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Hidayatullah National Law University
Raipur, Chhattisgarh
Submitted to:
Dr. Avinash Samal

Submitted by:
Roll No.-13
Semester- I, B.A.L.LB.(Hons.)


1. Declaration .....03
2. Acknowledgments..................................................................................04
3. Object and Research Methodology..............................................................05
4. Introduction .......................06
5. Cross border terrorism......07
6. Causes of cross border terrorism.............................................................09
7. Geographical factor...11
8. Suggestions.12
9. Conclusion..........................................................................................16
10. Bibliography/Webliography.17



I hereby declare that the project work entitled cross border terrorism submitted to HNLU,
Raipur, is record of an original work done by me under the able guidance of Dr. Avinash Samal,
Faculty Member, HNLU, Raipur.




Thanks to the Almighty who gave me the strength to accomplish the project with sheer hard work
and honesty. This research venture has been made possible due to the generous co-operation of
various persons. To list them all is not practicable, even to repay them in words is beyond the
domain of my lexicon.
This project wouldnt have been possible without the help of my teacher Dr. Avinash Samal
Faculty of Political Science at HNLU, who had always been there at my side whenever I needed
some help regarding any information. He has been my mentor in the truest sense of the term. The
administration has also been kind enough to let me use their facilities for research work. I thank
them for this.


(1).The main objective of this project to is to study the particular kind of terrorism i.e. cross
border terrorism.To know what terrorism and cross border terrorism is and its a threat to the
whole world and humanity.
(2).Another main objective is to bring in front the different causes of cross border terrorism and
the geographical factors which are liable for this kind of terrorism.
(3).Also I have tried to get some solutions and preventions against it by using political approach
and security approach.
Focusing on these objectives I will try to explain the cross border terrorism through research and
study by the various resources and will try to bring the truth behind the curtain using the best of
my capabilities.

Research Methodology:
This project work is descriptive & analytical in approach. It is largely based on the analysis of
crosss border terrorism and what are its different causes and factors. Books & other references as
guided by faculty of political science were primarily helpful for the completion of this project.


Terrorism can be defined as the use of violence to achieve some goals. It is completely
different from war and policy.
The evils of terrorism have considerably grown over years. Terrorism has affected not only
countries like U.S.A. or UK; it has also affected undeveloped countries like Afghanistan
and Kazakhstan by bomb explosions, discriminate killings, hijacking, black mails etc.
All this is executed with terrible cruelty if the demand of money or a terrorists release is
not accepted. Mainly, terrorist aim against whom they regard as their enemies or those is
their obstacles in the path of their goals.
Terrorism can be differentiated into many categories, of which the main are Political
terrorism and Criminal terrorism. Political Terrorism is much more dangerous than
Criminal Terrorism.
There is also one category of Regional Terrorism, which is the most violent. As terrorism
believes in power of guns and bombs over dialogue, so it has become a serious threat to
dealt with.
It does not matter that their goals are illegal or unethical. Flight hijacking is one of their
most preferred targets to spread terror. In India, government has made many strict laws like
POTA which replaced the POTO law which was made earlier.
The deadliest terrorist attack in India was the 1993 Bombay Bombing which was is
coordinate of Dawood Ibrahim. A popular saying of terrorism is One persons terrorist,
another persons freedom fighter. Terrorism cannot be controlled by law enforcing
agencies alone. The world has to unite to finish terrorism.


Cross border terrorism
Terrorism means to harm people so that they are so frightened that they start
trembling. It is a strategy to achieve avowed objectives through the systematic use of
violence thereby undermining the lawful authority of a government or a state. Actually,
terrorism is the organized use of violence for political ends and is directed primarily
at innocent people, or soft targets. Like war, terrorism involves the use of organised
force in pursuit of political goals.

Terrorism that has its roots in one country and it operates with the support of the
country of its origin, but it uses violence to create terror in another country. This
type of terrorism is described as cross-border terrorism as its activists are
sponsored and trained by a country other than its victims.

India location in the south Asia

India is strategically located as in the shown in fig 1 in relation to both
continental Asia as well as the Indian Ocean region. Indias geographical and
t o p o g r a p h i c a l diversity, especially on its borders, poses unique challenges to its
security from the infiltrations across the border from the neighbouring states.
In the present scenario, India faces a great threat from all the countries with
which it has borders, in one or the other form. The form of threat varies
from pure military to a combination of military and non-military. India has
land borders with Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, and Bangladesh,
out of which two are nuclear states one is Pakistan and other one is China.
Afghanistan and Sri Lanka, a closer look at the neighbourhood and the wider
region continues to present a disturbing picture.


