machine *ide ( to the correct width.
&9. Demove the wor, and file off all burrs.
Machining Si8e 4
&A. Blean the vise and wor,.
&8. .lace *ide # down on the vise with *ide ) up.
&;. -ighten the vise.
(0. Machine *ide ) to the correct si:e.
Milling Machine Operations
age 3/ o! 3"
MAC)%N%N( T)E EN-S S;#A\$E
-wo common methods are used to square
the ends of the wor,pieces in a vertical mill. *hort
pieces are generally held vertically in the vise and
are machined with an end mill or flycutter. Hong
pieces are generally held flat in the vise with one
end extending past the end of the vise. -he end
surface is then cut square with an end mill.
Short 5or= S>2aring
#. *et the wor, in the center of the vise with one of
the end up and tighten the vise.
&. Gold a square down firmly on the top and bring
the blade into contact with the side of the wor,.
(. -ap the wor, until its edge is aligned with the
). -ighten the vise securely and rechec, the squareness.
+. -a,e about 0.0(0 in. cut and machine the end square.
9. Demove the burrs from the end of the machined surface.
A. Blean the vise and set the machined end on paper feelers in the bottom of the vise.
8. -ighten the vise securely and tap the wor, down until the paper feelers are tight.
;. -a,e a trial cut from the end to clean up the surface.
#0. Measure the length of the wor,piece with a depth micrometer.
##. Daise the table the required amount and machine the wor, to length.
MAC)%N%N( AN AN(#LA\$ S#\$FACE
#. Hayout and mar, the angular surface.
&. Blean the vise.
(. 3lign the vise with the direction of feed.
). Mount the wor, on parallels in the vise.
+. *wivel the vertical head to the required angle.
9. -ighten the quill clamp.
A. *tart the machine and raise the table until the cutter touches the wor,. Barefully raise the
table to set the desired depth of cut.
8. -a,e a trial cut for about #>& inch.
;. Bhec, the angle with a protractor
#0. 'f the angle is correct, continue the cut.
Milling Machine Operations
age 30 o! 3"
##. Machine to the required depth, ta,ing several cuts if necessary
Alternate Metho8
3ngles may sometimes be cut by leaving the head in a vertical position and setting the wor,
on an angle in the vise. -his will depend on the shape and si:e of the wor,piece. *ometimes, a
universal vise can be set to the required angle.
C#TT%N( SLOTS AN- 7E+5A+S
*lots and ,eyseats with one or two blind ends may be cut in shafts more easily on a vertical
milling machine, using a two\$ or three\$fluted end mill.
#. Hay out the position of the ,eyseat on the shaft and scribe reference lines on the end of the shaft.
&. *ecure the wor,piece in a vise on a parallel. 'f the shaft is long, it may be clamped directly to the
table by placing it in one of the table slots, or on /\$bloc,s
(. Ising the layout lines on the end of the shaft, set up the shaft so that the ,eyseat layout is in the
proper position on the top of the shaft.
). Mount a two\$ or three\$fluted end mill of a diameter equal to the width of the ,eyway, in the
milling machine spindle.
NOTE< 'f the ,eyseat has two blind ends, a two\$ or three\$lip end mill must be used since they will
act as a drill to start the slot. 'f the slot is at an end of the shaft 0one blind end1, a four\$fluted end mill
may be used, but a two\$ or three\$lip end mill would give better chip clearance.
+. Benter the wor,piece by carefully touching the
cutter to one side of the shaft. 3 thin piece of paper
can be used to protect the finish of the shaft.
9. Hower the table until the cutter clears the
wor,piece.
A. Move the table over an amount equal to half the
diameter of the shaft plus half the diameter of the
cutter 0plus the thic,ness of paper if used1.
NOTE< 3lternate methods include the use of an
edge finder or a dial test 0trammel1 indicator.
8. 'f the ,eyseat being cut has two blind ends, adjust
the wor, until the end of the ,eyseat is aligned with
the edge of the cutter.
;. @eed the cutter down 0or the table up1 until the cutter just cuts to its full diameter. 'f the ,eyseat
has only one blind end, the wor, is adjusted so that this cut is ta,en at the end of the wor,. -he wor,
is then moved clear of the cutter.
#0. *et the depth of cut to one\$half the thic,ness of the ,ey and machine the ,eyseat to the proper
length.
Milling Machine Operations
age 40 o! 3"
5OO-\$#FF 7E+S
Woodruff Keys are used when ,eying shafts and mating parts. ?oodruff ,eyseats are more
quic,ly cut than are square ,eyseats, and the ,ey should not require any fitting after the ,eyseat has
been cut. ?oodruff ,eys are semicircular in shape and can be purchased in standard si:es 0designated
by ! numbers1. -hey can also be made from round bar stoc, of the required diameter.
Woodruff Keyseat cutters have shan, diameters of
#>& in. for cutters up to ##>& inches in diameter. -he shan,
is undercut adjacent to the cutter to permit the cutter to into
the proper depth. -he sides of the cutter are slightly
tapered toward the center to permit clearance while cutting.
Butters over & in. are mounted on an arbor.
-he si:e of the cutter is stamped on the shan,. -he
last two digits indicate the nominal diameter in eighths of
an inch. -he digit or digits preceding the last two numbers
indicate the nominal width of the cutter in thirty\$seconds of
an inch. -hus, a cutter mar,ed 908 would be 8 x #>8 or #
inch in diameter, and 9 x #>(&, or (>#9 in. wide. -he ,ey would be a semicircular cross section to fit
the groove exactly.
C2tting a 5oo8r2!! 7e6seat3
#. 3lign the spindle of the vertical milling machine to ;0
"
.
&. Hay out the position of the ,eyseat.
(. *et the shaft in the vise of the milling machine or on /\$bloc,s. 2e sure that the shaft is level and
parallel to the table.
). Mount a cutter of the proper si:e in the spindle.
+. *tart the cutter and touch the bottom of the cutter to the top of the wor,piece. *et the vertical