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The usefulness Sandhi in reduces in combine convenience of

pronunciation and Sara-sandhi and Vyabjana-sandhi.


When two letters of the same word or of two different words are joined together for
the sake of euphony the union is called Sandhi (combination or fitting together).
Sandhi is divided into
1. Sara-sandhi combination of vowels.
!. Vyabjana-sandhi combination of a vowel and a consonant.
". Niggahita-sandhi combination of j and a vowel or a consonant.
a). the first occurs when a word ending in a vowel is joined to a word beginning
with a vowel# or when two adjacent vowels of the same word are joined together.
b). the second occurs when a word ending in a vowel is joined to word beginning
with a consonant.
c). the third occurs when a word or a syllable ending in $j% is joined to a word or a
syllable beginning either with a vowel or a consonant.
1. Sara-sandhi combination of vowels
&ombination of vowels is effected by elision or change of one of the two
contiguous vowels.
A vowel before another vowel is sometimes elided. ubbassaralopa-sandhi
Examples:
'abba ( indriyaj pabbindriyaj.
)o hi ( etaj no h% etaj.
*hikkhuni ( ovado bhikkhunovado.
Sabbe ( eva sabb% eva.
!hen two contiguous vowels are dissimilar" the second is sometimes elided.
parassaralopa-sandhi
a + a, a + a, a + a, a + a are similar+ so are i + i, etc. a + i, u, e or o are dissimilar+
so are i + a, u, e, o and so on.
Examples,
-ti ( api itipi.
So ( ahaj so% haj.
'ato ( eva pato% ve.
.he vowel a or a combines with a following i or i to e+ with a following u or u to
o (i.e.# a ( i or i >e+ a ( u or u /o).
*andhussa ( iva bandhuss% eva.
&anda ( udayo candodayo.
)a ( upeti nopeti.
!hen the first vowel is elided the second is sometimes lengthened.
.atra ( ayaj tatr ( ayaj tata ( ayaj tatrayaj.
0ani ( idha yan ( idha yan ( idha yanidha.
1iki ( iva kik (iva kik ( iva kikiva.
Sometimes the first vowel becomes long when the second is elided. ()ote that
only a dissimilar second vowel is elided).
2eva ( iti deva ( ti deva ( ti devati.
3ijju ( iva vijju ( va vijju ( va vijjuva.
Sadhu ( iti sadhu ( ti sadhu ( ti sadhuti.
I, i" or e before a dissimilar vowel is sometimes changed to y+ then in some places
the second vowel is lengthened.
4ggi ( agaro aggy ( agaro aggyagaro.
Sotthi ( atthu sotthy ( atthu sotthyatthu.
5e ( ayaj my ( ayaj myayaj.
O or u before a dissimilar vowel is sometimes changed to v+ then in some places the
second vowel is lengthened.
So ( ahaj sv ( ahaj svahaj.
4nu ( eti anv ( eti anveti.
)a tu ( eva na tv ( eva na tveva.
&onsonants# y, v, m, d, n, t, r, l, h are sometimes inserted between two vowels to
avoid a hiatus.
y, )a ( idaj na ( y ( idaj nayidaj.
v, 'a ( uccati pa ( v ( vccati pavuccati.
m, 6ahu ( essati lahu ( m ( essati lahumessati
d, 4tta ( attho atta ( d ( attho attadattho.
n, -to ( ayati itonayati.
t, 4jja ( agge ajjatagge.
r, 2u ( akkhato durakkhato.
l, &ha ( abhibba chalabhibba.
h, 'utha ( eva puthageva.

#. Vyabjana-sandhi combination of a vowel and a consonant.
A consonant after a vowel is generally reduplicated. An aspirate is reduplicated
by an un-aspirate" and an un-aspirate by itself.
Examples:
7upa ( khando rupakkhandho
2u ( karaj dukkaraj
3i ( banaj vibbanaj
8pa ( davo upddavo
)i ( phalaj nippalaj
A long vowel before a reduplicated consonant is often shortened.
'ara ( kamo parakkamo
5aha ( phalaj mahapphalaj
A ( sado assado
.he e9ceptions to this rule are,
3edana ( khandho vedanakkhandho
0atha ( kamaj yathakkamaj
A vowel before a consonant is sometimes lengthened and sometimes shortened
for the sa$e of prosody.
6engthened,
5abbati ( balo mabbati balo
)ibbattati ( dukkhaj nibbattati dukkhaj
Shortened,
*hovadi ( nama so hoti bhovadi nama so hoti.
*uddhe yadi va ( savake buddhe yadi va savake.
O in :so; and :eso; before a consonant is sometimes changed into :a;.
<so ( dhammo esa dhammo
So ( muni sa muni
<so ( patto esa patto