Fig 1: Location of India in south Asia

Fig 1 above clearly shows the land and maritime borders of the India with respect
to the other countries in the south Asian region. The terrorism that India has been
subjected to since 1980s has its origin, training and full support across the Indian
borders in Pakistan or Pak-occupied Kashmir. Other than these terrorist activities
are organised across the indo-Nepal border, indo-Bhutan border, and indo-
Bangladesh and indo Myanmar border. Cross border terrorism is prominently land
based due to security reasons and recently it has taken the form of maritime
terrorism also which was evident in the 26/11 Mumbai attacks.


Causes of cross border terrorism

The dynamic nature of the problems concerning borders is brought out by the
manner in which the sensitivity of the Indo-Nepal and Indo-Bhutan borders have
changed over a period of time. These borders, which have been open, were once
peaceful and trouble-free. However, with the increasing activities of the Inter
Services Intelligence in Nepal and frequent movement of Assam militants into
Bhutan, the nature of the borders has changed completely. Chinas military and
economic support to Pakistan and Myanmar in the form of nuclear and military
assistance, development of airfields, roads and equipping the armies with Chinese
made weaponry send across the borders are issues which are of great concern to
Indias national security and border management

They have done so by applying the concept of Engagement after Encirclement. The
strategic encirclement extends from the Karakoram Highway, Aksai Chin, the
China-Indian Border and Myanmar down to the Bay of Bengal. By doing so Indias
ability to threaten their border has been diffused.

However, five of the six states in South Asia have borders with India, and has
resulted inevitable complications since all the states are in their infancy and in
several cases the boundaries are not yet firmly settled. India, which looms large as the
centre piece, shares ethnic, religious and cultural affinities with all its
neighbours. In times of conflict with neighbouring countries, this has become a
source of acute tension; a spill over of crisis across the borders is not
uncommon. Since the states can unleash the terrorist activities in different
capacity i.e. by pertaining the acts of terrorism in the territory of other states with the
purpose destabilising that country.

Therefore there are number of problems which poses a serious challenges to the
national security of the nation unless immediate measures for border areas are taken.


Without peaceful borders with its neighbours, India can hardly play its legitimate role in
global affairs at this time of seminal global change.

States in Indias neighbourhood resorted to the strategy of cross border terrorism
because it appeared to be the more cost-effective option. It was a low cost option that
has greater chances of success. It also does not involve the risk of
conventional war as it fought at victims territory. It appears that due to these
advantages the option of proxy war was through terrorism has increasingly
replaced the option of conventional war in South Asia. It enables the states to keep the
conflict at low costs, less intense and at a low level to avoid the possibility of full-
fledged conventional war.

The main objective of Indias neighbors is to keep India involved in the protracted
proxy war to degrade Indias conventional superiority through a process strategic
Geographical factors in cross border terrorism

Terrorism from land:

Indian physiography plays a significant role in the cross border terrorism. India has
rugged and mountainous border with five of its south Asian neighbours namely
Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh.

Cross border terrorism from Pakistan and Afghanistan

India;s north land border in shown in the figure 3. Since independence of India the
Jammu and Kashmir region has been land of conflict between the two countries
and the single most prominent cause of cross border terrorism in India through the
jammu and Kashmir region.


Western land border in India starting from rann of Kutch to the karakoram range in
POK is inhospitable border. Ran of kutch is a marshy region then desert of thar and
further north the various mountain ranges such as pir panjal, karakoram , Himalaya
and hindukush mountain ranges etc. Due to topography and inhospitable
climate conditions human settlement is sparse and avoided. Security establishment
also find difficulty in keeping vigil in those Ares. Lack of proper security and
inhospitable areas supports cross border terrorism
Again from karakoram ranges, then sivalik ranges bordering Nepal and extension of
hamalyan ranges upto Arunachal Pradesh and further south arakon yoma ranges make
Indian land border mountainous and rugged. India north east border is shown in
fig 4 below. The region inhospitable due to mountains topography, deep forest, threat
from wild life, numbers rivulets and streams holds sparse human settlements. Due to
this infilterate can enter and leave the territory easily. Porous borders with Nepal due
to political region are also a threat since illegal activities such as money landing,
counterfeit currency, cross border movement is taking place. Terrorist in there
region can early intermingle and hide in the local settlements.


Fig: 4 India in its north east
Border topography has put challenges to the country in the north east and lead to
local uprisings and insurgency in all the north east states due to control at border.
Perpetrators can find place hide themselves and cross the border and making law and
order ineffective.

India Bangladesh border is longest of all neighbours around 4300km.On India
west Bengal side border, shifting course of river such as padma and bhramputra
create the settlement problem and making border porous in nature. Vast sunder
ban delta can also provide safe place for terrorist to plan terrorist activities.

On the north east side of Bangladesh, again the border is thickly forested, along
with numerous streams and rivulets from mountainous regions. Rural settlement
along the border create infilteration problem and terrorist find it safe place to carry
out act of crime.


This cross border movement has accentuated naxal problem in west Bengal region and
other nearby states. The poses huge challenge to security establishment to the take into
account geographical nature of border and keep apt solution to check the menace of
cross border terrorism.
On the Meghalaya, Assam side its mountain topography and it is easy for terrorist to
infiltrate into Assam or Meghalaya via rugged topography posing a challenge to
security agencies. This infiltration from Bangladesh has created sever demographic
problem in Assam and lead to many local uprising against the unchecked

Topography of Indian border gives advantages to terrorist group to do the act and
return to safe sanctuaries in the native countries or hide in the deep forested
regions. Similar causes hold true for the terrorist threats from the Myanmar-India
boder and the problem of unrest in the states bordering Myanmar.

Martine threat:

India has 7500km mountain boundary as shown the fig 5 below. India maritime
neighbours sri lanka and maladives do not pose much threat of cross border
terrorism as of now. But possibility in the future cannot be ruled out. There can be
terrorist activities across the bay of Bengal also. Gulf of Kutch and gulf of khambat
are open to the Arabian Sea. Recently there were terrorist attacks called 26/11from
Mumbai coast. Hence this has increased the need for surveillance of Martime
border too.


India has vital installations along the Martine borders such as jam nagar, Mumbai,
kandla, Goa, settlements on Malabar coast, thiruananthpuram, rameshwaram etc.
Terrorist can launch attack from the sea and create huge problem to India.

Cross border terrorism in India is Achilles heel in the security of India. Since fifty
years of the independence India is unable to find the long term solution to this problem.
Political and security measure are necessary to mitigate the problem of cross border

Suggestion to check the cross border terrorism: political
and security measures

Political approach

1. India should mount the pressure through International forums and bilateral
dialogues to sort out the conflict leading to the cross border terrorism. This can
result in finding an amicable solution to the problem and to main peace and
stability in the region.

2.Much more depend on the attitude and the nature of the political leader who
participate the bilateral dialogues and various other forums of interest. This
approach has resulted in the mitigation of cross border terrorism from mayanmar,
Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.
3. Helping security agencies of other countries financially and politically would
help India.

4. Solving border issues with wider consultation , initiating confidence building
measures and more and more people to people contact along with improved trade
across the border would help.


Security and technological approach:

1. Since the land border condition inhospitable hence it is better to enhance
intelligence gathering and use the latest surveillance technologies available such
drone, use of unmanned Arial vehicle such as Nishant, Rustam-1 etc

2. Use of night vision infrared cameras post across the border which would keep
visible during night time

3. Use of remote sensing technology to map the area to determine and position of
keeping security post at best places and to keep the movement across the border
under surveillance.

4. Surveillance radar can be used to survey the enemy or terrorist activity

5. Robots and mechanical devices can be put to use in inhospitable climate and
rugged topography.

6. Proper border fencing along the borders wherever possible and necessary
security vigil.

7. For Martine surveillance increased petrol by coast guard in and around
important locations and installations of viral importance such as refineries and

8. Use of latest technologies and information and communication devices to detect
the presence of unwarranted activities across the border whether land or maritime.

9. Giving proper training to the personnel dealing with the cross border terrorism
issues and necessary infrastructure to the agencies.


It can be concluded that cross border terrorism is in fact affected by the nature of
our borders. Since geography cannot be changed hence it is better to use political as
well as security approach to deal with the menace of cross border terrorism. We
have to understand that war is not a solution for these kind of terrorism. There are
different causes. There are number of problems which poses a serious challenges
to the national security of the nation unless immediate measures for border areas
are taken. There are different steps and ways ,approaches by which we can reduce
the threat of this kind of terrorism.



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